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Sample records for eucalyptus pulp fibres

  1. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustin G.; Vila, Carlos; Ariza, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  2. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  3. Cynara cardunculus L. alkaline pulps: alternatives fibres for paper and paperboard production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, S; Amaral, M E; Costa, A P; Duarte, A P

    2007-11-01

    The pulping of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) was performed under conditions for kraft, kraft-AQ and soda-AQ processes. The best results in terms of delignification degree, expressed as kappa number, pulp viscosity and screened yield, were obtained for the kraft-AQ process with 0.20% of anthraquinone (AQ). The papermaking potential of the selected pulp was studied attending to biometric fibre characterisation, refining aptitude, optical and strength properties. All properties were compared against a Eucalyptus globulus pulp at different refining degrees. The cardoon pulp was also evaluated concerning its potential to board manufacture, alone and in mixtures with pine pulp, giving rise to promising results for liner manufacture.

  4. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

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    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  5. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  6. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  7. Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement | Ackom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement. ... The pasting characteristics or properties of wheat flour fortified with the product up to 20 ... of some popular foods to help increase the fibre intake and health of the general population.

  8. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

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    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  9. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  10. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  11. ANTHRAQUINONE ADDITION IN THE ALKALINE PULPING OF Eucalyptus saligna

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    Lúcia Helena Jerônimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated different alkaline pulping conditions for Eucalyptus saligna wood. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the anthraquinone (AQ on the reduction of the total reduced sulfur (TRS in the aerial emissions, by reducing the sulfidity. The experiment consisted of 8 cooking with active alkali varying from  19 to 21%, sulfidity from  0 to 20% and anthraquinone from 0 to 0.1%, aiming to obtain  kappa numbers in the range 15.5±1.5. The H factor was used to control the relation time/temperature along cooking. The addition of anthraquinone increased the delignification rate allowing sulfidity reduction. The kraft/AQ pulping with sulfidities of 5 and 10% presented satisfactory results, making it possible the replacement of conventional kraft cooking, giving a reduction in process sulfidity without harms in pulping. In spite of a slightly lower performance, the soda/AQ cooking has potential to be used where the smell is a critical problem in the industrial operation.

  12. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

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    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  13. Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue Gum, Blue Mallee, Blue Mallee Oil, Eucalipto, Eucalypti Folium, Eucalyptol, Eucalyptol Oil, Eucalyptus blatter, Eucalyptus bicostata, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Oil, Eucalyptus fructicetorum, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus Leaf, Eucalyptus odorata, Eucalyptus ...

  14. Grouping eucalyptus species in kraft pulp process for cost reduction

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    Apiwan Pichayadecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the level of the important factors that can decrease total cost of pulp production. First of all, experts and experienced users identify the factors that affect the total production cost by applying the principle of 4M 1E cause and effect diagram. Then the primary factors were chosen based on 80% of their significance and tested by hypothesis for two population means. It was found that at the 95% confidence level the significant factors that have effects on the total production cost are amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. However, the proportion of easy delignification according to Eucalyptus species is considered as a significant factor based on various studies. Box-Behnken experiment is designed with respect to 3 mentioned factors and 3 levels of each factor. The response surface method (RSM is employed to determine the non-linear relation between the total cost as the response and the proportion of easy delignification, amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. To minimize the total cost, the optimal values of each factor are 75% of easy delignification, 112 grams per liter of Effective alkali in white liquor and 13.5 of kappa number. Under this optimal condition, the average total cost per ton of Eucalyptus is 13,393.91 Baht which is significantly less than the total cost of 15,517.06 Baht per ton before improvement.

  15. Process parameters affecting the delignification of eucalyptus kraft pulp with peroxyacetic acid

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    Chandranupap, P.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Various process parameters affecting eucalyptus kraft pulp delignification with peroxyacetic acid were investigated. The results showed that pH was an important factor. The delignification rate increased with increasing pH to the value of 6. High delignification rate was obtained when the pulp was chelated with Na4-EDTA prior to the peroxyacetic acid stage. Therefore, delignification reaction rate depends on peroxyacid charge, temperature, pH and metal content of pulp.

  16. Study on the Modification of Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Using Birch Xylan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan...

  17. Application of Alkaline Ionic Liquids in the Pretreatment Process of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulping

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    Yi Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potential application of green solvent ionic liquids (ILs in the kraft pulping process, eucalyptus wood was pretreated by [Mmim]DMP before normal pulping. The results showed that materials pretreated shortly by the ionic liquid had a higher yield and viscosity coupled with a lower potassium permanganate value and residual lignin content in the pulp, as a result of the cooking process. It was also inferred that alkaline [Mmim]DMP pretreatment could dissolve lignin effectively from fiber to result in a stronger binding force and more entangled properties. Paper tensile and burst strength were improved by about 40% and 60%, respectively. These results provide a new way for eucalyptus to be utilized in the kraft pulping process.

  18. Cellulose fibril aggregation studies of eucalyptus dissolving pulps using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES OF Eucalyptus DISSOLVING PULPS USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY V. Chunilall1, J.Wesley-Smith2, T. Bush1 1CSIR, Forestry and Forest Product Research Centre, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, 4013, South Africa. 2Electron Microscope Unit, University of Kwa... pulp using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have reported increased cellulose fibril aggregation during processing, and a concomitant decrease in surface area available for chemical reaction1,2. These findings were subsequently confirmed...

  19. The effects of high energy radiation on the pulping properties of Pinus radiation and Eucalyptus regnans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.; Garland, C.P.; Higgins, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of high energy radiation on the pulping behaviour of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata. Pre-irradiation of wood chips with small doses of 60 Co gamma radiation (up to about 0.2 Mrad) caused little degradation of the cellulose, and had only minor effects on the kraft pulping properties of both wood species. Pulp yield, Kappa number and strength properties of the pulps showed little change. There was also little effect on the bisulphite cooking of Pinus radiata. As the dose was increased to 1 Mrad, degradation of cellulose (as indicated by degree of polymerisation measurements) became significant, and Kraft pulp yields from both woods showed small reductions. The Kappa number and physical properties of these pulps were little affected at this dose level. A gamma radiation dose of 10 Mrad produced marked depolymerisation of the cellulose, and big reductions in kraft and neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulp yields. The kraft pulps showed a much higher lignin content. Some low dose (0.15 Mrad) irradiations on thin chips were carried out with a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In contrast to comparable gamma irradiations, this treatment produced discernible changes in kraft pulping behaviour. The pulp yield, under the same cooking conditions, appears to be slightly higher, but the Lignin content of the pulp was increased. (Author)

  20. Reinforcing Natural Rubber with Cellulose Nanofibrils Extracted from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunmei Zhang; Tianliang Zhai; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons; Yi Dan; Lih-Sheng Turng

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were prepared by solution mixing, casting, and evaporation of pre-vulcanized natural rubber latex and an aqueous suspension of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) extracted from bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that there were no micro-scaled aggregates observed in the nanocomposites...

  1. Morphological development of cellulose fibrils of a bleached eucalyptus pulp by mechanical fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R. Gleisner; T.A. Kuster; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) from a bleached eucalyptus pulp using a commercial stone grinder. Scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy imaging were used to reveal morphological development of CNF at micro and nano scales, respectively. Two major structures were identified (1) highly kinked, naturally...

  2. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  3. Solution blow spun nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystals from Eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from Eucalyptus kraft pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and esterified with maleic anhydride (CNCMA). The incorporation of sulfate ester groups on the cellulose surface resulted in higher stability of the nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and lower the...

  4. The impact of kappa number composition on eucalyptus kraft pulp bleachability

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    M. M. Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of chemicals during ECF bleaching of kraft pulp correlates reasonably well with kappa number, which measures with KMnO4 the total amount of oxidizable material in the pulp. However, the method does not distinguish between the oxidizable material in residual lignin and other structures susceptible to oxidation, such as hexenuronic acids (HexAs, extractives and carbonyl groups in the pulp. In this study an attempt is made to separate the main contributors to the kappa number in oxygen - delignified eucalyptus Kraft pulps and evaluate how these fractions behave during ECF bleaching using chlorine dioxide as the sole oxidant (DEDD sequence. Residual lignin and HexAs proved to be the main fractions contributing to the kappa number and chlorine dioxide consumption in ECF bleaching. Pulp bleachability with chlorine dioxide increases with increasing HexAs content of the pulp but chlorine dioxide per se does not react with HexAs. Reduction of pulp with sodium borohydride under conditions for removing carbonyl groups has no impact on bleachability. No correlation was found between the pulp of the extractive content and pulp bleachability. The removal of HexAs prior to ECF bleaching significantly decreases the formation of chlorinated organics in the pulp (OX and filtrates (AOX as well as of oxalic acids in the filtrates.

  5. Inter-laboratory comparisons of hexenuronic acid measurements in kraft eucalyptus pulps using a UV-Vis spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; H.F Zhou; Chai X.S.; Donna Johannes; Richard Pope; Cristina Valls; M. Blanca Roncero

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of a UV-Vis spectroscopic method (TAPPI T 282 om-13 “Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp”) for hexeneuronic acid measurements was conducted using three eucalyptus kraft pulps. The pulp samples were produced in a laboratory at kappa numbers of approximately 14, 20, and 35. The hexeneuronic acid contents of the three pulps were...

  6. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  7. Effects of the bleaching sequence on the optical brighteners action in eucalyptus kraft pulp

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    Mauro Manfredi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the bleaching process the pulp is treated with chemical reagents that can be retained in the pulp and interfere in the action of the optical brighteners. Different bleaching sequences can produce pulps at the same brightness but with different potential to whiteness increase when treated with optical brighteners. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bleaching sequence on the efficiency of disulphonated and tetrasulphonated optical brighteners. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was bleached using four different bleaching sequences. For each pulp three brightness targets were aimeds. For each bleaching sequence mathematical model was generated for predicting the final pulp whiteness according to the initial brightness and the optical brightener charge applied. The presence of organochlorine residues in the pulp reduced the effectiveness of the optical brighteners. Therefore, bleaching sequences that use low chlorine dioxide charge favors for greater gains in whiteness with the application of optical brighteners. The replacement of the final chlorine dioxide bleaching stage with a hydrogen peroxide one in the sequence increased the efficiency of the optical brightening agents.

  8. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

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    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  9. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE VARIATION OF PORE STRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS FIBRE DURING RECYCLING

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    Wen Jie Guo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the pore structure of eucalyptus fibre during recycling was investigated using low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and fractal geometry. The Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area of the fibre fell to 55.1% of the original value after the first cycle, and to 49.0% after the second cycle, ultimately declining to 35.0% after the fourth. The Barret-Joyner- Halenda (BJH adsorption cumulative pore volume fell to 38.4% of the original by the fourth. After four cycles, the average pore diameter fell to 82% of the original. AFM tests showed that the pore structure in fibre expressed high self-similarity in statistics, and the pore structure in the fibre could be regarded as a fractal. Fractal geometry analysis of the results showed that the fractal dimension of eucalyptus virgin fibre is 2.954. With the number of process cycles increasing, the fractal dimension fell to a minimum of 2.886 after four cycles. The water retention value (WRV of the fibre was proportional to the fractal dimension and the crystallinity of fibre.

  10. OPTICAL PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF THERMALLY AND PHOTOLYTICALLY AGED EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS CHEMITHERMOMECHANICAL PULP (CTMP

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    Yao Chen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the optical properties of chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP from Eucalyptus camaldulensis, one group of samples of CTMP was aged by heating, and another group was first subjected to bleaching with different bleaching agents, and then aging by exposure to sunlight. Chromophores were analyzed using diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DRUV, and the brightness and color parameters (L*, a*, b* were analyzed using colorimetry. Results showed that the color reactions of the pulp, upon heating, were enhanced in the presence of moisture. There was a linear relationship between the pulp initial moisture content (MC and the intensity of UV-Vis absorption. The contribution of different chromophores to pulp color was analyzed with the help of bleaching agents: hydrogen peroxide, sodium dithionite, and sodium borohydride. Sodium borohydride and hydrogen peroxide treatments resulted in a decrease in the absorption band at 280 nm along with the shoulder near 320 nm, which could be attributed to conjugated C=O and C=C systems. Similarly, sodium dithionite treatment also led to a decrease in absorption of the carbonyls and double bonds conjugated with aromatic double bonds. The chromaticity parameters of bleached pulp increased after exposure to sunlight. A correspondingly higher concentration of quinoid structures was found.

  11. QUALITY OF REACTION WOOD IN EucalyptusTREES TILTED BY WIND FOR PULP PRODUCTION

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    Walter Torezani Neto Boschetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the quality of normal, tension and opposite wood of eucalyptus trees lengthwise, in straight and inclined stems, affected by wind action. It also aims to explain the pulping parameters resultant from the quality of the wood. The trees were grouped into four tilt ranges, ranging from 0 to 50º, and the basic density, chemical composition of the wood, and performance in kraft pulping were assessed. Normal and tension wood had similar basic densities; while for opposite wood, the density was lower, being responsible for a decrease in reaction wood density. The chemical composition of the wood was influenced by the presence of reaction wood in the stem.Tension and opposite wood showed lower levels of extractives and lignin and higher holocellulose content when compared to normal wood, with favorable wood quality for pulping. The increase in holocellulose content and the reduction of lignin and extractives content contributed positively to a more delignified pulp and reduction of the Kappa number. However, after cooking the reaction wood under the same conditions as those of normal wood, reaction wood pulping tends to have a lower screen yields. Due to differences in basic density and chemical constituents between opposite and normal wood, it is recommended not to designate the opposite wood as normal wood.

  12. Application of xylanases from Amazon Forest fungal species in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps

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    Roseli Garcia Medeiros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude xylanase preparations from Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were used to treat Eucalyptus kraft pulp, prior to chlorine dioxide and alkaline bleaching sequences. The enzyme pretreatment improved brightness and delignification of non-delignified and oxygen-bleached samples of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Xylanase preparations from T. longibrachiatum and P. corylophilum were more effective to reduce pulp kappa number. A small reduction in viscosity was obtained when the oxygen-bleached pulp was treated with xylanase preparation from A. niger. For all enzyme samples, the best release of chromophoric material from the pulp was at 237 nm. The enzyme preparation from P. corylophilum was responsible for the highest release of reducing sugar at a dosage interval of 10-20 IU/g dry weight pulp. Scanning electron microscopy studies of oxygen-bleached pulp after xylanase treatment revealed morphological changes, including holes, cracks, filament forming and peeling.Amostras de xilanases de extratos brutos de Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger e Trichoderma longibrachiatum foram utilizadas no branqueamento de polpa kraft de eucalipto antes das seqüências alcalina e dióxido de cloro. O pré-tratamento enzimático melhorou a alvura e o processo de deslignificação de amostras de polpa kraft de eucalipto não-tratada e tratada com oxigênio. Amostras de xilanases de T. longibrachiatum e P. corylophilum foram mais efetivas na redução do número kappa da polpa. A polpa tratada com oxigênio sofreu uma pequena redução na sua viscosidade quando incubada com amostra de xilanase de A. niger. Para todas as amostras de xilanases, a maior liberação de cromóforos da polpa foi a 237 nm. A amostra de xilanase de P. corylophilum liberou maior quantidade de açúcar redutor da polpa, utilizando dosagem de 10-20 UI/g de peso seco da polpa. Estudos de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram várias altera

  13. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT OF Eucalyptus globulus WOOD IN KRAFT PULPING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20,53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23,02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18,5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2,49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2,2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1,2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4,2% is obtained

  14. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Nanofibril Films from Bleached Eucalyptus Pulp by Endoglucanase Treatment and Microfluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Ronald C. Sabo; Michael D. Mozuch; Phil Kersten; J. Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase (Ph-GH5) from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii and a commercial endoglucanase (FR) were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and subsequently to CNF films. TEM imaging indicated that Ph-GH5 produced longer and more entangled CNF than FR with the same number...

