Sample records for euiii beta-diketone complex

  1. Enhanced emission from Eu(III) beta-diketone complex combined with ether-type oxygen atoms of di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, C; Messaddeq, Y; Ribeiro, S J L; Silva, M A P; Zea-Bermudez, V D; Carlos, L D


    Organic-inorganic hybrids, named di-ureasils and described by polyether-based chains grafted to both ends to a siliceous backbone through urea cross linkages, were used as hosts for incorporation of the well-known coordination complex of trivalent europium (Eu sup 3 sup +) ions described by the formula [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] (where TTA stands for thenoyltrifluoroacetone). By comparing with Eu sup 3 sup + -doped di-ureasil without complex form the new materials prepared here enhanced the quantum efficiency for photoemission of Eu sup 3 sup + ions. The enhancement can be explained by the coordination ability of the organic counterpart of the host structure which is strong enough to displace water molecules in [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] from the rare earth neighbourhood after the incorporation process. High intensity of Eu sup 3 sup + emission was observed with a low non-radiative decay rate under ultraviolet excitation. The quantum efficiency calculated from the decay of sup 5 D sub 0 emission...

  2. A new {beta}-diketone complex with high color purity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adati, R.D. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Lima, S.A.M. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Davolos, M.R. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Jafelicci, M. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil)


    In this work a new europium (III) complex with the following formula NH{sub 4}[Eu(bmdm){sub 4}] was synthesized and characterized. The bmdm (butyl methoxy-dibenzoyl-methane) is a {beta}-diketone molecule used as UV radiation absorber in sunscreen formulations. Coordination of this ligand to the Eu{sup 3+} ion was confirmed by FT-IR, while the Raman spectrum suggests the presence of NH{sub 4} {sup +} ions. The photoluminescence spectra present narrow lines arising from f-f intra-configurational transitions {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 0,1,2,3,4}, dominated by the hypersensitive {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. In the spectrum recorded at 77 K, all transitions split into 2J + 1 lines suggesting that there is just one symmetry site around Eu{sup 3+} ion. This symmetry is not centrosymmetric. The calculated intensity parameters are {omega} {sub 2} = 30.5 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} and {omega} {sub 4} = 5.91 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} for this complex. The CIE chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.67 and y = 0.32) show a dominant wavelength of 615 nm. The color gamut achieved by this complex is a 100% in the CIE color space.

  3. Plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes for high ionizing radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhmurin, P.N.; Lebedev, V.N.; Kovalenko, V.N. [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)


    Luminescent and scintillation properties of polystyrene-based plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes are investigated. A scintillator with dibenzoylmethane Eu complex containing two phenyl groups demonstrates the maximum scintillating efficiency. It is shown that plastic scintillators efficiency is dramatically decreased if {beta}-diketone derivatives contain no phenyl groups as substituents. This fact can be explained by exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a matrix to Eu complex. - Highlights: > Fluorescent properties of polystyrene scintillators with {beta}-diketone complexes of Eu were studied. > Scintillating efficiency is increased with the number of phenyl groups in Eu complex. > This is related to exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a polymer matrix to Eu complex.

  4. Electroluminescent devices based on rare-earth tetrakis {beta}-diketonate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, W.G.; Legnani, C. [CeDO-Centro de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat-Inmetro, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, R.M.B. dos [LOEM-Laboratorio de Optoeletronica Molecular, Physics Department, PUC-Rio, 22452-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Teixeira, K.C. [CeDO-Centro de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat-Inmetro, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); LOEM-Laboratorio de Optoeletronica Molecular, Physics Department, PUC-Rio, 22452-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cremona, M. [CeDO-Centro de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat-Inmetro, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); LOEM-Laboratorio de Optoeletronica Molecular, Physics Department, PUC-Rio, 22452-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail:; Guedes, M.A. [CeDO-Centro de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat-Inmetro, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brito, H.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, USP, 05599-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this paper the synthesis, photoluminescence and electroluminescence investigation of the novel tetrakis {beta}-diketonate of rare-earth complexes such as, M[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] and M[Tb(acac){sub 4}] with a variety of cationic ligands, M = Li{sup +}, Na{sup +} and K{sup +} have been investigated. The emission spectra of the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} complexes displayed characteristic narrow bands arising from intraconfigurational transitions of trivalent rare-earth ions and exhibited red color emission for the Eu{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J}, J = 0-6) and green for the Tb{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J}, J = 6-0). The lack of the broaden emission bands arising from the ligands suggests the efficient intramolecular energy transfer from the dbm and acac ligands to Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions, respectively. In accordance to the expected, the values of PL quantum efficiency ({eta}) of the emitting {sup 5}D{sub 0} state of the tetrakis({beta}-diketonate) complexes of Eu{sup 3+} were higher compared with those tris-complexes. Therefore, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices were fabricated with the structure as follows: indium tin oxide (ITO)/hole transport layer (HTL) NPB or MTCD/emitter layer M[RE({beta}-diketonate){sub 4}] complexes)/Aluminum (Al). All the films were deposited by thermal evaporation carried out in a high vacuum environment system. The OLED light emission was independent of driving voltage, indicating that the combination of charge carriers generates excitons within the M[RE({beta}-diketonate){sub 4}] layers, and the energy is efficiently transferred to RE{sup 3+} ion. As a best result, a pure red and green electroluminescent emission was observed from the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} devices, confirmed by (X,Y) color coordinates.

  5. White OLED using {beta}-diketones rare earth binuclear complex as emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, W.G. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Legnani, C. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Cremona, M. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Lima, P.P. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Junior, S.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil)


    In this work, the fabrication and the characterization of a white triple-layer OLED using a {beta}-diketones binuclear complex [Eu(btfa){sub 3}phenterpyTb(acac){sub 3}] as the emitting layer is reported. The devices were assembled using a heterojunction between three organic molecular materials: the N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) as hole-transporting layer, the {beta}-diketones binuclear complex and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as the electron transporting layer. All the organic layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO substrates and without breaking vacuum. Continuous electroluminescence emission was obtained varying the applied bias voltage from 10 to 22 V showing a wide emission band from 400 to 700 nm with about 100 cd/m{sup 2} of luminance. The white emission results from a combined action between the binuclear complex, acting as hole blocking and emitting layer, blue from NPB and the typical Alq{sub 3} green emission. The intensity ratio of the peaks is determined by the layer thickness and by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, allowing us to obtain a color tunable light source.

  6. Electroluminescence of a device based on europium {beta}-diketonate with phosphine oxide complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, W.G. [LOEM - Department of Physics - Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio - P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Adati, R.D. [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State OYiversity - UNESP, P.O.Box. 355, Araraquara, SP, CEP 14801-970 (Brazil); Lima, S.A.M. [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State OYiversity - UNESP, P.O.Box. 355, Araraquara, SP, CEP 14801-970 (Brazil); Legnani, C. [LOEM - Department of Physics - Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio - P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Jafelicci, M. [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State OYiversity - UNESP, P.O.Box. 355, Araraquara, SP, CEP 14801-970 (Brazil); Davolos, M.R. [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State OYiversity - UNESP, P.O.Box. 355, Araraquara, SP, CEP 14801-970 (Brazil); Cremona, M. [LOEM - Department of Physics - Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio - P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Rare earth (RE) ions have spectroscopic characteristics to emit light in narrow lines, which makes RE complexes with organic ligands candidates for full color OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) applications. In particular, {beta}-diketone rare earth (RE{sup 3+}) complexes show high fluorescence emission efficiency due to the high absorption coefficient of the {beta}-diketone and energy transfer to the central ion. In this work, the fabrication and the electroluminescent properties of devices containing a double and triple-layer OLED using a new {beta}-diketone complex, [Eu(bmdm){sub 3}(tppo){sub 2}], as transporting and emitting layers are compared and discussed. The double and triple-layer devices based on this complex present the following configurations respectively: device 1: ITO/TPD (40 nm)/[Eu(bmdm){sub 3}(tppo){sub 2}] (40 nm)/Al (150 nm); device 2: ITO/TPD (40 nm)/[Eu(bmdm){sub 3}(tppo){sub 2}] (40 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (20 nm)/Al (150 nm) and device 3: ITO/TPD (40 nm)/bmdm-ligand (40 nm)/Al (150 nm), were TPD is (N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1-biphenil-4,4-diamine) and bmdm is butyl methoxy-dibenzoyl-methane. All the films were deposited by thermal evaporation carried out in a high vacuum system. These devices exhibit high intensity photo- (PL) and electro-luminescent (EL) emission. Electroluminescence spectra show emission from Eu{sup 3+} ions attributed to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} to {sup 7}F {sub J} (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions with the hypersensitive {sup 5}D{sub 0} {sup {yields}} {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition (around 612 nm) as the most prominent one. Moreover, a transition from {sup 5}D{sub 1} to {sup 7}F{sub 1} is also observed around 538 nm. The OLED light emission was almost linear with the current density. The EL CIE chromaticity coordinates (X = 0.66 and Y = 0.33) show the dominant wavelength, {lambda} {sub d} = 609 nm, and the color gamut achieved by this device is 0.99 in the CIE color space.

  7. Molecular electrophosphorescence in (Sm, Gd)-{beta}-diketonate complex blend for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, R., E-mail: [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, UNI, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 31, Peru (Peru); Cremona, M. [DIMAT - Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial, INMETRO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, C.P. 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Teotonio, E.E.S. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, UFPB, C.P. 5093, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 5805-970 (Brazil); Brito, H.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, USP, C.P. 26077, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05599-970 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE, CEP 50670-901 (Brazil)


    In this work the preparation and characterization of the triple-layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a mixture of the samarium and gadolinium {beta}-diketonate complexes [Sm{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2}] as emitting layer is reported. The OLED's devices contain 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-6-carboxyaldehyde-1, 1'-diphenylhydrazone (MTCD) as hole-transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as electron transporting layer. The electroluminescence spectrum present emission narrow bands from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (where J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) characteristic of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. These sharp lines are overlapped with a broad band attributed to the electrophosphorescence from the T{sub 1}{yields}S{sub 0} transition in the ligand TTA. The intramolecular energy transfer is discussed and applied on the change of the emission color of the organic LEDs at different bias voltages. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samarium and gadolinium complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OLED with complex blend (Sm,Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophosphorescence emission detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application in OLED changing the color emission.

  8. Faster Synthesis of Beta-Diketonate Ternary Europium Complexes: Elapsed Times & Reaction Yields. (United States)

    Lima, Nathalia B D; Silva, Anderson I S; Gerson, P C; Gonçalves, Simone M C; Simas, Alfredo M


    β-diketonates are customary bidentate ligands in highly luminescent ternary europium complexes, such as Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2, where L stands for a nonionic ligand. Usually, the syntheses of these complexes start by adding, to an europium salt such as EuCl3(H2O)6, three equivalents of β-diketonate ligands to form the complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2. The nonionic ligands are subsequently added to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. However, the Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 intermediates are frequently both difficult and slow to purify by recrystallization, a step which usually takes a long time, varying from days to several weeks, depending on the chosen β-diketonate. In this article, we advance a novel synthetic technique which does not use Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 as an intermediate. Instead, we start by adding 4 equivalents of a monodentate nonionic ligand L straight to EuCl3(H2O)6 to form a new intermediate: EuCl3(L)4(H2O)n, with n being either 3 or 4. The advantage is that these intermediates can now be easily, quickly, and efficiently purified. The β-diketonates are then carefully added to this intermediate to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. For the cases studied, the 20-day average elapsed time reduced to 10 days for the faster synthesis, together with an improvement in the overall yield from 42% to 69%.

  9. Visible-near-infrared luminescent lanthanide ternary complexes based on beta-diketonate using visible-light excitation. (United States)

    Sun, Lining; Qiu, Yannan; Liu, Tao; Feng, Jing; Deng, Wei; Shi, Liyi


    We used the synthesized dinaphthylmethane (Hdnm) ligand whose absorption extends to the visible-light wavelength, to prepare a family of ternary lanthanide complexes, named as [Ln(dnm)3 phen] (Ln = Sm, Nd, Yb, Er, Tm, Pr). The properties of these complexes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and excitation and emission spectroscopy. Generally, excitation with visible light is much more advantageous than UV excitation. Importantly, upon excitation with visible light (401-460 nm), the complexes show characteristic visible (Sm(3+)) as well as near-infrared (Sm(3+), Nd(3+), Yb(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+), Pr(3+)) luminescence of the corresponding lanthanide ions, attributed to the energy transfer from the ligands to the lanthanide ions, an antenna effect. Now, using these near-infrared luminescent lanthanide complexes, the luminescent spectral region from 800 to 1650 nm, can be covered completely, which is of particular interest for biomedical imaging applications, laser systems, and optical amplification applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of calcium beta-diketonate complexes. X-ray crystal and molecular structures of: [{Ca(tmhd)2}2(18-crown-6)], [Ca(dpp)2(thf)2] and [Ca(dpp)2(triglyme)]. (United States)

    El Habra, Naida; Benetollo, Franco; Casarin, Maurizio; Bolzan, Marco; Sartori, Andrea; Rossetto, Gilberto


    Reactions of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione (Htmhd), 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedione (Hhfa) or 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione (Hdpp) with calcium methoxide in hexane or toluene afford the corresponding known oligomeric beta-diketonates: [Ca(3)(tmhd)(6)], [{Ca(hfa)(2)}(n)] and [{Ca(dpp)(2)}(n)]. The complexes react with tetrahydrofuran, 2,5,8,11-tetraoxadodecane (triglyme) or 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane (18-crown-6) leading to the formation of the new mononuclear [Ca(dpp)(2)(thf)(2)], [Ca(dpp)(2)(triglyme)] and dinuclear [{Ca(dpp)(2)}(2)(18-crown-6)] and [{Ca(tmhd)(2)}(2)(18-crown-6)] adducts. The obtained complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies; moreover, single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements were also carried out for: [{Ca(tmhd)(2)}(2)(18-crown-6)], [Ca(dpp)(2)(thf)(2)] and [Ca(dpp)(2)(triglyme)].

  11. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA


    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  12. Preparation and characterization of electroluminescent devices based on complexes of {beta}-diketonates of Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} ions with macrocyclic ligands and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} films; Preparacao e caracterizacao de dispositivos eletroluminescentes de complexos de {beta}-dicetonados de ions Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} com ligantes macrociclicos e filmes de UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibelli, Edison Bessa


    Complexes containing Rare Earth ions are of great interest in the manufacture of electro luminescent devices as organic light emitting devices (OLED). These devices, using rare earth trivalent ions (TR{sup 3+}) as emitting centers, show high luminescence with extremely fine spectral bands due to the structure of their energy levels, long life time and high quantum efficiency. This work reports the preparation of Rare Earth {beta}-diketonate complexes (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}) and (tta - thenoyltrifluoroacetonate and acac - acetylacetonate) containing a ligand macrocyclic crown ether (DB18C6 - dibenzo18coroa6) and polymer films of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The materials were characterized by complexometric titration with EDTA, CH elemental analysis, near infrared absorption spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (powder method) and luminescence spectroscopy. For manufacturing the OLED it was used the technique of deposition of thin films by physical vapor (PVD, Physical Vapor Deposition). (author)

  13. Complex formation of Eu(III) with polyacrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, T.; Tochiyama, O.; Tanaka, K.; Niibori, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering


    For the quantitative description of the interaction of metal ions with humic substances, it is necessary to clarify the effects of both polyelectrolyte and heterogeneous nature of humic substances. To estimate the polyelectrolyte effect separately, polyacrylic acid (MW = 90 000) has been selected as a representative of well-defined, homogeneous polymeric weak acids, and its interaction with Eu(III) has been investigated by a solvent extraction method using {sup 152}Eu ({proportional_to} 10{sup -8} M) with TTA and TBP in xylene. By defining the apparent complex formation constant as {beta}{sub {alpha}} = [ML]/([M][R]), where [M] = [Eu{sup 3+}], [ML] is the concentration of Eu(III) associated with polyacrylic acid and [R] = C{sub R}{alpha} (C{sub R} is a total concentration of proton exchanging sites and {alpha} is a degree of dissociation determined by potentiometric titration), the apparent constants have been obtained at several pcH and ionic strength (0.1 M and 1.0 M NaClO{sub 4}). The constants increased with pcH and decreased with an increase of ionic strength, that is, the values of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} varied from 6.0 (at pcH = 4.7) to 7.6 (pcH = 5.5) at 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} and from 4.8 (pcH = 4.4) to 6.5 (pcH = 5.4) at 1.0 M. The plots of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} versus log {alpha} revealed almost linear relationship both at 0.1 and 1.0 M NaClO{sub 4}. (orig.)

  14. Optical properties of europium(III) {beta}-diketonate/polymer-doped systems using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimova, V.I., E-mail: [Skobel' tsyn Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Antoshkov, A.A.; Zavorotny, Yu.S.; Rybaltovskii, A.O. [Skobel' tsyn Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lemenovskii, D.A., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The optical properties of fluoropolymers and polypropylene doped with europium(III) {beta}-diketonates Eu(L){sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and Eu(L){sub 3}phen (L: fod=6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionato, bta=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione, tta=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, and phen=1,10-phenanthroline) using supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated by absorption and emission spectra. A comparative analysis of the PL decay times of Eu{sup 3+} ions in the initial europium (III) {beta}-diketonates and impregnated fluoropolymers was carried out. The supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation of polymer samples with europium(III) {beta}-diketonates containing 1,10-phenanthroline was found to be obstructed differently depending on the type of ligand in the entire investigated impregnation temperature range (T{sub SCF}=50-90 Degree-Sign S). It is shown that from the variety of Eu(L){sub 3}phen only Eu(fod){sub 3}phen can be introduced into the polymer matrix by this method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical properties of polymers doped with Eu{sup 3+} {beta}-diketonates using SC CO{sub 2} were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A comparative analysis of the PL decay times in the initial Eu{sup 3+} {beta}-diketonates and doped polymers was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SC CO{sub 2} impregnation of polymers with Eu{sup 3+} {beta}-diketonates containing 1,10-phenanthroline was found to be obstructed.

  15. Selective Gas-Phase Capture of Explosives on Metal Beta-diketonate Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wenzel, Thomas J.


    A variety of metal beta-diketonate polymers were assessed for gas-phase selective retention of nitro aromatic, nitrate ester, and peroxide explosives. La(dihed) showed 13-42 times the retention for the nitro aromatics compared to a control column (identical column but lacking the 5% loading of the metal beta-diketonate polymer). Nitrate esters, the peroxide explosive TATP, and the taggant DMDNB were too strongly retained to elute from the La(dihed) column; however, these compounds could be eluted from the less retentive Cu(dihed) or Zn(dihed) columns. A Kovats index of 2124 for TNT the on the La(dihed) column compared to 1662 on the control illustrates the excellent discrimination against non-polar hydrocarbons, the principal matrix interference expected in air samples. A proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated analysis of an extrapolated 47 part-per trillion(v/v) of TNT in an air extract concentrate.

  16. Polymeric Luminescent Compositions Doped with Beta-Diketonates Boron Difluoride as Material for Luminescent Solar Concentrator (United States)

    Khrebtov, A. A.; Fedorenko, E. V.; Reutov, V. A.


    In this paper we investigated polymeric luminescent compositions based on polystyrene doped with beta diketonates boron difluoride. Transparent films with effective absorption in the ultraviolet and blue regions of the spectrum were obtained. Polymeric luminescent compositions based on the mixture of dyes allow expanding the absorption region and increase the radiation shift. A luminescent solar concentrator consisting of a glass plate coated with such film can be used for photovoltaic window application.

  17. Assessment of Fe(III) and Eu(III) complexation by silicate in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Patten, James T.; Byrne, Robert H.


    Prior investigations of Eu3+ complexation by silicate have led to predictions that rare earth silicate complexes (REESiO(OH)32+) are the dominant species of REEs in deep waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The proposed importance of REE-silicate complexes has been used as a foundation to explain oceanic REE profiles. In the present work, we examine the significance of rare earth element complexation by silicate ions. As one fundamental means of assessing prior depictions of REE-silicate formation constant behavior, our work examines the comparative stability constant behavior of Eu(III) and Fe(III). Plots of Eu(III) complexation constants against Fe(III) formation constants, in conjunction with experimental determinations of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation constants, indicate that previously published EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constants are substantially overestimated. Assessment of prior EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constant determinations reveals that results obtained in the presence and absence of silicic acid polymerization are inconsistent. Much larger EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constants are obtained in the presence of polymeric silica. Reanalysis of complexation results obtained under conditions of minimal silicate polymerization leads to a EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constant that is smaller than previously published estimates by as much as a factor of ∼25. The dramatically reduced magnitude of Siβ1(Eu) relative to previously published results indicates that the role of silicate complexation in oceanic REE cycling is much less significant than previously proposed. The spectrophotometric investigations of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation in the present study yield the first characterization of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation constant behavior as a function of ionic strength:

  18. Complexation of Eu(III) with a polymeric cement additive as a potential carrier of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippold, Holger; Becker, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport


    In the long term, cementitious materials in a final repository will be exposed to leaching processes generating highly alkaline solutions. Polymeric additives, so-called superplasticizers, are considered as potential mobilizing agents for released radionuclides, since it is uncertain whether complete degradation will take place under the evolving aqueous conditions. Regarding the complexing properties of superplasticizers, there are only indirect assessments so far. In this study, first systematic investigations on complexation with Eu(III) as an analogue of trivalent actinides were performed at variable pH and electrolyte content (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}) using ultrafiltration as a separation method. A stability constant was derived according to the charge neutralization model. For this purpose, the proton exchange capacity was determined by potentiometric titration.

  19. Complexation of Eu(III) with cucurbit[n]uril, n = 5 and 7: a thermodynamic and structural study. (United States)

    Rawat, Neetika; Kar, Aishwarya; Bhattacharyya, A; Rao, Ankita; Nayak, S K; Nayak, C; Jha, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Tomar, B S


    Cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) are a new class of macrocyclic cage compounds capable of binding organic and inorganic species, owing to their unique pumpkin like structure comprising of both a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic portal. The thermodynamics of the complexation of Eu(III) with CBn of a different cavity size viz. cucurbit[5]uril (CB5) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) has been studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and calorimetry at 25 °C whereas the structure of the complexes was investigated using time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in a formic acid-water mixture (50 wt%). This is the first report on the structural investigation of Eu-CBn complexes in solution. The thermodynamic data (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) for Eu(III) complexation with CBn reveal the formation of a 1 : 1 complex with CB5, while both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes are observed with CB7. The signatures of these species are observed in ESI-MS measurements, which corroborates with the species postulated in thermodynamic studies. The complexation reactions are found to be driven by ΔS as ΔH is either small negative or positive indicating the formation of inner sphere complexes, which is in line with TRFS and EXAFS results. These studies show that Eu(III) caps one of the CB5 portals by binding with all the carbonyl groups in the 1 : 1 Eu-CB5 complex, whereas in the 1 : 1 Eu-CB7 complex, Eu(III) interacts with only a few of the carbonyl groups of CB7. The computational studies (DFT calculations) on Eu-CB5 and Eu-CB7 complexes further support the experimental data.

  20. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Soukka, Tero [Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)


    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L{sup 8}) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L{sup 9})) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L{sup 8} show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 3}L{sup 8} while Eu(L{sup 7}){sub 3}L{sup 8} (HL{sup 3}=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL{sup 7}=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu{sup 3+} complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features.

  1. Structural, luminescence, thermodynamic and theoretical studies on mononuclear complexes of Eu(III) with pyridine monocarboxylate-N-oxides in aqueous solution (United States)

    Dumpala, Rama Mohana Rao; Rawat, Neetika; Boda, Anil; Ali, Sk. Musharaf; Tomar, B. S.


    The mononuclear complexes formed by Eu(III) with three isomeric pyridine monocarboxylate-N-oxides namely picolinic acid-N-oxide (PANO), nicotinic acid-N-oxide (NANO) and isonicotinic acid-N-oxide (IANO) in aqueous solutions were studied by potentiometry, luminescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to determine the speciation, coordination, luminescence properties and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes formed during the course of the reaction. More stable six membered chelate complexes with stoichiometry (MLi, i = 1-4) are formed by Eu(III) with PANO while non chelating ML and ML2 complexes are formed by NANO and IANO. The stability of Eu(III) complexes follow the order PANO > IANO > NANO. The ITC studies inferred an endothermic and innersphere complex formation of Eu(III)-PANO and Eu(III)-IANO whereas an exothermic and outer-sphere complex formation for Eu(III)-NANO. The luminescence life time data further supported the ITC results. Density functional theoretical calculations were carried out to optimize geometries of the complexes and to estimate the energies, structural parameters (bond distances, bond angles) and charges on individual atoms of the same. Theoretical approximations are found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. Effect of electron-donating substituent groups on aromatic ring on photoluminescence properties of complexes of benzoic acid-functionalized polysulfone with Eu(III) ions. (United States)

    Gao, Baojiao; Chen, Lulu; Chen, Tao


    By molecular design and via polymer reactions, methoxybenzoic acid (MOBA) and hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) were bonded onto the side chains of polysulfone (PSF) for preparing two benzoic acid-functionalized PSFs, PSF-MOBA and PSF-HBA, respectively. Based on full characterization of their structures, the two macromolecule ligands were made to coordinate to Eu(3+) ions, and two binary polymer-rare earth complexes, PSF-(MOBA)3-Eu(III) and PSF-(HBA)3-Eu(III), were obtained. At the same time, using phenanthroline (Phen) as a second small-molecule ligand, the corresponding two ternary complexes, PSF-(MOBA)3-Eu(III)-Phen1 and PSF-(HBA)3-Eu(III)-Phen1, were also prepared. The photo physical behaviors of these complexes were examined in depth, and the luminescent properties of these prepared polymer-rare earth complexes were mainly investigated. The experimental results show that the two electron-donating substituent groups on the aromatic ring of the bonded benzoic acid significantly affect the luminescence properties of these complexes of benzoic acid-functionalized PSF and Eu(III) ions, and they can effectively strengthen the fluorescence emission intensities of the complexes. The possible reason is that through the p-π conjugative effect, the two electron-donating substituent groups can remarkably decline the triplet state energy levels of the bonded ligand MOBA and HBA, and strengthen the matching degree of energy between the triplet state energy level of the ligand and the resonant energy level of Eu(III) ions, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence emission intensities of the complexes. Besides, the fluorescence emissions of the binary complexes are stronger than those of the corresponding ternary complexes because of the synergistic coordination effect of Phen with the macromolecular ligand.

  3. Eu(III) Complexes of Octadentate 1-Hydroxy-2-pyridinones: Stability and Improved Photophysical Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Evan G.; D' Aleo, Anthony; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.


    The luminescence properties of lanthanoid ions can be dramatically enhanced by coupling them to antenna ligands that absorb light in the UV-visible and then efficiently transfer the energy to the lanthanoid centre. The synthesis and the complexation of Ln{sup III} cations (Ln = Eu, Gd) for a ligand based on four 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelators appended to a ligand backbone derived by linking two L-lysine units (3LI-bis-LYS) is described. This octadentate Eu{sup III} complex ([Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]{sup -}) has been evaluated in terms of its thermodynamic stability, UV-visible absorption and luminescence properties. For this complex, the conditional stability constant (pM) is 19.9, which is an order of magnitude higher than diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid at pH = 7.4. This Eu{sup III} complex also shows an almost two-fold increase in its luminescence quantum yield in aqueous solution (pH = 7.4) when compared with other octadentate ligands. Hence, despite a slight decrease of the molar absorption coefficient, a much higher brightness is obtained for [Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]{sup -}. This overall improvement was achieved by saturating the coordination sphere of the Eu{sup III} cation, yielding an increased metal-centred efficiency by excluding solvent water molecules from the metal's inner sphere.

  4. Complexing power of hydro-soluble degradation products from γ-irradiated polyvinylchloride. Influence on Eu(OH){sub 3}(s) solubility and Eu(III) speciation in neutral to alkaline environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiller, Pascal E.; Badji, Hawa; Tabarant, Michel; Vercouter, Thomas [CEA, Paris-Saclay Univ., Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Etudes Analytiques et de Reactivite des Surfaces (SEARS); Fromentin, Elodie; Ferry, Muriel [CEA, Paris-Saclay Univ., Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Etudes du Comportement des Radionucleides (SECR); Dannoux-Papin, Adeline [CEA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Service des Procedes de Decontamination et d' Enrobage


    The complexing power of hydrosoluble degradation products (HDPs) from an alkaline hydrolysis of a 10 MGy γ-irradiated polyvinylchloride is studied. The complexation of Eu(III), as an analogue of lanthanide and actinide radionuclides at their +III oxidation state for oxygen containing functions, is evidenced both from the increasing of Eu(OH){sub 3}(s) dissolution, and from a complexometric titration by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. The dissolution of Eu(OH){sub 3}(s) in a simplified alkaline solution (0.3 M KOH/0.1 M NaOH) increases moderately, but significantly, with the HDPs concentration. The luminescence signal of the supernatant clearly indicates the presence of several complexed Eu(III) species. Performing a complexometric titration of Eu(III) from pH 6 by alkaline HDPs shows the formation of two different species with increasing HDPs' concentration and pH. Operational complexation constants - based on dissolved carbon concentration - are proposed. The analyses of the spectra and luminescence decays seem to confirm the presence of two different species.

  5. Fulvic acid complexation of Eu(III) and Cm(III) at elevated temperatures studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Fröhlich, Daniel R; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Gast, Michael; Panak, Petra J


    The interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with three different aquatic fulvic acids (FA) was studied as a function of the temperature (T = 20-80 °C) in 0.1 M NaCl solution by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The speciation of both trivalent metal ions was determined by peak deconvolution of the recorded fluorescence spectra. For each studied metal ion-FA system only one complexed species is formed under the given experimental conditions. The stability constants at 20, 40, 60 and 80 °C (log β'(T)) were determined according to the charge neutralization model. The log β' (20 °C) for the different FAs show similar values (log β(20 °C) = 5.60-6.29). The stability constants increase continuously with increasing temperature by approximately 0.3-1.0 orders of magnitude. The reaction enthalpies and entropies are derived from the integrated Van't Hoff equation. The results show that all investigated complexation reactions are endothermic and entropy-driven.

  6. Functional characterization of an orphan cupin protein from Burkholderia xenovorans reveals a mononuclear nonheme Fe2+-dependent oxygenase that cleaves beta-diketones. (United States)

    Leitgeb, Stefan; Straganz, Grit D; Nidetzky, Bernd


    Cupins constitute a large and widespread superfamily of beta-barrel proteins in which a mononuclear metal site is both a conserved feature of the structure and a source of functional diversity. Metal-binding residues are contributed from two core motifs that provide the signature for the superfamily. On the basis of conservation of this two-motif structure, we have identified an ORF in the genome of Burkholderia xenovorans that encodes a novel cupin protein (Bxe_A2876) of unknown function. Recombinant Bxe_A2876, as isolated from Escherichia coli cell extract, was a homotetramer in solution, and showed mixed fractional occupancy of its 16.1 kDa subunit with metal ligands (0.06 copper; 0.11 iron; 0.17 zinc). Our quest for possible catalytic functions of Bxe_A2876 focused on Cu2+ and Fe2+ oxygenase activities known from related cupin enzymes. Fe2+ elicited enzymatic catalysis of O2-dependent conversion of various beta-diketone substrates via a nucleophilic mechanism of carbon-carbon bond cleavage. Data from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) support a five-coordinate or six-coordinate Fe2+ center where the metal is bound by three imidazole nitrogen atoms at 1.98 A. Results of structure modeling studies suggest that His60, His62 and His102 are the coordinating residues. In the 'best-fit' model, one or two oxygens from water and a carboxylate oxygen (presumably from Glu96) are further ligands of Fe2+ at estimated distances of 2.04 A and 2.08 A, respectively. The three-histidine Fe2+ site of Bxe_A2876 is compared to the mononuclear nonheme Fe2+ centers of the structurally related cysteine dioxygenase and acireductone dioxygenase, which also use a facial triad of histidines for binding of their metal cofactor but promote entirely different substrate transformations.

  7. Spectroscopic investigations on the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with organic model ligands and their binding mode in human urine (in vitro); Spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Komplexbildung von Cm(III) und Eu(III) mit organischen Modellliganden sowie ihrer chemischen Bindungsform in menschlichem Urin (in vitro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Anne


    In case of incorporation, trivalent actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)) pose a serious health risk to humans. An(III) are artificial, highly radioactive elements which are mainly produced during the nuclear fuel cycle in nuclear power plants. Via hazardous accidents or nonprofessional storage of radioactive waste, they can be released in the environment and enter the human food chain. In contrast, Ln(III) are nonradioactive, naturally occurring elements with multiple applications in technique and medicine. Consequently it is possible that humans get in contact and incorporate both, An(III) and Ln(III). Therefore, it is of particular importance to elucidate the behaviour of these elements in the human body. While macroscopic processes such as distribution, accumulation and excretion are studied quite well, knowledge about the chemical binding form (speciation) of An(III) and Ln(III) in various body fluids is still sparse. In the present work, for the first time, the speciation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) in natural human urine (in vitro) has been investigated spectroscopically and the formed complex identified. For this purpose, also basic investigations on the complex formation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) in synthetic model urine as well as with the urinary relevant, organic model ligands urea, alanine, phenylalanine, threonine and citrate have been performed and the previously unknown complex stability constants determined. Finally, all experimental results were compared to literature data and predictions calculated by thermodynamic modelling. Since both, Cm(III) and Eu(III), exhibit unique luminescence properties, particularly the suitability of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) could be demonstrated as a method to investigate these metal ions in untreated, complex biofluids. The results of this work provide new scientific findings on the biochemical reactions of An(III) and Ln(III) in human body fluids on a molecular scale and

  8. Resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds: a critical examination. Structure and stability of the enols of beta-diketones and beta-enaminones. (United States)

    Sanz, Pablo; Mó, Otilia; Yañez, Manuel; Elguero, José


    The characteristics of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) for a series of 40 different enols of beta-diketones and their nitrogen counterparts have been systematically analyzed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. In some cases, two tautomers may exist which are interconnected by a hydrogen shift through the IMHB. In tautomer a the HB donor group (YH) is attached to the six-membered ring, while in tautomer b the HB acceptor (X) is the one that is attached to the six-membered ring. We found that changing an O to a N favors the a tautomer when the atom is endo and the contrary when it is exo, while the presence of a double bond favors the a tautomers. As expected, the OH group behaves as a better HB donor than the NH2 group and the C=NH group as a better HB acceptor than the C=O group, although the first effect clearly dominates. Accordingly, the expected IMHB strength follows the [donor, acceptor] trend: [OH, C=NH] > [OH, C=O] > [NH2, C=NH] > [NH2, C=O]. For all those compounds in which the functionality exhibiting the IMHB is unsaturated (I-type), the IMHB is much stronger than in their saturated counterparts (II-type). However, when the systems of the II-type subset, which are saturated, are constrained to have the HB donor and the HB acceptor lying in the same plane and at the same distance as in the corresponding unsaturated analogue, the IMHB is of similar or even larger strength. Hence, we conclude that, at least for this series of unsaturated compounds, the resonance-assisted hydrogen bond effect is not the primary reason behind the strength of their IMHBs, which is simply a consequence of the structure of the sigma-skeleton of the system that keeps the HB donor and the HB acceptor coplanar and closer to each other.

  9. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of zero-/two-dimensional Cd(II) and Eu(III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Rui-Qing, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Li-Yuan; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hong; Sun, Cun-fa; Yang, Yu-Lin [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Su, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, School of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)


    Three metal-organic complexes Cd(HBIDC)(phen){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(BIC)(phen)]{sub n} (2) and {l_brace}[Eu(HBIDC)(H{sub 2}BIDC)(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (3) (H{sub 3}BIDC=benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}BIC=benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. With similar reaction conditions, reactions of the same ligand with different metal cations selected from different blocks (d-block and f-block) result in different coordination modes of carboxylate groups and final frameworks of complexes 1 and 3. The decarboxylation was observed in complex 2 and resulted in the formation of BIC{sup 2-} ligand. Complexes 1-3 have intense fluorescent emissions at room temperature in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution and in the solid-state, which indicate they are potential fluorescence materials. The quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of these three complexes were systematically studied. - Graphical abstract: With similar reaction conditions, reactions of the same ligand with different metal cations selected from different blocks (d-block and f-block) result in different coordination modes of carboxylate groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three metal-organic complexes have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactions of the same ligand with different metal cations result in different coordination modes of carboxylate groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexes 1-3 have intense fluorescent emissions in DMSO solution and in the solid-state.

  10. Moessbauer spectra of Eu(III) and Gd(III) complexes of phosphine oxides with chelating perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masashi, E-mail:; Hirai, Yuya [Toho University (Japan)


    The reaction of Ln(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}{center_dot} nH{sub 2}O with triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) in methanol has led to the formation of [Ln(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}(tppo){sub 4}]ClO{sub 4}{center_dot}MeOH (Ln = Nd, Eu, Gd, Dy, Yb), in which the perchlorate anion acts as a symmetric bidentate. The emission spectra of Eu(III)-TPPO complexes, showing enhancement in the intensity due to the phenyl group, indicate an isotropic electron distribution for the nitrato complex [Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(tppo){sub 2}(EtOH)]. {sup 151}Eu and {sup 155}Gd Moessbauer spectra of the TPPO complexes also lead to the same conclusion.

  11. STXM and LSLM investigation of Eu(III) induced humic acid colloid aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaschke, M; Rothe, J; Klenze, R [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wissler, J; Naber, A, E-mail: plaschke@ine.fzk.d [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Humic acids (HA) are potentially important in binding traces of actinides or lanthanides, thus affecting their transport in aquatic systems. Eu(III) induced HA colloid aggregation has been investigated by a combination of Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and Laser Scanning Luminescence Microscopy (LSLM). Both methods reveal the same aggregate morphology - optically dense zones embedded in a matrix of less dense material observed by STXM correspond to areas with increased Eu(III) luminescence yield in the LSLM micrographs. From these comparative measurements we infer the enrichment of Eu(III) cations in the optically dense zones. These areas also exhibit a C 1s-NEXAFS signature strongly differing from the signal extracted from the less dense areas. Spectral filtering of Eu(III) luminescence lines corresponding to valence transitions affected by organic acid complexation indicates that Eu(III) cations are more strongly bound in the dense zones.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shevchenko


    Full Text Available The polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by Co (II 5-methyl-5-hexene-2,4-dionate (MHD-Co solution in dimethylformamide, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene has been studied.  It is shown that polymerization does not take place in the solution of dimethylformamide due to the formation of inactive complexes «β-diketonate-solvent». Maximal polymerization rate has been observed in methyl ethyl ketone. The polymerization rate increases with decreasing of initiator concentration due to the MHD-Co inhibitory effect at high concentrations of chelate. The optimal concentration range of MHD-Co for polymerization initiation of methyl methacrylate in methyl ethyl ketone is 1,0-2,5×10-3 mol/l. The differences are noted in the behavior of the MHD-Co which chelate ring is conjugated with the double bond of the ligand, in comparison to cobalt 3-allylpentane-2,4-dionate where such conjugation is absent. The synthesized products are soluble in the monomers, they have a large number of metal chelate groups and can be used as macroinitiators in the preparation of branched and graft polymers. The total molecular weight of the grafted chains is much longer than the main chain.

  13. Crystal structure and luminescence of complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with furan-2,5-dicarboxylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akerboom, S.; Fu, W.T.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Bouwman, E.


    Four new Ln(III) complexes (Ln = Eu, Tb) with furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H2FDA) as a ligand have been synthesized and characterized in the solid state. Luminescence studies indicate that the compounds exhibit line-like luminescence characteristic of the lanthanide centre upon excitation in the

  14. Highly luminescent, triple- and quadruple-stranded, dinuclear Eu, Nd, and Sm(III) lanthanide complexes based on bis-diketonate ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassett, A.P.; Magennis, S.W.; Glover, P.B.; Lewis, D.J.; Spencer, N.; Parsons, S.; Williams, R.M.; De Cola, L.; Pikramenou, Z.


    The bis(beta-diketone) ligands 1,3-bis(3-phenyl-3-oxopropanoyl)benzene, H(2)L(1) and 1,3-bis(3-phenyl-3-oxopropanoyl) 5-ethoxy-benzene, H(2)L(2), have been prepared for the examination of dinuclear lanthanide complex formation and investigation of their properties as sensitizers for lanthanide

  15. Highly luminescent, triple- and quadruple-stranded, dinuclear Eu, Nd, and Sm(III) lanthanide complexes based on bis-diketonate ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassett, A.P.; Magennis, S.W.; Glover, P.B.; Lewis, D.J.; Spencer, N.; Parsons, S.; Williams, R.M.; De Cola, L.; Pikramenou, Z.


    The bis(beta-diketone) ligands 1,3-bis(3-phenyl-3-oxopropanoyl)benzene, H2L1 and 1,3-bis(3-phenyl-3-oxopropanoyl) 5-ethoxy-benzene, H2L2, have been prepared for the examination of dinuclear lanthanide complex formation and investigation of their properties as sensitizers for lanthanide luminescence.

  16. Using the Antenna Effect as a Spectroscopic Tool; Photophysics and Solution Thermodynamics of the Model Luminescent Hydroxypyridonate Complex [EuIII(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; D' Aleo, Anthony; Ng Pak Leung, Clara; Shuh, David; Raymond, Kenneth


    While widely used in bioassays, the spectrofluorimetric method described here uses the antenna effect as a tool to probe the thermodynamic parameters of ligands that sensitize lanthanide luminescence. The Eu3+ coordination chemistry, solution thermodynamic stability and photophysical properties of the spermine-based hydroxypyridonate octadentate chelator 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) are reported. The complex [EuIII(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]- luminesces with a long lifetime (805 mu s) and a quantum yield of 7.0percent in aqueous solution, at pH 7.4. These remarkable optical properties were exploited to determine the high (and proton-independent) stability of the complex (log beta 110 = 20.2(2)) and to define the influence of the ligand scaffold on the stability and photophysical properties.

  17. Sorption of Eu(III) on granite: EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, batch and modeling studies. (United States)

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Yusuke; Maeda, Koushi; Aoi, Yusuke; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Aosai, Daisuke; Mizuno, Takashi


    Eu(III) sorption on granite was assessed using combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches in neutral to acidic conditions where the mobility of Eu(III) is generally considered to be high. Polished thin sections of the granite were reacted with solutions containing 10 μM of Eu(III) and were analyzed using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. On most of the biotite grains, Eu enrichment up to 6 wt % was observed. The Eu-enriched parts of biotite commonly lose K, which is the interlayer cation of biotite, indicating that the sorption mode of Eu(III) by the biotite is cation exchange in the interlayer. The distributions of Eu appeared along the original cracks of the biotite. Those occurrences indicate that the prior water-rock interaction along the cracks engendered modification of biotite to possess affinity to the Eu(III). Batch Eu(III) sorption experiments on granite and biotite powders were conducted as functions of pH, Eu(III) loading, and ionic strength. The macroscopic sorption behavior of biotite was consistent with that of granite. At pH > 4, there was little pH dependence but strong ionic strength dependence of Eu(III) sorption. At pH 4 was reproducible reasonably by the modeling considering single-site cation exchange reactions. The decrease of Eu(III) sorption at pH < 4 was explained by the occupation of exchangeable sites by dissolved cationic species such as Al and Fe from granite and biotite in low-pH conditions. Granites are complex mineral assemblages. However, the combined microscopic and macroscopic approaches revealed that elementary reactions by a single mineral phase can be representative of the bulk sorption reaction in complex mineral assemblages.

  18. Visible and near-infrared intense luminescence from water-soluble lanthanide [Tb(III), Eu(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), Er(III)] complexes. (United States)

    Quici, Silvio; Cavazzini, Marco; Marzanni, Giovanni; Accorsi, Gianluca; Armaroli, Nicola; Ventura, Barbara; Barigelletti, Francesco


    The synthesis of a new ligand (1) containing a single phenanthroline (phen) chromophore and a flexibly connected diethylenetriamine tetracarboxylic acid unit (DTTA) as a lanthanide (Ln) coordination site is reported [1 is 4-[(9-methyl-1,10-phenantrol-2-yl)methyl]-1,4,7-triazaheptane-1,1,7,7-tetraacetic acid]. From 1, an extended series of water-soluble Ln.1 complexes was obtained, where Ln is Eu(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III). The stoichiometry for the association was found 1:1, with an association constant K(A) > or = 10(7) s(-1) as determined by employing luminescence spectroscopy. The luminescence and photophysical properties of the series of lanthanide complexes were investigated in both H2O and D2O solutions. High efficiencies for the sensitized emission, phi(se), in air-equilibrated water were observed for the Ln.1 complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) in the visible region (phi(se) = 0.24 and 0.15, respectively) and of Sm(III), Dy(III), Pr(III), Ho(III), Yb(III), Nd(III), and Er(III) in the vis and/or near-infrared region [phi(se) = 2.5 x 10(-3), 5 x 10(-4), 3 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-5), 2 x 10(-4), 4 x 10(-5), and (in D2O) 4 x 10(-5), respectively]. For Eu.1 and Tb.1, luminescence data for water and deuterated water allowed us to estimate that no solvent molecules (q) are bound to the ion centers (q = 0). Luminescence quenching by oxygen was investigated in selected cases.

  19. Tuning of "antenna effect" of Eu(III) in ternary systems in aqueous medium through binding with protein. (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Saha Sardar, Pinki; Ghosh, Sanjib


    A simple ternary system containing a protein [human serum albumin (HSA)/bovine serum albumin (BSA)], tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), and Eu(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 7.2) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect" compared to the binary complex of TC with Eu(III) (Eu(3)TC). The ternary system containing E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), TC, and Eu(III), however, shows a slight enhancement of Eu(III) emission, although the binding constant of AP with TC is 2 orders of magnitude greater than with BSA/HSA. The enhanced emission of bound TC in the binary systems containing proteins and TC gets quenched in the ternary systems containing HSA/BSA, showing the efficient energy transfer (ET) from TC to Eu(III). Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in all the ternary systems in H(2)O and in D(2)O medium reveal that Eu(III) is very well protected from the O-H oscillator in the ternary system containing HSA/BSA compared to that containing AP. The docking studies locating the binding site of TC in the proteins suggest that TC binds near the surface of AP. In the case of HSA/BSA, TC resides in the interior of the protein resulting in a large shielding effect of Eu(III). The rotational correlation time (θ(c)) determined from the anisotropy decay of bound TC in the complexes and the accessible surface area (ASA) of the ligand in the complexes obtained from the docking studies also support the contention that Eu(3)TC is more exposed to solvent in the case of the ternary system consisting of AP, TC, and Eu(III). The calculated radiative lifetime and the sensitization efficiency ratio of Eu(III) in all the systems clearly demonstrate the protein mediated tuning of "antenna effect" in Eu(III).

  20. Adsorption of Eu(III) onto TiO{sub 2}: Effect of pH, concentration, ionic strength and soil fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Xiaoli, E-mail: [Key Lab of New Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Fang Ming [Institute of Solid States Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); Li Jiaxing; Lu Yi [Key Lab of New Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); Wang Xiangke, E-mail: [Key Lab of New Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China)


    The effects of pH, initial Eu(III) concentration, ionic strength and fulvic acid (FA) on the adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} are investigated by using batch techniques. The results indicate that the presence of FA strongly enhances the adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} at low pH values. Besides, the adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} is significantly dependent on pH values and independent of ionic strength. The adsorption of Eu(III) on TiO{sub 2} is attributed to inner-sphere surface complexation. The diffuse layer model (DLM) is applied to simulate the adsorption data, and fits the experimental data well with the aid of FITEQL 3.2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is performed to study the species of Eu(III) adsorbed on the surfaces of TiO{sub 2}/FA-TiO{sub 2} hybrids at a molecular level, which suggest that FA act as 'bridge' between Eu(III) and TiO{sub 2} particles to enhance the ability to adsorb Eu(III) in solution.

  1. Luminescent method of determination of composition of europium and terbium complexes in solution by change of intensity ratio of luminescence bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' tyukova, S.V.; Nazarenko, N.A.; Poluehktov, N.S.


    The complexes of europium and terbium with phenanthroline, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, nitrilotriacetate, some acids-phenol derivatives and ..beta..-diketones series have been used as an example to demonstrate that the value of the ratio of intensities on the two bands of europium(terbium) luminescence spectra - the one corresponding to the hypersensitive'' transition and the other, to the magnetic dipole one - can be used for determination of the complexes composition in solutions.

  2. A fluorescence study on the complexation of Sm(iii), Eu(iii) and Tb(iii) with tetraalkyldiglycolamides (TRDGA) in aqueous solution, in solid state, and in solvent extraction. (United States)

    Kou, Fei; Yang, Suliang; Qian, Hongjuan; Zhang, Lihua; Beavers, Christine M; Teat, Simon J; Tian, Guoxin


    Tetraalkyldiglycolamide (TRDGA) ligands have potential utilization for the separation of actinide and lanthanide ions in the nuclear industry as chelates in aqueous solution if water-soluble or as extractants in organic solvents if water-insoluble. Here, a spectral titration method is extensively applied to investigating the complexation of fluorescent Sm(iii), Eu(iii), and Tb(iii) with TRDGA ligands in aqueous solutions and a solvent extraction system. In aqueous solutions using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyldiglycolamide (TMDGA, LI) as chelate, three successive complex species of Ln(iii), including [LnLI]3+, [LnL]3+, and [LnL]3+, are identified for each Ln(iii) (Ln = Sm, Eu, and Tb), and their stability constants are determined with fluorescence spectral titration method at 25 °C in 1 M NaNO3. The coordination mode in [LnL]3+ is illustrated by single-crystal structures of the solid compounds LnL(ClO4)3 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tb, and LI = TMDGA) grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation. The crystal structures show that in the complexes Ln(iii) ions are coordinated by nine oxygen atoms from three tridentate LI ligands in a distorted tricapped trigonal prism geometry. To provide parallels to solvent extraction chemistry, the extracted Ln(iii) complexes with N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyldiglycolamide (DMDODGA, LII, a lipophilic analogue of TMDGA) are prepared, and the fluorescence spectra are collected as well for comparison. The fluorescence spectra of the extracted Ln(iii) complexes with LII in an organic phase of 40-60% (v/v) n-octanol-kerosene are nearly identical to the corresponding deconvoluted spectra of [LnL]3+ in aqueous solution. The similarity in fluorescence spectra suggests that Ln(iii) ion in the extracted complexes is also coordinated by three tridentate LII ligands and that the nitrate anions acting just as counterions do not directly bond to Ln(iii) in the organic phase of solvent extraction.

  3. Complexation of Lactate with Nd(III) and Eu(III) at Variable Temperatures: Studies by Potentiometry, Microcalorimetry, Optical Absorption and Luminescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Guoxin; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng


    Complexation of neodymium(III) and europium(III) with lactate was studied at variable temperatures by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy and microcalorimetry. Stability constants of three successive lactate complexes (ML{sup 2+}, ML{sup 2+} and ML{sub 3}(aq), where M stands for Nd and Eu, and L stands for lactate) at 10, 25, 40, 55 and 70 C were determined. The enthalpies of complexation at 25 C were determined by microcalorimetry. Thermodynamic data show that the complexation of trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) with lactate is exothermic, and the complexation becomes weaker at higher temperatures. Results from optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy suggest that the complexes are inner-sphere chelate complexes in which the protonated {alpha}-hydroxyl group of lactate participates in the complexation.

  4. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Q.H.; Wu, W.S. [Radiochemistry Lab., School of Nuclear Science and Tech., Lanzhou Univ., GS (China); State Key Lab. of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou Univ., GS (China); Zhang, M.L.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Ding, K.F.; Yang, Z.Q. [Radiochemistry Lab., School of Nuclear Science and Tech., Lanzhou Univ., GS (China)


    Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite were studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, the liquid-to-solid ratio (V/m), and Eu(III) and Am(III) concentrations under ambient conditions using batch technique. The sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) was quickly and {proportional_to} 4 hours were enough to achieve the sorption equilibrium. The K' values were 6.57 x 10{sup 6} g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} for Eu(III) and 6.67 x 106 g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} for Am(III), respectively; and q{sub e} values were 4.46 x 10{sup -7} mg/g for Eu(III) and 1.0 x 10{sup -6} mg/g for Am(III), respectively. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite were strongly affected by pH values, and weakly dependent on ionic strength. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) were mainly dominated by surface complexation. although ion exchange also contributed to Eu(III) and Am(III) sorption. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the sorption edge of Eu(III) and Am(III) was obviously shifted to lower pH. The results showed that the sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) to attapulgite was enhanced significantly in the range of pH 0.5 to 6. (orig.)

  5. Surface-Modified Gold Nanoparticles Possessing Two-Channel Responsive Eu(III) /Tb(III) Cyclen Complexes as Luminescent Logic Gate Mimics. (United States)

    Truman, Laura K; Bradberry, Samuel J; Comby, Steve; Kotova, Oxana; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur


    The development of material-supported molecular logic gate mimics (MGLMs) for contained application and device fabrication has become of increasing interest. Herein, we present the formation of ≈5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been surface-modified (via a thiol linkage) with heptadentate cyclen-based complexes of europium and terbium for sensing applications using delayed lanthanide luminescence and as integrated logic gate mimics within competitive media. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Spektroskopische und thermodynamische Untersuchung der Komplexierung von Cm(III) und Eu(III) mit hydrophilen Bis-Triazinylpyridinen


    Ruff, Christian


    In the present work the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with a hydrophilic 2,6-bis-(1,2,4-triazinyl)-pyridine (aq-BTP) is studied. Aq-BTP complexes actinides(III) selectively over lanthanides(III) in nitric acid solution. The object of this work is the identification and the spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the Cm(III) and Eu(III) complex species present in solution. The results should contribute to a better fundamental understanding of the driving force behind BTPs sel...

  7. Adsorption of Eu(III) onto roots of water hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.; Mielke, R.E.; Dimaquibo, D.; Curtis, A.J. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dewitt, J.G. [San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has drawn attention as a plant capable of removing pollutants, including toxic metals, from water. The authors are interested in the capacity of the water hyacinth to remediate aquatic environments that have been contaminated with the lanthanide metal, europium Eu(III). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) they have been able to determine that Eu(III) is adsorbed onto the surface of the roots from water and that the highest concentration of Eu(III) is on the root hairs. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques were used to speciate the Eu(III) adsorbed onto the surface of the roots. The XAS data for Eu-contaminated water hyacinth roots provides evidence of a Eu-oxygen environment and establishes that Eu(III) is coordinated to 10--11 oxygen atoms at a distance of 2.44 {angstrom}. This likely involves binding of Eu(III) to the root via carboxylate groups and hydration of Eu(III) at the root surface.

  8. Evaluation of sorptive flotation technique for enhanced removal of radioactive Eu(III) from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzat, Amir; Saad, Ebtissam A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.; Mahmoud, Mamdoh R. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Chemistry Dept.; Soliman, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Egypt Second Research Reactor; Kandil, Abdelhakim [Helwan Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.


    The present study aims at the removal of Eu(III) from aqueous solutions by sorptive flotation process. This process involves adsorption of Eu(III) onto bentonite and kaolinite clays followed by floatation using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) collectors. The effect of adsorption parameters (pH, contact time, clay weight, Eu(III) concentration, ionic strength) as well as flotation parameters (collector and frother concentrations, bubbling time, concentrations of foreign cations and anions) on the removal efficiency of Eu(III) were studied. The obtained results show that Eu(III) ions are removed efficiently (R% ∝ 95%) at pH=4 after 1 h shaking with clay and 15 min floatation. The adsorption kinetics of Eu(III) onto the employed clays followed the pseudo-second-order model and the equilibrium data fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopy (IR, multinuclear NMR, ESI-MS), diffraction, density functional study and in vitro antiproliferative activity of pyrazole-beta-diketone dihalotin(IV) compounds on 5 melanoma cell lines. (United States)

    Pettinari, Claudio; Caruso, Francesco; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Villa, Raffaella; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Phillips, Christine; Tanski, Joseph; Rossi, Miriam


    Novel 4-acylpyrazolon-5-ato-dihalotin(IV) complexes, [Q2SnX2], (X = F, Cl, Br or I); HQ = HQ(CHPh2) (1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-(2,2-diphenylacetyl)pyrazol-5-one), HQ(Bn) (1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-(2-phenylacetyl)pyrazol-5-one) or HQ(CF3,py) (4-(2,2,2-trifluoroacetyl)-1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazol-5-one) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR, 1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn NMR, electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)), analytical and structural methods (X-ray and density functional theory). 119Sn chemical shifts depend on the nature of the halides bonded to tin. Isomer conversion, detected in solution by NMR spectroscopy, is related to the acyl moiety bulkiness while the cis(Cl)-cis(acyl)-trans(pyrazolonato) scheme is found in the solid state. The in vitro antiproliferative tests of three derivatives on three human melanoma cell lines (JR8, SK-MEL-5, MEL501) and two melanoma cell clones (2/21 and 2/60) show dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferation in all cell lines. The activity correlates with the nature of the substituent on position 1 of pyrazole, decreasing in the order pyridyl>Ph>methyl. The activity for (Q(CF3,py))2SnCl2 on the SK-MEL-5 cell line is IC50 = 50 microM.

  10. Selective separation of Am(III) from Eu(III) by 2,9-Bis(dialkyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-1,10-phenanthrolines. A relativistic quantum chemistry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Yuan, Li-Yong; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Shi, Wei-Qun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Lab. for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety; Chai, Zhi-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Lab. for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety; Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences


    The complexation properties of Am(III) and Eu(III) with a serial of novel N-heterocyclic tetradentate ligands, 2,9-bis(dialkyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-1,10-phenanth-rolines (BTPhens), have been calculated by density functional theory (DFT) coupled with relativistic small-core pseudopotential. It is found that the nitrogen atoms in triazine rings favor metal cations more than those in phenanthroline skeleton. The Am-N bond lengths are comparable to or even shorter than those of Eu-N bonds based on the larger radii of Am(III) than Eu(III). The effect of alkyl substituents on the complex structures is limited but they can adjust the complexation reaction and extraction kinetics. Additionally, the solvent effect can decrease the probability of the complexation reactions greatly and the solvation energies of Am(III) and Eu(III) might be the primary driving force in the complexation selectivity. The complexation reactions for forming ML(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and [ML{sub 2}(NO{sub 3})]{sup 2+} complexes are believed to dominate the selective extraction separation of Am(III) from Eu(III) in nitric acid media, which agrees well with the experimental results. The comparisons of BTPhens with BTBPs in dipoles and electronic structures confirm that the BTPhens exhibit more favourable extraction kinetics and selectivity for minor actinides.

  11. First insights in the Eu(III) speciation in plant cell suspension cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Henry; Sachs, Susanne [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry


    More than 80 % of the initial Eu(III) amount was associated on Brassica napus cells after an incubation time of 24 h. The spectroscopic speciation of the cell-bound Eu(III) is characterized by an increased intensity of the {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition and prolonged luminescence lifetimes.

  12. Incorporation of Eu(III) into calcite under recrystallization conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebrandt, S.E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Jordan, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements; Schmidt, Moritz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HGF Young Investigator Group; Hofmann, S.


    The interaction of three calcite powders with Eu(III) under recrystallization conditions was studied on the molecular level using site-selective time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Batch contact studies with reaction times from 1 week up to 3 years revealed that the speciation differs from that observed previously in co-precipitation experiments and is dominated by a newly identified species ''γ''. The speed of formation of this species was found to depend greatly on the recrystallization rate of the studied minerals.

  13. Luminescence quenching of Eu(III) carboxylates by Cu(II) in a composite polymer xerogel film. (United States)

    Barja, Beatriz C; Remorino, Amanda; Aramendía, Pedro F


    Three Eu(III) luminescent compounds were separately entrapped in a xerogel porous silica matrix and finely ground particles of it were deposited on a glass support with polyvinylacetate (PVAc) as a binder to build a thin film sensor. These 3 devices were immersed in aqueous solutions of Cu(II) and the content of this metal was evaluated by emission-quenching experiments. The sensor containing the highly luminescent antenna chelate of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (dtpa) sensitized with Coumarin120 rendered the largest Stern-Volmer constant (K(SV) = 1.49 x 10(4) M(-1)), showing no leaching of the Eu(III) complex to the aqueous solution and a reproducible value of the luminescence ratio between water and Cu(II) solution. The in situ sensor we developed can measure the concentration of Cu(II) in aqueous media down to the ppm level by emission-quenching experiments. This methodology permits a simple calibration of the sensor and an easy to use reusable device.

  14. Investigation of metal binding sites on soil fulvic acid using Eu(III) luminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, T.H.; Moon, H. (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejun (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)); Park, Y.J.; Park, K.K. (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejun (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of))


    The [sup 7]F[sub 0] [yields] [sup 5]D[sub 0] excitation spectra of Eu(III) complexed with soil fulvic acid (FA) were acquired over a range of solution pH (2.9-7.8) and FA concentrations (800-3200 mg L[sup [minus]1]) using a pulsed tunable dye laser system. The broad asymmetric excitation spectra were well-fitted to a sum of two conventional Lorentzian-shaped curves, revealing the existence of two types of carboxylate moieties for the binding of metal ions on FA which formed 1:1 (EuL[sup 2+]; L = carboxylate) and 1:2 complexes (EuL[sub 2][sup +]). The weaker binding species, EuL[sup 2+], seemed to be quite abundant and showed a rapid increase as the pH was raised from 2.9 to 6.3, but it was susceptible to hydrolysis at pH higher than 7 while the stronger binding species, EuL[sub 2][sup +], showed only a modest growth with an increase in pH. By contrast, on a more flexible synthetic linear polymer, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(vinylbenzoic acid) (PVBA) as model polymers, EuL[sub 2][sup +] was seen as the dominant species except in acidic media. 28 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Optimized and validated spectrophotometric method for the determination of uranium(VI) via complexation with meloxicam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutfullah [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)], E-mail:; Alam, Mohd Noor; Rahman, Nafisur; Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)


    An optimized and validated spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of uranyl ion in the presence of other metal ions. The method is based on the chelation of uranyl ion with meloxicam via {beta}-diketone moiety to produce a yellow colored complex, which absorbs maximally at 398 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5-60 {mu}g/mL with apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of 5.02 x 10{sup 4} L/mol/cm and 0.1 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/0.001 absorbance unit, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of uranyl ion in synthetic mixture and soil samples. Results of analysis were statistically compared with those obtained by Currah's spectrophotometric method showing acceptable recovery and precision.

  16. Interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with mucin. A key component of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements


    To evaluate the potential health risks caused by the ingestion of lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An), investigations into the chemical behavior of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Mucin is an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system. We have recently reported that mucin interacts strongly with Eu(III) and Cm(III), representatives of Ln(III) and An(III), respectively, under in vivo conditions. In order to investigate the complexation behavior of this protein with Ln(III)/An(III), TRLFS measurements were performed on Eu(III)/Cm(III)-mucin solutions with different protein concentrations and at different pH. The results indicate the formation of at least two independent mucin species. At higher pH, the formation of hydroxide species was also observed.

  17. Interactions of Eu(III) with biogenic CaCO{sub 3} studied with TRLFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Erik V.; Schmidt, Moritz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Surface Processes; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry


    The interactions of Eu(III) with CaCO{sub 3} arising from biogenic origin was investigated by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS). Biologically-induced precipitation via ureolysis was studied with the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii in the presence of Eu(III). Biomineralization occurred forming mixed phases of vaterite and calcite after one day that transformed over two weeks to pure calcite. Eu(III) was quantitatively removed from solution during mineral formation. TRLFS results show that after one day the Eu{sup 3+} is located in the vaterite phase. After one week, the Eu{sup 3+} was found primarily in the vaterite, despite calcite now being the predominant mineral, and a transition species was also formed. In the calcite two incorporated Eu{sup 3+} species were present: one substitutes at the Ca{sup 2+} site in the crystal lattice and the other is speculated to be associated with the organicmineral matrix.

  18. Influence of humic fulvic acid on the sorption behaviour of Eu(III) on natural hematite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabung, T. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie]|[Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik; Geckeis, H.; Kim, J.I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik; Beck, H.P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie


    The solid-water interface reaction is investigated for the sorption of the Eu(III) ion, as a trivalent actinide homologue, onto well-characterized natural hematite at pH{<=}6 in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} in the presence of humic and fulvic acid (HA/FA). (orig.)

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of the competitive binding of Eu(III), Ca(II), and Cu(II) to a sedimentary originated humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marang, L.; Reiller, P.E. [CEA Saclay, Nucl Energy Div, DPC SECR, Lab Speciat Radionucleides and Mol, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marang, L.; Benedetti, M.F. [Univ Paris 07, Lab Geochim Eaux, IPGP UMR CNRS 7154, F-75205 Paris 13 (France); Eidner, S.; Kumke, M.U. [Univ Potsdam, Inst Chem, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)


    The competition between REE, alkaline earth and d-transition metals for organic matter binding sites is still an open field of research; particularly, the mechanisms governing these phenomena need to be characterized in more detail. In this study, we examine spectroscopically the mechanisms of competitive binding of Eu(III)/Cu(II) and Eu(III)/Ca(II) pair to Gorleben humic acid (HA), as previously proposed in the framework of the NICA-Donnan model. The evolution of time-resolved laser induced luminescence spectra of humic-complexed Eu(Ill) showed two strikingly different environments for a comparable bound proportion for Cu(II) and Ca(II). Cu(II) seems to compete more effectively with Eu(III) inducing its release into the Donnan phase, and into the bulk solution as free Eu{sup 3+}. This is evidenced both by the shapes of the spectra and by the decrease in the luminescence decay times. In contrast with that, Ca(II) induces a modification of the HA structure, which enhances the luminescence of humic-bound Eu(III), and causes a minor modification of the chemical environment of the complexed rare earth ion. (authors)

  20. Energy Transfer between U(VI) and Eu(III) Ions Adsorbed on a Silica Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. K.; Cha, W.; Cho, H. R.; Im, H. J.; Jung, E. C.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Understanding of chemical behavior of actinide in a groundwater flow is important for assessing the possibility of their migration with water flows in a radioactive waste disposal site. Uranium is ubiquitous in the environment and a major actinide in a nuclear fuel cycle. Americium and curium having isotopes of long half life are minor actinides in a spent fuel. If a minor actinide coexists with uranium in a groundwater flow, some interactions between them could be expected such as minor actinide adsorption onto uranium precipitates and competition with each other for an adsorption to a mineral surface site. Eu(III) ion is frequently used as a chemical analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III) ions in a migration chemistry. The luminescent spectra of U(VI) and Eu(III) ions show a dependency on the coordination symmetry around them, and the changes in intensity or bandwidth of spectra can yield valuable information on their local environment. The luminescent lifetime also strongly depends on the coordination environment, and its measurement is valuable in probe studies on micro-heterogeneous systems. The excited U(VI) ion can be quenched through Stern.Volmer process, hydrolysis of excited species, exciplex formation, electron transfer or energy transfer. In case of U(VI)-Eu(III) system, the interaction between two ions can be studied by measuring the effect of Eu(III) ion on the quenching of U(VI) ion luminescence. There are only a few investigations on the interaction between an excited U(VI) ion and a lanthanide(III) ion. In perchlorate solution, the energy transfer to Eu(III) ion occurred only in solutions of pH>3.87. In this study, the quenching of U(VI) luminescence by Eu(III) on a silica surface was measured. The results will be discussed on the basis of a chemical interaction between them

  1. Solvent-induced assembly of two helical Eu(III) metal-organic frameworks and fluorescence sensing activities towards nitrobenzene and Cu2+ ions (United States)

    Ma, Ranran; Chen, Zhiwei; Wang, Suna; Yao, Qingxia; Li, Yunwu; Lu, Jing; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin


    Two helical Eu(III) metal-organic frameworks, namely, {[Eu(L)(DMF)(H2O)]·0.5DMF}n (1) and [Eu(L)(DEF)(H2O)]n (2) (H3L=3,5-bis(2-carboxylphenoxy)benzoic acid, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide, DEF=N,N-diethylformamide), have been solvothermally synthesized in different solvents, respectively. Both complexes possess helical structures through the connectivity of Eu atoms and phenolic-oxygen containing branches of the flexible multicarboxylate ligand. Based on different helices, these two complexes exhibited hexagonal and tetragonal channels, respectively. Both complexes possess (3,6)-connected (4.62)2(42.610.83) topology but with different long Schlafli symbol. The solvent plays an important role in the formation of the final frameworks. Both complexes can sensitively and selectively detect nitrobenzene and Cu2+ ions.

  2. Eu(III) uptake on rectorite in the presence of humic acid: a macroscopic and spectroscopic study. (United States)

    Chen, Changlun; Yang, Xin; Wei, Juan; Tan, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiangke


    This work contributed to the comprehension of humic acid (HA) effect on Eu(III) uptake to Na-rectorite by batch sorption experiments, model fitting, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. At low pH, the presence of HA enhanced Eu(III) sorption on Na-rectorite, while reduced Eu(III) sorption at high pH. The experimental data of Eu(III) sorption in the absence and presence of HA were simulated by the diffuse-layer model well with the aid of FITEQL 3.2 software. The basal spacing of rectorite became large after Eu(III) and HA sorption on Na-rectorite. Some of Eu(III) ions and HA might be intercalated into the interlayer space of Na-rectorite. EXAFS analysis showed that the R(Eu-O) (the bond distance of Eu and O in the first shell of Eu) and N values (coordination number) of Eu(III)-HA-rectorite system were smaller than those of Eu(III)-rectorite system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay (United States)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger


    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  4. Studies on the interaction of olive cake and its hydrophylic extracts with polyvalent metal ions (Cu(II), Eu(III)) in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Konstantinou, Maria; Kolokassidou, Konstantina; Pashalidis, Ioannis


    The paper presents and discusses the chemical affinity of two different forms of natural organic matter (e.g. in solid (SOM) and soluble form (DOM)) for Cu(2+) and Eu(3+) ions. In the this study SOM is represented by olive cake and DOM by its hydrophilic extracts. The investigations were performed in aqueous 0.1M NaClO(4) solutions at pH 6, 23 degrees C and under atmospheric conditions by means of potentiometry using a copper ion selective electrode and competitions reactions between the two metal ions. The experimental data were evaluated according to an "operational" approach, which is based on the charge neutralization model and the Scatchard approach. Evaluation of the data resulted in the determination of conditional formation constants (beta(*)), which are a measure for the chemical affinity of natural organic matter for a metal ion. For the olive cake metal ion binding the values of log beta(*) for Cu(II) and Eu(III) were evaluated to be 5.1+/-0.3 and 5.4+/-0.5, respectively, whereas for the hydrophilic extracts the corresponding values for the Cu(II) and Eu(III) complexes were evaluated to be 5.3+/-0.3 and 6.3+/-0.5, respectively. The beta(*) values show that natural organic matter in the two different forms presents almost similar affinity for the Cu(2+) ion, whereas the affinity of DOM for the Eu(3+) ion is significantly higher than the corresponding affinity of SOM. This is ascribed to the higher flexibility of DOM, which allows better coordination of its active sites around the Eu(3+) ion.

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization, luminescent properties and theoretical study of three novel lanthanide metal-organic frameworks of Ho(III), Gd(III) and Eu(III) with 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion (United States)

    Marques, Lippy F.; Correa, Charlane C.; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Freire, Ricardo O.; Machado, Flávia C.


    In this paper, the synthesis of three new metal-organic frameworks of lanthanides (LnMOFs) {[Ln2(2,5-tdc)3(dmso)2]·H2O}n (Ln=Ho (1); Gd (2); Eu (3); 2,5-tdc=2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion; dmso=dimethylsulfoxide), and their complete characterization, including single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis are reported. In especial, photophysical properties of Eu(III) complex have been studied in detail via both theoretical and experimental approaches. Crystal structure of (1) reveals that each lanthanide ion is seven-coordinated by oxygen atoms in an overall distorted capped trigonal - prismatic geometry. The 2,5-tdc2- ligands connect four Ln(III) centers, adopting (κ1-κ1)-(κ1-κ1)-μ4 coordination mode, generating an 8-connected uninodal 3D network. In addition, theoretical studies for Eu(III) complex were performed using the Sparkle model for lanthanide complexes.