  15. Amenability of Acacia and Eucalyptus Hardwood Pulps to Elemental Chlorine-Free Bleaching: Application and Efficacy of Microbial Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the results of a biobleaching study of acacia (A. mangium and eucalyptus (E. globulus hardwood kraft pulps with commercial xylanase (Optimase CX 72 L. The comparative study was carried out using an elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleaching sequence (D0EPD1D2 after the enzyme (X stage. The enzyme treatment resulted in improved optical properties with a reduction in bleach chemical consumption. At an equivalent bleach chemical consumption, a brightness gain of 2.1 and 1.7 units and a whiteness gain of 2.7 and 2.3 units were observed with xylanase treatment in acacia and eucalyptus pulps, respectively. In ECF bleaching using the D0EPD1D2 sequence, a final brightness was achieved to the extent of 90% ISO and 89% ISO for acacia and eucalyptus, respectively, at an equivalent charge of bleach chemicals. The post-color (PC number was also reduced by up to 45% for both hardwood pulps compared with the control. The bleachability of acacia was observed to be significantly higher than that of eucalyptus. In addition, a 17.0% and 23.0% reduction in chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide, respectively, were obtained for both hardwood pulps after xylanase pre-bleaching, thus indicating an environmentally friendly approach to the process.

  16. Method for Forming Pulp Fibre Yarns Developed by a Design-driven Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia-Maria Tenhunen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive method for producing water-stable pulp fibre yarns using a deep eutectic mixture composed of choline chloride and urea (ChCl/urea was developed in this work. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs are eutectic mixtures consisting of two or more components that together have a lower melting point than the individual components. DESs have been previously studied with respect to cellulose dissolution, functionalisation, and pre-treatment. This new method uses a mixture of choline chloride and urea, which is used as a swelling and dispersing agent for the pulp fibres in the yarn-forming process. Although the pulp seemed to form a gel when dispersed in ChCl/urea, the ultrastructure of the pulp was not affected. To enable water stability, pulp fibres were crosslinked by esterification using polyacrylic acid. ChCl/urea could be easily recycled and reused by distillation. The novel process described in this study enables utilisation of pulp fibres in textile production without modification or dissolution and shortening of the textile value chain. An interdisciplinary approach was used, where potential applications were explored simultaneously with material development from process development to the early phase prototyping.

  17. Radiation application for paper preservation: gamma irradiation at Eucalyptus pulp sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Barbosa, Patricia S.M.; D'Almeida, Maria Luiza O.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been proposed in order to protect information and books that may be lost due to fungi and or insects infestation. In general restaurators are very worried about the maintenance of original properties of items to be treated. The selected technology must consider two points: type of biological contamination and contamination control. Fungi is one of the principal organism which grows well on papers. Once this infestation is installed on the paper it will signify spots, resistance loses and deterioration. The organisms feces introduces enzymes, organic acids and pigments to the contaminated material. Ionizing radiation from gamma sources were applied at laboratory sheets manufactured with commercial cellulose pulp. The subject of this present paper was to investigate the ideal radiation dose that is safe for keeping the paper quality. Laboratory sheets (75 g/m 2 ) were prepared in a TAPPI sheet former. Bleached sulphate Eucalyptus pulp, refined in laboratory PFI mill to 31 deg SR, was the raw material. The formed sheets were irradiated at IPEN's 60 Co Gammacell with 3 kGy up to 25 kGy. No significant changes were detected in paper samples irradiated up to 9 kGy. This is the radiation dose to be suggested. During irradiation the applied dose rate was 0.817 Gy/s. (author)

  18. Enzymatic grafting of simple phenols on flax and sisal pulp fibres using laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracri, Elisabetta; Fillat, Amanda; Colom, José F; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José C; Martínez, Angel T; Vidal, Teresa

    2010-11-01

    Flax and sisal pulps were treated with two laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, PcL and Trametes villosa, TvL, respectively), in the presence of different phenolic compounds (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and p-coumaric acid in the case of flax pulp, and coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, ferulic acid and sinapic acid in the case of sisal pulp). In most cases the enzymatic treatments resulted in increased kappa number of pulps suggesting the incorporation of the phenols into fibres. The covalent binding of these compounds to fibres was evidenced by the analysis of the treated pulps, after acetone extraction, by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the absence and/or in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as methylating agent. The highest extents of phenol incorporation were observed with the p-hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The present work shows for the first time the use of analytical pyrolysis as an effective approach to study fibre functionalization by laccase-induced grafting of phenols. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dehydrated chicory pulp as an alternative soluble fibre source in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maertens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fibre (SF is an important nutrient to enhance fermentative activity and gut health in rabbits. The main source of SF in rabbit diets is sugar beet pulp (SBP, whereas, due to its high content of SF (34%, dried chicory pulp (ChP could be an alternative to SBP. In a fattening trial with 192 hybrid weanlings 32 d old weighing 837±45 g, chicory pulp was used in replacement of SBP to study effects on production performances and slaughter characteristics. Rabbits were fed one of 4 iso-energetic (9.65 MJ digestible energy/kg and isonitrogenous (15.6% crude protein diets: a negative control (NC diet with a low dietary SF content (7.3%, a positive control diet with quite a high SBP level (13.5% and SF content (10.6% and 2 diets with respectively 10% and 20% of chicory pulp (ChP10: 9.9% SF and ChP20: 13.7% SF. The SF content was measured as the difference between total dietary fibre and neutral detergent fibre, the latter corrected for ash and protein content. Each dietary treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 4 rabbits. Weight gain was high (on av. 54 g/d and comparable for the NC, SBP and ChP diets. However, feed conversion ratio was improved (P<0.05 with the ChP20 diet compared to the NC diet (2.88 vs. 2.97. Mortality was low and not influenced by the dietary treatment. Slaughter data were very similar and no effect of the SF level on caecal weight or slaughter yield was observed. It was concluded that chicory pulp is a good alternative soluble fibre source in balanced diets for rabbits and can be used at least up to 20% inclusion rate.

  20. Using Py-GC/MS to detect and measure silicone defoamers in pulp fibres and mill deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in deposits. In this work, for the first time, Py-GC/MS has been used to analyse for silicone defoamers in pulp and paper matrices. This work demonstrates that the technique is ideal for analysis and characterisation of silicone defoamers on pulp fibres...

  1. Influence of bleaching technologies on the aerobic biodegradability of effluents from Eucalyptus kraft pulps factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Vidal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic biodegradability of effluents from different Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching processes was studied. Bleaching effluents were obtained from: i Chlorine Bleaching (CB processes, with partial substitution of chlorine by chlorine dioxide and ii Total Chlorine Free (TCF processes. The overall biodegradability, in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD was higher for TCF effluents (96-98% than for CB ones (82-93%. Taking into account the higher organic load of CB effluents, this fact implied a much higher residual COD for them (100-180 mg/L than for TCF effluents (10-30 mg/L. Furthermore, a refractory fraction of molecular weight higher than 43,000 Da was found in CB effluent, which implied the necessity of a further specific treatment. The toxicity was completely removed after the biological treatmentA biodegradabilidade aerobica das águas residuais provenientes de diferentes procesos de branqueos de pulpa kraft foi estudada. Os efluentes são gerados no branqueo com cloro ou parcialmente sustituido com dioxido de cloro (CB ou bem em processos livres do cloro (TCF. A biodegradabilidade, quantificada como DQO foi maior para as águas do processo CB. Tendo em conta o elevado conteúdo orgânico do efluente CB obteinse uma maior concentraç&ão do DQO final neste efluente comparado com o efluente TCF. Uma fracçao recalcitrante maior a 43,000 Da no effluente BC foi encontrada, isto significa um tratamento adicional específico para sua eliminaçã o. A toxicidade foi totalmente eliminada despois do tratamento aeração.

  2. Fractionation of high Kappa number kraft pulps of the South African softwoods and sulfonating of coarse fibre enriched fraction for production of sack paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available properties except tear strength: Tensile index (54%), TEA index (104%), Burst index (65%) and sheet density (23%). A tear index decrease (30%) could be attrib- uted to a high proportion of short and fine fibres in the accept stream. The reject stream... gave pulp samples with inferior strength properties with exception of tear strength. This may be due to high proportion of coarse fibres which have limited fibre collapsibility. Poor fibre collapsibility leads to a limited fibre bond- ing ability...

  3. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  4. An XPS round robin investigation on analysis of wood pulp fibres and filter paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campbell, J. M.; Fardim, Pedro; Hultén, Anette Heijnesson; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Ernstsson, Marie

    2005-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to pulp and paper research for decades. However, there has been no attempt to standardise or even systematically compare experimental and analysis procedures, even though it is known that fibrous, nature-derived and insulating fibre materials pose remarkable challenges to reliable surface analysis. The experimental problems are mainly linked with neutralisation, energy resolution, contamination and X-ray induced degradation. We have tested applicability, reliability and reproducibility of XPS analysis on real pulp samples with varying lignin and extractives contents in a small round robin investigation. We also tested the instrumental set-ups with an acetone-extracted filter paper, used as a reference sample. The data, collected at four different laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments indicate that reproducible results can be obtained, despite minor differences in experimental and analysis procedures. However, we found that a specified sample handling procedure and limited X-ray exposure are crucial for reproducible, reliable data. Based on the round robin data we recommend dose restricted monochromatic measurements, a cellulosic in situ reference and a consistent sample handling procedure. The data confirms that a paper-based reference material and the correlation of high-resolution C 1s data with O/C atomic ratios can be used in testing instruments and experimental set-ups for pulp and paper materials.

  5. Ozone bleaching of South African Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulps containing high levels of hexenuronic acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone use in conjunction with chlorine dioxide during pulp bleaching offers several advantages over conventional bleaching sequences that make use of chlorine dioxide only. Despite this, in South Africa, only one mill uses ozone. The current study...

  6. Cellulose fibril aggregation studies of Eucalyptus dissolving pulps using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available , P.T. (2006), 9th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp, Conference Proceedings. 3. Nocanda, X. et al. (2007), Holzforschung, 61(6), 675. 4. Krässig, H. A., (1996) Polymer Monographs, 11. Figure 1. Fully bleached 92 ! (freeze dried...

  7. Enhanced cellulase hydrolysis of eucalyptus waste fibers from pulp mill by Tween80-assisted ferric chloride pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liheng; Fu, Shiyu

    2013-04-03

    Pretreatment combining FeCl3 and Tween80 was performed for cellulose-to-ethanol conversion of eucalyptus alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping waste fibers (EAWFs). The FeCl3 pretreatment alone showed a good effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of EAWFs, but inhibited enzyme activity to some extent. A surfactant, Tween80, added during FeCl3 pretreatment was shown to significantly enhance enzyme reaction by eluting enzymatic inhibitors such as iron(III) that are present at the surface of the pretreated biomass. Treatment temperature, liquid-solid ratio, treatment time, FeCl3 concentration, and Tween80 dosage for pretreatment were optimized as follows: 180 °C, 8:1, 30 min, 0.15 mol/L, and 1% (w/v). Pretreated EAWFs under such optimal conditions provided enzymatic glucose (based on 100 g of oven-dried feedstock) and substrate enzymatic digestibility of EAWFs of 34.8 g and 91.3% after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, with an initial cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g substrate.

  8. Process design and economics of a flexible ethanol-butanol plant annexed to a eucalyptus kraft pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guilherme C Q; Braz, Danilo S; Hamaguchi, Marcelo; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Mariano, Adriano P

    2018-02-01

    This work proposes a strategy, from a process design standpoint, for pulp companies to enter the Brazilian ethanol market. The flexible plant converts eucalyptus-derived glucose to either ethanol or butanol (according to market conditions) and xylose only to butanol production. Depending on the biomass pretreatment technology, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the Net Present Value (NPV) of the flexible plant increases by 20-28% in relation to an ethanol-dedicated plant. Whereas the lower costs of the steam explosion technology turns the investment more attractive (NPV = 184 MMUSD; IRR = 29%), the organosolv technology provides better flexibility to the plant. This work also shows that excessive power consumption is a hurdle in the development of flash fermentation technology chosen for the flexible plant. These results indicate that conventional batch fermentation is preferable if the enzymatic hydrolysis step operates with solids loading up to 20 wt%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of wood storage on the chemical composition and indigenous microflora of eucalyptus species used in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic extractives naturally occurring in wood tend to coalesce during pulping to form pitch deposits, which have particularly undesirable effects on the pulping process and quality of pulp produced. A chemical characterization of different...

  10. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill Características químicas e polpação Kraft de madeira de tração de Eucalyptus globulus labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.Madeira de tração e oposta de árvores de Eucalyptus globulus foram analisadas quanto a suas características químicas e produção de polpa Kraft. A caracterização química da madeira de tração (TW de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mostrou um conteúdo similar de celulose, alto conteúdo de xilanas e baixo conteúdo de lignina quando comparada com a madeira oposta (OW de uma mesma árvore. O conteúdo de lignina foi 16% menor e contém 32% mais unidades siringila em TW que em OW. O aumento das unidades siringila favoreceu a formação de ligações

  12. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  13. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Gustavo; Barra, Ricardo; Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Rivas, Meyling; Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  14. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Gustavo, E-mail: gchiang@centromeri.cl [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA–Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Concepción, Concepcion (Chile); Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología y Contaminación Ambiental (ECoA), IIMyC-CONICET-UNMdP, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Rivas, Meyling [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  15. Caracterização tecnológica, para produção de celulose, da nova geração de clones de Eucalyptus do Brasil Technological characterization of the new generation of Eucalyptus clones in Brazil for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lívio Gomide

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados clones de Eucalyptus de última geração, pertencentes às principais empresas brasileiras de celulose. Os estudos consistiram numa caracterização tecnológica detalhada da qualidade das madeiras utilizadas no processamento fabril das empresas. Foram realizadas análise químicas detalhadas das madeiras e cozimentos kraft, simulando-se uma das modernas técnica de digestor contínuo. Os resultados indicaram a alta qualidade dos clones de Eucalyptus atualmente plantados no Brasil para produção de celulose.Last generation of Eucalyptus clones pulped by the main Brazilian kraft pulp mills were used for this study. Detailed chemical analysis of the woods were carried out to establish the wood quality. Laboratory simulation of a modern continuous digester technique was used for pulp production. Results demonstrated the high quality of Eucalyptus clones wood that are being planted in Brazil for kraft pulp production.

  16. Estratégia de análise da qualidade de madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de celulose A laboratory technique to establish Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lívio Gomide

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma nova técnica laboratorial de análise de qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de polpa celulósica kraft. A técnica consiste em realizar, simultaneamente, quatro cozimentos de cavacos utilizando diferentes cargas de álcali ativo para estabelecer a característica de deslignificação da madeira. Pelo uso de equações de regressão, calcula-se o álcali ativo necessário para obter o número kappa desejado, o rendimento, a viscosidade e álcali consumido para o kappa objetivo. Os estudos estatísticos evidenciaram que uma única batelada de quatro cozimentos é suficiente, não sendo necessário realizar repetições.A new laboratory technique was tested to determine Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production. This technique consists in performing four cooks simultaneously using different active alkali charges to establish the wood delignification characteristics. Based on regression equation it is possible to determine the alkali charge necessary to obtain a desired kappa number and the yield, viscosity and the alkali consumed for the target kappa. Statistical analysis demonstrated that a set of four cooks without replication is sufficient to determine the wood quality characteristics.

  17. Bleaching of kraft pulps produced from green liquor pre-hydrolyzed South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available -ability. Savings in chlorine dioxide for PHK pulps ranged between 2-18% for sequences that used chlorine dioxide as the primary oxidative bleaching chemical. When ozone was used in combination with chlorine dioxide, mixed results were obtained – PHK pulps showed...

  18. Properties of cellulose micro/nanofibers obtained from eucalyptus pulp fiber treated with anaerobic digestate and high shear mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High production costs remain the single greatest factor limiting wider use of cellulose micro/nanofibers in the industry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of using a low-cost bacteria-rich digestate (liquid anaerobic digestate – AD supernatant) on milled eucalyptus...