  6. Diglycolic acid modified zirconium phosphate and studies on the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from dilute nitric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvan, B. Robert; Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Division; Dasthaiah, K.; Gardas, R.L. [Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemistry


    Diglycolic acid modified zirconium phosphate (ZrP-DGA) was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from dilute nitric acid medium. The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}, mL.g{sup -1}) of Am(III) and Eu(III) was measured as a function of time, pH and concentration of Eu(III) ion etc. The K{sub d} of Am(III) and Eu(III) increased with increase of pH, reached a maximum value of distribution coefficient at pH 1.5 - 2, followed by decrease in K{sub d} values. Rapid extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) in ZrP-DGA was observed followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurred in 100 min. Kinetics of extraction was fitted in to pseudo second order rate equation. The amount of Eu(III) loaded in ZrP-DGA increased with increase in the concentration of Eu(III) ion in aqueous phase and the isotherm was fitted in to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The extraction of Am(III) in ZrP-DGA was higher as compared to Eu(III) and the interference of Eu(III) on the extraction of Am(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of some lanthanides in ZrP-DGA was measured and the K{sub d} of lanthanides increased across the lanthanide series. The extracted trivalent metal ions were recovered in three contacts of loaded ZrP-DGA with 0.5 M nitric acid.

  7. Energy transfer processes in Tb(III)-dibenzoylmethanate complexes with phosphine oxide ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Francisco A.; Nascimento, Helenise A.; Pereira, Dariston K.S.; Teotonio, Ercules E.S.; Espinola, Jose Geraldo P.; Faustino, Wagner M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Brito, Hermi F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Fundamental; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Sa, Gilberto F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE/CCEN), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Departamento de Quimica Fundamental


    The Tb{sup 3+}-{beta}-diketonate complexes [Tb(DBM){sub 3}L], [Tb(DBM){sub 2}(NO{sub 3})L{sub 2}] and [Tb(DBM)(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (HMPA){sub 2}] (DBM = dibenzoylmethanate; L: TPPO triphenylphosphine oxide or HMPA=hexamethylphosphine oxide) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), complexometric titration with EDTA and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the photoluminescence properties evaluated. The triplet state energies of the coordinated DBM ligands were determined using time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of analogous Gd{sup 3+} complexes. The results show that the energies increase along with the number of coordinated nitrate anions replacing the DBM ligand in the complexes. The luminescence spectra and emission lifetime measurements revealed that the ligand-to-metal energy transfer efficiency follows the same tendency. Unlike the tris-DBM complexes, bis- and mono-DBM presented high luminescence, and may act as promising candidates for preparation of the emitting layer of light converting molecular devices (LCMDs). (author)

  8. Adsorption of humic acid and Eu(III) to multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Effect of pH, ionic strength and counterion effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Q.H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Novel Thin Film Solar Cell; Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Lab.; Shao, D.D.; Hu, J.; Chen, C.L.; Wang, X.K. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Novel Thin Film Solar Cell; Wu, W.S. [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Lab.


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties. Understanding adsorptive interactions of simultaneous humic substances (HS) and radionuclides on CNTs is critical to understand the pollution of radionuclides and the assessment of potential impact of CNTs on the behavior of HS and radionuclides. In this paper, the adsorption of humic acid (HA) and Eu(III) on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are studied as a function of pH and ionic strength. The results indicate that the adsorption of Eu(III) and HA on MWCNTs is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength, and the presence of HA enhances Eu(III) adsorption to HA-MWCNT hybrids. The XPS analysis indicates that the functional groups of HA contribute to Eu(III) adsorption to MWCNTs. (orig.)

  9. Speciation of citric acid on anatase (TiO{sub 2})-water interface and its effect on Eu(III) sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasar, Sharayu; Kumar, Sumit; Raut, Vaibhavi Vishwajeet; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Tomar, Bhupendra Singh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radioanalytical Chemistry Div.


    Citric acid is one of the low molecular weight organic acids which are ubiquitous in nature. In this study the sorption of citric acid at titania (anatase)/water interface was investigated using batch adsorption experiment and attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) over wide experimental conditions of pH, surface loading and ionic strengths. The batch adsorption experiment showed typical anionic characteristics; higher sorption was observed at lower pH values and sorption decreases with increasing pH. Strong dependence of sorption on ionic strength shows formation of citrate surface species in outer-sphere binding mode. At lower pH, ATR-FTIR spectra of aqueous citrate differs from that of sorbed citrate ions indicating lowering of pK{sub a} values of surface sorbed citrate compared to that present in solution. Detailed analysis of FTIR spectra of sorbed citrate in light of that of aqueous and Ca(II)/Eu(III) complexed citrate revealed formation of an inner sphere complex of citrate on anatase surface along with the outer sphere complex. Wavenumber difference between the asymmetric and symmetric COO{sup -} peaks (Δ = 159 cm{sup -1}) implies inner-sphere complex in bidentate bridging mode. These results help in explaining the sorption behaviour of Eu(III) on anatase in presence of citric acid.

  10. Dissociative electron attachment to hexafluoroacetylacetone and its bidentate metal complexes M(hfac)2; M = Cu, Pd (United States)

    Engmann, Sarah; Ómarsson, Benedikt; Lacko, Michal; Stano, Michal; Matejčík, Štefan; Ingólfsson, Oddur


    Beta-diketones are a versatile class of compounds that can complex almost any metal in the periodic table of elements. Their metal complexes are found to be fairly stable and generally have sufficient vapor pressure for deposition techniques requiring volatile metal sources. Motivated by the potential role of low energy electrons in focused electron beam induced deposition, we have carried out a crossed electron/molecular beam study on the dissociative electron attachment and non-dissociative electron attachment (NDEA) to hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFAc) and its bidentate metal complexes: bis-hexafluoroacetylacetonate copper(II), Cu(hfac)2 and bis-hexafluoroacetylacetonate palladium(II), Pd(hfac)2. The relative ion yield curves for the native precursor to the ligand as well as its stable, 16 valence electron Pd(II) complex and open shell, 17 valence electron Cu(II) complex, are presented and compared. For HFAc, the loss of HF leads to the dominant anion observed, and while NDEA is only weakly pronounced for Pd(hfac)2 and loss of hfac- is the main dissociation channel, [Cu(hfac)2]- formation from Cu(hfac)2 dominates. A comparison of the ion yield curves and the associated resonances gives insight into the role of the ligand in the attachment process and highlights the influence of the central metal atom.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization, luminescent properties and theoretical study of three novel lanthanide metal-organic frameworks of Ho(III), Gd(III) and Eu(III) with 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Lippy F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013 (Brazil); Correa, Charlane C. [Departamento de Química-ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG, 36036-330 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Santos, Molíria V. dos [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University − UNESP, CP 355 Araraquara-SP 14801-970 Brazil (Brazil); Dutra, José Diogo L.; Freire, Ricardo O. [Pople Computational Chemistry Laboratory, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Machado, Flávia C., E-mail: [Departamento de Química-ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora-MG, 36036-330 (Brazil)


    In this paper, the synthesis of three new metal-organic frameworks of lanthanides (LnMOFs) ([Ln{sub 2}(2,5-tdc){sub 3}(dmso){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (Ln=Ho (1); Gd (2); Eu (3); 2,5-tdc=2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion; dmso=dimethylsulfoxide), and their complete characterization, including single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis are reported. In especial, photophysical properties of Eu(III) complex have been studied in detail via both theoretical and experimental approaches. Crystal structure of (1) reveals that each lanthanide ion is seven-coordinated by oxygen atoms in an overall distorted capped trigonal – prismatic geometry. The 2,5-tdc{sup 2−} ligands connect four Ln(III) centers, adopting (κ{sup 1}–κ{sup 1})–(κ{sup 1}–κ{sup 1})–μ{sub 4} coordination mode, generating an 8-connected uninodal 3D network. In addition, theoretical studies for Eu(III) complex were performed using the Sparkle model for lanthanide complexes. - Graphical abstract: Three new metal-organic frameworks of lanthanides (LnMOFs) ([Ln{sub 2}(2,5-tdc){sub 3}(dmso){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (Ln=Ho (1); Gd (2); Eu (3); 2,5-tdc=2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion; dmso=dimethylsulfoxide), were synthesized and their complete characterization, including single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis are reported. In especial, photophysical properties of Eu(III) complex have been studied in detail via both theoretical and experimental approaches. - Highlights: • Three new LnMOFs were synthesized and fully characterized. • Ho{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} complexes photoluminescence properties were investigated. • Theoretical approaches for Eu{sup 3+} complex luminescence has been performed. • An energy level diagram is used to establish the ligand-to-metal energy transfer. • These metal−organic frameworks can act as light conversion molecular devices.

  12. Preparation of EuSe nanoparticles from Eu(III) complex containing selenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Taka-aki; Tanaka, Atsushi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)], E-mail:; Kawai, Tsuyoshi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)


    The EuSe nanoparticles were prepared by the thermal reduction of Europium nitrate with new organic selenium compound, tetraphenylphosphonium diphenylphosphinediselenide (PPh{sub 4})(Se{sub 2}P(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}), for the first time. EuSe nanoparticles were identified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. The average size of the EuSe nanoparticles was found to be 19 nm. The energy gap in EuSe nanoparticles of 19 nm was estimated by edge of absorption band, giving the energy gap of 1.86 eV.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Eu(III)-based coordination complexes of modified D-glucosamine and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (United States)

    Cui, Guihua; Zhao, Dehai; Lv, Peng; Gao, Zhengguo; Chen, Shuiying; Qiu, Nannan; Satoh, Toshifumi; Kakuchi, Toyoji; Duan, Qian


    A series of novel fluorescent complexes was formed by chelation of the thermosensitive polymers with europium(III) ions. The polymers was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), which composed of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose(D-glucosamine, GA). The aqueous solutions of the polymers and its Eu(III) complexes exhibited a lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs), and which were approximately equal to body temperature. The maximum emission intensity of the complexes at 613 nm was enhanced by a factor of approximately 10 relative to that of the corresponding Eu(III) chloride. Cell viability assays suggested that these thermosensitive polymers and Eu(III) complexes showed excellent biocompatibility in vitro.

  14. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms; Sorption des ions U(VI) et Eu(III) a l`interface solution - solides phosphates: Etude structurale et mechanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drot, Romuald [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} which allow to study the effect of PO{sub 4} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} presents only one single site (P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups) whereas Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} admit two types of sites (PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and PO{sub 4}/oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO{sub 3} 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO{sup 2+}{sub 2} et de UO{sub 2}NO{sup +}{sub 3} species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO{sup 2+}{sub 3}). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid

  15. Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay. (United States)

    Kasar, Sharayu; Kumar, Sumit; Bajpai, R K; Tomar, B S


    Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay, proposed as a backfill material in the Indian geological repository, was studied using the out-diffusion method. Radiotracers (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were used; the first three are carrier-free enabling experimental work at sub-micromolar metal ion concentration, and Eu(III) tracer (154)Eu was used at sub millimolar concentration. An out-diffusion methodology, wherein a thin planar source of radioactivity placed between two clay columns diffuses out, was used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) values. This methodology enabled determination of diffusion coefficient even for strongly sorbing (154)Eu. Da values for (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were 2.35 (±0.14) × 10(-11), 2.65 (±0.09) × 10(-12), 3.32 (±0.15) × 10(-11) and 1.23 (±0.15) × 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), respectively. Da values were found to be in fair agreement with literature data reported for similar mineralogical sediments. Sorption of radionuclides on the clay was also determined in the present study and differences in Da values were rationalized on the basis of sorption data. Distribution ratios (Kd) for Cs(I) and Eu(III) were higher than that for Sr(II), which in turn was higher than that for Na(I). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study of the Coordination Chemistry of a Hydrophilic CHON [1,2,3-Triazol-4-yl]pyridine Ligand with Cm(III) and Eu(III). (United States)

    Wagner, Christoph; Mossini, Eros; Macerata, Elena; Mariani, Mario; Arduini, Arturo; Casnati, Alessandro; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J


    The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with the novel i-SANEX complexing agent 2,6-bis[1-(propan-1-ol)-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]pyridine (PTD) was studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The formation of 1:3, 1:2, and 1:1 metal/ligand complexes was identified upon increasing PTD concentration in 10(-3) mol/L HClO4 and in 0.44 mol/L HNO3 solutions. For all these complexes, stability constants were determined at different acid concentrations. Though under the extraction conditions proposed for an An/Ln separation process, that is, for 0.08 mol/L PTD in 0.44 mol/L HNO3, 1:3 complexes represent the major species, a significant fraction of 1:2 complexes was found. This is caused by ligand protonation, and results in lower Eu(III)/Am(III) separation factors compared to SO3-Ph-BTP, until now considered the i-SANEX reference ligand. Focused extraction studies performed at lower proton concentration, where the 1:3 complex is formed exclusively, confirm this assumption.

  17. Eu(III)-doped aluminium yttrium oxide; Oxido misto de itrio-aluminio dopado com Eu(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassar, Eduardo J.; Avila, Lilian R.; Pereira, Paula F.S.; Lima, Omar J. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Mello, Cesar; Ciuffi, Katia J. [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil); Carlos, Luis D. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica


    In this work, we report the synthesis and the photoluminescence features of Eu(III)-doped yttrium-aluminium oxide obtained by non-hydrolytic sol-gel routes. After heating the powders above 600 deg C the XRD patterns show the presence of the Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) phases. At 800 and at 1500 deg C the PL spectra display the Eu(III) lines characteristic of the YAM monoclinic phase. The {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition is favored relatively to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 1} lines. However, at 1100 deg C the cubic YAG is the preferential phase and the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 1} transition dominates the spectrum. The Eu(III) ions lie in a centro symmetrical site. The different solvents used in the sol-gel synthesis also change the relative proportion between these two phases. This is monitored analyzing the modifications in the relative intensity between the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2} and the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 1} transitions. (author)

  18. Effects of blood sample anticoagulants on lateral flow assays using luminescent photon-upconverting and Eu(III) nanoparticle reporters. (United States)

    Juntunen, Etvi; Arppe, Riikka; Kalliomäki, Laura; Salminen, Teppo; Talha, Sheikh M; Myyryläinen, Tiina; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim


    Many quantitative and semiquantitative lateral flow (LF) assays have been introduced for clinical analytes such as biomarkers for cancer or acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Various detection technologies involving quantitative analyzing devices have been reported to have sufficient analytical sensitivity and quantification capability for clinical point-of-care tests. Fluorescence-based detection technologies such as quantum dots, Eu(III) nanoparticles, and photon-upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been introduced as promising solutions for point-of-care devices because of their high detectability by optical sensors. Lateral flow assays can be used for various sample types, e.g., urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood. This study focuses on the properties of serum and plasma because of their relevance in cancer and AMI diagnostics. The limit of detection was compared in LF assays having Eu(III) nanoparticles or UCNPs as reporters and the antibody configurations for two different analytes (prostate-specific antigen and cardiac troponin I (cTnI)). The results indicate a significant effect of anticoagulants in venipuncture tubes. The samples in K3EDTA tubes resulted in significant interference by decreased reporter particle mobility, and thus the limit of detection was up to eightfold less sensitive compared to serum samples. Despite the matrix interference in the cTnI assay with UCNP reporters, limits of detection of 41 ng/L with serum and 66 ng/L with the Li-heparin sample were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction Separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) with Thermo-sensitive Gel introducing TPEN Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenji Takeshita [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshio Nakano [Department of Environment Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Tatsuro Matsumura [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaragi, 319-1195 (Japan); Atsunori Mori [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe University Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)


    A thermal-swing chromatographic process using a thermo-sensitive gel co-polymerized with NIPA (N-isopropyl-acrylamide) and TPPEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(4-propenyl-oxy-2-pyridyl-methyl)ethylenediamine) was studied for the separation of Am(III) from Eu(III). First, the radiolysis of the TPPEN-NIPA gel was tested by the {gamma}-ray irradiation and the {alpha} nuclide adsorption. The extraction separation of Am(III) was not influenced in the radioactive environment of the proposed process. Next, the TPPEN-NIPA gel was immobilized in porous silica particles and the applicability of the gel-immobilized silica to the proposed process was tested. Am(III) was extracted selectively in the gel-immobilized silica at 5 deg. C and the separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) was evaluated to be 3.7. The distribution ratio of Am(III) was reduced to less than 1/20 by increasing temperature from 5 deg. C to 40 deg. C. These results indicate that the TPPEN-NIPA gel is applicable to the thermal-swing chromatographic process for the minor actinide recovery. (authors)

  20. Applications of the Judd-Ofelt theory in lanthanide-chelidamic acid complexation (United States)

    Choppin, Gergory R.; Fugate, Glenn A.

    The coordination chemistry of trivalent lanthanides with chelidamic acid was studied using fluorescence and absorption spectroscopic methods. The speciation was determined using Eu(III) fluorescence techniques. The stability constants and the oscillator strengths were determined for the Ho(III) complexes from absorbance measurements of a Ho(III) hypersensitive transition. The lanthanide coordination chemistry of chelidamic acid and dipicolinic acid is compared.

  1. Americium(iii) and europium(iii) complex formation with lactate at elevated temperatures studied by spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. (United States)

    Barkleit, Astrid; Kretzschmar, Jerome; Tsushima, Satoru; Acker, Margret


    Thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of Am(iii) and Eu(iii) with lactate were determined with UV-vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in a temperature range between 25 and 70 °C. The reaction enthalpy decreased with increasing ionic strength. ATR FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed structural details of the Eu(iii) lactate 1 : 1 complex: a chelating coordination mode of the lactate with a monodentate binding carboxylate group and the hydroxyl group being deprotonated.

  2. Highly Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes of 1 Hydroxy-2-pyridinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Jocher, Christoph J.; Castro-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Raymond, Kenneth N.


    The synthesis, X-ray structure, stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes formed from two differing bis-bidentate ligands incorporating either alkyl or alkyl ether linkages and featuring the 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelate group in complex with Eu(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) are reported. The Eu(III) complexes are among some of the best examples, pairing highly efficient emission ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Eu} {approx} 21.5%) with high stability (pEu {approx} 18.6) in aqueous solution, and are excellent candidates for use in biological assays. A comparison of the observed behavior of the complexes with differing backbone linkages shows remarkable similarities, both in stability and photophysical properties. Low temperature photophysical measurements for a Gd(III) complex were also used to gain insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree with corresponding TD-DFT calculations for a model complex. A comparison of the high resolution Eu(III) emission spectra in solution and from single crystals also revealed a more symmetric coordination geometry about the metal ion in solution due to dynamic rotation of the observed solid state structure.

  3. Efficient Removal of Ce(III and Eu(III Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Local Clay -A Radiotracer Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som Shankar Dubey


    Full Text Available Radiotracer technique has been used to study the removal behavior of Ce(III and Eu(III ions from aqueous solutions by local clay. Adsorptive concentration (10-4–10-6 mol dm-3, pH (ca 2.0-9.0 and temperature (303-333 K were examined for assessing optimal conditions for removal of these ions. The adsorption phenomenon was highly dependent on the amount of the adsorbent concentrations. The uptake of ions, which fitted well for Freundlich isotherm, increased with increase in the temperature and no significant desorption took place in the studied temperature range. The energy of adsorption process for the both cations indicates that the adsorption phenomenon is of chemisorption type. The rate kinetics of the adsorption followed the first order rate kinetics.

  4. Luminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) activator ions in La(OH){sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowire matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungwon; Jang, Sungeun [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun-Gill, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Youngku, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Eu(III) and Tb(III) activators were doped in La(OH){sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • La(OH){sub 3} nanowires were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} were obtained by a post-annealing method. • Photoluminescence imaging profiles were fully obtained and assigned. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} was unstable and changed to La(OH){sub 3}. - Abstract: Understanding the role of the host oxide material is very important for developing phosphor materials. Here, Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-doped La(OH){sub 3} nanowires were prepared by a facial hydrothermal method, and Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-doped La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures were obtained by a post-thermal treatment. Their physicochemical characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) counter mapping profiles were obtained to understand the photoluminescence mechanism. All the emission profiles were assigned based on the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 0–4) transitions of Eu(III) and the {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb(III) ions. The hygroscopic La{sub 2}O{sub 3} host is unstable under ambient conditions and changed slowly to more stable La(OH){sub 3}. PL decay lifetime was observed be longer for the annealed sample with lower doping concentration due to a higher crystallinity.

  5. Adsorption Behaviour of La(III) and Eu(III) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Hydroxyapatite: Kinetic, Isotherm, and Thermodynamic Studies


    Granados-Correa, F.; Vilchis-Granados, J.; Jiménez-Reyes, M.; Quiroz-Granados, L. A.


    The hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized, characterized, and used as an alternative low-cost adsorbent material to study the adsorption behavior of La(III) and Eu(III) ions from nitrate aqueous solutions as a function of contact time, initial metal ion concentration, pH, and temperature by using a bath technique. The kinetic data correspond very well to the pseudo-second-order equation, and in both cases the uptake was affected by intraparticle diffusion. Isotherm adsorption data were ...

  6. Sorption behaviour of nanocrystalline MOR type zeolite for Th(IV) and Eu(III) removal from aqueous waste by batch treatment. (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Tomar, Radha


    The nanocrystalline mordenite (MOR) type zeolite materials with initial chemical composition Na(2)O:Al(2)O(3):10SiO(2):48H(2)O have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. MOR1 and MOR2 are spherically shaped nanocrystals, whereas MOR3 and MOR4 have rod-like morphology. This paper reports the sorption characteristics of MOR analogues for Th(IV) and Eu(III) removal from aqueous nuclear waste. Sorption of Th(IV) and Eu(III) on MOR1, MOR2, MOR3 and MOR4 in a single component system with varying initial metal ion concentration, solution pH, contact times, sorbent dose and temperatures has also been investigated. Further, the Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models have been applied to describe equilibrium isotherms at different temperatures. The adsorption capacity increases largely with increasing solution pH and temperature of the system. Specific surface area and pore volume have been investigated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The N(2) adsorption isotherm presents a type IV isotherm with narrow hysteresis loop which indicates the presence of mesopores related to inter-particle voids. Thermodynamic results indicate that the sorption follows an endothermic physisorption process. It has been found that these exchangers have good sorption capacity and out of which MOR4 has highest sorption capacity. Thus, nanocrystalline MOR4 is proved to be good sorbent for both Th(IV) and Eu(III). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption Behaviour of La(III and Eu(III Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Hydroxyapatite: Kinetic, Isotherm, and Thermodynamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Granados-Correa


    Full Text Available The hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized, characterized, and used as an alternative low-cost adsorbent material to study the adsorption behavior of La(III and Eu(III ions from nitrate aqueous solutions as a function of contact time, initial metal ion concentration, pH, and temperature by using a bath technique. The kinetic data correspond very well to the pseudo-second-order equation, and in both cases the uptake was affected by intraparticle diffusion. Isotherm adsorption data were well fitted by the Freundlich model equation with 1/n>1, indicating a multilayer and cooperative-type adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption systems were determinated at 293, 303, 313, and 323 K. These parameters show that adsorptions of La(III and Eu(III ions on hydroxyapatite are endothermic and spontaneous processes. The adsorption was found to follow the order Eu(III > La(III and is dependent on ion concentration, pH, and temperature.

  8. Water-Soluble and Highly Luminescent Europium(III) Complexes with Favorable Photostability and Sensitive pH Response Behavior. (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Wei, Huibo; Yan, Weibo; Zhao, Zifeng; Cai, Zelun; Sun, Boxun; Meng, Zhaosha; Liu, Zhiwei; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui


    Two highly luminescent and water-soluble Eu(III) complexes, Eu1 and Eu2, based on novel carboxyl-functionalized 1,5-naphthyridine derivatives 8-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine-2-carboxylic acid (H2L1) and 7-cyano-8-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine-2-carboxylic acid (H2L2), respectively, are designed and synthesized. The crystal structure of Eu2 indicates that the central Eu(III) ion is nine-coordinated by three tridentate ligands (O^N^O). Both Eu1 and Eu2 show strong luminescence in aqueous solution with quantum yields (lifetimes) of 28% (1.1 ms) and 14% (0.76 ms), respectively. The chelates display unique UV-light stability in solution and remain highly emissive after 100 min of strong UV irradiation (∼300 W·m-2 at 345 nm). Moreover, they exhibit reversible luminescence intensity changes with varied pH values, and the response mechanism is investigated. "Turn-on" of the Eu(III) emission upon increasing pH is realized by ligand structure change from keto to enol anion form, resulting in red-shifted absorption band and suppressed quenching from solvents and N-H vibration upon deprotonating. The results show that these novel Eu(III) complexes are quite intriguing for potential application as bioimaging agents and pH probes.

  9. Synthesis of fatty trichloromethyl-{beta}-diketones and new 1H-Pyrazoles as unusual FAMEs and FAEEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Alex F.C.; Souto, Alynne A.; Malavolta, Juliana L.; Flores, Darlene C., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Blanco, Rogerio F. [Uniao de Ensino do Sudoeste do Parana (UNISEP), Dois Vizinhos, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia


    The efficient synthesis of new fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones [Cl{sub 3}CC(O)C(R{sup 2})=C(R{sup 1})OMe, where R{sup 1} = n-hexyl, heptyl, nonyl, undecyl, tridecyl and R{sup 2} = H] and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,4-alkanediones [Cl{sub 3}CC(O)CHR{sup 2}C(O)R{sup 1}, where R{sup 1} = n-pentyl and R{sup 2} = Me, R{sup 1} = Et and R{sup 2} = n-butyl, R{sup 1} = n-butyl and R{sup 2} = n-propyl] in good yields (85-95%) from acetal acylation with trichloroacetyl chloride is reported. The fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,4-alkanediones were reacted with hydrazine hydrochloride, leading to respective {sup 1}H-pyrazole-5-carboxylates, unusual class of fatty acid methyl (FAMEs) and ethyl (FAEEs) esters. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fatty 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones and {sup 1}H-pyrazole derivatives are new oleochemicals with potentially interesting and differential properties. (author)

  10. DNA interaction of europium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine and its antimicrobial activity. (United States)

    Jahani, Shohreh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam


    The interaction of native fish salmon DNA (FS-DNA) with [Eu(bpy)3Cl2(H2O)]Cl, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, is studied at physiological pH in Tris-HCl buffer by spectroscopic methods, viscometric techniques as well as circular dichroism (CD). These experiments reveal that Eu(III) complex has interaction with FS-DNA. Moreover, binding constant and binding site size have been determined. The value of Kb has been defined 2.46 ± .02 × 10(5) M(-1). The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by Van't Hoff equation, the results show that the interaction of the complex with FS-DNA is an entropically driven phenomenon. CD spectroscopy followed by viscosity as well as fluorescence and UV--Vis measurements indicate that the complex interacts with FS-DNA via groove binding mode. Also, the synthesized Eu(III) complex has been screened for antimicrobial activities.

  11. The specific sorption of Np(V) on the corundum (α-Al2O3) surface in the presence of trivalent lanthanides Eu(III) and Gd(III): A batch sorption and XAS study. (United States)

    Virtanen, S; Bok, F; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Rossberg, A; Lützenkirchen, J; Rabung, T; Lehto, J; Huittinen, N


    The sorption of pentavalent neptunium, Np(V), on corundum (α-Al2O3) was investigated in the absence and presence of trivalent europium or gadolinium as a competing element under CO2-free conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate how a trivalent metal ion with a higher charge than that of the neptunyl(V) ion would affect the sorption of Np(V) when allowed to adsorb on the mineral surface before the addition of Np(V). Batch sorption experiments conducted as a function of pH (pH-edges) and as a function of Np(V) concentration (isotherms) in the absence and presence of 1×10(-5)M Eu(III) showed no sign of Eu being able to block Np sorption sites. Surface complexation modelling using the diffuse double layer model was applied to the batch data to obtain surface complexation constants for the formed Np(V) complexes on corundum. To account for potential changes occurring in the coordination environment of the neptunium ion in the presence of a trivalent lanthanide, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were carried out on the samples containing only Np(V) and Np(V)+Gd(III). The results reveal the presence of a bidentate Np(V) edge-sharing complex on the corundum surface in the absence of Gd(III), while the coordination environment of Np(V) on the corundum surface could be changed when Gd(III) is added to the sample before the sorption of Np(V). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emission Properties, Solubility, Thermodynamic Analysis and NMR Studies of Rare-Earth Complexes with Two Different Phosphine Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Iwanaga


    Full Text Available The paper proposes novel molecular designs for rare-earth complexes involving the introduction of two different phosphine oxide structures into one rare-earth ion. These designs are effective for improving solubility and emission intensity. Additionally, the complexes are indispensable for realizing high performances in LEDs and security media. The thermodynamic properties of Eu(III complexes are correlated with the solubility. Correlations between coordination structures and emission intensity were explained by NMR analysis. The luminous flux of red LED devices with Eu(III complexes is very high (20 mA, 870 m lumen. A new white LED has its largest spectra intensity in the red region and a human look much more vividly under this light.

  13. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymer-rare earth complexes containing salicylaldehyde-type bidentate Schiff base ligand. (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Gao, Baojiao; Li, Yanbin


    Using molecular design and polymer reactions, two types of bidentate Schiff base ligands, salicylaldehyde-aniline (SAN) and salicylaldehyde-cyclohexylamine (SCA), were synchronously synthesized and bonded onto the side chain of polysulfone (PSF), giving two bidentate Schiff base ligand-functionalized PSFs, PSF-SAN and PSF-SCA, referred to as macromolecular ligands. Following coordination reactions between the macromolecular ligands and Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions (the reaction occurred between the bonded ligands SAN or SCA and the lanthanide ion), two series of luminescent polymer-rare earth complexes, PSF-SAN-Eu(III) and PSF-SCA-Tb(III), were obtained. The two macromolecular ligands were fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1 H NMR and UV absorption spectroscopy, and the prepared complexes were also characterized by FTIR, UV absorption spectroscopy and thermo-gravity analysis. On this basis, the photoluminescence properties of these complexes and the relationships between their structure and luminescence were investigated in depth. The results show that the bonded bidentate Schiff base ligands, SAN and SCA, can effectively sensitize the fluorescence emission of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions, respectively. PSF-SAN-Eu(III) series complexes, namely the binary complex PSF-(SAN)3 -Eu(III) and the ternary complex PSF-(SAN)3 -Eu(III)-(Phen)1 (Phen is the small-molecule ligand 1,10-phenanthroline), produce strong red luminescence, suggesting that the triplet state energy level of SAN is lower and well matched with the resonant energy level of the Eu(III) ion. By contrast, PSF-SAN-Eu(III) series complexes, namely the binary complex PSF-(SCA)3 -Tb(III) and the ternary complex PSF-(SCA)3 -Tb(III)-(Phen)1 , display strong green luminescence, suggesting that the triplet state energy level of SCA is higher and is well matched with the resonant energy level of Tb(III). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polymorphs of photoluminescent Eu(III)-(2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, oxalic acid) MOFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fa-Nian, E-mail:; Ananias, Duarte; Yang, Ting-Hai; Rocha, João, E-mail:


    A novel metal organic framework (MOF) formulated as [Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(fdc)(ox){sub 0.5}·(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1, fdc{sup 2−}=2,5-furandicarboxylate, ox{sup 2−}=oxalate), was hydrothermally synthesized via in situ ox{sup 2−} generation from the partial decomposition of the fdc{sup 2−} ligand. This material crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, unit cell parameters of 1: a=16.7570(10), b=10.5708(7), c=13.5348(14) Å, β=116.917(2)° (Z=8), and exhibits a three-dimensional (3D)-porous framework, with guest water molecules residing in the channel linking all other ligands (H{sub 2}O, ox{sup 2−}and fdc{sup 2−}) via hydrogen bonding interactions. Compound 2 is a polymorph of 1 crystallizing in monoclinic P21/c space group. The photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 were studied at room temperature. The spectra show the typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission and the differences observed reflects the slightly different structures of these polymorphs. - Graphical abstract: Exploring metal organic framework polymorphism in the system Eu(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(fdc)(ox){sub 0.5}·(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (fdc{sup 2−}=2,5-furandicarboxylate, ox{sup 2−}=oxalate) for tuning light emission. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of Eu(III)-(2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, oxalic acid) MOF polymorphs. • Detailed single-crystal study of polymorphs including hydrogen-bonding networks. • Photoluminescence spectroscopy show subtle differences light emission properties.

  15. Speciation of the trivalent f-elements Eu(III) and Cm(III) in digestive media. (United States)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid; Stumpf, Thorsten; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi


    In case radioactive materials are released into the environment, their incorporation into our digestive system would be a significant concern. Trivalent f-elements, i.e., trivalent actinides and lanthanides, could potentially represent a serious health risk due to their chemo- and radiotoxicity, nevertheless the biochemical behavior of these elements are mostly unknown even to date. This study, therefore, focuses on the chemical speciation of trivalent f-elements in the human gastrointestinal tract. To simulate the digestive system artificial digestive juices (saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice and bile fluid) were prepared. The chemical speciation of lanthanides (as Eu(III)) and actinides (as Cm(III)) was determined experimentally by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and the results were compared with thermodynamic modeling. The results indicate a dominant inorganic species with phosphate/carbonate in the mouth, while the aquo ion is predominantly formed with a minor contribution of the enzyme pepsin in the stomach. In the intestinal tract the most significant species are with the protein mucin. We demonstrated the first experimental results on the chemical speciation of trivalent f-elements in the digestive media by TRLFS. The results highlight a significant gap in chemical speciation between experiments and thermodynamic modeling due to the limited availability of thermodynamic stability constants particularly for organic species. Chemical speciation strongly influences the in vivo behavior of metal ions. Therefore, the results of this speciation study will help to enhance the assessment of health risks and to improve decorporation strategies after ingestion of these (radio-)toxic heavy metal ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Complexation and molecular modeling studies of europium(III)-gallic acid-amino acid complexes. (United States)

    Taha, Mohamed; Khan, Imran; Coutinho, João A P


    With many metal-based drugs extensively used today in the treatment of cancer, attention has focused on the development of new coordination compounds with antitumor activity with europium(III) complexes recently introduced as novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this work is to design new Eu(III) complexes with gallic acid, an antioxida'nt phenolic compound. Gallic acid was chosen because it shows anticancer activity without harming health cells. As antioxidant, it helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage that implicated in DNA damage, cancer, and accelerated cell aging. In this work, the formation of binary and ternary complexes of Eu(III) with gallic acid, primary ligand, and amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was studied by glass electrode potentiometry in aqueous solution containing 0.1M NaNO3 at (298.2 ± 0.1) K. Their overall stability constants were evaluated and the concentration distributions of the complex species in solution were calculated. The protonation constants of gallic acid and amino acids were also determined at our experimental conditions and compared with those predicted by using conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. The geometries of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes were characterized by the density functional theory (DFT). The spectroscopic UV-visible and photoluminescence measurements are carried out to confirm the formation of Eu(III)-gallic acid complexes in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The first hydrolysis constant of Eu(III) in 4 M ionic strength at 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica); Solache-Rios, M. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica)


    The first hydrolysis constant of Eu[sup 3+] has been determined at 303 K and 4 M (NaCl) ionic strength. A solvent extraction method was used, the extractant was dibenzoylmethane in benzene and diglycolate anion in the aqueous phase provided competitive complexation. The reaction and the value obtained for the constant were: Eu[sup 3+] + H[sub 2]O = Eu(OH)[sup 2+] + H[sup +], log [beta][sub 1,H] = -6.33 [+-] 0.09. (orig.)

  18. Uptake Of Trivalent Actinides (Cm(III)) And Lanthanides (Eu(III)) By Cement-Type Minerals: A Wet Chemistry And Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, J.; Stumpf, T; Wieland, E.; Fanghaenel, T


    The interaction of the two chemical homologues Cm (III) and Eu(III) with calcium silicate hydrates at pH 13.3 has been investigated in batch-type sorption studies using Eu(III), and complemented with time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy using Cm(III). The sorption data for Eu(III) reveal fast sorption kinetics, and a strong uptake by CSH phases, with distribution ratios of 6({+-}3)*105 L kg-1. Three different types of sorbed Cm(III) species have been identified: a non-fluorescing species, which was identified as Cm cluster present either as surface precipitate or as Cm(III) colloid in solution, and two sorbed fluorescing species. The sorbed fluorescing species have characteristic emission spectra (main peak maxima at 618.9 nm and 620.9 nm) and fluorescence emission lifetimes (289 {+-} 11 ms and 1482{+-} 200 ms). From the fluorescence lifetimes, it appears that the two fluorescing Cm(III) species have, respectively, one to two or no water molecules left in their first coordination sphere, suggesting that these species are incorporated into the CSH structure. A structural model for Cm(III) and Eu(III) incorporation into CSH phases is proposed based on the substitution of Ca at two different types of sites in the CSH structure. (author)

  19. New transparent flexible nanopaper as ultraviolet filter based on red emissive Eu(III) nanofibrillated cellulose (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Chang, Hui; Xue, Bailiang; Han, Qing; Lü, Xingqiang; Zhang, Sufeng; Li, Xinping; Zhu, Xunjin; Wong, Wai-kwok; Li, Kecheng


    A new kind of highly red emissive and transparent nanopapers as ultraviolet filter are produced from lanthanide complex Eu(TTA)3(H2O)2 grafted nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) by a filtration process using a Buchner funnel. The nanopapers Eu-NFC 1-4 with different thickness (0.023 mm, 1; 0.04 mm, 2; 0.081 mm, 3 and 0.1 mm, 4) possess a fibres with dimensions of approximately 50 nm in diameter and several micrometres in length. Those nanopapers exhibit excellent ultraviolet A (UVA; 320-400 nm) filter property and high optical transmittance (>73% at wavelength of 600 nm). The presence of Eu(TTA)3(H2O)2 in Eu-NFC nanopapers can block 97% UVA (at 348 nm) light and convert it into pure red emission (CIE: x = 0.663, y = 0.333) through the efficient triplet-triplet energy transfer process. The efficient red emission can significantly improve the photo-stability of β-diketones type UVA filter. It can sustain for 10 h without decomposition under UV irradiation at 365 nm, which makes it possible to be applied in UVA filters. Moreover, its low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE: 6.39 ppm K-1 of nanocellulose), is superior to petroleum-based materials for red organic light-emitting devices.

  20. Complexes of light lanthanides with 2,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The complexes of light lanthanides with 2,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid of the formula: Ln(C9H9O43·nH2O where Ln = La(III, Ce(III, Pr(III, Nd(III, Sm(III, Eu(III, Gd(IIII, and n = 3 for La(III, Gd(III, n = 2 for Sm(III, Eu(III, and n = 0 for Ce(III, Pr(III, Nd(III have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric studies and X-ray diffraction measurements. The complexes have colours typical for Ln3+ ions (La, Ce, Eu, Gd-white, Sm-cream, Pr-green, Nd-violet. The carboxylate group in these complexes is a symmetrical, bidentate, chelating ligand. They are crystalline compounds characterized by various symmetry. On heating in air to 1273 K the 2,4-dimethoxybenzoates of the light lanthanides decompose in various ways. The hydrated complexes decompose in two or three steps while those of anhydrous ones only in one or two. The trihydrate of lanthanum 2,4-dimethoxybenzoate first dehydrates to form the anhydrous salt, which then decomposes to La2O3via the intermediate formation of La2O2CO3. The hydrates of Sm(III, Eu(III, Gd(III decompose in two stages. First, they dehydrate forming the anhydrous salts, which then decompose directly to the oxides of the respective metals. The anhydrous complexes of Ce(III, Pr(III decompose in one step, while that of Nd(III in two. The solubilities of the 2,4-dimethoxybenzoates of the light lanthanides in water and ethanol at 293 K are in the order of: 10-3 mol dm-3 and 10-4-10-3 mol dm-3, respectively.

  1. Characterization of the lanthanum(III) and europium(III) trichloroacetate complexes extracted with 18-crown-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, H.; Saito, Y.; Ohashi, K. [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan); Meguro, Y.; Yoshida, Z. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai (Japan); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    Extraction of lanthanide(III) ions with 18-crown-6 (18C6) and trichloroacetate (tca) has been studied. The composition, hydration, and structure of the La(III) and Eu(III) complexes extracted into 1,2-dichloroethane were investigated by using several methods such as the liquid-liquid distribution technique, conductimetry, Karl Fisher titration, laser luminescence spectroscopy, and {sup 1}H NMR. The La(III) complex was found to be a monohydrate, La(tca){sub 3}(18C6)(H{sub 2}O), while that of Eu(III) was a mixture of a monohydrate and a dihydrate, i.e., Eu(tca){sub 3}(18C6)(H{sub 2}O) and Eu(tca){sub 3}(18C6)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}. The origin of the selectivity by 18C6 which gives much higher extractability of La(III) than of Eu(III) is explained by considering the hydration and probable structure of their complexes. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit


    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  3. Europium(III) complexes of polyfunctional carboxylic acids: Luminescence probes of possible binding sites in fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H.; Chung, K.H.; Shin, H.S.; Moon, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Park, Y.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The {sup 7}F{sub 0} {r_arrow} {sup 5}D{sub 0} excitation spectra of Eu(III) complexed with polyfunctional dicarboxylic acid containing neutral O, N, and S donors were investigated using Eu(III) luminescence spectroscopy. Three distinct peaks are seen in the excitation spectra in the Eu(III)-diglycolic acid (ODA) and Eu(III)-iminodiacetic acid (IMDA) systems showing the formation of three species, where each tridentate ODA {sup 2{minus}} and IMDA{sup 2{minus}} displace approximately three coordinated water molecules; however, the central S donor of Eu(III)-thiodiglycolate and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate are shown to be poor chelators for free Eu{sup 3+} ions. The neutral O and N donors in combination with neighboring carboxylates may form strong metal chelation sites on fulvic acid.

  4. Highly luminescent charge-neutral europium(iii) and terbium(iii) complexes with tridentate nitrogen ligands. (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, Kuppusamy; Schäfer, Bernhard; Lebedkin, Sergei; Karmazin, Lydia; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario


    We report on the synthesis of tridentate-nitrogen pyrazole-pyridine-tetrazole (L(1)H) and pyrazole-pyridine-triazole (L(2)H) ligands and their complexation with lanthanides (Ln = Gd(iii), Eu(iii) and Tb(iii)) resulting in stable, charge-neutral complexes Ln(L(1))3 and Ln(L(2))3, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complexes with L(1) ligands revealed tricapped trigonal coordination geometry around the lanthanide ions. All complexes show bright photoluminescence (PL) in the solid state, indicating efficient sensitization of the lanthanide emission via the triplet states of the ligands. In particular, the terbium complexes show high PL quantum yields of 65 and 59% for L(1) and L(2), respectively. Lower PL efficiencies of the europium complexes (7.5 and 9%, respectively) are attributed to large energy gaps between the triplet states of the ligands and accepting levels of Eu(iii). The triplet state energy can be reduced by introducing an electron withdrawing (EW) group at the 4 position of the pyridine ring. Such substitution of L(1)H with a carboxylic ester (COOMe) EW group leads to a europium complex with increased PL quantum yield of 31%. A comparatively efficient PL of the complexes dissolved in ethanol indicates that the lanthanide ions are shielded against nonradiative deactivation via solvent molecules.

  5. Synthesis and Structural Investigation of New Bio-Relevant Complexes of Lanthanides with 5-Hydroxyflavone: DNA Binding and Protein Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Munteanu


    Full Text Available In the present work, we attempted to develop new metal coordination complexes of the natural flavonoid 5-hydroxyflavone with Sm(III, Eu(III, Gd(III, Tb(III. The resultant hydroxo complexes have been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and mass spectral studies. The general chemical formula of the complexes is [Ln(C15H9O33(OH2(H2Ox]·nH2O, where Ln is the lanthanide cation and x = 0 for Sm(III, x = 1 for Eu(III, Gd(III, Tb(III and n = 0 for Sm(III, Gd(III, Tb(III, n = 1 for Eu(III, respectively. The proposed structures of the complexes were optimized by DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations and experimental determinations sustain the proposed structures of the hydroxo complexes, with two molecules of 5-hydroxyflavone acting as monoanionic bidentate chelate ligands. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been explored by fluorescence titration and UV-Vis absorption binding studies, and revealed that the synthesized complexes interact with DNA with binding constants (Kb ~ 104. Human serum albumin (HSA and transferrin (Tf binding studies have also been performed by fluorescence titration techniques (fluorescence quenching studies, synchronous fluorescence spectra. The apparent association constants (Ka and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from the fluorescence quenching experiment at 299 K, 308 K, and 318 K. The quenching curves indicate that the complexes bind to HSA with smaller affinity than the ligand, but to Tf with higher binding affinities than the ligand.

  6. Brilliant Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy chiral lanthanide complexes withstrong circularly polarized luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoud, Stephane; Muller, Gilles; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Sokolnicki, Jurek; Riehl, James P.; Le, Uyen; Cohen, Seth M.; Raymond,Kenneth N.


    The synthesis, characterization and luminescent behavior of trivalent Sm, Eu, Dy and Tb complexes of two enantiomeric, octadentate, chiral, 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands are reported. These complexes are highly luminescent in solution. Functionalization of the achiral parent ligand with a chiral 1-phenylethylamine substituent on the open face of the complex in close proximity to the metal center yields complexes with strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. This appears to be the first example of a system utilizing the same ligand architecture to sensitize four different lanthanide cations and display CPL activity. The luminescence dissymmetry factor, g{sub lum}, recorded for the Eu(III) complex is one of the highest values reported, and this is the first time the CPL effect has been demonstrated for a Sm(III) complex with a chiral ligand. The combination of high luminescence intensity with CPL activity should enable new bioanalytical applications of macromolecules in chiral environments.

  7. Large Stokes shift downshifting Eu(III) films as efficiency enhancing UV blocking layers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, M.; Ahmed, H.; Doran, J.; Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Laboratory, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Bosch-Jimenez, P.; Della Pirriera, M.; Torralba-Calleja, E.; Gutierrez Tauste, D.; Aubouy, L. [Leitat Technological Center, Terrassa (Spain); Daren, S.; Solomon-Tsvetkov, F. [Daren Laboratories, Ness-Ziona (Israel); Galindo, S.; Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J. [Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)


    Large Stokes shift downshifting organolanthanide complex, Eu(tta){sub 3}phen, is examined for inclusion in polymeric layers to replace the UV blocking layer in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology. The UV blocking layer increases stability but power conversion efficiency decreases as incident UV photons are not converted into photocurrent. Eu(tta){sub 3}phen doped polymeric film are prepared and attached to DSSC devices following optimized thickness and concentration from a ray-trace numerical model for the specific DSSC. External quantum efficiency is significantly increased in the UV spectral region compared to DSSCs utilizing a passive, non-luminescent, UV-BL. High Eu(tta){sub 3}phen film transparency in the visible range minimizes DSSC EQE losses at visible wavelengths. Short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) enhancement due to downshifting is demonstrated (∝1%) in small-scale DSSC prototypes, where the specific geometry limits the photon collection efficiency and overall enhancement. Model predictions indicate that 2%-3% Isc enhancement is realizable in flexible single DSSC compared to, non-luminescent, UV-BL. Added to this, in outdoor conditions taking into account diffuse light, the increment in I{sub sc} can increase 50% more. Although photostability of the blended LSS-DS polymer films is not sufficient to be useful for medium-long term outdoor PV applications, the results demonstrate that significant efficiency enhancement can be realized. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Synthesis, structure and luminescence property of 2D lanthanide complexes with 3-fluorophthalate and oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yu-E [Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Xia, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Song, Shuang [Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)


    Complexes [Ln{sub 2}(fpht){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (Ln=Sm 1, Eu 2, Tb 3 and Dy 4; fpht=3-fluorophthalate and ox=oxalate) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The four complexes possess similar 2D framework structures constructed from Ln-fpht double-stranded helices and ox linkages. Complexes 2 and 3 display the characteristic emission {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=0-4) transitions of Eu(III) ion and {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=6-3) transitions of Tb(III) ion, respectively. The emission decay curves reveal a monoexponential behavior yielding the lifetime values of 0.266{+-}0.002 ms for 2 and 0.733{+-}0.002 ms for 3. The emission spectrum of 1 shows three weak bands corresponding to the characteristic emission {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 9/2} transitions of Sm(III) ion. The emission spectrum of 4 displays a broad band centered at 438 nm, which comes from the {pi}{sup Low-Asterisk }-{pi} transition of the ligand. - Graphical abstract: Complexes [Ln{sub 2}(fpht){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (fpht=3-fluorophthalate, ox=oxalate) possess 2D structures. Sm(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes show the characteristic fluorescent emission of the Ln(III). Dy(III) complex displays ligand-based luminescent behavior. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ln{sub 2}(fpht){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (fpht=3-fluorophthalate; ox=oxalate) show 2D structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2D structures are constructed from Ln-fpht double-stranded helices and ox linkage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Sm(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes show the characteristic emission of the Ln(III) ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dy(III) complex displays ligand-based luminescent behavior.

  9. Complexation of Lanthanides with Nitrate at Variable Temperatures: Thermodynamics and Coordination Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin


    Complexation of neodymium(III) with nitrate was studied at variable temperatures (25, 40, 55 and 70 C) by spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry. The NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} complex is weak and becomes slightly stronger as the temperature is increased. The enthalpy of complexation at 25 C was determined by microcalorimetry to be small and positive, (1.5 {+-} 0.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, in good agreement with the trend of the stability constant at variable temperatures. Luminescence emission spectra and lifetime of Eu(III) in nitrate solutions suggest that inner-sphere and bidentate complexes form between trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) and nitrate in aqueous solutions. Specific Ion Interaction approach (SIT) was used to obtain the stability constants of NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} at infinite dilution and variable temperatures.

  10. [Luminescent cytochemical methods of detecting microorganisms]. (United States)

    Ivanovskaia, N P; Osin, N S; Khramov, E N; Zlobin, V N


    The paper shows that the luminescence cytochemical technique can be used for identification of microorganisms and microbiological synthesis products. The method is based on the interaction of specific fluorescence probes (ANS, terbium ions, and beta-diketonate complexes of europium, as well as metal-containing porphyrines) with major microbial intracellular components and toxins. Unlike classical microbiological, immunochemical or biochemical methods of detection, the proposed method has a reasonable versatility, specificity, sensitivity, rapid action, and possible automation.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide complexes with a novel multipodal ligand. (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-Zhong; Hou, Na; Wang, Cong-Min


    Solid complexes of lanthanide nitrates with an novel multipodal ligand, 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-bis{N,N-bis[((2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl)ethyl]-aminomethyl}-benzene (L) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and molar conductivity measurements. At the same time, the luminescent properties of the Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) nitrate complexes in solid state were investigated. Under the excitation of UV light, these complexes exhibited characteristic emission of central metal ions. The lowest triplet state energy level of the ligand indicates that the triplet state energy level (T1) of the ligand matches better the resonance level of Tb(III) than other lanthanide ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemiluminescence Study of Europium (III Complex with Coumarin3-Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lis


    Full Text Available The europium (III complex of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (C3CA has been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, and emission (photoluminescence and electrochemiluminescence spectroscopy. The synthesised complex having a formula Eu(C3CA2(NO3(H2O2 was photophysically characterized in solution and in the solid state. Electrochemiluminescence, ECL, of the system containing the Eu(III/C3CA complex was studied using an oxide-covered aluminium electrode. The goal of these studies was to show the possibility of the use of electrochemical excitation of the Eu(III ion in aqueous solution for emission generation. The generated ECL emission was very weak, and therefore its measurements and spectral analysis were carried out with the use of cut-off filters method. The studies proved a predominate role of the ligand-to-metal energy transfer (LMET in the generated ECL.

  13. Tri- and tetra-substituted cyclen based lanthanide(III) ion complexes as ribonuclease mimics: a study into the effect of log Ka, hydration and hydrophobicity on phosphodiester hydrolysis of the RNA-model 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNP). (United States)

    Fanning, Ann-Marie; Plush, Sally E; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur


    A series of tetra-substituted 'pseudo' dipeptide ligands of cyclen (1,4,7,10,-tetraazacyclododecane) and a tri-substituted 3'-pyridine ligand of cyclen, and the corresponding lanthanide(III) complexes were synthesised and characterised as metallo-ribonuclease mimics. All complexes were shown to promote hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNP, τ1/2 = 5.87 × 10(3) h), a well known RNA mimic. The La(III) and Eu(III) tri-substituted 3'-pyridine lanthanide(III) complexes being the most efficient in promoting such hydrolysis at pH 7.4 and at 37 °C; with τ1/2 = 1.67 h for La(III) and 1.74 h for Eu(III). The series was developed to provide the opportunity to investigate the consequences of altering the lanthanide(III) ion, coordination ability and hydrophobicity of a metallo-cavity on the rate of hydrolysis using the model phosphodiester, HPNP, at 37 °C. To further provide information on the role that the log Ka of the metal bound water plays in phosphodiester hydrolysis the protonation constants and the metal ion stability constants of both a tri and tetra-substituted 3'pyridine complex were determined. Our results highlighted several key features for the design of lanthanide(III) ribonucelase mimics; the presence of two metal bound water molecules are vital for pH dependent rate constants for Eu(III) complexes, optimal pH activity approximating physiological pH (∼7.4) may be achieved if the log Ka values for both MLOH and ML(OH)2 species occur in this region, small changes to hydrophobicity within the metallo cavity influence the rate of hydrolysis greatly and an amide adjacent to the metal ion capable of forming hydrogen bonds with the substrate is required for achieving fast hydrolysis.

  14. Actinides sorption onto hematite. Experimental data, surface complexation modeling and linear free energy relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, Anna Y.; Kalmykov, Stephan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry


    The sorption of actinides in different valence states - Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V) and U(VI) onto hematite have been revisited with the special emphasis on the equilibrium constants of formation of surface species. The experimental sorption data have been treated using surface complexation modeling from which the set of new values of equilibrium constants were obtained. Formation of inner sphere monodentate surface species adequately describes the pH-sorption edges for actinide ions indicative the ionic electrostatic nature of bonding with small or no covalency contribution. The linear free energy relationship representing the correlation between the hydrolysis constants and surface complexation constants has been developed for various cations including K(I), Li(I), Na(I), Ag(I), Tl(I), Sr(II), Cu(II), Co(II), La(III), Eu(III), Ga(III), Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), U(VI). (orig.)

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence of lanthanide complexes sensitized with dpphen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hongzhen [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Research Institute of Industrial Catalysis, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Lu, Guanzhong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Research Institute of Industrial Catalysis, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)


    Three new lanthanide complexes [Ln(dpphen)(L)(NO{sub 3})] (Ln=Tb(1), Eu(2), Nd(3), H{sub 2}L=glutaric acid, dpphen=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of H{sub 2}L, dpphen and Ln(III) ions. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that three coordination polymers have similar structures. The Ln(III) ions are nine coordinated and glutarate ligands bridge Ln(III) to form 1D polymer chains. The solid-state luminescence of complexes 1 and 2 was investigated at room temperature. The complexes 1 and 2 exhibited strong green and red luminescence under ultraviolet light. The {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub j} (j=6, 5, 4 and 3) transition emissions of Tb(III) and the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub j} (j=0–4) transition emissions of Eu(III) were observed in their emission spectra. The strong luminescence of complexes 1 and 2 demonstrates that luminescence of lanthanide coordination polymers is sensitized by an effective energy-transfer from dpphen ligand to Ln(III) ions. Moreover, the magnetic properties of complexes 1–3 were also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Three new coordination polymers, [Ln(dpphen)(L)(NO{sub 3})] (Ln=Tb(1), Eu(2), Nd(3), H{sub 2}L=glutaric acid) were synthesized hydrothermally. Ln(III) ions are nine coordinated and the glutarate ligands bridge the Ln(III) to from 1D polymer chains. The complexes Tb(III) and Eu(III) exhibit strong green and red luminescence respectively. Highlights: • Tb{sup 3+}- and Eu{sup 3+}-dpphen complexes exhibit strong green and red light respectively. • Luminescence of ligand is suppressed in complexes due to efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer. • Three 1D chain-like new coordination polymers were synthesized hydrothermally. • Three lanthanide coordination polymers exhibit good thermal stability.

  16. Complexation of Actinide(III) and Lanthanide(III) with H4TPAEN for a Separation of Americium from Curium and Lanthanides. (United States)

    Boubals, Nathalie; Wagner, Christoph; Dumas, Thomas; Chanèac, Léa; Manie, Gabriel; Kaufholz, Peter; Marie, Cécile; Panak, Petra J; Modolo, Giuseppe; Geist, Andreas; Guilbaud, Philippe


    Previous studies have identified the TPAEN ligand as a potentially appropriate complexing agent in solvent extraction processes for the separation of americium (Am(III)) from the fission products including lanthanide (Ln(III)) and curium (Cm(III)) ions, a challenging issue for advanced nuclear fuel recycling. To get insight into the selectivity of this ligand, the complexation of selected trivalent Ln(III) and actinide (An(III)) cations with TPAEN was investigated in solution. First, the structure and stoichiometry of the TPAEN complex with Am(III) were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Then complexation constants and thermodynamics data were acquired for the complexes using different methods: microcalorimetry for the Ln(III) cations, time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) for Eu(III) and Cm(III), and UV-visible spectroscopy for Nd(III) and Am(III).

  17. Self-assembly of a helical zinc-europium complex: speciation in aqueous solution and luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eDeiters


    Full Text Available Two new tridentate(NNO-bidentate(NN compartmental ligands, HL5 and HL6, are synthesized from pyridine and benzimidazole synthons. They react in aqueous solution under physiological conditions with ZnII, LnIII, or a mixture thereof, to yield complexes of different stoichiometries, 1:3, 2:2, 2:3, 1:1:3, the speciation of which is established by UV-visible titrations and ESI mass spectrometry. Photophysical studies of the EuIII-containing solutions in Tris-HCl 0.1 M (pH = 7.4 show that lanthanide luminescence arises from a unique N6O3 coordination site with pseudo D3 symmetry. Relevant parameters such as crystal field splitting, lifetime, radiative lifetime and intrinsic quantum yield perfectly match those reported for dinuclear 4f-4f helicates in which the EuIII ion has the same coordination environment.

  18. Modified diglycol-amides for actinide separation: solvent extraction and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy complexation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilden, A.; Modolo, G.; Lange, S.; Sadowski, F.; Bosbach, D. [Foschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEK-6, Juelich (Germany); Beele, B.B.; Panak, P.J. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisch Chemisces Institut - PCI, Heidelberg (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie - INE, Karlsruhe (Germany); Skerencak-Frech, A.; Geist, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie - INE, Karlsruhe (Germany); Iqbal, M. [University of Twente, Laboratory of Molecular Nanofabrication, Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Verboom, W. [University of Twente, Laboratory of Molecular Nanofabrication, Enschede (Netherlands)


    In this work, the back-bone of the diglycolamide-structure of the TODGA extractant was modified by adding one or two methyl groups to the central methylene carbon-atoms. The influence of these structural modifications on the extraction behavior of trivalent actinides and lanthanides and other fission products was studied in solvent extraction experiments. The addition of methyl groups to the central methylene carbon atoms leads to reduced distribution ratios, also for Sr(II). This reduced extraction efficiency for Sr(II) is beneficial for process applications, as the co-extraction of Sr(II) can be avoided, resulting in an easier process design. The use of these modified diglycol-amides in solvent extraction processes is discussed. Furthermore, the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) to the ligands was studied using Time-Resolved-Laser-Fluorescence-Spectroscopy (TRLFS). The complexes were characterized by slope analysis and conditional stability constants were determined.

  19. Surface chemistry of a Cu(I) beta-diketonate precursor and the atomic layer deposition of Cu{sub 2}O on SiO{sub 2} studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Dileep, E-mail: [Center for Microtechnologies – ZfM, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E.; Gessner, Thomas [Center for Microtechnologies – ZfM, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz, Germany and Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems - ENAS, Technologie-Campus 3, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Lang, Heinrich; Mothes, Robert; Tuchscherer, André [Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)


    The surface chemistry of the bis(tri-n-butylphosphane) copper(I) acetylacetonate, [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)] and the thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Cu{sub 2}O using this Cu precursor as reactant and wet oxygen as coreactant on SiO{sub 2} substrates are studied by in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Cu precursor was evaporated and exposed to the substrates kept at temperatures between 22 °C and 300 °C. The measured phosphorus and carbon concentration on the substrates indicated that most of the [{sup n}Bu{sub 3}P] ligands were released either in the gas phase or during adsorption. No disproportionation was observed for the Cu precursor in the temperature range between 22 °C and 145 °C. However, disproportionation of the Cu precursor was observed at 200 °C, since C/Cu concentration ratio decreased and substantial amounts of metallic Cu were present on the substrate. The amount of metallic Cu increased, when the substrate was kept at 300 °C, indicating stronger disproportionation of the Cu precursor. Hence, the upper limit for the ALD of Cu{sub 2}O from this precursor lies in the temperature range between 145 °C and 200 °C, as the precursor must not alter its chemical and physical state after chemisorption on the substrate. Five hundred ALD cycles with the probed Cu precursor and wet O{sub 2} as coreactant were carried out on SiO{sub 2} at 145 °C. After ALD, in-situ XPS analysis confirmed the presence of Cu{sub 2}O on the substrate. Ex-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry indicated an average film thickness of 2.5 nm of Cu{sub 2}O deposited with a growth per cycle of 0.05 Å/cycle. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations depicted a homogeneous, fine, and granular morphology of the Cu{sub 2}O ALD film on SiO{sub 2}. AFM investigations suggest that the deposited Cu{sub 2}O film is continuous on the SiO{sub 2} substrate.

  20. Determination of the Tautomeric Equilibria of Pyridoyl Benzoyl <beta>-Diketones in the Liquid and Solid State through the use of Deuterium Isotope Effects on 1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shifts and Spin Coupling Constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Borisov, Eugeny V.; Lindon, John C.


    , in the solution state the 2-bond and 3-bond J(1H–13C) coupling constants have been used to confirm the equilibrium positions. The isotope effects due to deuteriation at the OH position are shown to be superior to chemical shift in determination of equilibrium positions of these almost symmetrical -pyridoyl......-benzoyl methanes. The assignments of the NMR spectra are supported by calculations of the chemical shifts at the DFT level. The equilibrium positions are shown to be different in the liquid and the solid state. In the liquid state the 4-pyridoyl derivative is at the B-form (C-1 is OH), whereas the 2-and 3-pyridoyl...

  1. Specific chiral sensing of amino acids using induced circularly polarized luminescence of bis(diimine)dicarboxylic acid europium(III) complexes. (United States)

    Okutani, Kazuhiro; Nozaki, Koichi; Iwamura, Munetaka


    The circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) from [Eu(pda)2](-) (pda = 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) and [Eu(bda)2](-) (bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) in aqueous solutions containing various amino acids was investigated. The europium(III) complexes exhibited bright-red luminescence assignable to the f-f transition of the Eu(III) ion when irradiated with UV light. Although the luminescence was not circularly polarized in the solid state or in aqueous solutions, in accordance with the achiral crystal structure, the complexes exhibited detectable induced CPL (iCPL) in aqueous solutions containing chiral amino acids. In the presence of L-pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, both [Eu(pda)2](-) and [Eu(bda)2](-) showed similar iCPL intensity (glum ∼ 0.03 for the (5)D0 → (7)F1 transition at 1 mol·dm(-3) of the amino acid). On the other hand, in the presence of L-histidine or L-arginine, [Eu(pda)2](-) exhibited intense CPL (glum ∼ 0.08 for the (5)D0 → (7)F1 transition at 0.10 mol·dm(-3) of the amino acid), whereas quite weak CPL was observed for [Eu(bda)2](-) under the same conditions (glum europium(III) complexes possess coordination structures similar to that in the crystal with slight distortion to form a chiral structure due to specific interaction with two zwitterionic amino acids. This mechanism was in stark contrast to that of the europium(III) complex-pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid system in which one amino acid coordinates to the Eu(III) ion to yield an achiral coordination structure.

  2. Structural, optical and electrical properties of europium picrate tetraethylene glycol complex as emissive material for OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusrini, Eny, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Saleh, Muhammad I.; Adnan, Rohana [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Yulizar, Yoki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Sha Shiong, Ng; Fun, H.K. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Adhha Abdullah, M.A.; Mamat, Mazidah [Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu Darul Iman (Malaysia); Za' aba, N.K.; Abd. Majid, W.H. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    A new europium complex [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75H{sub 2}O was synthesized and used as the emission material for the single layer device structure of ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al, using a spin-coating technique. Study on the optical properties of the [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75H{sub 2}O complex where EO4=tetraethylene glycol and Pic=picrate anion, had to be undertaken before being applicable to the study of an organic light emitting diode (OLED). The electrical property of an OLED using current-voltage (I-V) measurement was also studied. In complex, the Eu(III) ion was coordinated with the EO4 ligand as a pentadentate mode, one water molecule, and with two Pic anions as bidentate and monodentate modes, forming a nine-coordination number. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the crystalline complex in the solid state and its thin film showed a hypersensitive peak at 613.5-614.9 nm that assigned to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. A narrow band emission from the thin film EO4-Eu-Pic was obtained. The typical semiconductor I-V curve of device ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al showed the threshold and turn on voltages at 1.08 and 4.6 V, respectively. The energy transfer process from the ligand to the Eu(III) ion was discussed by investigating the excitation and PL characteristics. Effect of the picrate anion on the device performance was also studied. - Highlights: > The [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75(H{sub 2}O) is crystallized in triclinic with space group P-1. > The complex is applied as a emissive center in single layer device structure of ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al. > The complex displays a red luminescence in both the crystalline complex and its thin film state. > The low turn on voltage of the device (4.6 V), indicating that this material is suitable for OLED. > The roughness and morphology of the thin film affects luminance and electrical properties of OLED.

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization and luminescent properties of a novel europium ternary complex Eu(2-A-4-CBA){sub 3}phen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongjie, E-mail:; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Zhenfang; Cao, Shuang; Geng, Xiujuan; Yang, Ying; Xiao, Linjiu


    The preparation of a novel europium ternary complex with the formula of Eu(2-A-4-CBA){sub 3}phen (where, 2-A-4-CBA = 2-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) under solvothermal condition is described. The composition and structure of the resulting complex were investigated by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The complex is polycrystalline, and the morphology is clean and regular as revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The luminescent and thermal properties of the complex were researched by fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Of importance here is that, the room-temperature luminescence spectra of the complex show strong characteristic emission of the corresponding Eu{sup 3+}, which is attributed to the energy transfer from ligands to Eu{sup 3+} via an Antenna effect. It is also found that the complex exhibits pure red light and high color purity. In addition, the complex does not decompose until 300 °C, so it exhibits good thermal stability. - Highlights: • A novel Eu(III) complex was synthesized by solvothermal synthesis method. • The structure and properties of complex were studied. • The complex can emits pure red light and has a high color purity. • The complex does not decompose until 300 °C and it has a good thermal stability.

  4. Influence of diluent alkyl substitution on the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) by a 6,6'-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligand dissolved in alkylated cyclohexanone diluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Distler, P.; Spendlikova, I. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; John, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Centre for Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry; Harwood, L.M.; Hudson, M.J.; Lewis, F.W. [Reading Univ., Berkshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry


    Several alkylated cyclohexanones were investigated as potential diluents for the selective extraction of Am(III) from Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions by the CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP ligand. No significant extraction of either of the metal ions was observed for these diluents themselves. In the extractions from 1 M HNO{sub 3}, 3-methylcyclohexanone and 4-methylcyclohexanone gave comparable results to cyclohexanone whereas in the extractions from 4 M HNO{sub 3}, 2-methylcyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone and 4-methylcyclohexanone all gave superior results. For the monomethylated diluents, D{sub Am} and SF{sub Am/Eu} decreased in the order of alkyl substitution 2 > 4 {proportional_to} 3. However, alkyl substitution of cyclohexanone significantly slows down the extraction kinetics compared to cyclohexanone, and the position of alkyl substitution was found to play an important role in the solvents properties. 3-Methylcyclohexanone was identified as the most promising of the diluents. (orig.)

  5. Redox electrochemistry of europium fluoride complexes in an equimolar NaCl-KCl melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, S.A., E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Kola Science Centre RAS, 26 Akademgorodok., 184209 Apatity, Murmansk region (Russian Federation); Gaune-Escard, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Mecanique Energetique, Technopole de Chateau Gombert, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)


    The electrochemical behavior of europium fluoride complexes was studied by different electrochemical methods at a glassy carbon electrode in the temperature range 973-1100 K in the NaCl-KCl melt. The diffusion coefficients of Eu(III) and Eu(II) were determined by linear sweep voltammetry. The standard rate constants of charge transfer for the Eu(III)/Eu(II) redox couple were found on the base cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry data. The formal standard redox potentials E{sub Eu(III)/Eu(II)}{sup *} were obtained by linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior of europium fluoride and europium chloride complexes in NaCl-KCl melt was compared and discussed in connection with the strength and stability of these complexes. It was shown that the formation of stronger fluoride complexes reduced values of diffusion coefficients, standard rate constants for charge transfer of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) redox couple and shifted the formal standard redox potentials to the more electronegative values.

  6. Europium (III) and Uranium (VI) complexation by natural organic matter (NOM): Effect of source. (United States)

    Kautenburger, Ralf; Sander, Jonas M; Hein, Christina


    For the safe long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), detailed information about geo-chemical behavior of radioactive and toxic metal ions under environmental conditions is important. Natural organic matter (NOM) can play a crucial role in the immobilization or mobilization of these metal ions due to its complexation and colloid formation tendency. In this study, the complexation of europium (as chemical homologue of trivalent actinides such as americium) and uranium (as main component of HLW) by ten humic acids (HA) from different sources and Suwannee NOM river extract has been analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been used for the evaluation of complex stability constants log β. In order to determine the complex stability constants a conservative single site model was used in this study. In dependence of their source and thus of NOM structure the log β values for the analyzed humic acids are in the range of 6.1-7.0 for Eu(III) and 5.2-6.4 for U(VI) (UO 2 2+ ), respectively. In contrast to the results for HA the used Suwannee river NOM reveals log β values in the range of nearly two orders of magnitude lower (4.6 for Eu 3+ and 4.5 for UO 2 2+ ) under the geochemical conditions applied in this study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Rare earth(III) complexes for the development of new magnetic and luminescent probes; Complexes de lanthanides(III) pour le developpement de nouvelles sondes magnetiques et luminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonat, A


    The simultaneous optimisation of the molecular parameters determining the relaxivity (number of coordinated water molecules, water-exchange, rotation dynamics of the whole complex, electronic relaxation, Gd(III)-proton distance) is essential to prepare efficient contrast agents. The aim of this work is on the one hand to design and study complexes with a high number of bound water molecules and to understand the influence of the coordination sphere on the stability and on the electronic relaxation and on the other hand, to use the ligand as a chromophore for the development of luminescent probes for biomedical imaging. We present the structure, the stability and the relaxivity of Gd(III) complexes of two series of tripodal ligands containing picolinate units based either on the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane ring or on a tertiary amine. These complexes show high relaxivity in water and in serum and can establish a non covalent interaction with serum albumin. The interpretation of the water proton relaxivity with the help of new relaxometric methods based on an auxiliary probe solute has allowed us to show that both the presence of the picolinate groups and the 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclononane framework can lead to Gd(III) complexes with favourable electronic relaxation properties. This ligands have also been used for Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexation leading to strong luminescence in visible light. Other complexes derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline unit which display a very high luminescence in infrared are also studied. (author)

  8. Preparation of photoluminescent PMMA doped with tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate lanthanide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, Marco, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Paolucci, Gino, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Gatto, Mattia; Roppa, Stefania [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Enrichi, Francesco [CIVEN, Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie, Via delle Industrie 5, 30175 Marghera (Venezia) (Italy); Ciorba, Serena; Richards, Bryce S. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)


    The neutral homoleptic Ln(III) complex Ln(Tp){sub 3} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb; Tp=hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate) were used as dopants for the preparation of novel photoluminescent poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses indicated as Ln(Tp){sub 3}-PMMA. The doped polymers containing samarium, europium and terbium derivatives showed emission associated to f-f transitions in the visible range upon excitation with UV light, while a NIR emission was obtained from Yb(Tp){sub 3}-PMMA. The maximum incident wavelength able to induce emissions from the Ln(Tp){sub 3}-doped polymers depends upon the choice of the lanthanide ion. No meaningful antenna-effect was instead observed using dysprosium as metal centre. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymers doped with photoluminescent lanthanide complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate (Tp) as antenna-ligand for Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III) and Yb(III). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission associated to f-f transitions upon excitation with UV light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No antenna-effect for dysprosium derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence excitation spectra are dependent upon the lanthanide ion.