  19. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangning Yu

    Full Text Available Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0 and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C, and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0. SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  20. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  1. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  2. Genomic research in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poke, Fiona S; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Reid, James B

    2005-09-01

    Eucalyptus L'Hérit. is a genus comprised of more than 700 species that is of vital importance ecologically to Australia and to the forestry industry world-wide, being grown in plantations for the production of solid wood products as well as pulp for paper. With the sequencing of the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the recent completion of the first tree genome sequence, Populus trichocarpa, attention has turned to the current status of genomic research in Eucalyptus. For several eucalypt species, large segregating families have been established, high-resolution genetic maps constructed and large EST databases generated. Collaborative efforts have been initiated for the integration of diverse genomic projects and will provide the framework for future research including exploiting the sequence of the entire eucalypt genome which is currently being sequenced. This review summarises the current position of genomic research in Eucalyptus and discusses the direction of future research.

  3. Regeneration and transformation of Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Esteki, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Molecular, Biotecnologia e Bioempreendedorismo em Plantas Eucalyptus grandis is the most widely used species in planted forests in tropical and subtropical areas. The traits of interest underlying Eucalyptus breeding programs concern productivity and wood quality for the pulp and paper industry, as well as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The development of an efficient transformation protocol is necessary to explore eucalypt resources th...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS AND SUITABILITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel

    HUSK AND STALK FOR PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION. *Ekhuemelo ... Key Words: Maize, husk, stalk, pulp, and fibre length. ..... Turk. J. Agric. For. 23(3):. 589-597. Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2012). Corn ... Anatomical, structure and lignin.

  5. An approach to industrial application: influence of black liquor and pH on xylanase efficiency in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Latorre, Úrsula; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca; Bassa, Alexandre; Sacón, Vera Maria

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a more realistic appraisal of the potential efficiency of xylanases in the industrial bleaching, the influence of pH and the presence of black liquor (measured as COD) on the bleaching efficiency of two commercial xylanases was studied at high temperature. These pH’s, CODs, and temperatures are close to those used in the storage tower of the B fiber line in Jacareı´ unit of Fibria (Brazil). The pulp samples obtained after each bleaching stage were analyzed for kappa number, brigh...

  6. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Mansilla, J.P.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. These plantations represent an important source of fuel-wood, structural timber and pulp. Eucalyptus plantations are, however, vulnerable to infection by pathogens, including

  7. Utilização de surfactantes, na polpação kraft de madeira de eucalipto, como auxiliar na remoção de extrativos lipofílicos Surfactant utilization in kraft pulping of eucalyptus wood to improve lipophilic extractives removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusanilde de Jesus Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas de deposição de "pitch" em fábricas de celulose e de papel são atribuídos aos extrativos lipofílicos existentes na madeira. Uma das maneiras mais eficientes de controlar essa deposição é através da remoção de seus precursores do sistema, logo que possível, nas etapas de cozimento, lavagem da polpa marrom e pré-deslignificação com oxigênio. O uso de surfactantes como aditivos da polpação tem sido investigado, mas há grande deficiência de informações técnicas, e a aplicação industrial é, ainda, incipiente. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar a viabilidade de minimizar a deposição de "pitch", intensificando a remoção de suas substâncias precursoras na etapa de polpação pelo uso de tensoativos sintéticos com propriedades umectantes e solubilizantes. Foram testados 20 princípios ativos de surfactantes em cozimento kraft convencional de madeira de eucalipto. Os resultados, alguns estatisticamente significativos, apontaram redução do teor de substâncias lipofílicas na polpa marrom. Foi observado que a remoção dos extrativos lipofílicos da madeira é afetada, inversamente, pelo teor de óxido de eteno na molécula do surfactante. Outros parâmetros de cozimento, como deslignificação, rendimento, teor de rejeitos e viscosidade da polpa, foram também avaliados.Extractives are pitch precursors and may decrease pulping efficiency and affect pulp quality. Probably, the most efficient way to minimize pitch problems is to remove their precursors from the system during cooking, pulp washing and oxygen delignification. Use of surfactants as pulping additives has been investigated but technical information is deficient and industrial application is very incipient. The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of different surfactants as additives for kraft pulping of Eucalyptus wood. Twenty surfactants with different basic chemical structures were used. The results demonstrated that

  8. Organosolv pulping and test paper characterization of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, F.H.A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Tjeerdsma, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The autocatalyzed ethanol pulping of hemp to produce chemical-grade pulp was examined. Batch delignification conditions were developed for hemp core, hemp bast, and hemp whole stem. Although successful pulping of both hemp core and bast fibre is possible, further research is necessary.

  9. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  10. Growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis grown in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a stand-level growth and yield model for short-rotationEucalyptus grandis grown for pulp wood production at Piggs Peak in Swaziland. The data were derived from a Nelder 1a spacing trial established with E. grandis clonal cuttings in 1998 and terminated in 2005. Planting density ...

  11. Evaluation of Seedlings Gowth of Eucalyptus badjensis in Substrata from Composted Residues (Pulp and Paper Mill, Brewery Industry and Goat Dung Resíduos Industriais e Dejetos da Caprinocultura como Componentes de Substratos para Produção de Mudas de Eucalyptus badjensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuo Maeda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the seedling growth of Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev. & Welch in substrata prepared from different residues: pulp and paper mill wastes (organic sludge and cellulose mill liquid alkaline liquor, brewery malt and also goat manure. The experiment was carried out in the seedlings nursery of the Embrapa Florestas, in Colombo, Paraná. The organic sludge, cellulose mill liquid alkaline liquor and the brewer’s grain were previously composted with sawdust, and goat dung with pinus bark. A randomized blocks design with split-plot arrangement, with four replications was used. Plot treatments were the substrata and split-plot were base fertilization (with and without: 1 mixture of a commercial substratum prepared with composted pinus bark in a volume/volume relation - v/v - of 1/1 - standard of the experiment when base fertilization was applied; 2 composted brewery malt with sawdust in a relation v/v of 1/4; 3 composted organic sludge with sawdust (relation v/v of 1/1; 4 mixture of
    treatment 3 with pinus bark (relation v/v of 1/1; 5 composted cellulose mill liquid alkaline waste with sawdust (relation v/v of 4/1; 6 composted cellulose mill liquid alkaline waste with sawdust (relation v/v of 3/2; 7 mixture of the product
    of treatment 6 with Pinus bark (relation v/v of 1/1; 8 composted goat dung with pinus bark. The results showed that substrata of treatments 2 and 8 can be used for the production of E. badjensis seedlings, with or without base fertilization, while treatment 4 can only be used with base fertilization. The growth of E. badjensis in the substratum of the standard treatment was not influenced by the lack of base fertilization.
    Com o objetivo de avaliar resíduos gerados nas produções de papel e celulose, de cerveja e na caprinocultura como substratos para a produção de mudas de Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev. & Welch, foi

  12. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Ana Paula; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin; Santos, Sérgio Francisco Dos; Savastano Junior, Holmer

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana) chemical (organosolv) pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP) fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressin...

  13. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  14. Holdup time measurement by radioactive tracers in pulp production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roetzer, H.; Donhoffer, D.

    1988-12-01

    A batch of pulp was to be labelled before passing two bleaching towers of a pulp plant. Activated glass fibres were used as a tracer, which contained 24-Na with a half-life of 15 hours. It was shown in laboratory tests, that the glass fibres were suitable for transport studies of wood pulp. For use in the tests the fibres were activated and suspended in water. Due to the small diameter of the fibres (2-5 micrometers) this suspension shows physical properties very similar to the pulp. For detection six scintillation probes were mounted at different positions outside the bleaching tower. Radiation protection during the test was very easy due to the low total activity of the tracer material. Residence time distributions for both towers were measured. The successful tracer experiments show, that the method of labelling is suited for investigations of material transport in the pulp and paper industry. 3 figs., 11 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  15. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  16. Basic density and pulp yield relationship with some chemical parameters in eucalyptus trees Densidade e rendimento em polpa celulósica e sua relação com alguns parâmetros químicos no eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Loureiro da Seca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of basic density and pulp yield correlations with some chemical parameters, in order to differentiate an homogeneous eucalyptus tree population, in terms of its potential for pulp production or some other technological applications. Basic density and kraft pulp yield were determined for 120 Eucalyptus globulus trees, and the values were plotted as frequency distributions. Homogenized samples from the first and fourth density quartiles and first and fourth yield quartiles were submitted to total phenols, total sugars and methoxyl group analysis. Syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G and syringaldehyde/vanillin (S/V ratios were determined on the kraft lignins from wood of the same quartiles. The results show the similarity between samples from high density and low yield quartiles, both with lower S/G (3.88-4.12 and S/V (3.99-4.09 ratios and higher total phenols (13.3-14.3 g gallic acid kg-1 . Woods from the high yield quartile are statistically distinguished from all the others because of their higher S/G (5.15 and S/V (4.98 ratios and lower total phenols (8.7 g gallic acid kg-1 . Methoxyl group and total sugars parameters are more adequate to distinguish wood samples with lower density.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade de correlações entre rendimento em polpa e densidade básica com alguns parâmetros químicos, para diferenciar uma população homogênea de árvores de eucalipto, em termos de capacidade de produção de polpa celulósica ou de outras aplicações. Determinou-se a densidade básica e o rendimento em polpa celulósica em 120 árvores de Eucalyptus globulus, e os resultados foram representados como distribuição de freqüências. Na madeira das árvores dos primeiro e quarto quartis de densidade e de rendimento, determinaram-se os teores de fenóis totais, açúcares totais e grupos metoxílicos. Nas respectivas ligninas kraft determinaram-se as razões seringilo

  17. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  18. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  19. An environmental systems analysis of the Kraft pulp industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warit, J.

    2006-01-01

    The pulp industry inThailandis of economic and social importance because of its production value, the revenues from export and the employment in this sector. The eucalyptus-based Kraft pulp industry plays an

  20. VARIATION IN THE FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cani

    The study investigated the fibre characteristics and chemical composition of Vitex doniana towards determining its potentials for pulp and paper. Fibre dimensions are of great importance because of the strong correlation between it and the strength properties of wood and paper. Axial and radial examinations of fibre ...

  1. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. Part 4. Peroxide bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2005-05-01

    A comparative study on TCF (totally chlorine-free) bleachability of organosolv pulps from the annual fibre crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed) was carried out using a simple three-stage peroxide bleaching sequence without oxygen pre-bleaching. ASAM (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol), Organocell (alkali-anthraquinone-methanol) and ethanol-soda organosolv pulps were bleached and compared with kraft pulp, as a reference. The final brightness of 76-78% ISO was attained for all tested pulps. The chemical charge required to reach this level of brightness varied for different pulps (despite the equal initial content of the residual lignin) and directly related to starting brightness values. No direct correlation between brightness improvement and lignin removal during bleaching was found, indicating the influence of the specific pulp properties introduced by pulping process on bleaching chemistry. The general higher bleaching response of organosolv pulps from A. donax was noted in comparison with kraft.

  2. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9 wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55 N mg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60 m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0 nm, respectively. The addition of 9 wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  4. Performance of a sisal fibre fixed-bed anaerobic digester for biogas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single stage anaerobic digester employing a sisal fibre waste fixed bed was studied for biogas production from sisal pulp waste. The fibre was colonized by microorganisms involved in biogas production. The sisal pulp waste to be digested was fed from the top and was sprinkled intermittently with recirculating leachate ...

  5. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  6. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf diseases on Eucalyptus globulus in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodoro, M.G.; Ferreira, M.A.; Guimarães, L.M.S.; Mafia, R.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Alfenas, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf blight and defoliation caused by Teratosphaeria species is one of the most important leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus. Due to the importance of this tree species for the production of pulp and paper, and recent reports of severe leaf disease symptoms in Brazil, the present study was

  7. Identification of Mycosphaerella species associated with Eucalyptus nitens leaf defoliation in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, G.C.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is an important plantation tree species in South Africa, where it is grown for paper and pulp production. The growth and performance of E. nitens in South Africa is, however, reduced substantially by Mycosphaerella leaf blotch (MLB) disease. The aim of this study was to determine

  8. Endoglucanase post-milling treatment for producing cellulose nanofibers from bleached eucalyptus fibers by a supermasscolloider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Philip Kersten; Junyong Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Three recombinant GH5 endoglucanases chosen for their contrasting hydrolytic activities, and a commercial endoglucanase were used to treat cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) after they were milled from bleached eucalyptus pulp with a supermasscolloider. This enzyme ‘‘post-treatment’’ resulted in different properties for the CNFs depending on enzyme treatment. The degree of...

  9. Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Phil Kersten; J.Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase from the archaeon Pyrococcus honkoshii (ph-GH5) and a commercial endoglucanase FR were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) through subsequent microfluidization Enzymatic treatments facilitated CNF production due to the reduced degree of polymerization (DP)...

  10. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption

  11. Preparation of lumen-loaded kenaf pulp with magnetite (Fe3O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, S.; Ong, B.H.; Ahmad, S.H.; Abdullah, M.; Yamauchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic pulps were prepared from unbleached kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) kraft pulps. Fe 3 O 4 or magnetite powder was used to load into the pulp's lumen and pit. Aluminum sulphate [Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] (alum) and polyethylenimine (PEI), both mainly function as retention aid were used throughout the experiment and found to be beneficial in the preparation of this magnetic pulps. The ash content method was used to determine the amount of magnetite retained in the lumen and pit. The utilization of PEI up to 2% per pulp fibres was found to be the best result on lumen loading. The deposition of magnetite powder in lumen and pit is found decrease as the addition of PEI used is more than 2% per pulp fibres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly shows the distribution of magnetite deposited in the lumen. Tensile index and folding endurance of the loaded fibre decreased slightly as the percentage of loading pigment increased

  12. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Laura W.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martín; Masuh, Hector M.

    2011-01-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida...

  13. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the

  14. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  15. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  16. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  17. Performance of Side-Streams from Eucalyptus Processing as Sources of Polysaccharides and Lignins by Kraft Delignification

    OpenAIRE

    Paula C. R. Pinto; Cátia Oliveira; Carina Costa; Alírio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The performance of bark, branches, sawdust, forest biomass, and short-rotation eucalyptus in kraft delignification to produce polysaccharides and lignin is reported and discussed. A positive correlation was found between pulping severity required for delignification and lignin reactivity. Among all, branches feedstock is the best source of polysaccharides due to the high pulp yield (48-54%) with a satisfactory delignification degree. Branches lignin was characterized for the first time, evalu...

  18. Fibre tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    A large-size scintillating plastic fibre tracking detector was built as part of the upgrade of the UA2 central detector at the SPS proton-antiproton collider. The cylindrical fibre detector of average radius of 40 cm consisted of 60000 plastic fibres with an active length of 2.1 m. One of the main motivations was to improve the electron identification. The fibre ends were bunched to be coupled to read-out systems of image intensifier plus CCD, 32 in total. The quality and the reliability of the UA2 fibre detector performance exceeded expectations throughout its years of operation. A few examples of the use of image intensifiers and of scintillating fibres in biological instrumentation are described. (R.P.) 11 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  19. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  20. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  1. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  2. A principal component approach for predicting the stem volume in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Veraldo Liesenberg; Samuel P. C. e Carvalho; Luiz C. E. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Improving management practices in industrial forest plantations may increase production efficiencies, thereby reducing pressures on native tropical forests for meeting global pulp needs. This study aims to predict stem volume (V) in plantations of fast-growing Eucalyptus hybrid clones located in southeast Brazil using field plot and airborne Light Detection...

  3. Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there interclonal variation in response to experimentally imposed water stress? ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... However, water stress reduced shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity with significant interclonal effects.

  4. Kinetics of Strong Acid Hydrolysis of a Bleached Kraft Pulp for Producing Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianqian Wang; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrytals (CNCs) are predominantly produced using the traditional strong acid hydrolysis process. In most reported studies, the typical CNC yield is low (approximately 30%) despite process optimization. This study investigated the hydrolysis of a bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp using sulfuric acid between 50 and 64 wt % at temperatures of 35−80 °C...