  9. Inorganic pigments doped with tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate lanthanide complexes: A photoluminescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheno, Giulia, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Bortoluzzi, Marco; Ganzerla, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Enrichi, Francesco [CIVEN, Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie, Via delle Industrie 5, 30175 Marghera, Venezia (Italy)


    The inorganic pigments malachite, Egyptian blue, Ercolano blue and chrome yellow have been doped with the neutral homoleptic Ln(III) complex Ln(Tp){sub 3} (Ln=Eu, Tb; Tp=hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate) in the presence of arabic gum or acrylic emulsion as binders, in order to obtain photoluminescent materials of interest for cultural heritage restoration. The doped pigments have shown emissions associated to f–f transitions in the visible range upon excitation with UV light. Thermal and UV-light ageings have been carried out. In all the cases the photoluminescent behaviour is maintained, but in the cases of acrylic-based paints emission spectra and lifetimes are strongly influenced by thermal treatments. The choice of binder and pigments influences the photoluminescent behaviour of the corresponding film paints. -- Highlights: • Inorganic pigments doped with photoluminescent lanthanide complexes. • Hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate (Tp) as antenna-ligand for Eu(III) and Tb(III). • Emission associated to f–f transitions upon excitation with UV light. • Photoluminescence of paints influenced by the choice of binder and pigments. • Photoluminescence after ageing depending upon the type of binder.

  10. Complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides with hydrophilic N-donor ligands for Am(III)/Cm(III) and An(III)/Ln(III) separation; Komplexierung von trivalenten Actiniden und Lanthaniden mit hydrophilen N-Donorliganden zur Am(III)/Cm(III)- bzw. An(III)/Ln(III)-Trennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Christoph


    The implementation of actinide recycling processes is considered in several countries, aiming at the reduction of long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of used nuclear fuel. This requires the separation of the actinides from the fission and corrosion products. The separation of the trivalent actinides (An(III)) Am(III) and Cm(III), however, is complicated by the presence of the chemically similar fission lanthanides (Ln(III)). Hydrophilic N-donor ligands are employed as An(III) or Am(III) selective complexing agents in solvent extraction to strip An(III) or Am(III) from an organic phase loaded with An(III) and Ln(III). Though they exhibit excellent selectivity, the complexation chemistry of these ligands and the complexes formed during solvent extraction are not sufficiently characterized. In the present thesis the complexation of An(III) and Ln(III) with hydrophilic N-donor ligands is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), UV/Vis, vibronic sideband spectroscopy and solvent extraction. TRLFS studies on the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with the Am(III) selective complexing agent SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP (tetrasodium 3,3{sup '},3'',3{sup '''}-([2,2{sup '}-bipyridine]-6,6{sup '}-diylbis(1,2,4-triazine-3,5,6-triyl)) tetrabenzenesulfonate) revealed the formation of [M(SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP){sub n}]{sup (4n-3)-} complexes (M = Cm(III), Eu(III); n = 1, 2). The conditional stability constants were determined in different media yielding two orders of magnitude larger β{sub 2}-values for the Cm(III) complexes, independently from the applied medium. A strong impact of ionic strength on the stability and stoichiometry of the formed complexes was identified, resulting from the stabilization of the pentaanionic [M(SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP){sub 2}]{sup 5-} complex with increasing ionic strength. Thermodynamic studies of Cm(III)-SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP complexation showed that the proton concentration of the applied medium impacts

  11. Ln(iii)-complexes of a DOTA analogue with an ethylenediamine pendant arm as pH-responsive PARACEST contrast agents. (United States)

    Krchová, T; Gálisová, A; Jirák, D; Hermann, P; Kotek, J


    A novel macrocyclic DO3A derivative containing a linear diamine pendant arm, H3do3aNN, was prepared and its protonation and complexation properties were studied by means of potentiometry. It determined ligand consecutive protonation constants log K(An) = 12.62, 10.28, 9.67, 8.30, 3.30 and 1.58 and stability constants of selected lanthanide (Eu(iii), Yb(iii)) complexes log K(EuL) = 23.16 and log KYbL = 22.76. The complexes could be protonated on the pendant amino group(s) with log K(HLM) ≈ 5.6 and log K(H2LM) ≈ 4.8. Solution structures of both complexes were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The study revealed that the complex species exist exclusively in the form of twisted-square-antiprismatic (TSA) isomers. The complexes show significant pH dependence of the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) between their amino groups and the bulk water molecules in the pH range of 5-8. Thus, the pH dependence of the magnetization transfer ratio of CEST signals can be used for pH determination using magnetic resonance imaging techniques in a pH range relevant for in vivo conditions.

  12. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation. (United States)

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P


    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  13. Room-temperature magnetic anisotropy of lanthanide complexes: A model study for various coordination polyhedra (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir S.; Galyametdinov, Yury G.; Ceulemans, Arnout; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen


    The dependence of the room-temperature magnetic anisotropy Δχ of lanthanide complexes on the type of the coordination polyhedron and on the nature of the lanthanide ion is quantitatively analyzed in terms of a model approach based on numerical calculations. The aim of this study is to establish general regularities in the variation of the sign and magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy of lanthanide complexes at room-temperature and to estimate its maximal value. Except for some special cases, the variation of the sign of the magnetic anisotropy over the series of isostructural lanthanide complexes is found to obey a general sign rule, according to which Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Ho(III) complexes have one sign of Δχ and Eu(III), Er(III), Tm(III), and Yb(III) complexes have the opposite sign. Depending on the specific coordination polyhedron, a maximal magnetic anisotropy is observed for Tb(III), Dy(III), or Tm(III) complexes, and its absolute value can reach 50 000×10-6 cm3 mol-1 or more. Results of the present study can be helpful for the analysis of the orientational behavior of lanthanide-containing liquid crystals and lanthanide-doped bilayered micelles in an external magnetic field. The use of the Bleaney theory in the quantitative analysis of the magnetic anisotropy of lanthanide compounds is shown to have limitations because of a large ratio between the crystal-field splitting energy of the ground multiplet of the lanthanide ion and the thermal energy at room-temperature.

  14. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter


    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  15. Cyanomethylene-bis(phosphonate)-based lanthanide complexes: structural, photophysical, and magnetic investigations. (United States)

    Maxim, Catalin; Branzea, Diana G; Tiseanu, Carmen; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe; Andruh, Marius; Avarvari, Narcis


    The syntheses, structural investigations, magnetic and photophysical properties of a series of 10 lanthanide mononuclear complexes, containing the heteroditopic ligand cyanomethylene-bis(5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,3,2λ(5)-dioxa-phosphorinane) (L), are described. The crystallographic analyses indicate two structural types: in the first one, [Ln(III)(L)3(H2O)2]·H2O (Ln = La, Pr, Nd), the metal ions are eight-coordinated within a square antiprism geometry, while the second one, [Ln(III)(L)3(H2O)]·8H2O (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er), contains seven-coordinated Ln(III) ions within distorted monocapped trigonal prisms. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding between nitrogen atoms of the cyano groups, crystallization, and coordination water molecules leads to the formation of extended supramolecular networks. Solid-state photophysical investigations demonstrate that Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes possess intense luminescence with relatively long excited-state lifetimes of 530 and 1370 μs, respectively, while Pr(III), Dy(III), and Ho(III) complexes have weak intensity luminescence characterized by short lifetimes ranging between a few nanoseconds to microseconds. The magnetic properties for Pr(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Ho(III) complexes are in agreement with isolated Ln(III) ions in the solid state, as suggested by the single-crystal X-ray analyses. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements up to 10 kHz reveal that only the Ho(III) complex shows a frequency-dependent ac response, with a relaxation mode clearly observed at 1.85 K around 4500 Hz.

  16. A new europium(III)-β-diketonate complex based on diphenylethyne as red phosphors applied in LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guang, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Na; Lin, Duan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Feng, Kenjun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hui-Zhou University, Huizhou 516007 (China); Cao, Rihui, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Gong, Menglian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)


    A new europium(III) ternary complex based on a fluorinated β-diketonate ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline as an ancillary ligand has been prepared and evaluated as a candidate for light-emitting diode (LED). The complex exhibits a high decomposition temperature (316 °C). Photophysical properties such as FT-IR spectra, UV–vis absorption spectra, excitation and emission spectra, luminescence decay curve and quantum yield were investigated. The excitation band is well matched with the characteristic emission of 395 nm-emitting InGaN chips. The complex exhibits an efficient energy transfer pathway from the ligands to the central Eu{sup 3+} ion via a ligand-sensitized luminescence process. An intense red-emitting LED was fabricated by coating the complex onto a 395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, and its Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinate (x=0.6389, y=0.3255) is close to the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) standard value for red color. Meanwhile, the energy transfer from the InGaN chip to the complex is very efficient. All the findings demonstrate the potential application of the Eu(III) complex as red-emitting phosphors for UV-based white LEDs. -- Highlights: ► A new europium(III)-β-diketonate complex was synthesized and characterized. ► Thermal stability and photophysical properties were investigated in detail. ► PL mechanism was proposed to involve a ligand-sensitized luminescence process. ► An intense red-emitting LED was fabricated by using the complex. ► CIE chromaticity coordinate is close to NTSC standard value for red color.

  17. Complexation of actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) cations by tridentate nitrogen ligands; Complexation des cations actinides(III) et lanthanides(III) par des ligands azotes tridentates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, P.Y.; Francois, N.; Guillaneux, D.; Hill, C.; Madic, Ch. [CEA Valrho, (DCC/DRRV/SEMP), 30 - Marcoule (France); Illemassene, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire


    To understand the properties of some systems able to extract actinides (III) from lanthanides(III) selectively, the solution chemistry of lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) cations with poly-hetero-aromatic nitrogen-containing ligands was studied by Time-Resolved Laser Induced Fluorimetry (TRLIF) and UV-visible spectrophotometry, combined with chemo-metric methods. Three soft donor ligands (L) were selected for the study: 2,2':6;2{sup -}ter-pyridine (Tpy),4,6-tri-(pyridine-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (Tptz) and 2,6-bis-(5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)-pyridine (MeBtp). Tpy and Tptz exhibit moderate affinity (distribution ratio) and selectivity when used in the synergistic liquid-liquid extraction of americium(III) (with a lipophilic carboxylic acid). MeBtp is also very efficient, and extracts Am(III) with high selectivity; The TRLIF study analyzed the Eu(III) fluorescence emission spectrum. By analyzing the respective changes in the band intensities, and the lifetimes of the Eu(III) excited states, when the ligands were added in homogeneous phase, the following conclusions were drawn: - for Tpy and Tptz, only one EuL{sup 3+} complex species was detected, with a low symmetry in the first coordination sphere, and the Eu(III) hydration number (number of water molecules in the Eu(III) first sphere of coordination) in these complexes was found to be around 5-6; - for MeBtp, two species were detected, one with a low symmetry and a hydration number close to 5-6, the other with a high symmetry and almost completely dehydrated. This is indicative of the formation of the complexes: EuL{sup 3+} for L =Tpy and Tptz, and Eu(MeBtp){sup 3+} and Eu(MeBtp){sub 3}{sup 3+} in the case of MeBtp. The formation of these complexes, as well as the protonated ligands, was quantitatively studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. In each case, the variation in the absorption spectrum of one species was monitored, while the concentration of the other was varied. The complex formation

  18. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of novel Schiff base type polymer-rare earth complexes containing furfural-based bidentate Schiff base ligands (United States)

    Gao, Baojiao; Zhang, Dandan; Li, Yanbin


    Luminescent polymer-rare earth complexes are an important class of photoluminescence and electroluminescence materials. Via molecular design, two furfural-based bidentate Schiff base ligands, furfural-aniline (FA) type ligand and furfural-cyclohexylamine (FC) type ligand, were bonded on the side chains of polysulfone (PSF), respectively, forming two functionalized macromolecules, PSF-FA and PSF-FC. And then through respective coordination reactions of the two functionalized macromolecules with Eu(Ⅲ) ion and Tb(Ⅲ) ion, novel luminescent binary and ternary (with 1,10-phenanthroline as the second ligand) polymer-rare earth complexes were synthesized. For these complexes, on basis of the characterization of their chemical structures, they photoluminescence properties were main researched, and the relationship between their luminescent properties and structures was explored. The experimental results show that the complexes coming from PSF-FA and Eu(Ⅲ) ion including binary and ternary complexes emit strong red luminescence, indicating that the bonded bidentate Schiff base ligand FA can sensitize the fluorescence emission of Eu(III) ion. While the complexes coming from PSF-FC and Tb(Ⅲ) ion produce green luminescence, displaying that the bonded bidentate Schiff base ligand FC can sensitize the fluorescence emission of Tb(Ⅲ) ion. The fluorescence emission intensities of the ternary complexes were stronger than that of binary complexes, reflecting the important effect of the second ligand. The fluorescence emission of the solid film of complexes is much stronger than that of the solutions of complexes. Besides, by comparison, it is found that the furfural (as a heteroaromatic compound)-based Schiff base type polymer-rare earth complexes have stronger fluorescence emission and higher energy transfer efficiency than salicylaldehyde (as a common aromatic compound)-based Schiff base type polymer-rare earth complexes.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare Earth Corrole-Phthalocyanine Heteroleptic Triple-Decker Complexes. (United States)

    Lu, Guifen; Li, Jing; Yan, Sen; Zhu, Weihua; Ou, Zhongping; Kadish, Karl M


    We recently reported the first example of a europium triple-decker tetrapyrrole with mixed corrole and phthalocyanine macrocycles and have now extended the synthetic method to prepare a series of rare earth corrole-phthalocyanine heteroleptic triple-decker complexes, which are characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. The examined complexes are represented as M2[Pc(OC4H9)8]2[Cor(ClPh)3], where Pc = phthalocyanine, Cor = corrole, and M is Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), or Tb(III). The Y(III) derivative with OC4H9 Pc substituents was obtained in too low a yield to characterize, but for the purpose of comparison, Y2[Pc(OC5H11)8]2[Cor(ClPh)3] was synthesized and characterized in a similar manner. The molecular structure of Eu2[Pc(OC4H9)8]2[Cor(ClPh)3] was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and showed the corrole to be the central macrocycle of the triple-decker unit with a phthalocyanine on each end. Each triple-decker complex undergoes up to eight reversible or quasireversible one-electron oxidations and reductions with E1/2 values being linearly related to the ionic radius of the central ions. The energy (E) of the main Q-band is also linearly related to the radius of the metal. Comparisons are made between the physicochemical properties of the newly synthesized mixed corrole-phthalocyanine complexes and previously characterized double- and triple-decker derivatives with phthalocyanine and/or porphyrin macrocycles.

  20. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.


    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  1. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  2. Fluorescence enhancement of europium (III) perchlorate by 1,10-phenanthroline on the 1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-(phenylsulthio)ethanone complex and luminescence mechanism. (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xian; Xin, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Shu-Yan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Ao, Bo-Yang; Li, Ying-Jie


    A novel ligand, 1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-(phenylsulthio)ethanone was synthesized using a new method and its two europium (Eu) (III) complexes were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, coordination titration analysis, molar conductivity, infrared, thermo gravimetric analyzer-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), (1)H NMR and UV spectra. The composition was suggested as EuL5 · (ClO4)3 · 2H2O and EuL4 · phen(ClO4)3 · 2H2O (L = C(10)H(7)COCH(2)SOC(6)H(5)). The fluorescence spectra showed that the Eu(III) displayed strong characteristic metal-centered fluorescence in the solid state. The ternary rare earth complex showed stronger fluorescence intensity than the binary rare earth complex in such material. The strongest characteristic fluorescence emission intensity of the ternary system was 1.49 times as strong as that of the binary system. The phosphorescence spectra were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Preparation and photoluminescence of some europium (III) ternary complexes with β-diketone and nitrogen heterocyclic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dunjia, E-mail:; Pi, Yan; Zheng, Chunyang; Fan, Ling; Hu, Yanjun; Wei, Xianhong


    Highlights: •Preparation of europium (III) ternary complexes with β-diketone and nitrogen heterocyclic ligands. •Photoluminescence behavior of europium (III) ternary complexes. •Analysis of the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub t}), the lifetime (τ) and the luminescent quantum yield (η). -- Abstract: Preparation and photoluminescence behavior of four new europium (III) ternary complexes with β-diketones (1-(6-methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)-3-phenyl-propane-1,3-dione (MNPPD) and 1-(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-3-(6-methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)-propane-1,3-dione (BPMPD)) and 2,2-dipyridine (Bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) were reported, in the solid state. Complexes Eu(MPPD){sub 3}·Bipy, Eu(BMPD){sub 3}·Bipy, Eu(MPPD){sub 3}·Phen and Eu(BMPD){sub 3}·Phen were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, UV–vis absorption. The emission spectra show narrow emission bands that arise from the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 0–4) transitions of the europium ion. Based on the emission spectra and luminescence decay curves in solid state, the intensity parameters (Ω{sub t}), lifetime (τ) and emission quantum efficiency (η) were determined. The Ω{sub 2} values indicate that the Eu(III) ion in these complexes is in a highly polarizable chemical environment. Complexes Eu(MPPD){sub 3}·Bipy and Eu(MPPD){sub 3}·Phen showed a longer lifetime (τ) and a higher luminescence quantum efficiency (η), which indicated that the energy transfer to the europium ion from MNPPD ligand is more efficient than that from BPMPD ligand.

  4. Intramolecular deactivation processes of electronically excited Lanthanide(III) complexes with organic acids of low molecular weight (United States)

    Burek, Katja; Eidner, Sascha; Kuke, Stefanie; Kumke, Michael U.


    The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes with different model ligands was studied under direct as well as sensitized excitation conditions. The research was performed in the context of studies dealing with deep-underground storages for high-level nuclear waste. Here, Lanthanide(III) ions served as natural analogues for Actinide(III) ions and the low-molecular weight organic ligands are present in clay minerals and furthermore, they were employed as proxies for building blocks of humic substances, which are important complexing molecules in the natural environment, e.g., in the far field of a repository site. Time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy was applied for a detailed characterization of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) complexes in aqueous solutions. Based on the observed luminescence the ligands were tentatively divided into two groups (A, B). The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes of group A was mainly influenced by an energy transfer to OH-vibrations. Lanthanide(III) complexes of group B showed ligand-related luminescence quenching, which was further investigated. To gain more information on the underlying quenching processes of group A and B ligands, measurements at different temperatures (77 K ≤ T ≤ 353 K) were performed and activation energies were determined based on an Arrhenius analysis. Moreover, the influence of the ionic strength between 0 M ≤ I ≤ 4 M on the Lanthanide(III) luminescence was monitored for different complexes, in order to evaluate the influence of specific conditions encountered in host rocks foreseen as potential repository sites.

  5. Formation and structural characterization of a europium(II mono(scorpionate complex and a sterically crowded pyrazabole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Liebing


    Full Text Available The reaction of EuI2(THF2 with potassium hydrotris(3,5-diisopropylpyrazolylborate (K[HB(3,5-iPr2pz3] (= KTpiPr2, pz = pyrazolyl in a molar ratio of 1:1.5 resulted in extensive ligand fragmentation and formation of the europium(II mono(scorpionate complex bis(3,5-diisopropyl-1H-pyrazole[hydrotris(3,5-diisopropylpyrazolylborato]iodidoeuropium(II, [Eu(C27H46BN6I(C9H16N22] or (TpiPr2(3,5-iPr2pzH2EuIII, 1, in high yield (78%. As a typical by-product, small amounts of the sterically crowded pyrazabole derivative trans-4,8-bis(3,5-diisopropylpyrazol-1-yl-1,3,5,7-tetraisopropylpyrazabole, C36H62B2H8 or trans-{(3,5-iPr2pzHB(μ-3,5-iPr2pz}2, 2, were formed. Both title compounds have been structurally characterized through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In 1, two isopropyl groups are each disordered over two orientations with occupancy ratios of 0.574 (10:0.426 (10 and 0.719 (16:0.281 (16. In 2, one isopropyl group is similarly disordered, occupancy ratio 0.649 (9:0.351 (9.

  6. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan


    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structures, luminescent and magnetic properties of homodinuclear lanthanide complexes with a flexible tripodal carboxylate ligand. (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-Jiang; Wang, Ya-Wen; Dou, Wei; Dong, Ming; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Tang, Yu; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Peng, Yu


    Six new homodinuclear lanthanide(III) complexes with a flexible tripodal carboxylate ligand (H(3)L), of formulae [Ln(2)L(2)(DMF)(4)]·4DMF (Ln = La (1), Nd (2), Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6), DMF = N, N-Dimethylformamide) have been synthesized. Among them, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 13.309(2) Å, b = 27.404(4) Å, c = 16.686(3) Å, β = 105.115(2) and V = 5875.2(17) Å(3) for 1, a = 13.3016(5) Å, b = 27.1952(12) Å, c = 16.6339(7) Å, β = 105.030(2) and V = 5811.3(4) Å(3) for 2, a = 13.2797(10) Å, b = 27.072(2) Å, c = 16.6564(13) Å, β = 104.9390(10) and V = 5785.7(8) Å(3) for 3, a = 13.2855(3) Å, b = 27.0074(6) Å, c = 16.6357(3) Å, β = 104.9790(10) and V = 5766.2(2) Å(3) for 4, a = 13.2837(5) Å, b = 26.9105(10) Å, c = 16.6066(6) Å, β = 104.917(2) and V = 5736.3(4) Å(3) for 6. The crystal structures reveal that these complexes are isostructural, and molecules are connected from 0D to 3D supramolecular structures by hydrogen bonds. All of them were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, XRD and TGA. Unusually, non-luminescent Tb(III) complex was obtained. The photophysical property of the Eu(III) complex and the magnetic property of Gd(III) complex are investigated and discussed in detail.

  8. carbene complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{µ-S-C(=NR)(O–Ar–CH3)}]n with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) car- bene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)–OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to ...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomplexes of Eu(III) and Er(III) coordinate with 2(4-clorophenil)-3-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoleo-5-tiolate mesoionic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taveira Rocha do Nascimento, Railda Shelsea, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Av. Baraunas, Campina Grande/PB (Brazil); Rodrigues da Silva Morais, Crislene, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Av. Aprigio Veloso, Campina Grande/PB (Brazil); Lucena Lira, Helio de, E-mail: crislene@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Av. Aprigio Veloso, Campina Grande/PB (Brazil); Alves de Morais, Soraya, E-mail: crislene@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Av. Baraunas, Campina Grande/PB (Brazil); Filgueiras de Athayde Filho, Petronio, E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Quimica, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Figueiredo Lopes Lucena, Luciana de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Av. Aprigio Veloso, Campina Grande/PB (Brazil); Gouveia de Souza, Antonio, E-mail: crislene@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Quimica, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Brasileiro Campos, Gabriela, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Processos, Av. Aprigio Veloso, Campina Grande/PB (Brazil)


    The solids achieved in nanometric scale have been demanding scientific and technological interest due to the significant alterations in physical and chemical properties observed in such kind of materials, potentializing their technological applications. The nanocomplexes produced by lanthanide ions with the mesoionic compounds 2(4-clorophenil)-3-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-tiolate (M-1) were achieved in a powdered yellowed way. These compounds were characterized through X-ray diffraction, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The X-ray diffractograms of the M-1 compound and of Er(M-1){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O, Eu(M-1){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O complexes, presented more than one phase and a crystalline structure. The disappearance and appearance of new peaks, as well as the variation on the intensity of the M-1 majoritary peaks as compared to the complexes' peaks can also be observed. The IR spectra indicate that the coordination of M-1 with the cations Eu{sup +3} e Er{sup +3} probably happens due to the sulfur exocyclic atom, where a considerable displacement in the carbon-sulfur (C-S)-ligation can be perceived. Comparing the DSC curves of the M-1, Er(M-1){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O and Eu(M-1){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O, a displacement of the complexes peaks in relation to M-1 can be observed, suggesting the achievement of new specimens. Thus, it can be concluded that the formation of two new organic nanocomplexes with crystalline characteristics which may be used as a pharmacy, is quite evident.

  10. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado


    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  11. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.


    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  12. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Strategy I. Alice x ∈ {0, 1}n. ⇒. ⇐. Bob y ∈ {0, 1}n. Naive strategy. Alice sends x to Bob. Bob tells Alice if x = y. Cost. Requires n + 1 bits of communication. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  13. Complexity Theory (United States)

    Lee, William H K.


    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  14. Complex derivatives (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph


    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  15. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D


    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  16. Carney Complex (United States)

    ... at least one of the features listed. Major diagnostic features for Carney Complex Spotty skin pigmentation with ... called large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCST) Thyroid cancer Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma, meaning tumors that grow on ...

  17. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld


    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  18. Evidence of different stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes of lanthanides(3); Mise en evidence d'un changement de stoechiometrie du complexe carbonate limite au sein de la serie des lanthanides(3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippini, V


    Two stoichiometries have been proposed by different laboratories to interpret measurements on the limiting carbonate complexes of An{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} cations. The study of the solubility of double carbonates (AlkLn(CO{sub 3}){sub 2},xH{sub 2}O) in concentrated carbonate solutions at room temperature and high ionic strengths has shown that on the one hand the lightest lanthanides (La and Nd) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} whereas the heaviest (Eu and Dy) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} in the studied chemical conditions, and on the other hand, that the kinetics of precipitation of double carbonates depends on the alkali metal and the lanthanide ions. The existence of two stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes was confirmed by capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (CE-ICP-MS), used to extend the study to the whole series of lanthanides (except Ce, Pm and Yb). Two behaviours have been put forward comparing the electrophoretic mobilities: La to Tb form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} while Dy to Lu form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-}. Measurements by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) on Eu(III) indicate small variations of the geometry of Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} complex, specially with Cs{sup +}. Although analogies are currently used among the 4f-block trivalent elements, different aqueous speciations are evidenced in concentrated carbonate solutions across the lanthanide series. (author)

  19. Complex chimerism (United States)

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.


    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  20. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard


    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  1. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M


    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  2. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James


    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  3. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia


    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  4. phenanthroline complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural analyses. Mass spectral studies of the complexes indicate both the compounds to produce identical cationic species viz., [Co(phen)2Cl2]+ in methanol solution. ... Cobalt(III); X-ray structure; Catecholase activity; DNA cleavage; Anti-cancer activity. 1. ..... necrotic as judged by the staining, nuclear morphology.

  5. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China). Lecithin from soya bean was a product of. Sangon (Shanghai, China). Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and lecithin (400 mg) were dissolved in 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran and stirred.

  6. Complex Criminality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, D.; Abels, D.; van der Wilt, H.


    This book presents a collection of essays on the wide diversity of meanings of complex criminality. These essays were written to commemorate a national gathering of PhD candidates, from criminal law departments of different universities, at the University of Amsterdam on the 6th of June 2014.

  7. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta


    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  8. peroxo complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The investigation of dioxygen binding and activation in dinuclear iron complexes has attracted recent interest because of the presence of carboxylate bridged dinuclear iron sites in several biologically important proteins, such as the R2 protein of ribonucleotide reductase, the hydroxylase component of methane ...

  9. carbohydrate complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ferrocene-carbohydrate conjugates38,39 have lead to the design and study of the cytotoxic activity of metal com- plexes containing carbohydrate ligands. Hence, here we present the detailed synthesis and characteriza- tion of the carbohydrate triazole ligands and their Pd- complexes together with the crystal structures of ...

  10. Ntem Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    New ages were obtained from charnockites and tonalites collected in the So'o Group in the Ntem Complex. The rocks were analyzed for their petrography, tectonics and 207Pb/206Pb zircon minimum ages of their zircons as well as .... Owona, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box.

  11. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert


    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  12. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.


    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  13. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking (United States)

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer


    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  14. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J


    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  15. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Joseph L


    The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively

  16. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart


    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  17. and complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrin Ken


    Full Text Available Granular materials have a strange propensity to behave as either a complex media or a simple media depending on the precise question being asked. This review paper offers a summary of granular flow rheologies for well-developed or steady-state motion, and seeks to explain this dichotomy through the vast range of complexity intrinsic to these models. A key observation is that to achieve accuracy in predicting flow fields in general geometries, one requires a model that accounts for a number of subtleties, most notably a nonlocal effect to account for cooperativity in the flow as induced by the finite size of grains. On the other hand, forces and tractions that develop on macro-scale, submerged boundaries appear to be minimally affected by grain size and, barring very rapid motions, are well represented by simple rate-independent frictional plasticity models. A major simplification observed in experiments of granular intrusion, which we refer to as the ‘resistive force hypothesis’ of granular Resistive Force Theory, can be shown to arise directly from rate-independent plasticity. Because such plasticity models have so few parameters, and the major rheological parameter is a dimensionless internal friction coefficient, some of these simplifications can be seen as consequences of scaling.

  18. Cosmic Complexity (United States)

    Mather, John C.


    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  19. Vanadyl precursors used to modify the properties of vanadium oxide thin films obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreca, D.; Franzato, E.; Rizzi, G.A.; Tondello, E.; Vettori, U. [Univ. di Padova (Italy); Depero, L.E.; Sangaletti, L. [Univ. di Brescia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Fisica per i Materiali


    Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using as precursors a series of vanadyl complexes of general formula VO(L){sub 2}(H), where L is a {beta}-diketonate ligand. The depositions were carried out on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates in O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O atmospheres. In order to elucidate the role played by different ligands and synthesis conditions on the properties of the obtained films, the chemical composition of the samples was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while their microstructure and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman and atomic force microscopy. The thermal decomposition of the precursors, with particular attention to their reactivity in the presence of water vapor, was studied by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro


    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  1. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Tb(III) complexes in UV-A light of 350 nm.61 The complexes are thus of importance for therapeutic appli- cations in the treatment of accessible tumours like skin melanoma. 3.3 Photoactive non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes. Lanthanide complexes of non-macrocyclic ligands have recently been studied mainly by ...

  2. Lanthanide complexes containing 5-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7(4H)-one and their therapeutic potential to fight leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. (United States)

    Caballero, Ana B; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio; Salas, Juan M; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Marín, Clotilde; Ramírez-Macías, Inmaculada; Santamaría-Díaz, Noelia; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón


    In the last years, numerous and significant advances in lanthanide coordination chemistry have been achieved. The unique chemical nature of these metal ions which is conferred by their f-electrons has led to a wide range of coordination compounds with interesting structural, physical and also biological properties. Consequently, lanthanide complexes have found applications mainly in catalysis, gas adsorption, photochemistry and as diagnostic tools. However, research on their therapeutic potential and the understanding of their mechanism of action is still taking its first steps, and there is a distinct lack of research in the parasitology field. In the present work, we describe the synthesis and physical properties of seven new lanthanide complexes with the anionic form of the bioactive ligand 5-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-one (HmtpO), namely [Ln(mtpO)3(H2O)6]·9H2O (Ln=La(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Er(III)). In addition, results on the in vitro antiproliferative activity against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi are described. The high activity of the new compounds against parasite proliferation and their low cytotoxicity against reference host cell lines show a great potential of this type of compounds to become a new generation of highly effective and non-toxic antiparasitic agents to fight the so considered neglected diseases leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang


    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  4. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano


    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  5. Adaptive leadership: fighting complexity with complexity


    Smith, Peter


    CHDS State/Local Contemporary crises have become increasingly complex and the methods of leading through them have failed to keep pace. If it is assumed that leadership matters—that it has a legitimate effect on the outcome of a crisis, then leaders have a duty to respond to that adaptation with modifications of their own. Using literature sources, the research explores crisis complexity, crisis leadership, and alternative leadership strategies. Specifically, the research evaluates the app...

  6. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.


    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  7. Complex carbohydrates (image) (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to ... majority of carbohydrates should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars, rather than processed or ...

  8. Complex systems biology


    Ma'ayan, Avi


    Complex systems theory is concerned with identifying and characterizing common design elements that are observed across diverse natural, technological and social complex systems. Systems biology, a more holistic approach to study molecules and cells in biology, has advanced rapidly in the past two decades. However, not much appreciation has been granted to the realization that the human cell is an exemplary complex system. Here, I outline general design principles identified in many complex s...

  9. The simple complex numbers


    Zalesny, Jaroslaw


    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  10. The Visibility Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert


    We introduce the visibility complex of a collection O of n pairwise disjoint convex objects in the plane. This 2–dimensional cell complex may be considered as a generalization of the tangent visibility graph of O. Its space complexity k is proportional to the size of the tangent visibility graph. We

  11. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    . 2 radicals ... Crystal structure of the complex was determined by X-ray diffraction and is reported elsewhere. 5. The complex is stable towards hydrolysis at least for 10 h as checked by its ..... served in Co(III) aquo-ammonia complexes where.

  12. A bis(pyridine N-oxide) analogue of DOTA: relaxometric properties of the Gd(III) complex and efficient sensitization of visible and NIR-emitting lanthanide(III) cations including Pr(III) and Ho(III). (United States)

    Martins, André F; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Carvalho, Henrique F; Teixeira, João M C; Paula, Carlos T B; Hermann, Petr; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Petoud, Stephane; Tóth, Eva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C


    We report the synthesis of a cyclen-based ligand (4,10-bis[(1-oxidopyridin-2-yl)methyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetic acid=L1) containing two acetate and two 2-methylpyridine N-oxide arms anchored on the nitrogen atoms of the cyclen platform, which has been designed for stable complexation of lanthanide(III) ions in aqueous solution. Relaxometric studies suggest that the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the Gd(III) complex may be sufficient for biological applications. A detailed structural study of the complexes by (1) H NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations indicates that they adopt an anti-Δ(λλλλ) conformation in aqueous solution, that is, an anti-square antiprismatic (anti-SAP) isomeric form, as demonstrated by analysis of the (1) H NMR paramagnetic shifts induced by Yb(III) . The water-exchange rate of the Gd(III) complex is ${k{{298\\hfill \\atop {\\rm ex}\\hfill}}}$=6.7×10(6)  s(-1) , about a quarter of that for the mono-oxidopyridine analogue, but still about 50 % higher than the ${k{{298\\hfill \\atop {\\rm ex}\\hfill}}}$ of GdDOTA (DOTA=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). The 2-methylpyridine N-oxide chromophores can be used to sensitize a wide range of Ln(III) ions emitting in both the visible (Eu(III) and Tb(III) ) and NIR (Pr(III) , Nd(III) , Ho(III) , Yb(III) ) spectral regions. The emission quantum yield determined for the Yb(III) complex (${Q{{{\\rm L}\\hfill \\atop {\\rm Yb}\\hfill}}}$=7.3(1)×10(-3) ) is among the highest ever reported for complexes of this metal ion in aqueous solution. The sensitization ability of the ligand, together with the spectroscopic and relaxometric properties of its complexes, constitute a useful step forward on the way to efficient dual probes for optical imaging (OI) and MRI. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  14. In situ hydrothermal syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of four novel metal-organic frameworks constructed by lanthanide (Ln=Ce(III), Pr(III), Eu(III)) and Cu(I) metals with flexible dicarboxylate acids and piperazine-based ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ay, Burak; Karaca, Serkan [Department of Chemistry, Arts and Science Faculty, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Yildiz, Emel, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Arts and Science Faculty, Çukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Lopez, Valerie [Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Nanao, Max H. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); University Grenoble Alpes-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-EMBL Unit of Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Zubieta, Jon [Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Université Grenoble Alpes Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire & Végétale, Institut de Recherches en Technologies et Sciences pour le Vivant, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)


    Four novel metal-organic frameworks,[Cu{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(pyrz)]{sub n} (1) and (H{sub 2}pip){sub n}[Ln{sub 2}(pydc){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (Ln=Ce (2), Pr (3) and Eu (4), H{sub 2}pzdc=2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid, pyrz=pyrazine, H{sub 2}pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}pip=piperazine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the elemental analysis, ICP, Far IR (FIR), FT-IR spectra, TGA, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is two-dimensional containing Cl-Cu-Cl sites, while the lanthanide complexes contain one-dimensional infinite Ln–O-Ln chains. All the complexes show high thermal stability. The complexes 1–3 exhibit luminescence emission bands at 584, 598 and 614 nm at room temperature when excited at 300 nm. Complex 4 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four novel metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Thermal and luminescent properties of the compounds have been investigated.

  15. In situ hydrothermal syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of four novel metal-organic frameworks constructed by lanthanide (Ln=Ce(III), Pr(III), Eu(III)) and Cu(I) metals with flexible dicarboxylate acids and piperazine-based ligands (United States)

    Ay, Burak; Karaca, Serkan; Yildiz, Emel; Lopez, Valerie; Nanao, Max H.; Zubieta, Jon


    Four novel metal-organic frameworks,[Cu2Cl2(pyrz)]n (1) and (H2pip)n[Ln2(pydc)4(H2O)2]n (Ln=Ce (2), Pr (3) and Eu (4), H2pzdc=2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid, pyrz=pyrazine, H2pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H2pip=piperazine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the elemental analysis, ICP, Far IR (FIR), FT-IR spectra, TGA, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is two-dimensional containing Cl-Cu-Cl sites, while the lanthanide complexes contain one-dimensional infinite Ln-O-Ln chains. All the complexes show high thermal stability. The complexes 1-3 exhibit luminescence emission bands at 584, 598 and 614 nm at room temperature when excited at 300 nm. Complex 4 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature.

  16. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob


    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  17. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw


    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  18. More about inorganic complexes


    Vella, Alfred;


    This article is a sequel to the one which appeared earlier in this Journal ("Inorganic Complexes: An Introduction" Hyphen VOil. I, Number 3, Spring 1978, pp. 31 - 39) and which dealt with certain aspects of the chemistry of complexes, notably: their definition, stereochemistry, nomenclature and some of their chemical properties. In this article we shall examine the stability of complexes and review some of the applications of coordination compound" in chemis~ry.

  19. Tuberculosis in complex emergencies. (United States)

    Coninx, Rudi


    This paper describes the key factors and remaining challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in complex emergencies. A complex emergency is "a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the ongoing United Nations country programme." Some 200 million people are believed to live in countries affected by complex emergencies; almost all of these are developing countries that also bear the main burden of TB. The effects of complex emergencies impact on TB control programmes, interfering with the goals of identifying and curing TB patients and possibly leading to the emergence of MDR-TB. There are many detailed descriptions of aid interventions during complex emergencies; yet TB control programmes are absent from most of these reports. If TB is neglected, it may quickly result in increased morbidity and mortality, as was demonstrated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Somalia. TB is a major disease in complex emergencies and requires an appropriate public health response. While there is no manual to cover complex emergencies, the interagency manual for TB control in refugee and displaced populations provides valuable guidance. These programmes contribute to the body of evidence needed to compile such a manual, and should ensure that the experiences of TB control in complex emergencies lead to the establishment of evidence-based programmes.

  20. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A


    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  1. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells

  2. The Acacia Senegal complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Ross


    Full Text Available A brief account of the present slate of knowledge of the species in the  Acacia senegal complex is given. A short description of each species is provided together with a key to the identification of the species. Attention is drawn to the taxonomic difficulties encountered within the complex.

  3. Complexity and valued landscapes (United States)

    Michael M. McCarthy


    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  4. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.


    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  5. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.


    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  6. Visual Complexity: A Review (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.


    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  7. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing ...

  8. Thermochemiluminescent Cyclodextrin Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luider, Theo M.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Koek, Johannes N.; Wynberg, Hans


    Thermochemiluminescent complexes of an adamantylideneadamantane 1,2-dioxetane and a cyclodextrin are non-volatile at the temperatures used to excite the thermochemiluminescence. The complexes can be encapsulated in immunosensitized microcapsules, e.g., liposomes, to provide a labeled immunoreagent

  9. Chain-like and dinuclear coordination polymers in lanthanide (Nd, Eu) oxochloride complexes with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine: synthesis, XRD structure and magnetic properties. (United States)

    Lhoste, Jérôme; Pérez-Campos, Ana; Henry, Natacha; Loiseau, Thierry; Rabu, Pierre; Abraham, Francis


    The solvothermal reactions (at 180 °C for 48 h) of a mixture of lanthanide chlorides (Nd, Eu) with the tridendate heterocyclic nitrogen ligand, 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (terpy), in ethanol medium give rise to the formation of crystalline mixed chloro-hydroxo-aquo complex Ln(2)Cl(5)(OH)(H(2)O)(terpy). Its crystal structure consists of the connection of eight- and nine-fold coordinated lanthanide centers linked to each other via μ(2,3)-chloro and μ(3)-hydroxo species to form a tetranuclear unit, which are then further connected through chloro edges to generate infinite ribbons. Only one lanthanide cation in every two is chelated by terpy. Similar molar composition of the starting reactants led to the crystallization at room temperature of a second type of complex LnCl(3)(H(2)O)(terpy) (Ln = Nd, Eu). It is built up from the molecular assembly of dinuclear species containing two eight-fold coordinated lanthanide centers chelated by terpy and linked through a μ(2)-Cl edge. Luminescence spectra have been collected for the europium-based compound and indicates a strong red signal with the expected bands from the F-D transitions. The magnetic properties of the four compounds were investigated. Their behaviors correspond to that of the rare-earth ions present in the structure. The magnetic susceptibility of the neodymium-based compounds agrees with that of the Nd(III) ion with an (4)I(9/2) ground state split by crystal field. Concerning the Eu(III) derivatives, the term (7)F is split by spin-orbit coupling, the first excited states being thermally populated. Accordingly, the thermal dependence of the magnetic susceptibility was nicely reproduced by using appropriate analytical relations. The refined values of the spin-orbit coupling are consistent with the energies of the electronic levels deduced from the photoluminescence spectra. Unexpectedly, the magnetic susceptibility exhibits a hysteretic behavior in the range 45-75 K. This journal is © The Royal Society of

  10. A complex legacy (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher


    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  11. Complexity of Economical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. P. Pavlos; A. C. Iliopoulos; L.P. Karakatsanis; M. Xenakis; E. Pavlos


    .... In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24...

  12. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018


    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  13. Physical Sciences Complex (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  14. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  15. Pigment-protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegelman, H W


    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  16. Microsolvation in molecular complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, M; Schiccheri, N; Piani, G; Pietraperzia, G; Becucci, M; Castellucci, E [European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail:


    In this paper, we report the results of our study of the microsolvation process involving the anisole molecule. We are able to study bimolecular complexes of different compositions. Changing the second partner molecule bound to anisole, we observed complexes of different geometries, because of the large variety of interactions possible for the anisole. High-resolution electronic spectroscopy is the best tool to reveal the correct vibrationally (zero-point) averaged geometry of the complex. That is done by analysing the rovibronic structure of the electronic spectra, which are related to the equilibrium geometry of the complex as well as dynamical processes, both in the ground and in the excited state. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by high-level quantum calculations.

  17. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  18. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  19. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection (United States)

    ... lipid complex is also in combination with another chemotherapy drug to treat multiple myeloma (a type of cancer of the bone marrow) that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other ...

  20. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  1. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo


    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  2. Beyond complex Langevin equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wosiek, Jacek


    A simple integral relation between a complex weight and the corresponding positive distribution is derived by introducing a second complex variable. Together with the positivity and normalizability conditions, this sum rule allows to construct explicitly equivalent pairs of distributions in simple cases. In particular the well known solution for a complex gaussian distribution is generalized to an arbitrary complex slope. This opens a possibility of positive representation of Feynman path integrals directly in the Minkowski time. Such construction is then explicitly carried through in the second part of this presentation. The continuum limit of the new representation exists only if some of the additional couplings tend to infinity and are tuned in a specific way. The approach is then successfully applied to three quantum mechanical examples including a particle in a constant magnetic field -- a simplest prototype of a Wilson line. Further generalizations are shortly discussed and an amusing interpretation of ...

  3. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (United States)

    ... leg, such as a crush injury, fracture or amputation. Other major and minor traumas — such as surgery, ... diagnose complex regional pain syndrome, but the following procedures may provide important clues: Bone scan. This procedure ...

  4. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  5. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán


    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  6. Provability, complexity, grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai


    The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.

  7. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)


    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  8. Nitrosyl complexes of Technetium


    Ackermann, Janine


    The presented thesis describes syntheses and characterization of novel technetium nitrosyl compounds with various ligand systems. The main focus is the synthesis of low-valent technetium nitrosyl complexes with cyclopentadienyl ligands. In the first section, nitrosyltechnetium complexes with monodentate ligands and bidentate P,N chelators are discussed. The established synthetic route for the synthesis of [99mTc(NO)Cl4]- was adopted for the synthesis of this important precursor with the long-...

  9. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank


    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  10. Uranium hexakisamido complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, K.; Mindiola, D.J.; Baker, T.A.; Davis, W.M.; Cummins, C.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Minimal structural changes accompany the oxidation of the paramagnetic uranium(V) anion [U(dbabh){sub 6}]{sup -} to the neutral, diamagnetic counterpart [U(dbabh){sub 6}] (see structure). These two T{sub h}-stmmetric complexes, which were synthetized starting from 2,3:5,6-dibenzo-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene (Hdbabh), are the first isolable homoleptic hexakisamido complexes of uranium(V) and (VI). (orig.)

  11. Urban geography and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain


    Full Text Available The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  12. Algorithmic Relative Complexity


    Daniele Cerra; Mihai Datcu


    Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity ...

  13. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M. [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Sindelar, R. [University of Applied Science Hannover, Faculty II (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry (Germany); Renz, F., E-mail: [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)


    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  14. Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity


    Gharibian, Sevag; Huang, Yichen; Landau, Zeph; Shin, Seung Woo


    Constraint satisfaction problems are a central pillar of modern computational complexity theory. This survey provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity, which includes the study of quantum constraint satisfaction problems. Over the past decade and a half, this field has witnessed fundamental breakthroughs, ranging from the establishment of a "Quantum Cook-Levin Theorem" to deep insights into the structure of 1D low-temperature quantum systems via s...

  15. Complex fate of paralogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snel Berend


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thanks to recent high coverage mass-spectrometry studies and reconstructed protein complexes, we are now in an unprecedented position to study the evolution of biological systems. Gene duplications, known to be a major source of innovation in evolution, can now be readily examined in the context of protein complexes. Results We observe that paralogs operating in the same complex fulfill different roles: mRNA dosage increase for more than a hundred cytosolic ribosomal proteins, mutually exclusive participation of at least 54 paralogs resulting in alternative forms of complexes, and 24 proteins contributing to bona fide structural growth. Inspection of paralogous proteins participating in two independent complexes shows that an ancient, pre-duplication protein functioned in both multi-protein assemblies and a gene duplication event allowed the respective copies to specialize and split their roles. Conclusion Variants with conditionally assembled, paralogous subunits likely have played a role in yeast's adaptation to anaerobic conditions. In a number of cases the gene duplication has given rise to one duplicate that is no longer part of a protein complex and shows an accelerated rate of evolution. Such genes could provide the raw material for the evolution of new functions.

  16. Complex fate of paralogs. (United States)

    Szklarczyk, Radek; Huynen, Martijn A; Snel, Berend


    Thanks to recent high coverage mass-spectrometry studies and reconstructed protein complexes, we are now in an unprecedented position to study the evolution of biological systems. Gene duplications, known to be a major source of innovation in evolution, can now be readily examined in the context of protein complexes. We observe that paralogs operating in the same complex fulfill different roles: mRNA dosage increase for more than a hundred cytosolic ribosomal proteins, mutually exclusive participation of at least 54 paralogs resulting in alternative forms of complexes, and 24 proteins contributing to bona fide structural growth. Inspection of paralogous proteins participating in two independent complexes shows that an ancient, pre-duplication protein functioned in both multi-protein assemblies and a gene duplication event allowed the respective copies to specialize and split their roles. Variants with conditionally assembled, paralogous subunits likely have played a role in yeast's adaptation to anaerobic conditions. In a number of cases the gene duplication has given rise to one duplicate that is no longer part of a protein complex and shows an accelerated rate of evolution. Such genes could provide the raw material for the evolution of new functions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN


    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  18. Cell complexes through time (United States)

    Klette, Reinhard


    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  19. Evaluation of the sorption of Eu(III) in titanium diphosphate; Evaluacion de la sorcion de Eu(III) en difosfato de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz O, H.B.; Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    In this work its are presented: the synthesis, physicochemical characterization and the surface parameters estimation that can be related with the retention properties of the titanium diphosphate for the actinides of valence III (Pu, Am, Cm among others), using the Eu{sup 3+} like a chemical analog. The surface area, hydration time, zero charge point, density of active sites and the surface species distribution in the titanium diphosphate are reported. This information was used to explain the retention of the Eu(lll) in the surface of the titanium diphosphate. (Author)

  20. Turbulent complex (dusty) plasma (United States)

    Zhdanov, Sergey; Schwabe, Mierk


    As a paradigm of complex system dynamics, solid particles immersed into a weakly ionized plasma, so called complex (dusty) plasmas, were (and continue to be) a subject of many detailed studies. Special types of dynamical activity have been registered, in particular, spontaneous pairing, entanglement and cooperative action of a great number of particles resulting in formation of vortices, self-propelling, tunneling, and turbulent movements. In the size domain of 1-10 mkm normally used in experiments with complex plasmas, the characteristic dynamic time-scale is of the order of 0.01-0.1 s, and these particles can be visualized individually in real time, providing an atomistic (kinetic) level of investigations. The low-R turbulent flow induced either by the instability in a complex plasma cloud or formed behind a projectile passing through the cloud is a typical scenario. Our simulations showed formation of a fully developed system of vortices and demonstrated that the velocity structure functions scale very close to the theoretical predictions. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative and turbulent particle motions are present in many physical, astrophysical, and biological systems. Therefore, experiments with turbulent wakes and turbulent complex plasma oscillations are a promising mean to observe and study in detail the anomalous transport on the level of individual particles.

  1. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás


    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  2. Controllability of Complex Networks (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo


    The ultimate proof of our understanding of natural or technological systems is reflected in our ability to control them. While control theory offers mathematical tools to steer engineered systems towards a desired state, we lack a general framework to control complex self-organized systems, like the regulatory network of a cell or the Internet. Here we develop analytical tools to study the controllability of an arbitrary complex directed network, identifying the set of driver nodes whose time-dependent control can guide the system's dynamics. We apply these tools to real and model networks, finding that sparse inhomogeneous networks, which emerge in many real complex systems, are the most difficult to control. In contrast, dense and homogeneous networks can be controlled via a few driver nodes. Counterintuitively, we find that in both model and real systems the driver nodes tend to avoid the hubs. We show that the robustness of control to link failure is determined by a core percolation problem, helping us understand why many complex systems are relatively insensitive to link deletion. The developed approach offers a framework to address the controllability of an arbitrary network, representing a key step towards the eventual control of complex systems.

  3. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra


    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  4. Tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jerman


    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder with a characteristic development of a benign tumorous growth in various tissues. Clinical picture is very heterogeneous, resulting in difficult diagnosis and unrecognized patients. In this article, we present pathophysiological basis for understanding the clinical picture and the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex. The skin, central nervous system, kidneys and heart are the most commonly affected sites. The disease course is progressive. Although the great majority of lesions are benign, life expectancy and quality of life are affected by their secondary impact. Until recently, the therapy has been only symptomatic, but nowadays the inhibitors of mTOR complex, such as everolimus, are efficient in reducing the growth of tumors.

  5. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.


    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  6. Large erupted complex odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeev Vasudevan


    Full Text Available Odontomas are a heterogeneous group of jaw bone lesions, classified as odontogenic tumors which usually include well-diversified dental tissues. Odontoma is a term introduced to the literature by Broca in 1867. Trauma, infection and hereditary factors are the possible causes of forming this kind of lesions. Among odontogenic tumors, they constitute about 2/3 of cases. These lesions usually develop slowly and asymptomatically, and in most cases they do not cross the bone borders. Two types of odontoma are recognized: compound and complex. Complex odontomas are less common than the compound variety in the ratio 1:2.3. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. We present a case of complex odontoma, in which apparent eruption has occurred in the area of the right maxillary second molar region.

  7. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server


    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  8. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino


    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  9. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny


    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  10. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  11. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin


    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... performance, engage with high degrees of interdependency and allow the emergence of design agency and feedback between the multiple scales of architectural construction. This paper presents examples for integrated design simulation from a series of projects including Lace Wall, A Bridge Too Far and Inflated...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  12. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  13. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick


    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  14. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald


    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  15. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N [Berkeley, CA; Corneillie, Todd M [Campbell, CA; Xu, Jide [Berkeley, CA


    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  16. Complex HVPT and hyperasymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)


    Complex hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is applied to the problem of a harmonic oscillator with a perturbation gx{sup 3}exp(i{psi}), for which the traditional Rayleigh-Schodinger perturbation theory has to be supplemented by hyperasymptotics for obtaining accurate resonance energies in the negative {psi} region. Complex HVPT gives accurate results for positive {psi} and for negative {psi} up to about vertical bar {phi} vertical bar = {pi}/24. The case of a quartic perturbed oscillator is also treated. (letter to the editor)

  17. Complexity, time and music




    The concept of complexity as considered in terms of its algorithmic definition proposed by G.J. Chaitin and A.N. Kolmogorov is revisited for the dynamical complexity of music. When music pieces are cast in the form of time series of pitch variations, concepts of dynamical systems theory can be used to define new quantities such as the {\\em dimensionality} as a measure of the {\\em global temporal dynamics} of a music piece, and the Shanon {\\em entropy} as an evaluation of its {\\em local dynami...

  18. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.


    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  19. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin


    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  20. Complex logistics audit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Marková


    Full Text Available Complex logistics audit system is a tool for realization of logistical audit in the company. The current methods for logistics auditare based on “ad hok” analysis of logisticsl system. This paper describes system for complex logistics audit. It is a global diagnosticsof logistics processes and functions of enterprise. The goal of logistics audit is to provide comparative documentation for managementabout state of logistics in company and to show the potential of logistics changes in order to achieve more effective companyperformance.

  1. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C


    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  2. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W


    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  3. Introduction to complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, H A


    Complex analysis is a classic and central area of mathematics, which is studied and exploited in a range of important fields, from number theory to engineering. Introduction to Complex Analysis was first published in 1985, and for this much awaited second edition the text has been considerably expanded, while retaining the style of the original. More detailed presentation is given of elementary topics, to reflect the knowledge base of current students. Exercise sets have beensubstantially revised and enlarged, with carefully graded exercises at the end of each chapter.This is the latest additi

  4. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  5. Entropy, Search, Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Katona, Gyula O H; Tardos, Gábor


    The present volume is a collection of survey papers in the fields of entropy, search and complexity. They summarize the latest developments in their respective areas. More than half of the papers belong to search theory which lies on the borderline of mathematics and computer science, information theory and combinatorics, respectively. Search theory has variegated applications, among others in bioinformatics. Some of these papers also have links to linear statistics and communicational complexity. Further works survey the fundamentals of information theory and quantum source coding. The volume is recommended to experienced researchers as well as young scientists and students both in mathematics and computer science

  6. Influence of metal loading and humic acid functional groups on the complexation behavior of trivalent lanthanides analyzed by CE-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautenburger, Ralf, E-mail: [Institute of Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 3-5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas M. [Institute of Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 3-5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany); Beck, Horst P. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany)


    Highlights: • Free and complexed HA-Ln species are separated by CE-ICP-MS. • Weaker and stronger HA-binding sites for Ln-complexation can be detected. • Complexation by original and modified humic acid (HA) with blocked phenolic hydroxyl- and carboxyl-groups is compared. • Stronger HA-binding sites for Ln³⁺ can be assumed as chelating complexes. • Chelates consist of trivalent Ln and a combination of both OH- and COOH-groups. Abstract: The complexation behavior of Aldrich humic acid (AHA) and a modified humic acid (AHA-PB) with blocked phenolic hydroxyl groups for trivalent lanthanides (Ln) is compared, and their influence on the mobility of Ln(III) in an aquifer is analyzed. As speciation technique, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For metal loading experiments 25 mg L⁻¹ of AHA and different concentrations (c Ln(Eu+Gd)} = 100–6000 μg L⁻¹) of Eu(III) and Gd(III) in 10 mM NaClO₄ at pH 5 were applied. By CE-ICP-MS, three Ln-fractions, assumed to be uncomplexed, weakly and strongly AHA-complexed metal can be detected. For the used Ln/AHA-ratios conservative complex stability constants log βLnAHA decrease from 6.33 (100 μg L⁻¹ Ln³⁺) to 4.31 (6000 μg L⁻¹ Ln³⁺) with growing Ln-content. In order to verify the postulated weaker and stronger humic acid binding sites for trivalent Eu and Gd, a modified AHA with blocked functional groups was used. For these experiments 500 μg L⁻¹ Eu and 25 mg L⁻¹ AHA and AHA-PB in 10 mM NaClO₄ at pH-values ranging from 3 to 10 have been applied. With AHA-PB, where 84% of the phenolic OH-groups and 40% of the COOH-groups were blocked, Eu complexation was significantly lower, especially at the strong binding sites. The log β-values decrease from 6.11 (pH 10) to 5.61 at pH 3 (AHA) and for AHA-PB from 6.01 (pH 7) to 3.94 at pH 3. As a potential consequence, particularly humic acids with a high amount of

  7. Lanthanide-doped luminescent ionogels. (United States)

    Lunstroot, Kyra; Driesen, Kris; Nockemann, Peter; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen; Bellayer, Séverine; Viau, Lydie; Le Bideau, Jean; Vioux, André


    Ionogels are solid oxide host networks confining at a meso-scale ionic liquids, and retaining their liquid nature. Ionogels were obtained by dissolving lanthanide(III) complexes in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C6mim][Tf2N], followed by confinement of the lanthanide-doped ionic liquid mixtures in the pores of a nano-porous silica network. [C6mim][Ln(tta)4], where tta is 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate and Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Ho, Er, Yb, and [choline]3[Tb(dpa)3], where dpa=pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate (dipicolinate), were chosen as the lanthanide complexes. The ionogels are luminescent, ion-conductive inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Depending on the lanthanide(III) ion, emission in the visible or the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum was observed. The work presented herein highlights that the confinement did not disturb the first coordination sphere of the lanthanide ions and also showed the excellent luminescence performance of the lanthanide tetrakis beta-diketonate complexes. The crystal structures of the complexes [C6mim][Yb(tta)4] and [choline]3[Tb(dpa)3] are reported.

  8. The Preparation, Characterization, and Magnetism of Copper 15-Metallacrown-5 Lanthanide Complexes. (United States)

    Stemmler, Ann J.; Kampf, Jeff W.; Kirk, Martin L.; Atasi, Bassel H.; Pecoraro, Vincent L.


    The preparation and characterization of a series of encapsulated-lanthanide 15-metallacrown-5 complexes are reported. Planar ligands such as picoline hydroxamic acid (picha) or nonplanar alpha-amino hydroxamic acids (e.g., glycine hydroxamic acid (glyha)) led to one-step syntheses of metallacrowns in yields as high as 85%. The reaction of the appropriate hydroxamic acid with copper acetate and (1)/(5) equiv of gadolinium(III) or europium(III) nitrates in DMF or water yielded crystals of Gd(NO(3))(3)[15-MC(Cu(II)N(picha))-5], 1, Eu(NO(3))(3)[15-MC(Cu(II)N(picha))-5], 2, and Eu(NO(3))(3)[15-MC(Cu(II)N(glyha))-5], 3. Several other 15-metallacrown-5 complexes were synthesized with (1) Cu(II) or Ni(II) in the metallacrown ring metal position, (2) various lanthanides (La(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), and Yb(III)) encapsulated in the center of the ring, and (3) chiral alpha-amino hydroxamic acids (e.g., phenylalanine hydroxamic acid (H(2)pheha), leucine hydroxamic acid (H(2)leuha), and tyrosine hydroxamic acid (H(2)tyrha)). It is believed that all of the complexes containing Cu(II) ions have the ring metals either in four-coordinate, square-planar environments, bound to two tetradentate hydroximate ligands, or in five-coordinate, square-pyramidal geometries if solvent is bound. Spectroscopic and magnetic characterization of the Ni(II) complexes suggests that they are either five- or six-coordinate. The encapsulated lanthanides are generally pentagonal bipyramidal, with five oxygen donors from the metallacrown ring and solvent or bidentate nitrate ions in the axial positions. The circular arrangement of ions results in interesting magnetic behavior. With Dy(III) encapsulated in the center of the ring, a magnetic moment as high as 10.9 &mgr;(B) is achieved. Analysis of the variable-temperature susceptibility of La(NO(3))(3)[15-MC(Cu(II)N(picha))-5] indicates that the five Cu(II) ions are antiferromagnetically coupled, forming an S = (1

  9. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  10. Complex fate of paralogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szklarczyk, R.; Huynen, M.A.; Snel, B.


    BACKGROUND: Thanks to recent high coverage mass-spectrometry studies and reconstructed protein complexes, we are now in an unprecedented position to study the evolution of biological systems. Gene duplications, known to be a major source of innovation in evolution, can now be readily examined in the

  11. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido


    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  12. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cadmium ions, but in different coordination environments, depending on the counter anion used. In addition, electronic absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurements revealed a significant interaction of the four complexes with .... Data collection, data reduction, structure solu- tion/refinement were ...

  13. Surface complexation modeling (United States)

    Adsorption-desorption reactions are important processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the environment. Surface complexation models are chemical models that can account for the effects of variable chemical conditions, such as pH, on adsorption reactions. These models define specific ...

  14. unsymmetrical Schiff base complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The kinetics of thermal decomposition was stud- ied using thermal gravimetric method (TG) and Coats-Redfern equation. According to Coats-Redfern plots, the kinetics of thermal decomposition of the studied complexes is first-order in all stages. Also the kinetics and mechanism of the exchange reaction of the coordinated ...

  15. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are rewarded by flowering plants with nectar and superabundant pollen for the services of pollination rendered by them. As living organisms have adopted these newer ways of life and invaded an ever greater range of habitats, they have assumed larger sizes and more complex structures (Figure 2). Bacteria subsisting as ...

  16. schiff base complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The complexes of iron (II) and nickel (II) with schiff base derived from benzoin and 2-amino benzoic acid have been prepared. Solubility, melting point, decomposition temperature, conductance measurement, infrared (IR) and UV – Visible spectrophotometric studies were used in characterizing the compounds.

  17. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea


    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  18. Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna


    Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.

  19. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupli...

  20. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads


    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  1. Debating complexity in modeling (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao


    Complexity in modeling would seem to be an issue of universal importance throughout the geosciences, perhaps throughout all science, if the debate last year among groundwater modelers is any indication. During the discussion the following questions and observations made up the heart of the debate.

  2. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais


    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  3. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie


    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  4. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R


    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  5. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre


    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  6. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W


    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  7. Architecture of Glaciotectonic Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig A. Schack Pedersen


    Full Text Available Glaciotectonic studies are an integrated part of the Quaternary geological research carried out by the Danish geological survey. Almost all the hilly areas in Denmark were created or affected by glaciotectonic deformations, and the features are included in the mapping of surface near deposits. For the mapping and support of constructing 3D geological models a classification of architecture of glaciotectonic complexes is suggested. The important elements for classification of architecture are the surfaces. Four orders of surfaces are defined for glaciotectonic complexes: first-order surfaces are décollement surfaces and glaciotectonic unconformities; second-order surfaces are ramps and flats—the thrust faults; third-order surfaces are folded beds—anticlines and synclines; and fourth-order surfaces are small scale folds and faults—kink bands, conjugate faults, box folds, etc. The most important first-order surface is the décollement surface. This surface limits the glaciotectonic complex at its base and controls the extent of glaciotectonic disturbances. Below this surface, ordinary flat lying planar bedding occurs, whereas above the surface a number of structures are present characteristic of second- to fourth-order elements in the glaciotectonic architecture. The other first-order surface is the topographic top of the glaciotectonic complex, which eventually may be replaced by a truncating unconformity.

  8. Real and complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Apelian, Christopher; Taft, Earl; Nashed, Zuhair


    The Spaces R, Rk, and CThe Real Numbers RThe Real Spaces RkThe Complex Numbers CPoint-Set Topology Bounded SetsClassification of Points Open and Closed SetsNested Intervals and the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem Compactness and Connectedness Limits and Convergence Definitions and First Properties Convergence Results for SequencesTopological Results for Sequences Properties of Infinite SeriesManipulations of Series in RFunctions: Definitions and Limits DefinitionsFunctions as MappingsSome Elementary Complex FunctionsLimits of FunctionsFunctions: Continuity and Convergence Continuity Uniform Continuity Sequences and Series of FunctionsThe DerivativeThe Derivative for f: D1 → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RpThe Derivative for f: D → CThe Inverse and Implicit Function TheoremsReal IntegrationThe Integral of f: [a, b] → RProperties of the Riemann Integral Further Development of Integration TheoryVector-Valued and Line IntegralsComplex IntegrationIntroduction to Complex Integrals Fu...

  9. Aquaporins in complex tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, S; Zeuthen, T; La Cour, M


    Multiple physiological fluid movements are involved in vision. Here we define the cellular and subcellular sites of aquaporin (AQP) water transport proteins in human and rat eyes by immunoblotting, high-resolution immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3 is abundant in bulbar......, predicting specific roles for each in the complex network through which water movements occur in the eye....

  10. Optical Complex Systems 2008 (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  11. Life Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like sponges or mushrooms have just a few kinds of cells, more complex organisms like crabs or frogs have tens of different kinds of cells. These cells relate to each other in many different ways; the most advanced of these is through connections of nerve cells. Each nerve cell has many processes which link to other nerve, ...

  12. Accessibility in complex networks (United States)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.


    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  13. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth


    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society and t...

  14. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.


    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  15. Complexity measures of music (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.


    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  16. A Complex Lens for a Complex Eye. (United States)

    Stahl, Aaron L; Baucom, Regina S; Cook, Tiffany A; Buschbeck, Elke K


    A key innovation for high resolution eyes is a sophisticated lens that precisely focuses light onto photoreceptors. The eyes of holometabolous larvae range from very simple eyes that merely detect light to eyes that are capable of high spatial resolution. Particularly interesting are the bifocal lenses of Thermonectus marmoratus larvae, which differentially focus light on spectrally-distinct retinas. While functional aspects of insect lenses have been relatively well studied, little work has explored their molecular makeup, especially in regard to more complex eye types. To investigate this question, we took a transcriptomic and proteomic approach to identify the major proteins contributing to the principal bifocal lenses of T. marmoratus larvae. Mass spectrometry revealed 10 major lens proteins. Six of these share sequence homology with cuticular proteins, a large class of proteins that are also major components of corneal lenses from adult compound eyes of Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Two proteins were identified as house-keeping genes and the final two lack any sequence homologies to known genes. Overall the composition seems to follow a pattern of co-opting transparent and optically dense proteins, similar to what has been described for other animal lenses. To identify cells responsible for the secretion of specific lens proteins, we performed in situ hybridization studies and found some expression differences between distal and proximal corneagenous cells. Since the distal cells likely give rise to the periphery and the proximal cells to the center of the lens, our findings highlight a possible mechanism for establishing structural differences that are in line with the bifocal nature of these lenses. A better understanding of lens composition provides insights into the evolution of proper focusing, which is an important step in the transition between low-resolution and high-resolution eyes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Krušec


    Full Text Available The Kampor Memorial Complex, which was built in 1953 to a design by architect Edvard Ravnikar, is situated on the site of a former cemetery, where between 1942 and 1943 the Italians buried the prisoners who died in the concentration camp on the Island of Rab. Along with the description of the architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, the purpose of the paper is to show the most significant models and motivations influencing this particular architectural creation by Ravnikar. The analysis of spatial sequences of the memorial complex served as a basis to study the architectural concept of the cemetery, as described in the paper. The layout of the cemetery is longitudinal. The transversal terraces formulating the lines of graves are longitudinally cut in the middle by a paved path representing the central communication axis of the memorial complex. The path is additionally defined by a sequence of three stone obelisks of different heights, situated along the path. Along the path, three major programmatic emphases can be identified: the entrance vestibule, the platform with the great obelisk and a water tank, and the area below the vaulted structure in stone, also called the Museum. The paper describes the models and influences underlying the creation of Ravnikar's architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, particularly Le Corbusier's influence on Ravnikar in the 1940's and the 1950's. In many ways, Ravnikar's stay in Paris and work with Le Corbusier in 1938 round off his basic architectural education; nevertheless, he remained rooted in the classical architectural elements that he obtained in his studies, particularly in the seminar by Jože Plečnik.

  18. Catalytic organometallic anticancer complexes (United States)

    Dougan, Sarah J.; Habtemariam, Abraha; McHale, Sarah E.; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J.


    Organometallic complexes offer chemistry that is not accessible to purely organic molecules and, hence, potentially new mechanisms of drug action. We show here that the presence of both an iodido ligand and a σ-donor/π-acceptor phenylazopyridine ligand confers remarkable inertness toward ligand substitution on the half-sandwich “piano-stool” ruthenium arene complexes [(η6-arene)Ru(azpy)I]+ (where arene = p-cymene or biphenyl, and azpy = N,N-dimethylphenyl- or hydroxyphenyl-azopyridine) in aqueous solution. Surprisingly, despite this inertness, these complexes are highly cytotoxic to human ovarian A2780 and human lung A549 cancer cells. Fluorescence-trapping experiments in A549 cells suggest that the cytotoxicity arises from an increase in reactive oxygen species. Redox activity of these azopyridine RuII complexes was confirmed by electrochemical measurements. The first one-electron reduction step (half-wave potential −0.2 to −0.4 V) is assignable to reduction of the azo group of the ligand. In contrast, the unbound azopyridine ligands are not readily reduced. Intriguingly the ruthenium complex acted as a catalyst in reactions with the tripeptide glutathione (γ-l-Glu-l-Cys-Gly), a strong reducing agent present in cells at millimolar concentrations; millimolar amounts of glutathione were oxidized to glutathione disulfide in the presence of micromolar ruthenium concentrations. A redox cycle involving glutathione attack on the azo bond of coordinated azopyridine is proposed. Such ligand-based redox reactions provide new concepts for the design of catalytic drugs. PMID:18687892

  19. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan


    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  20. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD


    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  1. Reducing GWAS Complexity. (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Conti, David V; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A; Coetzee, Gerhard A


    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups.

  2. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.


    to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern......The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...

  3. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian


    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  4. Gold Thione Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caddeo


    Full Text Available The reaction of the ligand Et4todit (4,5,6,7-Tetrathiocino-[1,2-b:3,4-b']-diimidazolyl-1,3,8,10-tetraethyl-2,9-dithione with gold complexes leads to the dinuclear gold(I complexes [{Au(C6F5}2(Et4todit] and [Au(Et4todit]2(OTf2, which do not contain any gold-gold interactions, or to the gold(III derivative [{Au(C6F53}2(Et4todit]. The crystal structures have been established by X-ray diffraction studies and show that the gold centers coordinate to the sulfur atoms of the imidazoline-2-thione groups.

  5. Complexes Tickling the $ubject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gildersleeve


    Full Text Available This article continues my earlier work of reading Jung with Lacan. This article will develop Zizek’s work on Lacan’s concept of objet petit a by relating it to a phenomenological interpretation of Jung. I use a number of different examples, including Zizek’s interpretation of Francis Bacon, Edvard Munch, Hans Holbein and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to describe the objet petit a and its relationship to a phenomenological interpretation of complexes. By integrating other Lacanian concepts, such as subject, drive, fantasy, jouissance, gaze, desire, and ego as well as the imaginary, symbolic and Real, this work also highlights how Hegel and Heidegger can elucidate the relationship between objet petit a and complexes. Jung’s transcendent function and the Rosarium Philosophorum also elucidate the relationship between Jung and Lacan.

  6. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  7. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus


    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and......, finally, by presenting the Cynefin Framework for Sense-Making as a tool of explicatory potential that has already shown its usefulness in several contexts. I further emphasize linking the two concepts into a common and, hopefully, useful concept. Furthermore, I argue that a resilient system is not merely...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  8. Minimum Complexity Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Shirin


    The fast growing field of compressed sensing is founded on the fact that if a signal is 'simple' and has some 'structure', then it can be reconstructed accurately with far fewer samples than its ambient dimension. Many different plausible structures have been explored in this field, ranging from sparsity to low-rankness and to finite rate of innovation. However, there are important abstract questions that are yet to be answered. For instance, what are the general abstract meanings of 'structure' and 'simplicity'? Do there exist universal algorithms for recovering such simple structured objects from fewer samples than their ambient dimension? In this paper, we aim to address these two questions. Using algorithmic information theory tools such as Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a unified method of describing 'simplicity' and 'structure'. We then explore the performance of an algorithm motivated by Ocam's Razor (called MCP for minimum complexity pursuit) and show that it requires $O(k\\log n)$ number of samples...

  9. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  10. Complexity of the Ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik


    This brief article presents the everyday cultural use of the Snapchat instant messaging application for video chats as an exemplary case of the challenges confronting studies of cinematics in an epoch marked by the rise in network societies of ubiquitous mobile and social media and technics....... It proffers and begins to detail the argument that snap video chats cannot be denigrated as mere ‘shorts’ but must be approached as spatiotemporally and experientally complex....