  5. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  6. Effects of fibre dimension and charge density on nanocellulose gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Llyza; Gunawardhana, Thilina; Batchelor, Warren; Garnier, Gil

    2018-04-18

    Carboxylated cellulose nanofibres can produce gels at low concentrations. The effect of pulp source on the nanocellulose fibre dimension and gel rheology are studied. It is hypothesised that fibre length and surface charge influence aspects of the gel rheological properties. TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)- mediated oxidised cellulose nanofibres from never-dried hardwood and softwood pulp and containing different charge levels were produced and characterized. Steady-state and dynamic rheological studies were performed to ascertain the effects of pulp type on gel behavior and properties. Nanocellulose fibres extracted from softwood (SW-TOCN) and hardwood (HW-TOCN) pulp exhibit similar widths but different length dimensions as shown via AFM analysis. Rheological measurements show that the dynamic moduli (G' and G'') of nanocellulose gels are independent of pulp source and are mostly influenced by fibre concentration. Differences in the steady-state behavior (i.e. viscosity) at constant surface charge can be attributed to differences in fibre length. Increasing the surface charge density influences the critical strain and the viscosity at the percolation concentration (0.1 wt%) due to higher electrostatic interactions. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/087/01/0021-0025 ... Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. ... In this study, in silico analysis of 15,285 sequences representing partial and full-length mRNA from Eucalyptus species for their use in developing SSRs or microsatellites ...

  8. Influence of Cellulosic Fibres on the Physical Properties of Fibre Cement Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarova, V.; Stevulova, N.; Vaclavik, V.; Dvorsky, T.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, there are new approaches directing to processing of non-conventional fibre-cement composites for application in the housing construction. Vegetable cellulosic fibres coming from natural resources used as reinforcement in cost-effective and environmental friendly building products are in the spotlight. The applying of natural fibres in cement based composites is narrowly linked to the ecological building sector, where a choice of materials is based on components including recyclable, renewable raw materials and low-resource manufacture techniques. In this paper, two types of cellulosic fibres coming from wood pulp and recycled waste paper with 0.2%; 0.3% and 0.5% of fibre addition into cement mixtures were used. Differences in the physical characteristics (flowability, density, coefficient of thermal conductivity and water absorbability) of 28 days hardened fibre-cement composites are investigated. Addition of cellulosic fibres to cement mixture caused worsening the workability of fresh mixture as well as absorbability of hardened composites due to hydrophilic nature of biomaterial, whereas density and thermal conductivity of manufactured cement based fibre plaster are enhanced. The physical properties of cement plasters based on cellulosic fibres depend on structural, physical characteristics of cellulosic fibres, their nature and processing.

  9. The effects of dietary fibre type on satiety-related hormones and voluntary food intake in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Guido; Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    were fed a low-fermentable fibre (LFF) diet containing 8.5 % cellulose or a high-fermentable fibre (HFF) diet containing 8.5 % sugarbeet pulp and 2 % inulin. Large intestinal fibre degradation was evaluated by apparent faecal digestibility of nutrients and faecal SCFA and NH3 concentrations...

  10. Biological, medicinal and toxicological significance of Eucalyptus leaf essential oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakad, Ashok K; Pandey, Vijay V; Beg, Sobia; Rawat, Janhvi M; Singh, Avtar

    2018-02-01

    The genus Eucalyptus L'Heritier comprises about 900 species, of which more than 300 species contain volatile essential oil in their leaves. About 20 species, within these, have a high content of 1,8-cineole (more than 70%), commercially used for the production of essential oils in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, Eucalyptus is extensively planted for pulp, plywood and solid wood production, but its leaf aromatic oil has astounding widespread biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorder treatment, wound healing, and insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, and perfumes, soap making and grease remover. In the present review, we have made an attempt to congregate the biological ingredients of leaf essential oil, leaf oil as a natural medicine, and pharmacological and toxicological values of the leaf oil of different Eucalyptus species worldwide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  12. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant mate...

  13. Monoterpene engineering in a woody plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis using a limonene synthase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kanako; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic engineering aimed at monoterpene production has become an intensive research topic in recent years, although most studies have been limited to herbal plants including model plants such as Arabidopsis. The genus Eucalyptus includes commercially important woody plants in terms of essential oil production and the pulp industry. This study attempted to modify the production of monoterpenes, which are major components of Eucalyptus essential oil, by introducing two expression constructs containing Perilla frutescens limonene synthase (PFLS) cDNA, whose gene products were designed to be localized in either the plastid or cytosol, into Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The expression of the plastid-type and cytosol-type PFLS cDNA in transgenic E. camaldulensis was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector analyses of leaf extracts revealed that the plastidic and cytosolic expression of PFLS yielded 2.6- and 4.5-times more limonene than that accumulated in wild-type E. camaldulensis, respectively, while the ectopic expression of PFLS had only a small effect on the emission of limonene from the leaves of E. camaldulensis. Surprisingly, the high level of PFLS in Eucalyptus was accompanied by a synergistic increase in the production of 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene, two major components of Eucalyptus monoterpenes. This genetic engineering of monoterpenes demonstrated a new potential for molecular breeding in woody plants.

  14. fibre separator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    sharp edged spiral worm and four fixed blades, a pair of adjustable blades, ... energy and/or for the production of other products. ... 388 Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. Figure 1. Layers of the palm fruit. planting. ... a skeleton of hard fibre running lengthwise through the ... maximum temperature of 28 - 32°C which is peculiar to.

  15. Reed Canary Grass Project. Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and a system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and bio fuel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf (ed.) (and others)

    2004-07-01

    . In this process will the silica problem in the chemical recovery process also be reduced. For integrating a grass cooking line in existing pulp and paper mills also the sulphate cooking process, have been developed for use with reed canary grass. Pulp produced from fractionated reed canary grass can easily be bleached to full brightness of 90 % ISO with environmentally friendly bleaching processes and technically well documented chemical recovery systems can be used. Reed canary grass contains relatively short fibres which can replace hardwood fibres in high quality printing papers. The pulp produced was evaluated for end use as board (white-top liner) and fine paper. The mill produced reed canary grass pulp had better optical properties and bulk than pulp produced in laboratory although it was not possible to optimise all parameters during the short time the mill was available for the trial. The white top liner tests with mill produced pulp showed that the excellent good light scattering make it possible to produce board with equal quality using less fibre compared to what is needed using birch pulp. Reed canary grass pulp is thus a promising new fibre for board production. The mill produced pulp had also equal or better quality than pulp from birch and disc mill processed reed canary grass pulp can also compete with Eucalyptus pulp. The intermediate processed fuel raw material showed good possibilities to be processed to upgraded biofuels as powder, briquettes and pellets although more research have to be done concerning technology development. Using additives helps to form good quality pellets. Sugar molasses helped to make better quality pellets using less energy. But this is of course extra cost in pellet making. Optimisation of RCG meal fraction pelletising needs more tests, but with these pilot tests it was shown that RCG meal fraction can be pelletised also without any additives and good quality pellets can be formed. Reed canary grass pellets have a high ash

  16. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  17. Effect of Flotation Time on the Deinking Process and Properties of Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami İmamoğlu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of flotation time on the ink removal and physical properties of resulting deinked pulp. Flotation deinking of high quality office paper, printed in a digital duplicating machine based on screen-printing system, was studied using a laboratory cell with a nominal capacity of 10 L. Formamidine sulfinic acid was used in a pulper and pulping conditions such as temperature, retention time, chemical dosage and consistency were held constant prior to flotation process. During the flotation process while pulp consistency, agitation speed, air flow rate and other conditions keeping constant, only flotation time were analyzed in terms of physical properties of resulting pulp quality, pulp yield, filler and fibre balance and waste water quality aspects at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 minutes. Increased flotation time substantially affected optical properties of pulp up to some point then became steady. Yield losses increased as might be expected with increasing flotation time by the 9th minute as flotation sludge skimmed off on top of the flotation cell. Filler content of flotation sludge increased with increasing flotation time while fibre content was decreasing to a certain extent. Thanks to removal of ink and filler materials from pulp physical properties of evaluated handsheets enhanced. The overall results demonstrate that increasing flotation time increased physical and optical properties of resulting pulp. On the other hand flotation time should be increased up to critical point. Exceeding critical point increased yield losses, consumed time and energy without gaining significant pulp qualities.

  18. Fibres and energy from wheat straw by simple practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leponiemi, A.

    2011-06-15

    The overall purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibilities of wheat straw for fibre and energy production and address the question of whether or not it is possible to develop a cost-effective process for producing good quality pulp from wheat straw for current paper or paperboard products. In addition, in light of the green energy boom, the question of whether fibre production could give added value to energy production using wheat straw is addressed. Due to the logistics of the bulky raw material, the process should be applied on a small scale that determines the requirements for the process. The process should be simple, have low chemical consumption and be environmentally safe. The processes selected for the study were based on an initial hot water treatment. Actual defibration in the 'chemical' approach was then performed using a subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching process or in the 'mechanical' approach through mechanical refining. In both approaches, energy can be produced from lower quality material such as dissolved solids or fines. In this work, one of the primary aims besides the development of the above-mentioned process is to investigate the chemical storage of wheat straw which decays easily between harvesting periods and examine its effects on pulping and pulp properties. In addition, the aim of this work is to determine the market potential for non-wood pulp and evaluate non-wood pulp production. The results showed that the 'chemical' approach produced fibres for printing and writing. The quality of the pulp was relatively good, but the chemical consumption at the target brightness of 75% was high, indicating that a chemical recovery would be needed unless the brightness target could be significantly reduced. The 'mechanical' approach produced unbleached fibres for fluting and the energy production from fines and dissolved solids generated additional income. The results also showed that it is possible

  19. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  20. Investigating the molecular underpinnings underlying morphology and changes in carbon partitioning during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Maloney, Victoria J; Silberbauer, Janine; Hefer, Charles A; Berger, Dave K; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    Tension wood has distinct physical and chemical properties, including altered fibre properties, cell wall composition and ultrastructure. It serves as a good system for investigating the genetic regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation. The reference genome sequence for Eucalyptus grandis allows investigation of the global transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies tension wood formation in this global wood fibre crop. We report the first comprehensive analysis of physicochemical wood property changes in tension wood of Eucalyptus measured in a hybrid (E. grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla) clone, as well as genome-wide gene expression changes in xylem tissues 3 wk post-induction using RNA sequencing. We found that Eucalyptus tension wood in field-grown trees is characterized by an increase in cellulose, a reduction in lignin, xylose and mannose, and a marked increase in galactose. Gene expression profiling in tension wood-forming tissue showed corresponding down-regulation of monolignol biosynthetic genes, and differential expression of several carbohydrate active enzymes. We conclude that alterations of cell wall traits induced by tension wood formation in Eucalyptus are a consequence of a combination of down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and hemicellulose remodelling, rather than the often proposed up-regulation of the cellulose biosynthetic pathway. © 2014 University of Pretoria New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahnhauer, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for new detector techniques, scintillating fibre technology has already gained a firm foothold, and is a strong contender for the extreme experimental conditions of tomorrow's machines. Organized by a group from the Institute of High Energy Physics, Berlin-Zeuthen, a workshop held from 3-5 September in the nearby village of Blossin brought together experts from East and West, and from science and industry

  2. Scintillating fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahnhauer, R. [IHEP Zeuthen (Germany)

    1990-11-15

    In the search for new detector techniques, scintillating fibre technology has already gained a firm foothold, and is a strong contender for the extreme experimental conditions of tomorrow's machines. Organized by a group from the Institute of High Energy Physics, Berlin-Zeuthen, a workshop held from 3-5 September in the nearby village of Blossin brought together experts from East and West, and from science and industry.

  3. Factors affecting the optimal performance of a high-yield pulping operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe-Claire, PQ (Canada); Paris, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Valada, J L [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Strategies for operating a chemical-mechanical pulp mill were investigated from data based on process models from some one hundred pilot scale pulping runs. Optimal values for 55 process and pulp quality variables have been calculated by applying a genetic algorithm search to a fuzzy model of the overall system. Best pulp quality was achieved and maintained when the chemical pretreatment was conducted at moderately low temperatures using a high SO{sub 2} concentration, which produced high sulphonation and high yield at the same time. By characterizing the quality of the pulp at the fibre level, optimization results were said to be more easily transferable to other high yield pulping systems. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. High yield CTMP fibres as a possibility of the more efficient yield of wood raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The evident shortage of wood as a raw material has become a limiting factor in the pulp and paper industry which is the greatest consumer of wood in Europe. The situation in our country is similar. During the few past years, the production of poplar and willow pulpwood was 220.000 m3 per year, which is insufficient for the planned increase in the production of sulphate pulp (175.000 tons till 2005. This paper deals with the aspects of the more efficient yield of raw material, based on the significantly higher yield of CTMP fibres, as well as with the significance of the lower adverse effect on the environment. It also analyses the conditions of production and the quality of the obtained fibres, as a possible substitute for chemical pulp and secondary fibres in papers of different quality. The main reasons for the production and use of CTMP fibres in our country are reported.

  5. BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

  6. A model system to study the lignification process in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Pedro; Cesarino, Igor; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Ferrari, Ilse Fernanda; Kiyota, Eduardo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass is closely related to the presence of the phenolic heteropolymer lignin in secondary cell walls, which has a negative effect on forage digestibility, biomass-to-biofuels conversion and chemical pulping. The genus Eucalyptus is the main source of wood for pulp and paper industry. However, when compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, relatively little is known about lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus and only a few genes were functionally characterized. An efficient, fast and inexpensive in vitro system was developed to study lignification in Eucalyptus globulus and to evaluate the potential role of candidate genes in this biological process. Seedlings were grown in four different conditions, in the presence or absence of light and with or without sucrose in the growth medium, and several aspects of lignin metabolism were evaluated. Our results showed that light and, to a lesser extent, sucrose induced lignin biosynthesis, which was followed by changes in S/G ratio, lignin oligomers accumulation and gene expression. In addition, higher total peroxidase activity and differential isoperoxidase profile were observed when seedlings were grown in the presence of light and sucrose. Peptide sequencing allowed the identification of differentially expressed peroxidases, which can be considered potential candidate class III peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization in E. globulus. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Effect of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) and maize (Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However eucalyptus plantations produce large amounts of litter, which impact on groundnut has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to investigate litter accumulation effect on growth, development, and groundnut root infection by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia, a greenhouse experiment was performed ...

  8. Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robisnéa A. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be explained by the generation of sodium bicarbonate in situ upon adding carbon dioxide at this stage.

  9. Kraft pulp bleaching with molybdenum activated acid peroxide (PMo stage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Marcos Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Optimum conditions to run the P Mo stage for bleaching eucalyptus kraft pulp were 90 deg C, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/t Mo and 5 kg/t H 2 O 2 . The P Mo stage efficiency increased with decreasing pH (1.5-5.5) and increasing temperature (75-90 deg C), time (2-4 h), and hydrogen peroxide (3-10 kg/t) and molybdenum concentration (0.1-0.4 kg/t). The implementation of the P Mo stage, as replacement for the A stage, decreased total active chlorine demand of the OAZDP sequence by 6 kg/t to reach 90% ISO, both in laboratory and mill scale. Such practice resulted in decreased bleaching chemical costs to produce fully bleached pulp of 90% ISO. (author)

  10. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  11. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  12. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles banana pulp noodles peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered.

  13. Species discrimination, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis using SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugapriya Arumugasundaram

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis are closely related species commonly cultivated for pulp wood in many tropical countries including India. Understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD existing in these species is essential for the improvement of industrially important traits. Our goal was to evaluate the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR loci for species discrimination, population structure and LD analysis in these species. Investigations were carried out with the most common alleles in 93 accessions belonging to these two species using 62 SSR markers through cross amplification. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.44 to 0.93 and 0.36 to 0.93 in E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis respectively. A clear delineation between the two species was evident based on the analysis of population structure and species-specific alleles. Significant genotypic LD was found in E. camaldulensis, wherein out of 135 significant pairs, 17 pairs showed r(2≥0.1. Similarly, in E. tereticornis, out of 136 significant pairs, 18 pairs showed r(2≥0.1. The extent of LD decayed rapidly showing the significance of association analyses in eucalypts with higher resolution markers. The availability of whole genome sequence for E. grandis and the synteny and co-linearity in the genome of eucalypts, will allow genome-wide genotyping using microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphims.

  14. Methods to use biomass, consisting of peat and wood material, to extract fiber substance to be used to make paper pulp and a fuel product. Saett att ur biomassa, bestaaende av torv och vedmatarial, utvinna en foer tillverkning av en pappersmassaprodukt laemplig fibermassa samt en braensleprodukt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, J A.I.

    1985-12-16

    Peat cut from the upper layers is used to make paper pulp of low density. The wood material of the peat is mechanically separated three times. The result is a pulp of peat fibres and wood fibres and dewatered colloidal peat to be used as a fuel. (M.B).

  15. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  16. Curaua and eucalyptus nanofibers films by continuous casting: Mechanical and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Pedro Ivo Cunha; Corrêa, Ana Carolina; de Campos, Adriana; Rodrigues, Vanessa Bolzan; Luchesi, Bruno Ribeiro; Silva, Luiz Eduardo; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Marconcini, José Manoel

    2018-02-01

    A wide variety of new green materials such as curaua leaf fibers (CLFs) has potential applications in nanotechnology. This study aims to investigate the thermomechanical properties and morphological structure of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) films obtained by continuous casting. The CNCs were obtained by acid hydrolysis and CNFs by mechanical shearing from bleached CLFs and eucalyptus pulp. The morphology after continuous casting resulted in oriented nanofibers, and as a consequence there was mechanical anisotropy. CNCs films showed the greatest values of tensile strength (36±4MPa) and the more effective fibrillation provided better mechanical strength of eucalyptus CNFs films than curaua CNFs films. Sulfur groups and mechanical shear degradation affected the stability of CNCs and CNFs films, respectively. Thus, the type of nanostructure, the way they interact to each other, the cellulose source and the process interfere significantly on the properties of the films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pectin Methylesterase Genes Influence Solid Wood Properties of Eucalyptus pilularis1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Timothy R.; Henry, Robert J.; Harwood, Chris E.; Thomas, Dane S.; McManus, Luke J.; Raymond, Carolyn; Henson, Michael; Shepherd, Mervyn

    2012-01-01

    This association study of Eucalyptus pilularis populations provides empirical evidence for the role of Pectin Methylesterase (PME) in influencing solid wood characteristics of Eucalyptus. PME6 was primarily associated with the shrinkage and collapse of drying timber, which are phenotypic traits consistent with the role of pectin as a hydrophilic polysaccharide. PME7 was primarily associated with cellulose and pulp yield traits and had an inverse correlation with lignin content. Selection of specific alleles in these genes may be important for improving trees as sources of high-quality wood products. A heterozygote advantage was postulated for the PME7 loci and, in combination with haplotype blocks, may explain the absence of a homozygous class at all single-nucleotide polymorphisms investigated in this gene. PMID:22052017

  18. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  19. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, increased hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping has been studied. The work has been divided into three parts: i) Development of an accessible and reliable method for determination of carbohydrate composition of kraft pulps ii) Investigation of the composition and molecular mass distributions of the carbohydrates in kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content iii) Investigation of the effect of increased hemicellulose content on the sheet properties of kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content. A method for carbohydrate determination was developed. In this method, enzymes are used to hydrolyse the pulp into monosaccharides. A relatively mild acid hydrolysis is performed prior to detection on an HPLC with an RI-detector. The pulp is not derivatized and no pre-treatment (mechanical or chemical) is needed to determine the carbohydrate composition using the method developed here. Peak deconvolution software is used to improve the accuracy. Polysulphide and H2S primarily increase the glucomannan yield, which can be boosted by up to 7 % on o.d. wood. However, the cellulose yield is more affected by the cooking time and the maximum yield increase of cellulose is approximately 2 % on o.d. wood compared to an ordinary kraft pulp. The cooking time is influenced by sulphide ion concentration, AQ addition and the final Kappa number. The xylan yield is remarkably stable, however the alkali profile during the cook may influence the xylan yield. Surface xylan content of the fibres depends on residual alkali concentration in the black liquor. The molecular mass distributions of cellulose and hemicellulose were determined for pulps with increased hemicellulose content using size exclusion chromatography. Deconvolution by peak separation software is used to gain information about the degree of polymerization for cellulose and hemicellulose. The average DP of glucomannan in the kraft fibre was found to be 350 +- 30 and the average DP of xylan in the

  20. Wood Permeability in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the flow of air and water in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood. Wood was collected from four trees aged 37 years in an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. Planks were cut off the basal logs to produce specimens for air and water permeability testing. Results indicated that the longitudinal permeability to air and water of E. grandis wood were, on average, 5% and 10% higher, respectively, than that of E. dunnii wood. E. grandis and E. dunnii wood showed neither air nor water flow in the test for permeability transversal to the fibers, and longitudinal permeability to air exceeded that to water by approximately 50 fold in both species.

  1. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  2. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  3. Mechanical and biotechnical fractionating of field biomasses into different fibre fractions; Peltobiomassojen mekaaninen ja biotekninen fraktiointi eri kuitujakeisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilppunen, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Sohlo, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Separation processes for energy and fibre fractions, predominantly those for seed flax, using traditional pulp classifiers and the new pressure classifier process were studied in the wet-separation part of the project. A combined plant fibre further-refining process, based on mechanical and biotechnical separation, operating on the basis of fibre length, was developed on the basis of dry and wet fraction tests. (orig.)

  4. Breeding Eucalyptus for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edival A.V. Zauza; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; João Flávio da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations cover about 1.5 percent of the agricultural area in Brazil, and contribute to 4 percent of GDP and 3 percent in exports of forest products. Technological and research advances in silviculture and genetic improvement have increased productivity up to 80 m³ of wood/ha/year, with an average of 35 to 45 m³/ha/year. The greatest...

  5. Natural radionuclides in an eucalyptus forest located in the south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, F.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eucalyptus forests can be considered as the main source of raw material for the pulp industry of Spain. This environment was selected for a radioactivity study because natural and artificial radionuclides can be transferred into the pulp mills, associated with raw material, wood and barks, where they are concentrated by industrial processes, becoming a cause of doses. Radionuclide concentration of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 234 U, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th) were determined by alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. Well-established radiochemical procedures were applied to environmental samples in order to isolate these radionuclides. A comparison between 228 Th activity, determined by gamma-spectrometry, and 232 Th activity, determined by alpha-spectrometry, was used as quality control parameter for analyses. The concentration factors were finally evaluated from experimental data.

  6. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  7. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  8. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  9. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  10. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  11. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Taher Maghsoodlou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil compositionfrom leaves and flowers of E. microthecaand E. viminalisleavesgrowing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013.After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%, aromadendrene (12.773%, α-pinene (6.752%, globulol (5.997%, ledene (5.665%, P-cymen (5.251%, and β-pinene (5.006% were the major constituents.  In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%, O-cymen (13.522%, β-pinene (11.082%, aromadendrene (7.444%, α-phellandrene (7.006%, globulol (5.419%, and 9-octadecenamide (5.414% were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%, α-pinene (13.379%, limonene (5.443%, and globulol (3.054%. Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils fromthe aerial parts of Eucalyptus speciesare a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  12. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  13. Acid bi-sulphite pulping effects on hardwoods and a softwood revealed by atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood fibres are the raw material used in the production of dissolving pulp for the manufacture of cellulose derivatives such as viscose and cellulose acetate. At the microscopic level, the wood cell wall is organised in layers with different...

  14. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping : impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.

    It is known that

  15. Microgel polymer composite fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis some novel ideas and advancements in the field of polymer composite fibres, specifically microgel-based polymer composite fibres have been achieved. The main task was to investigate and understand the electrospinning process of microgels and polymers and the interplay of parameter influences, in order to fabricate reproducible and continuously homogenous composite fibres. The main aim was to fabricate a composite material which combines the special properties of polymer fibres ...

  16. In vitro digestion methods to characterize the physicochemical properties of diets varying in dietary fibre source and content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Pan; Theil, Peter Kappel; Wu, De

    2018-01-01

    Co-products from food and agro industries – barley hulls (BH), pectin residue (PR), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and potato pulp (PP) – were collected, dried (PR, SBP, PP) and milled to pass a 1-, 2- and 4-mm screen. A total of 48 diets originating from these sources with four intended dietary fibre (DF...

  17. Influence of different fibre sources on digestibility and nitrogen and energy balances in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, constituting 15% of diets for growing pigs, influenced daily body gain, feed conversion, apparent faecal digestibility and nitrogen and energy balances. Eight......) and energy were significantly lower for the fibre diets (OM: 0.81-0.85; energy: 0.78-0.83) compared to the control diet (OM: 0.88; energy: 0.86). The apparent faecal digestibility of crude protein (CP) was lower for the fibre diets (0.71-0.78) compared to the control diet (0.83), although it was only...... significantly lower for the sugar beet pulp and pectin residue diets. The pectin residue diet, which contained the highest amount of dietary fibre, lignin and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides, had the lowest digestibility of OM, CP and energy. There was a tendency (p = 0.07) for a diet effect on retained...

  18. Fun with Optical Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today's technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student's curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete…

  19. Special fibres and components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunge, C.-A.; Woyessa, Getinet; Bremer, K.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we present more specific fibre types for particular applications. Starting with the multi-core fibre, which can be used as a substitution for ordinary SI-POF transmission fibres, but with better bending losses, over the ever increasing range of micro-structured POF for diverse sen...

  20. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...

  1. Fibre illumination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Source: EP2426402A The invention relates to a fibre illumination module and system for the collection and delivery of daylight for illumination purposes. The fibre illumination module comprises a plurality of collector elements, each collector element comprising an input fibre having a first end......-directional arrangement. The fibre illumination system comprises a fibre illumination module of the above-mentioned type. By the invention, daylight may be exploited for the illumination of remote interior spaces of buildings in order to save energy, and improve the well-being of users in both housing and working...

  2. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for this purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1 and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2. To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun, to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS, for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes. The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  3. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  4. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  5. Eucalyptus gunnii: A possible source of bioenergy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Mary; Moore, Tom [UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2008-10-15

    Eucalyptus are widely grown throughout the world for timber, essential oil, fuel, biomass and cut foliage. In experiments in University College Dublin (UCD), Eucalyptus gunnii yielded an average dry weight of 4.74 kg per plant per annum, equivalent to 12.59 t dm ha{sup -1}. The average calorific values of 17.60 MJ kg{sup -1} (leafy material) and 17.09 MJ kg{sup -1} (woody material) are less than the values reported for other species of Eucalyptus. (author)

  6. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  7. Preparation of lumen-loaded kenaf pulp with magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, S.; Ong, B.H.; Ahmad, S.H.; Abdullah, M.; Yamauchi, T

    2005-02-15

    Magnetic pulps were prepared from unbleached kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.) kraft pulps. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or magnetite powder was used to load into the pulp's lumen and pit. Aluminum sulphate [Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}] (alum) and polyethylenimine (PEI), both mainly function as retention aid were used throughout the experiment and found to be beneficial in the preparation of this magnetic pulps. The ash content method was used to determine the amount of magnetite retained in the lumen and pit. The utilization of PEI up to 2% per pulp fibres was found to be the best result on lumen loading. The deposition of magnetite powder in lumen and pit is found decrease as the addition of PEI used is more than 2% per pulp fibres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly shows the distribution of magnetite deposited in the lumen. Tensile index and folding endurance of the loaded fibre decreased slightly as the percentage of loading pigment increased.

  8. Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattapaglia, D.

    2007-01-01

    Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

  9. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  10. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  11. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  12. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  13. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  14. The effects of commercial fibres on frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA FILIPOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The daily intake of dietary fibres in highly industrialized countries is at a low level and, therefore, adversely affecting human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of different commercial fibres (originating from sugar beet pulp fibrex, and Jerusalem artichoke inulin HPX and GR in yeast dough at a level of 5 %, on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread during frozen storage. Frozen dough characteristics were determined using a Brabender maturograph and test baking was followed according the AACC procedure. The dough was frozen at –18 °C and stored over a period of 60 days. The results concerning the dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality were statistically analyzed by multivariance Manova and discriminative analysis, which indicated that there was a significant difference between dough without fibres and dough with different fibres (fibrex, inulin HPX and GR. The discrimination coefficient points that the greatest influence of fibres on the final proof and proving stability is after 30 days (6.250 and after 0 days (6.158, respectively, but the greatest influence of fibres on bread volume and bread crumb quality (15.488 and 3.638, respectively can be expected on non frozen dough, due to above mention their adverse the effect on gluten network.

  15. Treatments of non-wood plant fibres used as reinforcement in composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ange Arsène

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a summary of the knowledge on fibres and pulps of non wood tropical plants used as reinforcement in cementitious composites accumulated during the recent years by Guadeloupean and Brazilian teams participating in collaborative work. Vegetable fibres represent a good alternative as non-conventional materials for the construction of ecological and sustainable buildings. The use of such renewable resources contributes to the development of sustainable technologies. The main objective of the paper is to emphasize the use of agricultural wastes in the production of cement based composites. The botanical, chemical, physical, morphological and mechanical properties of fibres from various plants are described. The effects of different treatments on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fibres are presented. The most effective treatments in influencing the mechanical and physical properties are pyrolysis and alkaline ones, according to the type of plant. The final choice will have to consider fibre availability, and treatment costs.

  16. Fibre-concrete container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the fibre-concrete container for radioactive wastes is described. The fibre container is made of fibre-concrete that contains cement, aggregate, sand, filter, flame-silica, super-plastificator, water and scattered metal fibres. The fibre-concrete container has a dice shape with outer dimension 1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7 m. It is mounted of a container body, a container cover and two caps. Total weight of container is 4,240 kg, maximum weight of loaded container do not must exceed 15,000 kg. The physical and mechanical properties of the fibre-concrete container are described in detail. The fibre-concrete container manufactured for storing of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. A fibre-concrete container utilization to store of radioactive wastes solves these problems: increase of stability of stored packages of radioactive waste; watertightness within 300 years at least; static stability of bearing space; better utilization of bearing spaces; insulation of radioactive waste in a case of seismic and geological event; increase of fire resistance; and transport of radioactive waste

  17. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  18. Effects of Allelochemicals of Some Eucalyptus Species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effects of allelochemicals of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globules on germination and root elongation using leguminous crop ground nut (Arachis hypogea) as bioassay material. The experiments were conducted in sterilized ...

  19. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supply of woody products from the existing forest resources is decreasing. ... Key words: Household level investments; Eucalyptus; financial profitability. ... eucalyptus (kalitunsi) tree species to other forest tree ... financial analyses is an assumption that market prices eucalyptus woodlot is situated in ... not be of good quality.

  20. Clones de Eucalyptus versus a produção de polpa celulósica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood quality is defined by combining several intrinsic characteristics of the tree to its use. This research aimed to evaluate some of the wood characteristics of Eucalyptus clones and its performance in kraft pulping. Fifteen clones, 5.8 years-old were used, two trees from each clone, totaling thirty trees. The evaluated wood characteristics were: basic density, fiber dimensions (fiber length, wall thickness, lumen diameter and chemical composition (cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, extractives and ash contents. Four samples were cooked at the laboratory for each tree, using different active alkali, to establish the delignification curve. These alkali loads were selected after exploratory cooking to obtain an eighteen kappa number at the medium point of the curve. In the cooking were appraised the screened, the pulp viscosity and consumed alkali. The yield results varied from 43.4 to 52.0%, the active alkali from 17.5 to 23.4%, the consumed alkali from 15.5 to 20.0% and the pulp viscosity from 19.9 to 61.4 cP.

  1. Pure chiral optical fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A

    2011-01-17

    We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.

  2. Preliminary study on the potential of improving pulp quality and energy efficiency in a South African TMP mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ). The mill’s screen fractionation process has limited efficiency. Substantial amounts of thick-walled fibres are present in the mill accept pulp samples (i.e. 66% by mass of the mill accept has a freeness of 256 ml CSF (Table 2)). The benefits of adding a...