  11. Operational Shock Complexity Theory (United States)


    too kind to state that they envisaged complexity theory. The idea of Cognitive Dissonance is accredited to Leon Festinger and is at heart that awful...on psychological elements. 3 This monograph will only touch on a couple of the areas of change and why the concept of operational shock must evolve...attack (and thus was physical in nature), which would lead to a psychological outcome, namely the loss of will to continue fighting.44 This will to

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome


    V. A. Koryachkin


    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent mo...

  13. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert


    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  14. Complex Flows by Nanohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, E; Covello, P; Alder, B


    The study of complex flows by particle simulations is speeded up over molecular dynamics (MD) by more than two orders of magnitude by employing a stochastic collision dynamics method (DSMC) extended to high density (CBA). As a consequence, a picture generated on a single processor shows the typical features of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and is in quantitative agreement with the experimentally found long time behavior.

  15. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo


    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  16. Advanced complex trait analysis. (United States)

    Gray, A; Stewart, I; Tenesa, A


    The Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) software package can quantify the contribution of genetic variation to phenotypic variation for complex traits. However, as those datasets of interest continue to increase in size, GCTA becomes increasingly computationally prohibitive. We present an adapted version, Advanced Complex Trait Analysis (ACTA), demonstrating dramatically improved performance. We restructure the genetic relationship matrix (GRM) estimation phase of the code and introduce the highly optimized parallel Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library combined with manual parallelization and optimization. We introduce the Linear Algebra PACKage (LAPACK) library into the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis stage. For a test case with 8999 individuals and 279,435 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we reduce the total runtime, using a compute node with two multi-core Intel Nehalem CPUs, from ∼17 h to ∼11 min. The source code is fully available under the GNU Public License, along with Linux binaries. For more information see Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. The Emparassment of Complexity (United States)

    Nowotny, Helga

    My vision of complexity sciences targets their potential to extend the range, precision, and depth in making predictions. While this has always been the ambition and yardstick for the physicalmathematical sciences, complexity sciences now allow to include society and social behavior - to some extent. There is agreement that society is a complex adaptive system, CAS, with a few peculiarities. Ignoring, downplaying, or naturalizing them, i.e. to take them as essential and given, carries the risk to end up with abstractions which are cutoff from the dynamics of societal contexts. One of the peculiarities of society as a CAS is that the models with which we try to make sense of the world are invented and constructed by us. It is humans who make observations and provide the assumptions on which models are based. Humans leave traces that are collected and processed to be transformed into data. Humans decide to which purpose they will be put and how they will be repurposed. Humans are object of research and subject. Coping with these peculiarities requires an inbuilt reflexivity. Practioners must perform a double act and do so repeatedly. They must engage in a focused way with their scientific work and equally distance themselves by critically reflecting their often tacit assumptions. A friend of mine, Yehuda Elkana, called this twotier thinking...

  18. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences


    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  19. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder]. (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe


    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  20. Emergent complex network geometry. (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra


    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.

  1. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective (United States)

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali


    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  2. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Copper(II) complexes; nuclease activity; catalytic properties; DNA binding. Abstract. Redox active mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes have been prepared and structurally characterized. ... The cleavage activity of the bis-dpq complex is significantly higher than the bis-phen complex of copper(II).

  3. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  4. The Stigma Complex (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  5. Complex Auditory Signals (United States)


    I I!ED REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE AD-A 199 332 b RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 3. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY OF REPORT A.Proved for pj ." ic release 2b...remarkably little experimental nent complexes. In the first experiment, a single evidence documenting these claims. Viemeister component of a 21-component...deci relts~to a l’rn NI betwen CtMRd tipoe ( 1959 ) and Gabriel and Colburn ( 1981 ) xk Ill be con- ot:ilcl tlope dlcelati ’o nos dids e lceredl .t% h

  6. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon


    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Sebastin


    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature.

  8. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies...

  9. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari


    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  10. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie


    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  11. Kinetics of complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh


    The presentation in the book is based on charge balance on the dust particles, number and energy balance of the constituents and atom-ion-electron interaction in the gaseous plasma. Size distribution of dust particles, statistical mechanics, Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on dust particles and nonlinear interaction of complex plasmas with electric and electromagnetic fields have been discussed in the book. The book introduces the reader to basic concepts and typical applications. The book should be of use to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  12. Exploring complex networks. (United States)

    Strogatz, S H


    The study of networks pervades all of science, from neurobiology to statistical physics. The most basic issues are structural: how does one characterize the wiring diagram of a food web or the Internet or the metabolic network of the bacterium Escherichia coli? Are there any unifying principles underlying their topology? From the perspective of nonlinear dynamics, we would also like to understand how an enormous network of interacting dynamical systems-be they neurons, power stations or lasers-will behave collectively, given their individual dynamics and coupling architecture. Researchers are only now beginning to unravel the structure and dynamics of complex networks.

  13. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille


    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  14. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses. (United States)

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Pybus, Oliver G


    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy viruses were infecting mammals more than 100 million years ago and codiverged with their hosts across an entire geological era. Our analysis highlights the role of evolutionary constraint in maintaining viral genome structure and indicates that accessory genes and mammalian mechanisms of innate immunity are the products of macroevolutionary conflict played out over a geological time scale.

  15. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    of the industry. The main objective of this project was to understand how the development of integrated solutions in construction led to distinct configuration of actors and structures. Furthermore, the project analyses whether these changes modified project processes and contributed to the delivery of new value...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  16. Organization of complex networks (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim

    Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how

  17. The Orpheus complex. (United States)

    Dawson, T


    This paper examines the possible psychological implications of two adaptations of the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, both of which were completed in 1997. The first is by a man: 'Deconstructing Harry', a film by Woody Allen. The second is by a woman: 'Eurydice in the Underworld', a short story written by Kathy Acker in the last year of her life. The paper argues that there are only four 'necessary events' in the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. It defines the sequence of these events as a 'mythic pattern' that represents the experience of loss, unconscious yearning, depression, and psychological inflation. The film is examined as an expression of an 'Orpheus complex', the short story as an expression of an 'Eurydice complex'. The paper suggests a possible reason for the persistence of interest in the myth throughout the twentieth century. Although it notes that women appear to find it easier to free themselves from identification with the mythic pattern, it also provides reasons for thinking that men may be about to do the same.

  18. The authority of complexity. (United States)

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R


    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable.

  19. Bound Exciton Complexes (United States)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  20. Complexity in language acquisition. (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom


    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)


    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  2. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian


    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  3. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.


    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  4. Complex agent networks: An emerging approach for modeling complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, S.; Zarrabi, N.; Lees, M.; Sloot, P.M.A.


    Complexity and complex systems are all around us: from molecular and cellular systems in biology up to economics and human societies. There is an urgent need for methods that can capture the multi-scale spatio-temporal characteristics of complex systems. Recent emphasis has centered on two methods


    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir


    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan E. Mansurov


    Full Text Available The relevance of this work is determined, on the one hand, by tightening of the foreign political situation and its possible negative impact on the food security of the country, and, on the other hand, by the crisis of the domestic agricultural sector. These factors demand the development of new approaches to regional agroindustrial complex (AIC management. The aim is to develop a methodology for assessing the level of food self-sufficiency in main food areas of the Volgograd region. The author used the results of the statistical materials of AIC of the Volgograd region for 2016. The analytical methods included mathematical analysis and comparison. The main results are as follows. Based on the analysis of the current situation to ensure food security of Russia it was proved that at the present time it is necessary to develop effective indicators showing the level of self-sufficiency in basic food regions. It was also revealed that at the moment this indicator in the system of regional agrarian and industrial complex is not controlled. As a result of generalization of existing approaches the author’s method of rating the level of self-sufficiency of regions was offered. Its testing was carried out in several districts of the Volgograd region. The proposed authoring method of rating estimation of self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs can be used in the regional agroindustrial complex management system at the federal and local levels. It can be used to rank areas in terms of their self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs. This allows us to focus on the development of backward areas of agro-food and make appropriate management decisions. The final rating value - 0.759 obtained by the results of analysis of the situation in the Volgograd region means that the situation in matters of selfsufficiency in basic foodstuffs in general is good. However, we should aim at the maximum possible value of the rating - 1. In the application of the proposed

  7. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  8. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf


    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  9. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János


    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  10. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity (United States)

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    Work and heat fluctuations in systems with deterministic and stochastic forces / E. G. D. Cohen and R. Van Zon -- Is the entropy S[symbol] extensive or nonextensive? / C. Tsallis -- Superstatistics: recent developments and applications / C. Beck -- Two stories outside Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Mori's Q-phase transitions and glassy dynamics at the onset of chaos / A. Robledo, F. Baldovin and E. Mayoral -- Time-averages and the heat theorem / A. Carati -- Fundamental formulae and numerical evidences for the central limit theorem in Tsallis statistics / H. Suyari -- Generalizing the Planck distribution / A. M. C. Soma and C. Tsallis -- The physical roots of complexity: renewal or modulation? / P. Grigolini -- Nonequivalent ensembles and metastability / H. Touchette and R. S. Ellis -- Statistical physics for cosmic structures / L. Pietronero and F. Sylos Labini -- Metastability and anomalous behavior in the HMF model: connections to nonextensive thermodynamics and glassy dynamics / A. Pluchino, A. Rapisarda and V. Latora -- Vlasov analysis of relaxation and meta-equilibrium / C. Anteneodo and R. O. Vallejos -- Weak chaos in large conservative systems - infinite-range coupled standard maps / L. G. Moyano, A. P. Majtey and C. Tsallis -- Deterministc aging / E. Barkai -- Edge of chaos of the classical kicked top map: sensitivity to initial conditions / S. M. Duarte Queirós and C. Tsallis -- What entropy at the edge of chaos? / M. Lissia, M. Coraddu and R. Tonelli -- Fractal growth of carbon schwarzites / G. Benedek ... [et al.] -- Clustering and interface propagation in interacting particle dynamics / A. Provata and V. K. Noussiou -- Resonant activation and noise enhanced stability in Josephson junctions / A. L. Pankratov and B. Spagnolo -- Symmetry breaking induced directed motions / C.-H. Chang and T. Y. Tsong -- General theory of Galilean-invariant entropic lattic Boltzmann models / B. M. Boghosian -- Unifying approach to the jamming transition in granular media and

  11. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars


    – The transition towards PCP can be best described as a learning process which cumulates the knowledge and experience in the client-supplier interaction accompanied by changing contractual and relational capabilities. In public infrastructure this process is not initially motivated by the benefits of value co......Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during...... the transition process. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple, longitudinal case study method is used to examine the transition towards PCP. The study deploys rich qualitative data sets by combining semi-structured interviews, focus group meetings and organisational reports and documents. Findings...

  12. Iridium complexes for electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, Stafford Wheeler; Hintermair, Ulrich; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H


    Solution-phase (e.g., homogeneous) or surface-immobilized (e.g., heterogeneous) electrode-driven oxidation catalysts based on iridium coordination compounds which self-assemble upon chemical or electrochemical oxidation of suitable precursors and methods of making and using thereof are. Iridium species such as {[Ir(LX).sub.x(H.sub.2O).sub.y(.mu.-O)].sub.z.sup.m+}.sub.n wherein x, y, m are integers from 0-4, z and n from 1-4 and LX is an oxidation-resistant chelate ligand or ligands, such as such as 2(2-pyridyl)-2-propanolate, form upon oxidation of various molecular iridium complexes, for instance [Cp*Ir(LX)OH] or [(cod)Ir(LX)] (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, cod=cis-cis,1,5-cyclooctadiene) when exposed to oxidative conditions, such as sodium periodate (NaIO.sub.4) in aqueous solution at ambient conditions.

  13. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)


    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  14. Complex pendulum biomass sensor (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.


    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  15. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.


    Full Text Available In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem and Wolfram’s notion of “computational irreducibility” are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

  16. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob


    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.......The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...

  17. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  18. Evolution of Biological Complexity (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    It is a general rule of nature that larger organisms are more complex, at least as measured by the number of distinct types of cells present. This reflects the fitness advantage conferred by a division of labor among specialized cells over homogeneous totipotency. Yet, increasing size has both costs and benefits, and the search for understanding the driving forces behind the evolution of multicellularity is becoming a very active area of research. This article presents an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work aimed at understanding this biological problem from the perspective of physics. For a class of model organisms, the Volvocine green algae, an emerging hypothesis connects the transition from organisms with totipotent cells to those with terminal germ-soma differentiation to the competition between diffusion and fluid advection created by beating flagella. A number of challenging problems in fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory emerge when one probes the workings of the simplest multicellular organisms.

  19. Complex Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bountis, Tassos


    This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems.  The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...

  20. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.


    Thermodynamics has always been a remarkable science in that it studies macroscopic properties that are only partially determined by the properties of individual molecules. Entropy and free energy only exist in constellations of more than a single molecule (degree of freedom). They are the so...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...... by taking into account both the molecular properties and the emergent properties that are due to (dys)organisation. This redefinition will free nonequilibrium thermodynamics from the limitations imposed by earlier near-equilibrium assumptions, resolve the duality with kinetics, and bridge the apparent gap...

  1. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Castro Ferreira


    Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.

  2. Binodal Compositions of Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, E.; Westphal, A.H.; Borst, J.W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.


    When oppositely charged polyelectrolytes are mixed below a critical salt concentration, their mixtures show macroscopic phase separation into a dilute and a dense, polyelectrolyte complex phase. Binodal compositions of the polyelectrolyte complexes have been measured experimentally using

  3. Fifteen papers in complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aizenberg, L A; Degtyar', P V; Gindikin, S G; Gaidis, Ya Yu


    The papers in this volume range over a variety of topics in complex analysis, including holomorphic and entire functions, integral representations, the local theory of residues, complex manifolds, singularities, and CR structures.

  4. Holistic education and complexity thinking


    Jörg, T.


    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a challenge to show how HE may benefit of thinking in complexity. For me thinking in complexity is a way of humanizing our scientific thinking. It asks for a reform of our thinking. The rethinking of com...

  5. Statistic complexity: combining kolmogorov complexity with an ensemble approach. (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank


    The evaluation of the complexity of an observed object is an old but outstanding problem. In this paper we are tying on this problem introducing a measure called statistic complexity. This complexity measure is different to all other measures in the following senses. First, it is a bivariate measure that compares two objects, corresponding to pattern generating processes, on the basis of the normalized compression distance with each other. Second, it provides the quantification of an error that could have been encountered by comparing samples of finite size from the underlying processes. Hence, the statistic complexity provides a statistical quantification of the statement ' is similarly complex as Y'. The presented approach, ultimately, transforms the classic problem of assessing the complexity of an object into the realm of statistics. This may open a wider applicability of this complexity measure to diverse application areas.

  6. Kolmogorov complexity as a language

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Alexander


    The notion of Kolmogorov complexity (=the minimal length of a program that generates some object) is often useful as a kind of language that allows us to reformulate some notions and therefore provide new intuition. In this survey we provide (with minimal comments) many different examples where notions and statements that involve Kolmogorov complexity are compared with their counterparts not involving complexity.

  7. Synthesis and luminescence spectroscopy of YNbO4 doped with Eu(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massabni A.M.G.


    Full Text Available The solid compound YNbO4:Eu3+ was synthesized by an usual solid state reaction and a non-conventional method of thermal decomposition of precursors. X-ray diffraction data of the monoclinic YNbO4 were used to identify the crystalline M-fergusonite phase. The symmetry of the luminescent Eu3+ site is very close to the D2 point symmetry. Spectroscopic quantities, namely, the 5D0-7F0/5D0-7F2 intensity ratio, the 5D0-7F1 transition splitting (DE0-1 and the intensity parameters Wl (l = 2, 4 were obtained from the emission spectrum at 77 K. In this sequence their values are 4.0 10-3, 103 cm-1, 18.0 10-20 cm2 and 3.2 10-20 cm2. Theoretical predictions are discussed in terms of the simple overlap model (SOM. The yttrium niobate structural data were taken as basis to obtain the spherical coordinates of the ligand oxygen atoms. The Eu-O distances being corrected in the frame of rare earth niobate series vs. atomic number. Their predicted values are 3.9 10-3, 85 cm-1, 14.9 10-20 cm2 and 3.0 10-20 cm2, assuming 0.9 as the effective charge of the ligand ions and their polarizabilities relative to the metal-ligand (M-L distance as follows [R(Å/ a(Å3]: 2.443/0.6, 2.427/1.2, 2.370/2.3, 2.349/3.5.

  8. Optical properties of Eu(III) doped strontium gadolinium niobate oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwnath, Verma, E-mail:, E-mail:; Srinivas, M.; Patel, Nimesh; Modi, Dhaval [Luminescent Materials Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Murthy, K. V. R. [Display Materials Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390001, Gujarat (India)


    Sr{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6} doped with trivalent ion of Eu phosphors having monoclinic phase of space group P2{sub 1}/n have been synthesized via solid state reaction method, and their photoluminescence properties have been examined under UV excitation. The emission peaks exhibited around 580, 596, and 610 nm wavelength. By using xenon lamp as a source of excitation having wavelengths at 254 and 262 nm, it is observed that the maximum light emission yielded in red region. It is inferred that the dopant Eu{sup +3} ions may take the substitutional positions at non-centrosymmetric site.

  9. Managing complexity of aerospace systems (United States)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  10. A geometric approach to complexity. (United States)

    Ay, Nihat; Olbrich, Eckehard; Bertschinger, Nils; Jost, Jürgen


    We develop a geometric approach to complexity based on the principle that complexity requires interactions at different scales of description. Complex systems are more than the sum of their parts of any size and not just more than the sum of their elements. Using information geometry, we therefore analyze the decomposition of a system in terms of an interaction hierarchy. In mathematical terms, we present a theory of complexity measures for finite random fields using the geometric framework of hierarchies of exponential families. Within our framework, previously proposed complexity measures find their natural place and gain a new interpretation.

  11. Monotone measures of statistical complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz [Institute for Physics, University of Freiburg, Rheinstraße 10, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotników 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Toranzo, Irene V. [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Sánchez-Moreno, Pablo [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Dehesa, Jesús S., E-mail: [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)


    Highlights: • The notion of monotonicity of the complexity measure of a probability distribution is introduced and discussed. • The monotonicity properties of statistical measures of complexity are studied. • The Cramer–Rao and Fisher–Shannon measures of complexity are shown to be monotone. - Abstract: We introduce and discuss the notion of monotonicity for the complexity measures of general probability distributions, patterned after the resource theory of quantum entanglement. Then, we explore whether this property is satisfied by the three main intrinsic measures of complexity (Crámer–Rao, Fisher–Shannon, LMC) and some of their generalizations.

  12. On Measuring the Complexity of Networks: Kolmogorov Complexity versus Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Morzy


    Full Text Available One of the most popular methods of estimating the complexity of networks is to measure the entropy of network invariants, such as adjacency matrices or degree sequences. Unfortunately, entropy and all entropy-based information-theoretic measures have several vulnerabilities. These measures neither are independent of a particular representation of the network nor can capture the properties of the generative process, which produces the network. Instead, we advocate the use of the algorithmic entropy as the basis for complexity definition for networks. Algorithmic entropy (also known as Kolmogorov complexity or K-complexity for short evaluates the complexity of the description required for a lossless recreation of the network. This measure is not affected by a particular choice of network features and it does not depend on the method of network representation. We perform experiments on Shannon entropy and K-complexity for gradually evolving networks. The results of these experiments point to K-complexity as the more robust and reliable measure of network complexity. The original contribution of the paper includes the introduction of several new entropy-deceiving networks and the empirical comparison of entropy and K-complexity as fundamental quantities for constructing complexity measures for networks.

  13. b-diketonates of Eu3+, red phosphors, supported on sol-gel functionalised silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassar Eduardo J.


    Full Text Available Silica gel was functionalised with chloropropyl groups through the sol-gel process and then a beta-diketone was incorporated into the support. Afterwards, Eu3+ ion and its chelates of 1,10-phenantroline (phen and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, red phosphors, were supported on such silica. Luminescence studies of Eu3+ bound to this new material have shown that there is an increase in the intensity of the emission when the ion is isolated by ligands in the silica matrix. The energy transfer from the ligands phen and bpy to Eu3+ ion was observed in the excitation spectra, which present new bands ascribed to the ligands and/or complex. The Eu3+-functionalised silica was characterised by TGA and FTIR. TGA analysis showed that there is a large loss of mass around 300 °C, which is ascribed to the organic part of the material. The FTIR spectra presented the vibration modes for Si-C and -CH2-. The luminescent properties of the ions surrounding the Eu3+ ion were studied. The decay curve displayed a bi-exponential behaviour, indicating that there is more than one site of Eu3+ on the surface of the silica.

  14. Temperature dependence vapour pressure measurements of Mg(tmhd){sub 2}(tmeda) [tmhd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione, tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, Mathew; Selvakumar, J. [Department of Chemistry, Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy, Loyola College, Chennai 600034 (India); Raghunathan, V.S. [Non Ferrous Material Technology Development Center, Hyderabad 500050 (India); Mathews, Tom [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nagaraja, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy, Loyola College, Chennai 600034 (India)], E-mail:


    The reaction between the magnesium {beta}-diketonate complex Mg(tmhd){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} and 1 equiv. of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmeda = Me{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}) in hexane at room temperature yielded Mg(tmhd){sub 2}(tmeda). The standard enthalpy of sublimation (83.2 {+-} 2.3 kJ mol{sup -1}) and entropy of sublimation (263 {+-} 6.3 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}) of Mg(tmhd){sub 2}(tmeda) were obtained from the temperature dependence vapour pressure, determined by adopting a horizontal dual arm single furnace thermogravimetric analyser as a transpiration apparatus. From the observed melting point depression DTA, the standard enthalpy of fusion (58.3 {+-} 5.2 kJ mol{sup -1}) was evaluated, using the ideal eutectic behaviour of Mg(tmhd){sub 2}(tmeda) as a solvent with bis(2,4-pentanedionato)magnesium(II), Mg(acac){sub 2} as a non-volatile solute.


    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.


    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  16. Rare earth doped SnO2 nanoscaled powders and coatings: enhanced photoluminescence in water and waveguiding properties. (United States)

    Gonçalves, R R; Messaddeq, Y; Aegerter, M A; Ribeiro, S J L


    Luminescent Eu3+ and Er3+ doped SnO2 powders have been prepared by Sn4+ hydrolysis followed by a controlled growth reaction using a particle's surface modifier in order to avoid particles aggregation. The powders so obtained doped with up to 2 mol% rare earth ions are fully redispersable in water at pH > 8 and present the cassiterite structure. Particles size range from 3 to 10 nm as determined by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. Rare earth ions were found to be essentially incorporated into the cassiterite structure, substituting for Sn4+, for doping concentration smaller than 0.05 mol%. For higher concentration they are also located at the particles surface. The presence of Eu3+ ions at the surface of the particles hinder their growth and has therefore allowed the preparation of new materials consisting of water redispersable powders coated with Eu(3+)-beta diketonate complexes. Enhanced UV excited photoluminescence was observed in water. SnO2 single layers with thickness up to 200 nm and multilayer coatings were spin coated on borosilicate glass substrates from the colloidal suspensions. Waveguiding properties were evaluated by the prism coupling technique. For a 0.3 microm planar waveguide single propagating mode was observed with attenuation coefficient of 3.5 dB/cm at 632.8 nm.

  17. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Talha Khan


    Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.

  18. Information Complexity and Biology (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  19. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H


    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  20. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity. (United States)

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio


    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  1. Spatiotemporal Imaging of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ellis Robinson


    Full Text Available What are the functional neuroimaging measurements required for more fully characterizing the events and locations of neocortical activity? A prime assumption has been that modulation of cortical activity will inevitably be reflected in changes in energy utilization (for the most part changes of glucose and oxygen consumption. Are such a measures complete and sufficient? More direct measures of cortical electrophysiological activity show event or task-related modulation of amplitude or band-limited oscillatory power. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, these measures have been shown to correlate well with energy utilization sensitive BOLD fMRI. In this paper, we explore the existence of state changes in electrophysiological cortical activity that can occur independently of changes in averaged amplitude, source power or indices of metabolic rates. In addition, we demonstrate that such state changes can be described by applying a new measure of complexity, rank vector entropy (RVE, to source waveform estimates from beamformer-processed MEG. RVE is a non-parametric symbolic dynamic informational entropy measure that accommodates the wide dynamic range of measured brain signals while resolving its temporal variations. By representing the measurements by their rank values, RVE overcomes the problem of defining embedding space partitions without resorting to signal compression. This renders RVE independent of absolute signal amplitude. In addition, this approach is robust, being relatively free of tunable parameters. We present examples of task-free and task dependent MEG demonstrating that RVE provides new information by uncovering hidden dynamical struc-ture in the apparent turbulent (or chaotic dynamics of spontaneous cortical activity.

  2. Carney complex (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertherat Jérôme


    Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing

  3. Carney complex (CNC). (United States)

    Bertherat, Jérôme


    The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65% of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80% of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD.

  4. Measurements of the luminescence lifetimes of Europium (III) ion in nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) aqueous solution system (United States)

    Stryla, Zdzislaw; Lis, S.; Hnatejko, Z.; Elbanowski, M.


    Time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to study complexation of Eu(III) ion with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). An experimental setup consisting of the nitrogen laser pumped tunable dye laser and two different detection devices has been built and extensively tested. Using this apparatus, the lifetimes of the 5D0 level of Eu(III) ion in complexes with NTA in water solution for 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 Eu:NTA molar ratios over the wide pH range have been measured.

  5. Di-μ-methacrylato-bis[diaquabis(methacrylatoeuropium(III] methacrylic acid disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Guo Zheng


    Full Text Available In the title centrosymmetric complex, [Eu2(C4H5O26(H2O4]·2C4H6O2, the unique EuIII cation is coordinated by seven carboxylate O atoms from four methacrylate ligands and two water molecules in a slightly disorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic environment. Two EuIII ions are bridged by carboxylate groups, forming a dinuclear complex. The formula unit also contains two molecules of methacrylic acid. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked via intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming one-dimensional chains propagating along the b-axis direction

  6. Increasing complexity with quantum physics. (United States)

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline


    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  7. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel


    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations....... The proposition of this article is that the methods that drive innovative processes, strengthening the creative culture, are necessary to manage complex situations in military contexts....

  8. Complexity of Terminating Preference Elicitation


    Walsh, Toby


    Complexity theory is a useful tool to study computational issues surrounding the elicitation of preferences, as well as the strategic manipulation of elections aggregating together preferences of multiple agents. We study here the complexity of determining when we can terminate eliciting preferences, and prove that the complexity depends on the elicitation strategy. We show, for instance, that it may be better from a computational perspective to elicit all preferences from one agent at a time...

  9. Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0355 YIP Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Greg Ver Steeg UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES Final Report 10/26...performance report PI: Greg Ver Steeg Young Investigator Award Grant Title: Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Grant #: FA9550-12-1-0417 Reporting...October 20, 2015 Final Report for “Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks” Greg Ver Steeg Abstract This effort studied new methods to understand the effect

  10. Bufferless transmission in complex networks


    Pu, Cunlai; Cui, Wei; Wu, Jiexin; Yang, Jian


    Complex bufferless networks such as on-chip networks and optical burst switching networks haven't been paid enough attention in network science. In complex bufferless networks, the store and forward mechanism is not applicable, since the network nodes are not allowed to buffer data packets. In this paper, we study the data transmission process in complex bufferless networks from the perspective of network science. Specifically, we use the Price model to generate the underlying network topolog...

  11. A Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Approach to Modeling Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site: I. Iron Oxides and Calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J


    , simple binary NEM reactions adequately fit most data without need for bidentate or ternary surface reactions. For example, the decrease in U(VI) sorption as a function of carbonate alkalinity was accounted for by aqueous uranyl-carbonate complex formation. In some cases, the one-site NEM could not fit sorption data at high and low radionuclide surface loads. This failure results from multiple surface sites with varying sorption affinity as well as electrostatic effects not accounted for by our model. Calcite sorption reactions were modeled as NEM surface exchange reactions. Uncertainty in these surface exchange reactions is relatively high because few radionuclide-calcite sorption data are available. Nevertheless, 1D reactive transport simulations in alluvium comparable to that in Tompson et al. (1999) and based on the NEM database developed in this report, suggest that migration of Sm(III), Eu(III), Np(V), Pu(IV,V), and Am(III) will be significantly retarded by sedimentary carbonates. Though iron oxide minerals are usually thought to be the major contributors to radionuclide retardation, calcite will also be of paramount importance in areas where it is present (e.g. calcareous regions of NTS as well as buried carbonate paleosols at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site (south-central Washington, U.S.A.), calcareous soils of the Marshall Islands, and weathered cementitious materials at waste disposal facilities). The NEM approach provides a simple yet robust mechanistic basis for modeling radionuclide migration with a minimum number of fitting parameters.

  12. Complexity in de Sitter space (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.


    We consider the holographic complexity conjectures for de-Sitter invariant states in a quantum field theory on de Sitter space, dual to asymptotically anti-de Sitter geometries with de Sitter boundaries. The bulk holographic duals include solutions with or without a horizon. If we compute the complexity from the spatial volume, we find results consistent with general expectations, but the conjectured bound on the growth rate is not saturated. If we compute complexity from the action of the Wheeler-de Witt patch, we find qualitative differences from the volume calculation, with states of smaller energy having larger complexity than those of larger energy, even though the latter have bulk horizons.

  13. Quantitative assessment of increasing complexity (United States)

    Csernai, L. P.; Spinnangr, S. F.; Velle, S.


    We study the build up of complexity on the example of 1 kg matter in different forms. We start with the simplest example of ideal gases, and then continue with more complex chemical, biological, life, social and technical structures. We assess the complexity of these systems quantitatively, based on their entropy. We present a method to attribute the same entropy to known physical systems and to complex organic molecules, up to a DNA molecule. The important steps in this program and the basic obstacles are discussed.

  14. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))


    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).

  15. Complexity leadership: a healthcare imperative. (United States)

    Weberg, Dan


    The healthcare system is plagued with increasing cost and poor quality outcomes. A major contributing factor for these issues is that outdated leadership practices, such as leader-centricity, linear thinking, and poor readiness for innovation, are being used in healthcare organizations. Complexity leadership theory provides a new framework with which healthcare leaders may practice leadership. Complexity leadership theory conceptualizes leadership as a continual process that stems from collaboration, complex systems thinking, and innovation mindsets. Compared to transactional and transformational leadership concepts, complexity leadership practices hold promise to improve cost and quality in health care. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measuring Complexity of SAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.

  17. Complex networks an algorithmic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Erciyes, Kayhan


    Network science is a rapidly emerging field of study that encompasses mathematics, computer science, physics, and engineering. A key issue in the study of complex networks is to understand the collective behavior of the various elements of these networks.Although the results from graph theory have proven to be powerful in investigating the structures of complex networks, few books focus on the algorithmic aspects of complex network analysis. Filling this need, Complex Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective supplies the basic theoretical algorithmic and graph theoretic knowledge needed by every r

  18. Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches (United States)

    Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.


    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

  19. Complex Constructivism: A Theoretical Model of Complexity and Cognition (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.


    Education has long been driven by its metaphors for teaching and learning. These metaphors have influenced both educational research and educational practice. Complexity and constructivism are two theories that provide functional and robust metaphors. Complexity provides a metaphor for the structure of myriad phenomena, while constructivism…

  20. ComplexRec 2017: Recommendation in Complex Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recommendation algorithms for ratings prediction and item ranking have steadily matured during the past decade. However, these state-of-the-art algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios. In reality, recommendation is often a more complex problem: it is usually just...... a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  1. Workshop on Recommendation in Complex Scenarios (ComplexRec 2017)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine


    Recommendation algorithms for ratings prediction and item ranking have steadily matured during the past decade. However, these state-of-the-art algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios. In reality, recommendation is often a more complex problem: it is usually just...... a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  2. ComplexViewer: visualization of curated macromolecular complexes. (United States)

    Combe, Colin W; Sivade, Marine Dumousseau; Hermjakob, Henning; Heimbach, Joshua; Meldal, Birgit H M; Micklem, Gos; Orchard, Sandra; Rappsilber, Juri


    Proteins frequently function as parts of complexes, assemblages of multiple proteins and other biomolecules, yet network visualizations usually only show proteins as parts of binary interactions. ComplexViewer visualizes interactions with more than two participants and thereby avoids the need to first expand these into multiple binary interactions. Furthermore, if binding regions between molecules are known then these can be displayed in the context of the larger complex. freely available under Apache version 2 license; EMBL-EBI Complex Portal:; Source code:; Package:; Language: JavaScript; Web technology: Scalable Vector Graphics; Libraries: D3.js. or

  3. Team dynamics in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Vroome, E.E.M. de; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.


    Complexity of projects is hotly debated and a factor which affects innovativeness of team performance. Much attention in the past is paid to technical complexity and many issues are related to natural and physical sciences. A growing awareness of the importance of socioorganisational issues is

  4. Electrochemical analysis of metal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.G.


    The present study is concerned with the electroanalytical chemistry of complexes of metals with large ligands. The main purpose was to develop quantitative descriptions of the voltammetric current-potential relation of metal complex systems with different diffusion coefficients of the

  5. Complex Variables throughout the Curriculum (United States)

    D'Angelo, John P.


    We offer many specific detailed examples, several of which are new, that instructors can use (in lecture or as student projects) to revitalize the role of complex variables throughout the curriculum. We conclude with three primary recommendations: revise the syllabus of Calculus II to allow early introductions of complex numbers and linear…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    and their structures consist of polymeric layers of │M−Ni(CN)4│∞ with the pdz bound to the metal (M) atom. KEY WORDS: Hofmann-type complexes, Vibrational spectra, Pyridazine, Tetracyanonickelate(II), Thermal analysis. INTRODUCTION. Cyano-bridged complexes have been shown to form polymeric structures by ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biology. Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 2239-2314. 7. Refat, M.S.; Sharshar, T.; Elsabawy, K.M.; Heiba, Z.K. Physicochemical impact studies of gamma rays on “aspirin” analgesics drug and its metal complexes in solid form: Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological assessment of Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) aspirinate complexes.

  8. Servitization, Services and Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harjo, Ieva; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    This paper explores how seemingly complex servitized solutions can become tradable in a customer–supplier relationship by objectification and abbreviation. The key argument is that the complexity of product-service solutions can be reduced by abbreviation of the reality in written form of contracts...

  9. Tuberous sclerosis complex in autism. (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Tu, Wen-Jun; Shi, Xiao-Dong


    To study the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder. We studied one cohort of children followed up since 2005 until 2009, with autistic disorder, to determine the incidence of tuberous sclerosis complex. We established an autistic disorder registry in 2005 at China Rehabilitation Research Center. During the 4-year period (2005-2009), we collected a database of 429 children (390 boys and 39 girls; male to female ratio 10:1) with autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders. We routinely examined all children with autistic disorder for any features of tuberous sclerosis complex by looking for neurocutaneous markers such as depigmented spots. In those with infantile spasm or epilepsy, the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex were monitored regularly during follow-up. Of these, five had tuberous sclerosis complex. Thus, the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder is 1.17%. All of these children were mentally retarded with moderate to severe grades. Their IQ or developmental quotient was less than 70. The prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder was 1.17% in our region; autism spectrum disorder is a condition that might be associated with development of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  10. Rhythmic complexity and predictive coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Witek, Maria A G


    Musical rhythm, consisting of apparently abstract intervals of accented temporal events,has a remarkable capacity to move our minds and bodies. How does the cognitive systemenable our experiences of rhythmically complex music? In this paper, we describe somecommon forms of rhythmic complexity in ...

  11. Complex multiplication of abelian surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streng, Theodorus Cornelis


    The theory of complex multiplication makes it possible to construct certain class fields and abelian varieties. The main theme of this thesis is making these constructions explicit for the case where the abelian varieties have dimension 2. Chapter I is an introduction to complex


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano – Nigeria e-mail: ... infrared spectra, elemental analysis and other properties suggest that the complexes are six coordinate. The schiff bases .... and qualitative analysis data of the complexes. Therefore the catalytic ...