  3. FibreBags vs. FibreCaps for acid and neutral detergent fibre analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto , Jason

    2003-01-01

    International audience; A new procedure for determining acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (ADF and NDF) was developed to reduce the need for filtration and to allow for batch processing of forage samples. The FibreBag system is an economically necessary evolution of the earlier FibreCap system. The purpose of this enquiry was to determine if the FibreBag is a suitable replacement for the FibreCap. The FibreBag method produced very similar results to the FibreCap system of analy...

  4. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  5. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Goldberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically.

  6. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p lemon pulp (p lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Fibre optic microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, David R

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review describes how fibre optic microarrays can be used to create a variety of sensing and measurement systems. This review covers the basics of optical fibres and arrays, the different microarray architectures, and describes a multitude of applications. Such arrays enable multiplexed sensing for a variety of analytes including nucleic acids, vapours, and biomolecules. Polymer-coated fibre arrays can be used for measuring microscopic chemical phenomena, such as corrosion and localized release of biochemicals from cells. In addition, these microarrays can serve as a substrate for fundamental studies of single molecules and single cells. The review covers topics of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, and engineers.

  8. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  9. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. New generation of optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianov, E M; Semjonov, S L; Bufetov, I A [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    The growing need for information in contemporary society is the motivating force behind the development of fibre optics in general and optical fibre communications in particular. Intensive research effort has been concentrated on designing new types of optical fibres and extending their application field. This paper reviews results of research on new types of optical fibres: bismuthdoped active fibres, multicore fibres and hollow-core fibres, which can be used as key components of systems that ensure further increase in optical information transfer rate. (invited paper)

  11. Clonal propagation of eucalyptus by tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehra-Palta, A.

    1982-07-01

    Multiple adventitious buds were induced on cotyledons, shoot tips and nodal stem segments of Eucalyptus species cultured on a defined nutrient medium supplemented with the cytokinin zeatin and the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The adventitious buds could be recycled on cytokinin medium to produce more buds thus providing the possibility of producing large clones from selected genotypes. The adventitious shoots were rooted in auxin medium and some of the resulting propagules were outplanted in the field. These techniques have the potential for use in the genetic improvement of Eucalyptus. (Refs. 15).

  12. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common methods of cellulose pulp modification (activation) applied in the production process of cellulose derivatives is the treatment of the pulp with NaOH solutions leading to the formation of alkalicellulose. The product then undergoes a prolonged process of maturation by its storage under specific conditions. The goal of the process is lowering of the molecular weight of cellulose down to the level resulting from various technological requirements. The process is time-consuming and costly; besides, it requires usage of large-capacity technological vessels and produces considerable amounts of liquid waste. Therefore, many attempts have been made to limit or altogether eliminate the highly disadvantageous stage of cellulose treatment with lye. One of the alternatives proposed so far is the radiation treatment of the cellulose pulp. In the pulp exposed to an electron beam, the bonds between molecules of D-antihydroglucopiranoses loosen and the local crystalline lattice becomes destroyed. This facilitates the access of chemical reagents to the inner structure of the cellulose and, in consequence, eliminates the need for the prolonged maturation of alkalicellulose, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals by the whole process. Research aimed at the application of radiation treatment of cellulose pulp for the production of cellulose derivatives has been conducted by a number of scientific institutions including the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, and Pulp and Paper Research Institute. For the investigations and assessment of the molecular, hypermolecular, morphologic properties and the chemical reactivity, cellulose pulps used for chemical processing, namely Alicell, Borregaard and Ketchikan, as well as paper pulps made from pine and birch wood were selected. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with an energy of 10 MeV generated in a linear electron accelerator

  13. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  14. Effects of Treatment Materials on the Physical Properties of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Bardak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine effects on retention and shrink levels of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. which treated with some commercial preservative types, borates, polyethylene glycol, and water repellents. In this study, four type impregnation chemicals were chosen: 1. Commercial preservative types, [Ammonium sulphate, Vacsol-WR WR and Immersol-WR (WR], 2. Borates chemicals, [Boric acid, Borax, Boric acid+ Borax] 3. Polyethylene glycol such as Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 4. Water repellents [Styrene, Methylmetacrylate.]. As a result, retention % and shrink levels of Eucalyptus wood was lower treated with commercial preservative types and borates preservatives compare to other treatment chemicals. However, retention % levels of Eucalyptus wood treated with WR chemicals were highly significant levels. According to their leachability period although PEG 400 showed antishrink effectiveness other treatments didnt showed antishrink efficiency.

  15. Development of Cellulose Nano fibre (CNF) Derived From Kenaf Bast Fibre and Its Potential in Enzyme Immobilization Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwan Sulaiman; Mohd Noriznan Mokhtar; Mohd Nazli Naim; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin

    2016-01-01

    This research mainly focuses on developing a natural cellulose nano fibre (CNF) from kenaf bast fibre and its potential for enzyme immobilization support. CNF was isolated by using a combination between chemical and mechanical treatments such as alkaline process and high-intensity ultrasonication process to increase the efficiency of hemicelluloses and lignin removal, and to reduce its size into nano-order. The morphological study was carried out by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), indicating most of CNF diameter in range of 50-90 nm was obtained. The result of chemical analysis shows that cellulose content of raw bast fibre, bleached pulp fibre and CNF are 66.4 %, 83.7 % and 90.0 %, respectively. By decreasing the size of cellulose fibre, it increases the number of (O-H) group on the surface that plays as important role in enzyme immobilization. Covalent immobilization of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) onto CNF support resulted in about 95.0 % of protein loading with 69.48 % of enzyme activity, indicating high immobilization yield of enzyme. The enzymatic reaction of immobilized CGTase was able to produce more than 40 % yield of α-CD. Reusability profile of immobilized CGTase resulted in more than 60 % of retained activity up to 7 cycles. Therefore, the CNF is highly potential to be applied as enzyme immobilization support. (author)

  16. DETECTORS: scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the continual search for improved detection techniques, new materials are continually proving profitable. A good example is scintillating plastic fibres - tiny transparent threads sometimes finer than a human hair which transmit light. The narrowness and flexibility of these fibres was a major breakthrough for endoscopy - non-invasive techniques for viewing the otherwise inaccessible in surgery or machine inspection. In a more sophisticated form, these fibres find ready application in communications technology, where the goal is to transmit information rather than electrical power, replacing conventional and unwieldy current-carrying wire conductors. In particle physics, fibres have long been used to take the tiny scintillations produced when high energy particles hit fluorescent materials and 'conduct' them to photosensitive detectors some distance away

  17. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  18. A practical approach towards energy conversion through bio-refining of mixed kraft pulps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharm, D.; Upadhyaya, J.S.; Tyagi, C.H.; Ahamad, S. (Dept. of Paper Technology, Indian Inst. of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur (India))

    2007-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry is an energy intensive process industry where energy contributes about 16-20% of the manufacturing cost. Due to shortage in energy availability and increase in energy cost, energy conservation has become a necessity in the paper industry. A laboratory study on bleached and unbleached kraft pulps having 15% bamboo, eucalyptus 15%, poplar waste 20% and veneer waste 50% was conducted using two distinct commercial enzymes i.e. cellulases and xylanase and its effect on slowness, drainage time, beating time, mechanical strength properties and power consumption were studied. Enzymatic pretreatment of chemical pulp in laboratory improves degSR by 5 and 4 points in case of bleached and unbleached pulps respectively at the same beating time. Breaking length improves up to 4.0% at the constant beating level. The application of cellulase during refining saves energy 18.5% at constant refining level i.e. 28 degSR. The enzymatic treatment shows a power saving per 100 metric tone of paper by 1390 kWh which costs power saving in euro 160.70/ 100 metric tone of paper. In this way, net cost saving by deducting the cost of enzyme per 100 metric tone of paper is euro 157.90. (orig.)

  19. Fibre Concrete 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    9th international conference on fibre reinforced concretes (FRC), textile reinforced concretes (TRC) and ultra-high performance concretes (UHPC) Preface The Fibre Concrete Conference series is held biennially to provide a platform to share knowledge on fibre reinforced concretes, textile concretes and ultra-high performance concretes regarding material properties and behaviour, technology procedures, topics of long-term behaviour, creep, durability; sustainable aspects of concrete including utilisation of waste materials in concrete production and recycling of concrete. The tradition of Fibre Concrete Conferences started in eighties of the last century. Nowadays the conference is organized by the Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures of the Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The 9th International Conference Fibre Concrete 2017 had 109 participants from 27 countries all over the world. 55 papers were presented including keynote lectures of Professor Bažant, Professor Bartoš and Dr. Broukalová. The conference program covered wide range of topics from scientific research to practical applications. The presented contributions related to performance and behaviour of cement based composites, their long-term behaviour and durability, sustainable aspects, advanced analyses of structures from these composites and successful applications. This conference was organized also to honour Professor Zděnek P. Bažant on the occasion of his jubilee and to appreciate his merits and discoveries in the field of fibre reinforced composites, structural mechanics and engineering.

  20. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental p...

  1. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioenergy for District Bioheating System (DBS) from eucalyptus residues in a European coal-producing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Sánchez, José P.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.; López-González, Luis M.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper introduces a combined method to evaluate bioenergy. • Forest biomass needs to be studied as a fuel supplier and carbon sink. • The forests under study produce about 28 kt dry and 0.15 Mt CO 2 per year. • Examined a District Bioheating System (DBS) with the available biomass. - Abstract: Since forest biomass can substitute for CO 2 -emitting fossil fuels in the energy sector, forest management can greatly affect the global carbon cycle. Eucalyptus globulus has adapted very well in the coal region of the Principality of Asturias (Northwestern Spain) and has become highly regarded as a valuable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. In the present work, the Eucalyptus globulus is studied as a key natural energy source in order to improve existing methods and develop new ways of optimizing the evaluation and use of both forest biomass and woody residue in energy systems, in accordance with sustainable forestry industry safety and environmental requirements. The feasibility of utilizing forest biomass instead of natural gas in a District Bioheating System (DBS) has been examined based on an analysis of its economical and environmental impacts.

  3. New species, hyper-diversity and potential importance of Calonectria spp. from Eucalyptus in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Chen, S F; Mou, X; Zhou, X D; Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J

    2015-03-01

    Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates. These isolates were identified using the Consolidated Species Concept, employing morphological characters and DNA sequence comparisons for the β-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Twenty-one Calonectria species were identified of which 18 represented novel taxa. Of these, 12 novel taxa belonged to Sphaero-Naviculate Group and the remaining six to the Prolate Group. Southeast Asia appears to represent a centre of biodiversity for the Sphaero-Naviculate Group and this fact could be one of the important constraints to Eucalyptus forestry in China. The remarkable diversity of Calonectria species in a relatively small area of China and associated with a single tree species is surprising.

  4. Managing a Coastal Bluegum (Eucalyptus globules) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Osterling

    1983-01-01

    Eucalyptus was thought to be a replacement to oak and other hardwoods for many products. Thousands of acres have been planted and now are in need of management. Management techniques are discussed in context with a coastal stand of approximately 300 acres of mixed aged bluegum. Potential markets are explored.

  5. Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coetzee, B.; Schols, H.A.; Wolfaardt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class

  6. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  7. Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation. R. Yasodha, R. Sumathi, P. Chezhian, S. Kavitha and M. Ghosh. J. Genet. 87, XX-XX. Tm. CT. 2222. NA. 60 125. 192. Table 1. List of EST-SSR primers developed for E. globulus. No. of. Tm Product. Acc. no. SSR repeats. Forward primer.

  8. Efeito do teor de lignina da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. no desempenho da polpação kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20.53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23.02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18.5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2.49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2.2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1.2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4.2% is

  9. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  10. Glass ceramic fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschek, O.; Paulitsch, P.

    1983-01-01

    As the correlation between mineralogical phase and chemical composition influences the type of application at different high temperatures, we studied the mineralogical phases of nine crystal glass fibres of the temperature ranges 1 150 degrees Celsius (Type 1), 1 400 degrees Celsius (Type 2) and 1 500 degrees Celsius (Type 3) at various high temperatures. The methods used in the study were microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis. The investigations showed that mullite forms in glassy fibres of the system Al 2 O 3 . SiO 2 from 850 degrees Celsius to 990 degrees Celsius as 2/1 mullite; 3/2 mullite appeared above 990 degrees Celsius besides the crystallization of cristobalite. Fibres with 95 per cent Al 2 O 3 include the phases delta-Al 2 O 3 and alpha- Al 2 O 3 and mullite. Delta- Al 2 O 3 is stable up to 1 100 degrees Celsius. Alpha-Al 2 O 3 and mullite are only stable phases at 1 400 degrees Celsius. These different crystal phases influence the quality of the technical fibre according to the stability field of glass and crystals. This study has determined that it is possible to identify different fibres from different productions by their mineralogical compositions and to relate them to the high temperature application

  11. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  12. Polarisation effects in fibre lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.T.; Morkel, P.R.; Reekie, L.; Payne, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Two orthogonal polarisation eigenmodes have been observed in a single-mode fibre laser. Experimental investigation shows good agreement with theoretical analysis. Both Nd3+ and Er3+-doped single-polarisation single-mode fibre lasers have been demonstrated

  13. Modelling of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    , as well as a honeycomb bandgap fibre and the first analysis of semi-periodic layered air-hole fibres. Using the modelling framework established as a basis, we provide an analysis of microbend loss, by regarding displacement of a fibre core as a stationary stochastic process, inducing mismatch between......In the presenta ph.d. work a theoretical study of aspects of modelling photonic crystal fibres was carried out. Photonic crystal fibres form a class of optical waveguides where guidance is no longer provided by a difference in refractive index between core and cladding. Instead, guidance...... is provided by an arrangement of air-holes running along the length of the fibre. Depending on the geometry of the fibre, the guiding mechanism may be either arising from the formation of a photonic bandgap in the cladding structure (photonic bandgap fibre), or by an effect resembling total internal...

  14. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l -1 , which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  15. Effects of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis on influence of chemical components and crystallinity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Morais, Alaine Patrícia; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; de Oliveira Neto, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined. This study demonstrated that the hemicelluloses were extensively removed at 170 and 190°C, whereas cellulose was partly degraded to Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust. The lignin content decreased, while the extractives content increased. It was defined that during autohydrolysis, had a slight decreased on crystalline structure of cellulose of Eucalyptus urogandis and Eucalyptus grandis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eucalyptus oil-loaded microcapsules grafted to cotton fabrics for acaricidal effect against Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Ran

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop acaricidal cotton fabrics grafted with eucalyptus oil-loaded microcapsules (EOMCs) produced from green resources. EOMCs showed a broad size distribution between 0.5 and 6.5 μm, and had the average diameter 1.8 μm. EOMCs exhibited nonporous spherical shapes and individually remained on cotton fibres. Through AATCC mortality tests against house dust mites (HDMs) (Dermatophagoides farinae), the treated cotton fabric containing EOMCs resulted in 98.7% mortality. Acaricidal efficiency was due to the large amount of oxygenated monoterpene, 1,8-eucalyptol (75.8%) and hydroxylated monoterpenes such as α-terpineol (3.6%), terpinen-4-ol (0.4%) and linalool (0.3%) found in eucalyptus oil. These compounds are effective in enhancing penetration into HDMs. EOMCs produced from safe and natural sources can serve as a replacement for synthetic acaricides in controlling the population of HDM, leading to positive impacts on the human health and environment.

  17. Concrete workability and fibre content

    OpenAIRE

    Vikan, Hedda

    2007-01-01

    Research report Parameters influencing the workability of fibre concrete and maximum fibre content are given in this state of the art report along with the range of fibre types available on today’s market. The study reveales that new placing techniques and production methods are crucial in order to increase fibre content and concrete strength. Achieving the same mechanical properties as traditionally reinforced concrete will probably also demand changes of the matrix. Finally, reco...

  18. Using Apparent Density of Paper from Hardwood Kraft Pulps to Predict Sheet Properties, based on Unsupervised Classification and Multivariable Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofélia Anjos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paper properties determine the product application potential and depend on the raw material, pulping conditions, and pulp refining. The aim of this study was to construct mathematical models that predict quantitative relations between the paper density and various mechanical and optical properties of the paper. A dataset of properties of paper handsheets produced with pulps of Acacia dealbata, Acacia melanoxylon, and Eucalyptus globulus beaten at 500, 2500, and 4500 revolutions was used. Unsupervised classification techniques were combined to assess the need to perform separated prediction models for each species, and multivariable regression techniques were used to establish such prediction models. It was possible to develop models with a high goodness of fit using paper density as the independent variable (or predictor for all variables except tear index and zero-span tensile strength, both dry and wet.

  19. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  20. Optimizing residence time, temperature and speed to improve TMP pulp properties and reduce energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Xu, E.; Cort, B.; Boileau, I.; Waller, A.

    1997-04-01

    The concept of reducing energy consumption in pulp mills by increasing the disc speed of refining has been established using single disc and double disc refiners in both pilot plant and mill applications. The RTS study evaluated in this paper reviews the effect of high-speed single disc refining coupled with shortdwell-high pressure retention conditions. Coupling these variables permitted evaluation of an optimum residence time, temperature and speed (RTS) operational window. The objective of the RTS conditions to sufficiently soften the wood chips through high temperature such that the fibre is more receptive to initial defiberization at high intensity. The improved pulp from the primary refiner at high intensity could potentially demonstrate improvements in physical pulp properties at a reduced specific energy requirement. The spruce/fir RTS-TMP described here required significantly less specific energy and produced TMP with slightly improved strength properties and equivalent optical properties compared to conventional TMP pulp. Studies on the radiate pine furnish indicated that the physical pulp property/specific energy relationships could be adjusted by manipulating the residence time. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Is Eucalyptus Cryptically Self-incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Tasmien N; Johnson, Steven D

    2007-12-01

    The probability that seeds will be fertilized from self- versus cross-pollen depends strongly on whether plants have self-incompatibility systems, and how these systems influence the fate of pollen tubes. In this study of breeding systems in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis, epifluorescence microscopy was used to study pollen tube growth in styles following self- and cross-pollinations. Pollen tubes from self-pollen took significantly longer than those from cross-pollen to grow to the base of the style in both E. urophylla (120 h vs. 96 h) and E. grandis (96 h vs. 72 h). In addition, both species exhibited reduced seed yields following self-pollination compared with cross-pollination. The present observations suggest that, in addition to a late-acting self-incompatibility barrier, cryptic self-incompatibility could be a mechanism responsible for the preferential out-crossing system in these two eucalypt species.

  2. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  3. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  4. Functional relationships between wood structure and vulnerability to xylem cavitation in races of Eucalyptus globulus differing in wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Monteoliva, Silvia; Gyenge, Javier; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Fernandez, María Elena

    2018-02-01

    Wood density can be considered as a measure of the internal wood structure, and it is usually used as a proxy measure of other mechanical and functional traits. Eucalyptus is one of the most important commercial forestry genera worldwide, but the relationship between wood density and vulnerability to cavitation in this genus has been little studied. The analysis is hampered by, among other things, its anatomical complexity, so it becomes necessary to address more complex techniques and analyses to elucidate the way in which the different anatomical elements are functionally integrated. In this study, vulnerability to cavitation in two races of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. with different wood density was evaluated through Path analysis, a multivariate method that allows evaluation of descriptive models of causal relationship between variables. A model relating anatomical variables with wood properties and functional parameters was proposed and tested. We found significant differences in wood basic density and vulnerability to cavitation between races. The main exogenous variables predicting vulnerability to cavitation were vessel hydraulic diameter and fibre wall fraction. Fibre wall fraction showed a direct impact on wood basic density and the slope of vulnerability curve, and an indirect and negative effect over the pressure imposing 50% of conductivity loss (P50) through them. Hydraulic diameter showed a direct negative effect on P50, but an indirect and positive influence over this variable through wood density on one hand, and through maximum hydraulic conductivity (ks max) and slope on the other. Our results highlight the complexity of the relationship between xylem efficiency and safety in species with solitary vessels such as Eucalyptus spp., with no evident compromise at the intraspecific level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Utilization of cotton waste for regenerated cellulose fibres: Influence of degree of polymerization on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Rasike; Byrne, Nolene

    2017-10-15

    Cotton accounts for 30% of total fibre production worldwide with over 50% of cotton being used for apparel. In the process from cotton bud to finished textile product many steps are required, and significant cotton waste is generated. Typically only 30% of pre consumer cotton is recycled. Here we use cotton waste lint to produce regenerated cellulose fibres (RCF). We find the RCF from waste cotton lint had increased mechanical properties compared to RCF produced from wood pulp. We show that this is likely linked to the higher degree of polymerization (DP) of waste cotton lint. An ionic liquid is used to dissolve the cotton lint and the rheology of the spinning is measured. The properties of the RCF are characterized and compared to wood pulp RCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a)extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  7. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a) extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  8. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  9. A comparison of cellulose nanofibrils produced from Cladophora glomerata algae and bleached eucalyptus pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhouyang Xiang; Wenhua Gao; Liheng Chen; Wu Lan; Junyong Zhu; Troy Runge

    2016-01-01

    Cladophora, a fresh-water green macroalgae, has unique cellulose properties and thus may be promising for production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Cellulose was extracted from Cladophora glomerata and subjected to microfluidization with or without enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment to produce CNFs. Increasing...

  10. Biocomposite of Cassava Starch Reinforced with Cellulose Pulp Fibers Modified with Deposition of Silica (SiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabel Raabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus pulp cellulose fibers were modified by the sol-gel process for SiO2 superficial deposition and used as reinforcement of thermoplastic starch (TPS. Cassava starch, glycerol, and water were added at the proportion of 60/26/14, respectively. For composites, 5% and 10% (by weight of modified and unmodified pulp fibers were added before extrusion. The matrix and composites were submitted to thermal stability, tensile strength, moisture adsorption, and SEM analysis. Micrographs of the modified fibers revealed the presence of SiO2 nanoparticles on fiber surface. The addition of modified fibers improved tensile strength in 183% in relation to matrix, while moisture adsorption decreased 8.3%. Such improvements were even more effective with unmodified fibers addition. This result was mainly attributed to poor interaction between modified fibers and TPS matrix detected by SEM analysis.

  11. Adição de antraquinona na polpação alcalina de Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Jerônimo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated different alkaline pulping conditions for Eucalyptus saligna wood. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the anthraquinone (AQ on the reduction of the total reduced sulfur (TRS in the aerial emissions, by reducing the sulfidity. The experiment consisted of 8 cooking with active alkali varying from 19 to 21%, sulfidity from 0 to 20% and anthraquinone from 0 to 0.1%, aiming to obtain kappa numbers in the range 15.5±1.5. The H factor was used to control the relation time/temperature along cooking. The addition of anthraquinone increased the delignification rate allowing sulfidity reduction. The kraft/AQ pulping with sulfidities of 5 and 10% presented satisfactory results, making it possible the replacement of conventional kraft cooking, giving a reduction in process sulfidity without harms in pulping. In spite of a slightly lower performance, the soda/AQ cooking has potential to be used where the smell is a critical problem in the industrial operation.

  12. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  13. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  14. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  15. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5) and controls (n = 12), and the other patients with BMS (n = 7) and controls (n = 10). BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS. PMID:20529324

  16. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath

  17. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS ON PHASEOLUS. VULGARIS SEEDLINGS. Sale, F.A.. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of ..... Sale, F.A. (2009). Allelopathic influence of Acacia auriculiformis. Eucalyptus citriodora and Gliricidia sepium on germination, growth and yield of millet.

  18. Genetic basis of resistance in eucalyptus spp. pathosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lucio Mauro da Silva Guimaraes; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in world-wide tropical and subtropical regions because of its high growth rate, broad adaptability, and multipurpose wood properties. Until the 1970s, the Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil were practically disease free. However, plantations have continued to expand into warmer...

  19. Energy, chemicals and carbon: future options for the Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current Eucalyptus value chain and the possible drivers that may impact upon it. The potential consequences of climate change on the growth and yield of Eucalyptus are discussed and the impact of the security of oil reserves and increased costs of fossil-fuel-derived energy and raw materials upon ...

  20. Diseases on Eucalyptus species in Zimbabwean plantations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe embarked on planting Eucalyptus species in the early 1900s. Based on a robust breeding programme, it has become a major source of seed for other countries in and outside Africa. Tree health surveys conducted on Eucalyptus in some east and southern African countries over the past two decades have ...

  1. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  2. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (k s ) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum k s and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P 50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

  4. Performance of Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1986-01-01

    Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna were compared at four locations on the island of Hawaii to seek seed sources better than those in current use which were introduced earlier from unrecorded locations in Australia. A broad range of latitude and elevation was represented among the provenances. At all four...

  5. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  6. Optical Fibre Bundle

    CERN Multimedia

    These are sample fibre optic cables which are used for networking. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. This is useful for somewhere like CERN where magnets with their highly powerful magnetic fields could pose a problem.

  7. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  8. Human dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells promote wound healing and muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sarrà, Ester; Montori, Sheyla; Gil-Recio, Carlos; Núñez-Toldrà, Raquel; Costamagna, Domiziana; Rotini, Alessio; Atari, Maher; Luttun, Aernout; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2017-07-27

    Dental pulp represents an easily accessible autologous source of adult stem cells. A subset of these cells, named dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSC), shows high plasticity and can undergo multiple population doublings, making DPPSC an appealing tool for tissue repair or maintenance. DPPSC were harvested from the dental pulp of third molars extracted from young patients. Growth factors released by DPPSC were analysed using antibody arrays. Cells were cultured in specific differentiation media and their endothelial, smooth and skeletal muscle differentiation potential was evaluated. The therapeutic potential of DPPSC was tested in a wound healing mouse model and in two genetic mouse models of muscular dystrophy (Scid/mdx and Sgcb-null Rag2-null γc-null). DPPSC secreted several growth factors involved in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition and improved vascularisation in all three murine models. Moreover, DPPSC stimulated re-epithelialisation and ameliorated collagen deposition and organisation in healing wounds. In dystrophic mice, DPPSC engrafted in the skeletal muscle of both dystrophic murine models and showed integration in muscular fibres and vessels. In addition, DPPSC treatment resulted in reduced fibrosis and collagen content, larger cross-sectional area of type II fast-glycolytic fibres and infiltration of higher numbers of proangiogenic CD206 + macrophages. Overall, DPPSC represent a potential source of stem cells to enhance the wound healing process and slow down dystrophic muscle degeneration.

  9. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  10. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migwi, P.K; Gallanga, J.R; Barneveld, R.J

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some

  11. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  12. Analysis of glass fibre sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2014-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer composites are widely used for industrial and engineering applications which include construction, aerospace, automotive and wind energy industry. During the manufacturing glass fibres, they are surface-treated with an aqueous solution. This process and the treated...... surfaces are called sizing. The sizing influences the properties of the interface between fibres and a matrix, and subsequently affects mechanical properties of composites. In this work the sizing of commercially available glass fibres was analysed so as to study the composition and chemical structures....... Soxhlet extraction was used to extract components of the sizing from the glass fibres. The glass fibres, their extracts and coated glass plates were analysed by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis combined with a mass spectrometer (TGA-MS), and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR...

  13. Sputter etching of polymer fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Hill, A.E.; Nobes, M.J.; Jeffries, R.; Simmens, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fibres of polyamide, polyester and an aromatic polyamide (Kevlar) have been subjected to Ar + ion bombardment erosion in an ion accelerator or an rf discharge system. In the case of the former two polymers, cones are observed to develop upon the fibre surface and these are associated with etch protection resulting from the presence of particles of titanium dioxide pigment. This effect is absent in the third, unpigmented, fibre. In all cases ripple structures with a habit transverse to the fibre axes and of wavelength of approximately 1000 Angstrom are gradually developed during ion bombardment. It is suggested that this morphology results from an underlying periodicity of the fibre structure either inherent in the fibre structure or induced by the irradiation. (author)

  14. Nutritional disorders in Eucalyptus citriodora. [In Portugese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, H P; Simoes, J W; de Oliveira, G D; Sarruge, J R; Poggiani, F

    1977-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp., especially E. citriodora, when grown on the poor soils characteristic of cerrado areas in Brazil, sometimes show signs of an unusual disorder. The youngest leaves in the crown (and later most of the older leaves) wither but remain attached to the shoots, and the bark splits and exudes gum. Samples of leaves from a 4-year-old E. citriodora plantation in Sao Paulo that showed these symptoms were collected and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The disorder is attributed to general malnutrition, and especially to a lack of S, Ca and P.

  15. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  16. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita E; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-05-24

    In this work, wheat bread was fortified with fibre enriched extracts recovered from agroindustry by-products, namely, elderberry skin, pulp and seeds (EE); orange peel (OE); pomegranate peel and interior membranes (PE); and spent yeast (YE). The impact of this fortification on the total and bioaccessible mineral composition of wheat breads, estimated mineral daily intake, and the relationship between bioaccessibility and dietary fibre was evaluated. Fortification with OE, EE, and PE improved the content of essential minerals in bread when compared to control bread. The exception was bread fortified with YE, which presented a mineral content similar to control bread, but its mineral bioaccessibility was significantly higher than in all the other bread formulations. The opposite was observed for PE bread, which presented a significant reduction of bioaccessible minerals. We concluded that the origin of the fibre rich extract must be carefully selected, to avoid potential negative impact on mineral bioaccessibility.

  17. SUSTAINABLE PAPER - Biotechnical modification of mechanical pulp. Final report; KESTAeVAe PAPERI - Mekaanisen massan biotekninen muokkaus. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere, J.; Liukkonen, S.; Gullichsen, J.; Viikari, L.

    1997-12-31

    In this work the application of purified enzymes in mechanical pulping was studied. The aim was to gain energy savings in secondary refining of mechanical pulp by modifying pulp fractions with enzymes. One special objective was to increase the flexibility and bonding ability of long fibre fraction. The main interest was in Trichoderma reesei cellulases (CBH I, CBH II, EG I) and hemicellulases (xylanase, mannanase), but a few commercial enzyme preparations (pectinase, cellulase) were also tested. Coarse mechanical pulp (CSF 350-600 ml) or functioned reject (CSF 550-700 ml) were treated with enzymes (45 deg C. pH 5,2-16 h). After enzymatic treatment the pulps were subjected to secondary refining either with a laboratory scale disk refiner (Sprout-Waldron) or a wing defibrator. Some of the results obtained in laboratory scale were further verified in pilot scale. The accessibility of mechanical pulp to enzymatic hydrolysis was limited and therefore yield losses of raw material due to the enzymatic treatments were usually very low, < 0,6 % of original dry weight. The liberation of soluble oligosaccharides was affected by the enzyme used and also depended on the freeness level and metal composition of the pulp. Endoglucanase (EG I) and mannanase solubilized reducing sugars more efficiently than cellobiohydrolases (CBH I, CBH II). If secondary refining was performed with the atmospheric disk refiner no energy savings or improvement in pulp properties were gained with any of the enzymes tested as compared with the untreated reference. But energy savings up to 20-30 % were obtained when the pulp was pretreated with CBH I prior to secondary refining with the wing defibrator. Pretreatment of the pulp with mannanase gave small energy savings (10-20 %), too. Boosting of secondary refining with CBH I and mannanase was attained while retaining good handsheet properties of the pulp. The positive effects of CBH I on secondary refining were further verified in pilot scale. In a two

  18. Advanced Fibre Based Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel Oliver

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into many fabrics and clothes, further boosting their potential for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibres were produced from a dispersion of carbon nanomaterials in a room temperature ionic liquid. Coagulation of this dispersion was achieved through manual injection into aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. The limitations of this method are highlighted by very low ultimate tensile strengths of these fibres, in the order of 3 MPa, with high variation within all of the fibres. Fibres were also produced via scrolling of bi-component films containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Chemical treatments were employed to impart water compatibility to these fibres, and their electrochemical, physical and electrical properties were analysed. Fibres were wet spun from two PEDOT:PSS sources, in several fibre diameters. The effect of chemical treatments on the fibres were investigated and compared. Short 5 min treatment times with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on 20 mum fibres produced from Clevios PH1000 were found to produce the best overall treatment. Up to a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity resulted, reaching 800 S cm-1, with up to 40 % increase in specific capacitance and no loss of mechanical strength (55 F g-1 and 150 MPa recorded). A wet spinning system to produce PEDOT:PSS fibres containing functionalised graphenes and carbon nanotubes, as well as birnessite nanotubes was subsequently developed

  19. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...