  13. Understanding and Teaching Complex Texts (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy


    Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…

  14. Complexes and aggregates of chlorophylls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooyman, R.P.H.


    Chlorophyll (Chl) molecules can form complexes in two important ways: by ligation at the magnesium atom and/or by hydrogen bonding at the keto- carbonyl group. Under certain conditions these processes may give rise to dimer formation. This thesis describes some properties of complexes and dimers of

  15. Holistic education and complexity thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, T.


    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a

  16. complexes of Mannich base ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    elemental analysis, electrochemical and electron paramagnetic spectral studies. Redox properties of the complexes in acetonitrile are highly quasireversible due to the chemical or/and stereochemical changes subsequent to electron transfer. The complexes show resolved copper hyperfine EPR at room temperature, ...

  17. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  18. Intermittency in Complex Flows (United States)

    Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Redondo, Jose M.


    Experimental results of the complex turbulent wake of a cilinder in 2D [1] and 3D flows [2] were used to investigate the scaling of structure functions, similar research was also performed on wave propagation and breaking in the Ocean [3], in the the stratified Atmosphere (ABL) [4] and in a 100large flume (UPC) for both regular and irregular waves, where long time series of waves propagating and generating breaking turbulence velocity rms and higher order measurements were taken in depth. [3,5] by means of a velocimeter SONTEK3-D. The probability distribution functions of the velocity differences and their non Gaussian distribution related to the energy spectrum indicate that irregularity is an important source of turbulence. From Kolmogorov's K41 and K61 intermittency correction: the p th-order longitudinal velocity structure function δul at scale l in the inertial range of three-dimensional fully developed turbulence is related by ⟨δup⟩ = ⟨(u(x+ l)- u(x))p⟩ ˜ ɛp0/3lp/3 l where ⟨...⟩ represents the spatial average over flow domain, with ɛ0 the mean energy dissipation per unit mass and l is the separation distance. The importance of the random nature of the energy dissipation led to the K62 theory of intermittency, but locality and non-homogeneity are key issues. p p/3 p/3 ξd ⟨δul⟩ ˜ ⟨ɛl ⟩l ˜ l and ξp = p 3 + τp/3 , where now ɛl is a fractal energy dissipation at scale l, τp/3 is the scaling of and ξp is the scaling exponent of the velocity structure function of order p. Both in K41 and K62, the structure functions of third order related to skewness is ξ3 = 1. But this is not true either. We show that scaling exponents ξp do deviate from early studies that only investigated homogeneous turbulence, where a large inertial range dominates. The use of multi-fractal analysis and improvements on Structure function calculations on standard Enhanced mixing is an essential property of turbulence and efforts to alter and to control


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Ebben


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plyometric training is well supported by research. Complex training has gained popularity as a training strategy combining weight training and plyometric training. Anecdotal reports recommend training in this fashion in order to improve muscular power and athletic performance. Recently, several studies have examined complex training. Despite the fact that questions remain about the potential effectiveness and implementation of this type of training, results of recent studies are useful in guiding practitioners in the development and implementation of complex training programs. In some cases, research suggests that complex training has an acute ergogenic effect on upper body power and the results of acute and chronic complex training include improved jumping performance. Improved performance may require three to four minutes rest between the weight training and plyometrics sets and the use of heavy weight training loads

  20. Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk


    Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.

  1. Complex systems in metabolic engineering. (United States)

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T


    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela


    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  3. Innovation in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier


    Full Text Available Background: As our world becomes more global and competitive yet less predictable, the focus seems to be increasingly on looking to innovation activities to remain competitive. Although there is little doubt that a nation’s competitiveness is embedded in its innovativeness, the complex environment should not be ignored. Complexity is not accounted for in balance sheets or reported in reports; it becomes entrenched in every activity in the organisation. Innovation takes many forms and comes in different shapes.Objectives: The study objectives were, firstly, to establish the determinants for complexity and how these can be addressed from a design point of view in order to ensure innovation success and, secondly, to determine how this changes innovation forms and applications.Method: Two approaches were offered to deal with a complex environment – one allowing for complexity for organisational innovation and the other introducing reductionism to minimise complexity. These approaches were examined in a qualitative study involving case studies, open-ended interviews and content analysis between seven developing economy (South African organisations and seven developed economy (US organisations.Results: This study presented a proposed framework for (organisational innovation in a complex environment versus a framework that minimises complexity. The comparative organisational analysis demonstrated the importance of initiating organisational innovation to address internal and external complexity, with the focus being on the leadership actions, their selected operating models and resultant organisational innovations designs, rather than on technological innovations.Conclusion: This study cautioned the preference for technological innovation within organisations and suggested alternative innovation forms (such as organisational and management innovation be used to remain competitive in a complex environment. 

  4. The complexity of anatomical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grizzi Fabio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conception of anatomical entities as a hierarchy of infinitely graduated forms and the increase in the number of observed anatomical sub-entities and structural variables has generated a growing complexity, thus highlighting new properties of organised biological matter. Results (1 Complexity is so pervasive in the anatomical world that it has come to be considered as a primary characteristic of anatomical systems. (2 Anatomical entities, when viewed at microscopic as well as macroscopic level of observation, show a different degree of complexity. (3 Complexity can reside in the structure of the anatomical system (having many diverse parts with varying interactions or an intricate architecture or in its behaviour. Often complexity in structure and behaviour go together. (4 Complex systems admit many descriptions (ways of looking at the system each of which is only partially true. Each way of looking at a complex system requires its own description, its own mode of analysis and its own breaking down of the system in different parts; (5 Almost all the anatomical entities display hierarchical forms: their component structures at different spatial scales or their process at different time scales are related to each other. Conclusion The need to find a new way of observing and measuring anatomical entities, and objectively quantifying their different structural changes, prompted us to investigate the non-Euclidean geometries and the theories of complexity, and to apply their concepts to human anatomy. This attempt has led us to reflect upon the complex significance of the shape of an observed anatomical entity. Its changes have been defined in relation to variations in its status: from a normal (i.e. natural to a pathological or altered state introducing the concepts of kinematics and dynamics of anatomical forms, speed of their changes, and that of scale of their observation.

  5. Management of complex dynamical systems (United States)

    MacKay, R. S.


    Complex dynamical systems are systems with many interdependent components which evolve in time. One might wish to control their trajectories, but a more practical alternative is to control just their statistical behaviour. In many contexts this would be both sufficient and a more realistic goal, e.g. climate and socio-economic systems. I refer to it as ‘management’ of complex dynamical systems. In this paper, some mathematics for management of complex dynamical systems is developed in the weakly dependent regime, and questions are posed for the strongly dependent regime.

  6. Advances in computational complexity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Jin-Yi


    This collection of recent papers on computational complexity theory grew out of activities during a special year at DIMACS. With contributions by some of the leading experts in the field, this book is of lasting value in this fast-moving field, providing expositions not found elsewhere. Although aimed primarily at researchers in complexity theory and graduate students in mathematics or computer science, the book is accessible to anyone with an undergraduate education in mathematics or computer science. By touching on some of the major topics in complexity theory, this book sheds light on this burgeoning area of research.

  7. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin


    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  8. Complexing-precipitating geochemical barriers (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.


    New types of geochemical barriers on which chemical elements are immobilized as a result of combined complex formation and precipitation of barely soluble mineral phases are examined. A significant concentration of major components (Fe, Al) forming more stable complexes than an immobilized component X in the material is a necessary condition for this type of geochemical barriers. Filtration of the solution through a geochemical barrier is accompanied by substitution of X in the complex with a major component. As a result, the activity of X in the free state increases, and one barely soluble mineral phase or another of the component X precipitates when the state of saturation is achieved.

  9. Complexity and Shock Wave Geometries


    Stanford, Douglas; Susskind, Leonard


    In this paper we refine a conjecture relating the time-dependent size of an Einstein-Rosen bridge to the computational complexity of the of the dual quantum state. Our refinement states that the complexity is proportional to the spatial volume of the ERB. More precisely, up to an ambiguous numerical coefficient, we propose that the complexity is the regularized volume of the largest codimension one surface crossing the bridge, divided by $G_N l_{AdS}$. We test this conjecture against a wide v...

  10. Complexity in physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Garrido, Manuel S


    A system is loosely defined as complex if it is composed of a large number of elements, interacting with each other, and the emergent global dynamics is qualitatively different from the dynamics of each one of the parts. The global dynamics may be either ordered or chaotic and among the most interesting emergent global properties are those of learning and adaptation.Complex systems, in the above sense, appear in many fields ranging from physics and technology to life and social sciences. Research in complex systems involves therefore a wide range of topics, studied in seemingly disparate field

  11. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.


    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    applications in digital image processing and in the study of dynamical systems, but in the actual literature there is not an extension of their properties using fuzzy sets. In this paper is proposed a generalization of the concept of cubical complex and of some of their properties, such as connectedness, polyhedral realization, connected component and holes, using fuzzy sets. The upper and lower trees of a fuzzy cubical complex are defined, which give information about the way in which its regional extrema are related. The homology groups of a fuzzy cubical complex are defined and it is shown that the rank of the 0-homology group of a given level is equal with the number of regional maxima of that level. Finally, it is shown how to associate a fuzzy cubical complex with a bidimensional digital grayscale image in order to study somo of its topological properties.

  13. Association theories for complex thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Rafiqul Gani


    Thermodynamics of complex systems (e.g. with associating molecules, multicomponent mixtures, multiphase equilibria, wide ranges of conditions, estimation of many different properties simultaneously) is a topic of great importance in chemical engineering and for a wide range of industrial...... promising direction for a general and useful for engineering purposes modeling of complex thermodynamics is via the use of association theories e.g. those based on chemical theory (like APACT), or on the lattice theory (like NRHB) or those based on perturbation theory (like SAFT and CPA). The purpose...... applications. While specialized models can handle different cases, even complex ones, with the advent of powerful theories and computers there is the hope that a single or a few models could be suitable for a general modeling of complex thermodynamics. After more than 100 years with active use of thermodynamic...

  14. Liquid-crystalline lanthanide complexes


    Binnemans, Koen


    The paper describes the recent developments in the field of liquid-crystalline lanthanide complexes. The role of trivalent lanthanide ions as the central metal ion in metallomesogens is considered. An outlook for the future is given.

  15. Fundamental Complexity Measures of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Grandpierre, Attila


    At present, there is a great deal of confusion regarding complexity and its measures (reviews on complexity measures are found in, e.g. Lloyd, 2001 and Shalizi, 2006 and more references therein). Moreover, there is also confusion regarding the nature of life. In this situation, it seems the task of determining the fundamental complexity measures of life is especially difficult. Yet this task is just part of a greater task: obtaining substantial insights into the nature of biological evolution. We think that without a firm quantitative basis characterizing the most fundamental aspects of life, it is impossible to overcome the confusion so as to clarify the nature of biological evolution. The approach we present here offers such quantitative measures of complexity characterizing biological organization and, as we will see, evolution.

  16. Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yurij; Thurner, Stefan


    Complex systems are characterized by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behavior. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical world. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicist's point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualized in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representatio...

  17. Cap-binding complex (CBC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, Thomas; Cowling, Victoria H


    .... One of the most important mediators of 7mG functions is CBC (cap-binding complex). CBC has a key role in several gene expression mechanisms, including transcription, splicing, transcript export and translation...

  18. Anomaly Detection for Complex Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In performance maintenance in large, complex systems, sensor information from sub-components tends to be readily available, and can be used to make predictions about...

  19. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael


    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  20. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server


    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  1. Firms' Compliance with Complex Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendoza Rodriguez, J.P.; Dekker, H.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.


    This study addresses the question of what explains compliance with complex regulations, which are technical, extensive, and often subject to modifications. Based on official (anonymized) data of financial intermediaries in the Netherlands (N = 602), we examined the association between compliance

  2. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  3. Complexity Theory and Elementary Mathematics. (United States)

    Sipser, Kenneth; Sipser, Michael


    This article gives an overview of the new field of complexity theory which links computer science to mathematics, and ultimately to the solution of theoretical as well as practical problems in society and technology. (Author/MK)

  4. Statistical mechanics of complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubi, Miguel; Diaz-Guilera, Albert


    Networks can provide a useful model and graphic image useful for the description of a wide variety of web-like structures in the physical and man-made realms, e.g. protein networks, food webs and the Internet. The contributions gathered in the present volume provide both an introduction to, and an overview of, the multifaceted phenomenology of complex networks. Statistical Mechanics of Complex Networks also provides a state-of-the-art picture of current theoretical methods and approaches.

  5. Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina


    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....

  6. Nipple areola complex sparing mastectomy


    Rossi, Camilla; Mingozzi, Matteo; Curcio, Annalisa; Buggi, Federico; Folli, Secondo


    Breast conservative therapy (BCT) is established as a safe option for most women with early breast cancer (BC). The best conservative mastectomy that can be performed, when mastectomy is unavoidable, is nipple-areola-complex sparing mastectomy (NSM), which allows the complete glandular dissection preserving the skin envelope and the nipple areola complex. In the treatment of BC, the cosmetic outcomes have become fundamental goals, as well as oncologic control. NSM is nowadays considered an al...

  7. Genetics of Complex Airway Disease


    Cookson, William O. C.; Moffatt, Miriam F.


    The past 3 years have seen highly significant genetic effects identified for a wide variety of common complex diseases, including the airway disorders of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It appears that only a portion of the genetically mediated susceptibility to complex diseases has been identified, and there is much left to be discovered. This review briefly describes the results of the genome-wide association studies of asthma and gives an overview of the parallel and incr...

  8. Evolving Complexity, Cognition, and Consciousness (United States)

    Liljenström, H.


    All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing

  9. Angles in Complex Vector Spaces


    Scharnhorst, K.


    The article reviews some of the (fairly scattered) information available in the mathematical literature on the subject of angles in complex vector spaces. The following angles and their relations are considered: Euclidean, complex, and Hermitian angles, (Kasner's) pseudo-angle, the Kaehler angle (synonyms for the latter used in the literature are: angle of inclination, characteristic deviation, holomorphic deviation, holomorphy angle, Wirtinger angle, slant angle).

  10. Decentralized control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Siljak, Dragoslav D


    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  11. Leadership learning for complex organizations


    F.S. David Ng


    Many school leadership programs are set and delivered in specific modules or workshops in order to achieve a pre-determined set of competencies, knowledge, and skills. In addition, these programs are driven by the faculty member and the prescribed content. As Singapore schools become more complex in the roles and responsibilities to educate the future of the nation, new ways to develop school leaders is needed. This study investigates the effects on leadership learning based on a complexity t...

  12. Complex systems models: engineering simulations


    Polack, Fiona A. C.; Hoverd, Tim; Sampson, Adam T.; Stepney, Susan; Timmis, Jon,


    As part of research towards the CoSMoS unified infrastructure for modelling and simulating complex systems, we review uses of definitional and descriptive models in natural science and computing, and existing integrated platforms. From these, we identify requirements for engineering models of complex systems, and consider how some of the requirements could be met, using state-of-the-art model management and a mobile, process-oriented computing paradigm.

  13. Communication Complexity (for Algorithm Designers)


    Roughgarden, Tim


    This document collects the lecture notes from my course "Communication Complexity (for Algorithm Designers),'' taught at Stanford in the winter quarter of 2015. The two primary goals of the course are: 1. Learn several canonical problems that have proved the most useful for proving lower bounds (Disjointness, Index, Gap-Hamming, etc.). 2. Learn how to reduce lower bounds for fundamental algorithmic problems to communication complexity lower bounds. Along the way, we'll also: 3. Get exposure t...

  14. Metal Controlled Diastereoselective Self-assembly and Circularly Polarized Luminescence of a Chiral Heptanuclear Europium Wheel (United States)

    Bozoklu, Gülay; Gateau, Christelle; Imbert, Daniel; Pécaut, Jacques; Robeyns, Koen; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Memon, Farah; Muller, Gilles


    The chiral dissymmetric tetradentate ligand SPhbipox (6’-(4-phenyloxazolin-2-yl)-2,2’-bipyridine-6-carboxylic acid) leads to the diastereoselective assembly of a homochiral Eu(III) triangle and of a highly emissive (QY=27%) heptanuclear wheel which is the largest example of chiral luminescent complex of Eu(III) reported to date. We show that the nuclearity of the assembly is controlled by the solvent and the europium cation. All the compounds show large circularly polarized luminescence with an activity which varies with the nature of the assembly (highest for the homochiral trimer). PMID:22548280

  15. A spectroscopic screening of the chemical speciation of europium(III) in gastrointestinal tract. The intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements


    To evaluate the health risks of lanthanides (Ln) and radiotoxic actinides (An), investigations into the chemical reactions of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. In order to identify the dominant binding partners (i.e. counter ions and/or ligands) of An/Ln in the gastrointestinal tract, a spectroscopic screening was performed by Time-Resolved Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) using artificial digestive juices containing Eu(III), a representative of Ln(III) and An(III). In the intestine, Eu(III) show a strong complexation especially with organic substances of the pancreatic and bile juice like the protein mucin.

  16. Crystal structure of copper(II) pivaloyltrifluoracetonate adducts with o-phenanthroline and 2,2'-dipyridyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbenko, O.Y.; Troyanov, S.I.; Meetsma, A.; Bosak, A.A.


    The crystal structure of Cu(pta)(2) . Phen has been determined. The phenanthroline ligand occupies a position in the equatorial plane of the tetragonally distorted octahedron with equal Cu-N distances and equivalent beta-diketonate-anions. Cu(pta)(2) . 2,2'-Dipy is isostructural to Cu(pta)(2) .

  17. Full Enzyme Complex Simulation: Interactions in Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex. (United States)

    Hezaveh, Samira; Zeng, An-Ping; Jandt, Uwe


    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a large macromolecular machine consisting of dozens of interacting enzymes that are connected and regulated by highly flexible domains, also called swinging arms. The overall structure and function of these domains and how they organize the complex function have not been elucidated in detail to date. This lack of structural and dynamic understanding is frequently observed in multidomain enzymatic complexes. Here we present the first full and dynamic structural model of full human PDC (hPDC), including binding of the linking arms to the surrounding E1 and E3 enzymes via their binding domains with variable stoichiometries. All of the linking domains were modeled at atomistic and coarse-grained levels, and the latter was parametrized to reproduce the same properties of those from the atomistic model. The radii of gyration of the wild-type full complex and functional trimeric subunits were in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, the E1 and E3 population effect on the overall structure of the full complex was studied. The results indicated that decreasing the number of E1s increases the flexibility of the now nonoccupied arms. Furthermore, their flexibility depends on the presence of other E1s and E3s in the vicinity, even if they are associated with other arms. As one consequence, the radius of gyration decreases with decreasing number of E1s. This effect also provides an indication of the optimal configuration of E1 and E3 on the basis of the assumption that a certain stability of the enymatic cloud is necessary to avoid free metabolic diffusion of intermediates (metabolic channeling). Our approach and results open a window for future enzyme engineering in a more effective way by evaluating the effect of different linker arm lengths, flexibilities, and combinations of mutations on the activity of other complex enzymes that involve flexible domains, including for example processive enzymes.

  18. Simply complexity a clear guide to complexity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Neil


    What do traffic jams, stock market crashes, and wars have in common? They are all explained using complexity, an unsolved puzzle that many researchers believe is the key to predicting – and ultimately solving—everything from terrorist attacks and pandemic viruses right down to rush hour traffic congestion.Complexity is considered by many to be the single most important scientific development since general relativity and it promises to make sense of no less than the very heart of the Universe. Using it, scientists can find order emerging from seemingly random interactions of all kinds, from som

  19. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, Nancy Jane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO2+) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO2+; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO2+ cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO2+•UO22+, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO2+ species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO2+ have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO2+ cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe3+ and Cr3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO2+•UO22+, NpO2+•Th4+, PuO2+•UO22+, and PuO2+•Th4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ~0.8 M-1.

  20. Complex systems: physics beyond physics (United States)

    Holovatch, Yurij; Kenna, Ralph; Thurner, Stefan


    Complex systems are characterised by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behaviour. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical worlds. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicists' point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualised in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representation of texts as evolutionary objects. We discuss why these areas form complex systems in the above sense. We argue that there exists plenty of new ground for physicists to explore and that methodical and conceptual progress is needed most.

  1. Complexity in White Noise Analysis (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    We restrict our attention to random complex systems and discuss degree their degree of complexity based on a white noise. The white noise is realized as the time derivative of a Brownian motion B(t), and denoted by Ḃ(t). The collection {Ḃ(t)}, is a system of idealized elementary variables and at the same time the system is a stochastic representation of the time t, in other words it is time-oriented. Having expressed the given evolutional random phenomena in question in terms of the Ḃ(t), we introduce the notion of spectral multiplicity, which describes how much the phenomena are complex. The multiplicity is the number of cyclic subspaces that are spanned by the given random phenomena. Each cyclic subspace has further structure. Typical property is multiple Markov property, although this property appears only particular cases. As a related property, in fact as a characteristic of a complex system, one can speak of the time reversibility and irreversibility of certain random phenomena in terms of the white noise. We expect an irreversible random complex system may be decomposed into reversible systems.

  2. Complex solitons with real energies (United States)

    Cen, Julia; Fring, Andreas


    Using Hirota’s direct method and Bäcklund transformations we construct explicit complex one and two-soliton solutions to the complex Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the complex modified KdV (mKdV) equation and the complex sine-Gordon equation. The one-soliton solutions of trigonometric and elliptic type turn out to be { P }{ T }-symmetric when a constant of integration is chosen to be purely imaginary with one special choice corresponding to solutions recently found by Khare and Saxena. We show that alternatively complex { P }{ T }-symmetric solutions to the KdV equation may also be constructed alternatively from real solutions to the mKdV by means of Miura transformations. The multi-soliton solutions obtained from Hirota’s method break the { P }{ T }-symmetric, whereas those obtained from Bäcklund transformations are { P }{ T }-invariant under certain conditions. Despite the fact that some of the Hamiltonian densities are non-Hermitian, the total energy is found to be positive in all cases, that is irrespective of whether they are { P }{ T }-symmetric or not. The reason is that the symmetry can be restored by suitable shifts in space-time and the fact that any of our N-soliton solutions may be decomposed into N separate { P }{ T }-symmetrizable one-soliton solutions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Vaganova


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to reveal system effects of the university complexes including the organizations of professional education on different levels.Methodology and research methods. Theoretical methods: receipt of scientific information on systems, collection of data on university complexes; empirical: comparison and correlation of the obtained data.Results and scientific novelty. A university complex is designated as a system. The system effects being the results of integration of the organizations of professional education of different levels are educed: effect of instability of the hierarchical relations when preserving a certain structure of a university complex; effect of a single educational purpose, effect of influence of the external environment. These effects cause emergence of new quality of the integrated pedagogical system which is designated as «ability to self-regulating updating».Practical significance. The materials and results of the study can be used for further development of university complexes as organizations that integrate the establishments of vocational education on different levels.

  4. The fifth adaptor protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hirst


    Full Text Available Adaptor protein (AP complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and causes the cell to form swollen endosomal structures with emanating tubules. AP-5 subunits can be found in all five eukaryotic supergroups, but they have been co-ordinately lost in many organisms. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis provides robust resolution, for the first time, into the evolutionary order of emergence of the adaptor subunit families, showing AP-3 as the basal complex, followed by AP-5, AP-4, and AP-1 and AP-2. Thus, AP-5 is an evolutionarily ancient complex, which is involved in endosomal sorting, and which has links with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  5. Complexity, cognition and the city

    CERN Document Server

    Portugali, Juval


    Complexity, Cognition and the City aims at a deeper understanding of urbanism, while invoking, on an equal footing, the contributions both the hard and soft sciences have made, and are still making, when grappling with the many issues and facets of regional planning and dynamics. In this work, the author goes beyond merely seeing the city as a self-organized, emerging pattern of some collective interaction between many stylized urban "agents" – he makes the crucial step of attributing cognition to his agents and thus raises, for the first time, the question on how to deal with a complex system composed of many interacting complex agents in clearly defined settings. Accordingly, the author eventually addresses issues of practical relevance for urban planners and decision makers. The book unfolds its message in a largely nontechnical manner, so as to provide a broad interdisciplinary readership with insights, ideas, and other stimuli to encourage further research – with the twofold aim of further pushing ba...

  6. The new science of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. McCauley


    Full Text Available Deterministic chaos, and even maximum computational complexity, have been discovered within Newtonian dynamics. Economists assume that prices and price changes can also obey abstract mathematical laws of motion. Sociologists and other postmodernists advertise that physics and chemistry have outgrown their former limitations, that chaos and complexity provide new holistic paradigms for science, and that the boundaries between the hard and the soft sciences, once impenetrable, have disappeared like the Berlin Wall. Three hundred years after the deaths of Galileo, Descartes, and Kepler, and the birth of Newton, reductionism appears to be on the decline, with holistic approaches to science on the upswing. We therefore examine the evidence that dynamical laws of motion may be discovered from empirical studies of chaotic or complex phenomena, and also review the foundation of reductionism in invariance principles.

  7. Complex Terrain and Wind Lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed...... in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar...... models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to ∼6h. At the forest...

  8. Articulation points in complex networks (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu


    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  9. Leadership learning for complex organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. David Ng


    Full Text Available Many school leadership programs are set and delivered in specific modules or workshops in order to achieve a pre-determined set of competencies, knowledge, and skills. In addition, these programs are driven by the faculty member and the prescribed content. As Singapore schools become more complex in the roles and responsibilities to educate the future of the nation, new ways to develop school leaders is needed. This study investigates the effects on leadership learning based on a complexity theory-based design leadership program. The learning outcome emerged as practical leadership knowledge that participants generated as they actively participate in the leadership program. A serious implication of complexity-based design would mean shifting from an “objective and course-driven” learning to “learning that emerged and process-driven.”

  10. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten


    Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... imposed on complex verbs of the V* type (=verbs with separable prefixes). This results in such verbs being morphologically unexceptional, i.e., having a full set of forms but syntactically peculiar (‘‘immobile''), i.e., they can only occur in their base position. Any movement is incompatible with either...... (and why this single prefix-like part may NOT be a particle), - why immobile verbs even include verbs with two prefix-like parts, where each of these are separable particles (as in, e.g., German voranmelden ‘preregister'), - why there is such a great amount of speaker variation as to which verbs...

  11. Complex analogues of real problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune

    geometrical interpretations we construct sets with properties similar to the sets considered in the real case. We then formulate a conjecture which can be interpreted as a complex version of Schmidt's original conjecture. Finally we construct a variant of Schmidt's game, to show a partial result leading us......This thesis will be a mix of different problems in number theory. As such it is split into two natural parts. The rst part focuses on normal numbers and construction of numbers that are normal to a given complex base. It is written in the style of a thorough and introductory paper on that subject...... and Velani, and inspired by this An gave a different proof which provides a stronger result. The conjecture is concerned with intersections of certain sets in the plane and are as such a real problem. We will consider a slightly different setup where the real plane is replaced by the complex plane. Using...

  12. Emergence: complexity pedagogy in action. (United States)

    Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Mitchell, Gail; Cross, Nadine


    Many educators are looking for new ways to engage students and each other in order to enrich curriculum and the teaching-learning process. We describe an example of how we enacted teaching-learning approaches through the insights of complexity thinking, an approach that supports the emergence of new possibilities for teaching-learning in the classroom and online. Our story begins with an occasion to meet with 10 nursing colleagues in a three-hour workshop using four activities that engaged learning about complexity thinking and pedagogy. Guiding concepts for the collaborative workshop were nonlinearity, distributed decision-making, divergent thinking, self-organization, emergence, and creative exploration. The workshop approach considered critical questions to spark our collective inquiry. We asked, "What is emergent learning?" and "How do we, as educators and learners, engage a community so that new learning surfaces?" We integrated the arts, creative play, and perturbations within a complexity approach.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nelson


    Full Text Available This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also commonalities across contexts by examining language learning through the lenses of emergence, distribution, and embodiment. These lenses underscore the perspective that language learning emerges from unique interactions, is distributed across social networks, and is embodied in individuals. Consequently, this paper concludes that it is not sufficient to study cognitive processes, activities, and situated learning alone; in addition, research must consider how learners’ interactions and adaptations are embodied, distributed, and emergent in ecologies of complex systems.

  14. Complex analysis for practical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Kozo


    Maximizing reader insights into the fundamentals of complex analysis, and providing complete instructions on how to construct and use mathematical tools to solve engineering problems in potential theory,  this  book covers complex analysis in the context of  potential flow problems. The basic concepts and  methodologies covered are easily extended to other problems of potential theory. Featuring case studies and problems that aid readers understanding of  the key topics and of  their application  to practical engineering problems, this book is suitable as a guide for engineering practitioners. The complex analysis problems discussed in this book will prove useful in solving practical problems in a variety of engineering disciplines, including flow dynamics, electrostatics, heatconduction and gravity fields.

  15. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing. (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H


    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  16. Hierarchy measure for complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás


    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks...

  17. Simulating social complexity a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ruth


    Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems.  Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society.  The phenom...

  18. Complexity hints for economic policy

    CERN Document Server

    Salzano, Massimo


    This volume extends the complexity approach to economics. This complexity approach is not a completely new way of doing economics, and that it is a replacement for existing economics, but rather the integration of some new analytic and computational techniques into economists’ bag of tools. It provides some alternative pattern generators, which can supplement existing approaches by providing an alternative way of finding patterns than be obtained by the traditional scientific approach. On this new kind of policy hints can be obtained. The reason why the complexity approach is taking hold now in economics is because the computing technology has advanced. This advance allows consideration of analytical systems that could not previously be considered by economists. Consideration of these systems suggested that the results of the "control-based" models might not extend easily to more complicated systems, and that we now have a method—piggybacking computer assisted analysis onto analytic methods—to start gen...

  19. Complexity in phonology: The complex consonants of simple CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CC) which presents challenges for the simple CV-syllable structure of the language. In order for these consonants to fit into the CV syllable template, they have to be analysed as complex consonants that occupy a single C-slot (simple onsets).

  20. How complex are intracellular immune receptor signaling complexes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eBonardi


    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs are the major class of intracellular immune receptors in plants. NLRs typically function to specifically recognize pathogen effectors and to initiate and control defense responses that severely limit pathogen growth in plants (termed effector triggered immunity, or ETI. Despite numerous reports supporting a central role in innate immunity, the molecular mechanisms driving NLR activation and downstream signaling remain largely elusive. Recent reports shed light on the pre- and post-activation dynamics of a few NLR-containing protein complexes. Recent technological advances in the use of proteomics may enable high-resolution definition of immune protein complexes and possible activation-relevant post-translational modifications of the components in these complexes. In this mini-review, we focus on research aimed at characterizing pre- and post-activation NLR protein complexes and the molecular events that follow activation. We discuss the use of new or improved technologies as tools to unveil the molecular mechanisms that define NLR-mediated pathogen recognition.

  1. The ethics of complexity and the complexity of ethics | Woermann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recursive understanding of ethics. Although the complexity of ethics cannot be captured in a substantive normative model, we argue that this view of ethics nevertheless commits one to, what we term, 'the provisional imperative'. Like Kant's categorical imperative, the provisional imperative is substantively- empty; however, ...

  2. Some Properties of Complex Fuzzy Integral


    Cuilian You; Weiqing Wang


    In order to simplify the calculations of complex fuzzy integral (complex Liu integral), this paper aims to discuss the properties of this kind of complex fuzzy integral. Firstly, some properties of one-dimensional complex fuzzy integral are given. Then the properties above are extended to the case of multidimensional complex fuzzy integral.

  3. Shiner Davison Landsberg complexity revisited (United States)

    Stoop, R.; Stoop, N.; Kern, A.; Steeb, W.-H.


    Shiner, Davison and Landsberg have recently proposed a measure of complexity that has become the subject of an intense debate. We show that using the framework of the thermodynamic formalism, the properties and shortcomings of this measure—over-universality and a trivial implementation of the temperature dependence—can be interpreted and elucidated in a coherent way. Moreover, we show how the SDL approach can be refined to nullify these critiques. Results of the logistic parabola family demonstrate the improved behaviour of the modified SDL measure of complexity. For the tent map family, an interesting linear dependence of the modified measure as a function of the asymmetry is observed.

  4. Characterization of complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth


    Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically...... available data on the Bosniak classification. Material and methods. All publications from an Entrez Pubmed search were reviewed, focusing on clinical applicability and the use of imaging modalities other than CT to categorize complex renal cysts. Results. Fifteen retrospective studies were found. Most...

  5. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej


    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  6. Cap-binding complex (CBC) (United States)

    Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, Thomas; Cowling, Victoria H.


    The 7mG (7-methylguanosine cap) formed on mRNA is fundamental to eukaryotic gene expression. Protein complexes recruited to 7mG mediate key processing events throughout the lifetime of the transcript. One of the most important mediators of 7mG functions is CBC (cap-binding complex). CBC has a key role in several gene expression mechanisms, including transcription, splicing, transcript export and translation. Gene expression can be regulated by signalling pathways which influence CBC function. The aim of the present review is to discuss the mechanisms by which CBC mediates and co-ordinates multiple gene expression events. PMID:24354960

  7. Complex variable methods in elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    England, A H


    The plane strain and generalized plane stress boundary value problems of linear elasticity are the focus of this graduate-level text, which formulates and solves these problems by employing complex variable theory. The text presents detailed descriptions of the three basic methods that rely on series representation, Cauchy integral representation, and the solution via continuation. Its five-part treatment covers functions of a complex variable, the basic equations of two-dimensional elasticity, plane and half-plane problems, regions with circular boundaries, and regions with curvilinear bounda

  8. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O


    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  9. 1998 Complex Systems Summer School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the past eleven years a group of institutes, centers, and universities throughout the country have sponsored a summer school in Santa Fe, New Mexico as part of an interdisciplinary effort to promote the understanding of complex systems. The goal of these summer schools is to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and active research scientists with an introduction to the study of complex behavior in mathematical, physical, and living systems. The Center for Nonlinear Studies supported the eleventh in this series of highly successful schools in Santa Fe in June, 1998.

  10. Complex Dynamics in Communication Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kocarev, Ljupco


    Computer and communication networks are among society's most important infrastructures. The internet, in particular, is a giant global network of networks without central control or administration. It is a paradigm of a complex system, where complexity may arise from different sources: topological structure, network evolution, connection and node diversity, or dynamical evolution. The present volume is the first book entirely devoted to the new and emerging field of nonlinear dynamics of TCP/IP networks. It addresses both scientists and engineers working in the general field of communication networks.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: tuberous sclerosis complex (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Tuberous sclerosis complex Tuberous sclerosis complex Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder characterized by the ...

  12. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection (United States)

    ... medications, or any of the ingredients in amphotericin B lipid complex injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  13. Let's Piggyback and Forget Complexity. (United States)

    Duane, James E.

    The value of instructional television for universities and public school systems has often been swallowed up in the complexities of producing programs. Television can be better used in the classroom as an instructional resource, taking advantage of already produced programing that is available from sources such as the Public Broadcast Service.…

  14. Complex networks: Dynamics and security

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a mechanism for cascades in complex networks by constructing a model incorporating the flows of information and physical quantities in the network. Using this model we can also show that the cascading phenomenon can be understood as a phase transition in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node ...

  15. Aromatic triamide-lanthanide complexes (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Petoud, Stephane; Xu, Jide


    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one phthalamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the phthalamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  16. Copper (II) complexes with aroylhydrazones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper(II) complexes with aroylhydrazones ... The coordination chemistry of copper(II) with tridentate aroylhydrazones is briefly discussed in this article. ... EPR spectroscopy and variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have been used to reveal the nature of the coordination geometry and magnetic ...

  17. Ubiquitous Computing, Complexity and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The ubiquitous nature of mobile and pervasive computing has begun to reshape and complicate our notions of space, time, and identity. In this collection, over thirty internationally recognized contributors reflect on ubiquitous computing’s implications for the ways in which we interact with our e...... critically unpacks the complex ubiquity-effects confronting us every day....

  18. Medical biostatistics for complex diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmert-Streib, Frank; Dehmer, Matthias


    ... and factors that may all act together to lead to a frank disorder in the individual patient. Based on this assumption, the evaluation of such complex diseases with respect to the affected cells and cell systems by appropriate biostatistical analysis, including high capacity assays and highly developed multi-parameter evaluation-assays, is a clear me...

  19. Language Networks as Complex Systems (United States)

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen


    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  20. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    intercalation more favourable between the π-system of the ligand and the DNA base pairs. The dpq and dppz complexes, however, drastically differ in their cleavage activities in presence of a reducing agent like ascorbic acid. The anomalous activity of 5 could be related to the enhancement of the stability of the cuprous ...