  20. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the

  2. Oldest known Eucalyptus macrofossils are from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Gandolfo

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data

  3. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  4. Eucalyptus hairy roots, a fast, efficient and versatile tool to explore function and expression of genes involved in wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia, Anna; Soler, Marçal; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Silva-Martins, Guilherme; Martinez, Yves; Lapierre, Catherine; Franche, Claudine; Truchet, Isabelle; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Eucalyptus are of tremendous economic importance being the most planted hardwoods worldwide for pulp and paper, timber and bioenergy. The recent release of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence pointed out many new candidate genes potentially involved in secondary growth, wood formation or lineage-specific biosynthetic pathways. Their functional characterization is, however, hindered by the tedious, time-consuming and inefficient transformation systems available hitherto for eucalypts. To overcome this limitation, we developed a fast, reliable and efficient protocol to obtain and easily detect co-transformed E. grandis hairy roots using fluorescent markers, with an average efficiency of 62%. We set up conditions both to cultivate excised roots in vitro and to harden composite plants and verified that hairy root morphology and vascular system anatomy were similar to wild-type ones. We further demonstrated that co-transformed hairy roots are suitable for medium-throughput functional studies enabling, for instance, protein subcellular localization, gene expression patterns through RT-qPCR and promoter expression, as well as the modulation of endogenous gene expression. Down-regulation of the Eucalyptus cinnamoyl-CoA reductase1 (EgCCR1) gene, encoding a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, led to transgenic roots with reduced lignin levels and thinner cell walls. This gene was used as a proof of concept to demonstrate that the function of genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation can be elucidated in transgenic hairy roots using histochemical, transcriptomic and biochemical approaches. The method described here is timely because it will accelerate gene mining of the genome for both basic research and industry purposes. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

    2002-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

  6. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Estevão Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs, an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis, has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX. Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y and cytosolic (TRXh, have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

  7. The presence of some artificial and natural radionuclides in a Eucalyptus forest in the south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, F.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) were studied in a Eucalyptus plantation located in the south-west of Spain. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in different types of samples corresponding to specific forest components (soil, trees, herbs and litter). Depth profile distributions were obtained in two selected core soils. Two layers were separately measured in three other cores. The concentration factor, defined as the ratio between the mean activity concentration in a component and the mean activity concentration in the soil, was calculated for each component. The biomass of different components was estimated in order to evaluate the total density concentration (Bq/ha) of the artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) in the Eucalyptus plantation. The transfer of the radionuclides between the different forest components can be inferred from the results. Additionally, other naturally occurring radionuclides ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Ac) were determined for comparison. Transport of radionuclides from forest to a nearby pulp mill is also discussed

  8. [Daily practice and pulp diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmein, S; Claisse, A

    1990-09-01

    Constructive or destructive processes of pulp tissue depend on many factors: anatomic topography, particular physiology, or intensity and duration of infectious, mechanical and chemical aggression. Also irritation of the pulpo-dentinal complex induce histologic and physiologic changes. The positive diagnosis of hyperemia, acute or chronic pulpitis, pulpal necrosis and acute or chronic apical abscess is performed by clinical investigations which allow a differential diagnosis with other dental or extra-dental diseases. These multiple steps lead to an adapted and appropriate treatment.

  9. Creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites with partly creeping fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilde-Soerensen, J.B.; Lilholt, H.

    1977-05-01

    In a previous report (RISO-M-1810) the creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites with non-creeping fibres were analyzed. In the present report this analysis is extended to include the case of discontinuous composites with partly creeping fibres. It is shown that the creep properties of the composite at a given strain rate, epsilonsub(c), depend on the creep properties of the matrix at a strain rate higher than epsilonsub(c), and on the creep properties of the fibres at epsilonsub(c). The composite creep law is presented in a form which permits a graphical determination of the composite creep curve. This can be constructed on the basis of the matrix and the fibre creep curves by vector operations in a log epsilon vs. log sigma diagram. The matrix contribution to the creep strength can be evaluated by a simple method. (author)

  10. Scintillating-fibre calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livan, M.; Vercesi, V.; Wigmans, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the past decade, calorimetry based on scintillating plastic fibres as active elements was developed from a conceptual idea to a mature detector technology, which is nowadays widely applied in particle physics experiments. This development and the performance characteristics of representative calorimeters, both for the detection of electromagnetic and hadronic showers, are reviewed. We also discuss new information on shower development processes in dense matter and its application to calorimetric principles that has emerged from some very thorough studies that were performed in the framework of this development. (orig.)

  11. Strength improvement of fibre cement product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranya Sonphuak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to improve the strength or the Modulus of Rupture (MOR of fibre cement. The Six Sigma approach with the DMAIC steps was applied to a case study company. This research started from defining problem, setting the project objective and the project scope. Next, the measurement system was analyzed and the process map was set up. The potential factors of the problem was then determined. Due to there were many factors that affect the MOR, the Cause and Effect Matrix and the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis technique were then used to reduce the number of factors to be studied further. Next, three process factors, which were the pulp slurry freeness, the film-layer thickness, and the pressure step, were optimized using the results from the Box-Behnken experimental design. Other 13 remaining factors were improved by creating or revising the standard work instructions and training the operators. After that, the statistical process control and the control plan were set up to control the production processes. After improvement, the process capability index (Ppk significantly increased from 0.26 to 1.35.

  12. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  13. Properties of hemp fibre polymer composites - An optimisation of fibre properties using novel defibration methods and fibre characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of hemp fibres was carried out with fibres obtained with low handling damage and defibration damage to get an indication of how strong cellulose based fibres that can be produced from hemp. Comparison was made with hemp yarn producedunder traditional conditions where damage...... obtained by steam explosion of hemp fibres prior defibrated with pectin degrading enzymes. The S2 layer in the fibre wall of the hemp fibres consisted of1-4 cellulose rich and lignin poor concentric layers constructed of ca. 100 nm thick lamellae. The microfibril angle showed values in the range 0......-10° for the main part of the S2-layer and 70-90° for the S1-layer. The microfibrils that are mainly parallelwith the fibre axis explain the high fibre stiffness, which in defibrated hemp fibres reached 94 GPa. The defibrated hemp fibres had higher fibre stiffness (88-94 GPa) than hemp yarn (60 GPa), which...

  14. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  15. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  16. Fibre-optic temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jie; Liu Zhenyuan.

    1993-04-01

    This experiment is a kind of nonfunction fibre-optic temperature sensor. It utilizes high-sensitive bimetallic strip for element of measuring temperature. The changing of bimetallic strip alterates intensity of light through fibre-optic. This equipment is simple in structure, subtle in design, extensive in application, and so on. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  17. Current status of natural fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Selection Conference, 17-19 May 1999, Greenville, SC, USA. 16. Sankari, H.S. 2000. Comparison of bast fibre yield and mechanical fibre properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars. Industrial Crops and Products (11) 1: 73-84. 17. W...

  18. Design of DFB fibre lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Vibeke Claudia; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Varming, Poul

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model for erbium distributed feedback (DFB) fibre lasers is presented. The model is used to optimise the location of a discrete phase-shift to obtain maximum output power. For DFB fibre lasers of up to 10cm in length it is shown that the influence of Kerr nonlinearity with respect to ...... to output power is negligible....

  19. Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  20. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  1. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and α- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an α-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% α-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  2. Organo mercurials in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouveng, H O

    1967-01-01

    Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.

  3. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... optical properties of resultant paper were included to determine the properties of these pulp samples. ... pulping compounds in the kraft method are Na2S and .... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement of pulp.

  4. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  5. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  6. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. © 2014 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D.

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43 o 28'N, and longitude 3 o 48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  9. Development during indirect organogenesis in Eucalyptus grandis x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BQWUPC1

    isolation or from a region of the stem immediately above the callus. Roots developed ... In this study, the same clone (Eucalyptus grandis urophylla hybrid) was used and .... strands and they linked these with shoot formation, whilst. Arvore et al.

  10. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation ... cific regions of the genome of different species (Marques et ..... Received 21 June 2007, in revised form 11 September 2007; accepted 12 September 2007.

  11. The life cycle assessment of cellulose pulp from waste cotton via the SaXcell™ process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelerich, Jens; Bijleveld, Marijn; Bouwhuis, Gerrit H.; Brinks, Ger J.

    2017-10-01

    Recycling of cotton waste into high value products is a longstanding goal in textile research. The SaXcellTM process provides a chemical recycling route towards virgin fibres. In this study a Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to measure the impact of the chemical recycling of cotton waste on the environment. Pure cotton waste and cotton containing 10 % of polyester are elaborated. The results show that chemical recycling via the SaXcellTM process can have a lower impact on climate change and other impact category than comparable pulping technologies.

  12. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  13. Discount Rate and Timber Rotation: the Case of Eucalyptus Saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Restrepo; Mauricio Alviar

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling’s method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of A...

  14. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K., E-mail: s.k.turitsyn@aston.ac.uk [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Babin, Sergey A. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, Dmitry V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim [Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Podivilov, Evgenii V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-10

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the

  15. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the

  16. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  17. WEED CONTROL AND BORON NUTRITION ON Eucalyptus IN SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of weeds in the rows of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis with herbicides applied singly or combined with boron (B, as well as, the response of Eucalyptus plants to this micronutrient. The experiments were carried out in a split-plot with randomized complete block design, with three replicates. Six treatments were applied to the plots: (i weeded control, (ii control without weeding, (iii glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (10 g ai ha-1 + 0.05% v / v mineral oil, (iv glyphosate (1080 g ae  ha-1 + isoxaflutole (112.5 g ai ha-1,  (v glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 and  (vi oxyfluorfen (480 g ai ha-1. The sub-plots consisted of the absence or presence of 4 kg of boric acid (H3BO3 - 17% B in 100 L of water. The addition of boric acid in the solution containing the herbicides did not affect the weed control. There was an increase in boron content in the soil and consequently an increase in the boron levels in the eucalyptus leaves. The combined application of herbicides plus boric acid is perfectly suitable for preventing dry of the pointer on eucalyptus plants. Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; chemical control; herbicides; micronutrients; Urochloa decumbens.

  18. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  19. The use of green banana (Musa balbisiana pulp and peel flour as an ingredient for tagliatelle pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Naciuk Castelo-Branco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green banana flour shows good potential as a functional ingredient for special-purpose foods, but there are no data in the literature concerning the use of a green banana pulp and peel flour for the development of products such as pasta. The aim of the present study was to develop tagliatelle pasta substituting the wheat flour with different concentrations of a green banana mixed pulp and peel flour. The pasta formulations were prepared replacing the wheat flour by the green banana mixed pulp and peel flour in two concentrations: 15% and 30%. A control formulation with wheat flour was also prepared. The green banana mixed pulp and peel flour presented higher ash, total fibre and total phenolic compound contents than traditional wheat flour. The pasta formulation with the addition of 15% green banana flour showed the highest ash content and the best sensory acceptability of all the formulations. It was concluded that it was possible to develop a tagliatelle pasta with satisfactory acceptance replacing the wheat flour by a green banana mixed pulp and peel flour.

  20. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  1. Microstructured Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new class of optical waveguides, in which waveguiding along one or more core regions is obtained through the application of the Photonic Bandgap (PBG) effect. The invention further relates to optimised two-dimensional lattice structures capable of providing......, which are easy to manufacture. Finally, the present invention relates to a new fabrication technique, which allows easy manufacturing of preforms for photonic crystal fibers with large void filling fractions, as well as it allows a high flexibility in the design of the cladding and core structures....... complete PBGs, which reflects light incident from air or vacuum. Such structures may be used as cladding structures in optical fibres, where light is confined and thereby guided in a hollow core region. In addition, the present invention relates to designs for ultra low-loss PBG waveguiding structures...

  2. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva; Edvins Ratnieks; Teotônio Francisco de Assis; Celso Edmundo B. Foelkel; Jorge Vieira Gonzaga; Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m), para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m). Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinon...

  3. Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Fibre Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.; Fisher, M.; Patrignani, L.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Chatten, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a fibre luminescent solar concentrator has been explored by means of both analytical and ray-tracing techniques. Coated fibres have been found to be more efficient than homogeneously doped fibres, at low absorption. For practical fibres concentration is predicted to be linear

  4. Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Dridi, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Approximate dispersion and bending properties of all-silica two-dimensional photonic crystal fibres are characterised by the combination of an effective-index model and classical analysis tools for optical fibres. We believe for the first time to have predicted the dispersion properties of photonic...... crystal fibres. The results strongly indicate that these fibres have potential applications as dispersion managing components...

  5. The Influence of Fibre Content on the Performance of Steel Fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of Fibre Content on the Performance of Steel Fibre Refractory Concrete. ... Little information is available on the effect of fibre content on refractory performance and in particular resistance to thermal shock. This study has examined the influence of fibre content of stainless steel melt extract fibres on the ...

  6. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  7. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  8. Pulp quality from small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Myers; S. Kumar; R.R. Gustafson; R.J. Barbour; S.M. Abubakr

    1997-01-01

    Kraft and thermomechanical (TMP) pulps were prepared and evaluated from lodgepole pine and mixed Douglas-fir/western larch sawmill residue chips; lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch submerchantable logs; and lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch small trees and tops. Kraft pulp from small trees and tops was identical to that from submerchantable...

  9. Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

  10. Kraft pulp bleaching with molybdenum activated acid peroxide (P{sub Mo} stage); Branqueamento de polpa celulosica kraft de eucalipto com peroxido acido ativado por molibdenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Marcos Sousa [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil). Dept. Regional da Bahia; Silva, Vanessa Lopes; Barros, Denise Pires de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Sacon, Vera Maria; Silva, Marcelo Rodrigues da [Votorantim Celulose e Papel, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Optimum conditions to run the P{sub Mo} stage for bleaching eucalyptus kraft pulp were 90 deg C, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/t Mo and 5 kg/t H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The P{sub Mo} stage efficiency increased with decreasing pH (1.5-5.5) and increasing temperature (75-90 deg C), time (2-4 h), and hydrogen peroxide (3-10 kg/t) and molybdenum concentration (0.1-0.4 kg/t). The implementation of the P{sub Mo} stage, as replacement for the A stage, decreased total active chlorine demand of the OAZDP sequence by 6 kg/t to reach 90% ISO, both in laboratory and mill scale. Such practice resulted in decreased bleaching chemical costs to produce fully bleached pulp of 90% ISO. (author)

  11. Wood anatomical and chemical properties related to the pulpability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most important hardwood species used by the pulp and paper industry due to its high pulp yield, high wood density, excellent fibre quality and good handsheet properties. However, the wood is a highly variable and complex material that has different chemical, physical and anatomical ...

  12. Fibre Bragg grating and no-core fibre sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Daud, Suzairi

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on the development and set-up of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and no-core fibre (NCF) sensors. It discusses the properties of the sensors and modelling of the resulting devices, which include electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and spintronic devices. In addition to providing detailed explanations of the properties of FBG and NCF sensors, it features a wealth of instructive illustrations and tables, helping to visualize the respective devices’ functions.

  13. Aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Thygesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The potential of biocomposites in engineering applications is demonstrated by using aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites as a materials model system. The failure stress of flax fibres is measured by tensile testing of single fibres and fibre bundles. For both fibre configurations, it is found...... that failure stress is decreased by increasing the tested fibre volume. Based on two types of flax fibre preforms: carded sliver and unidirectional non-crimp fabric, aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites were fabricated with variable fibre content. The volumetric composition and tensile properties...... of the composite were measured. For composites with a fibre content of 37 % by volume, stiffness is about 20 GPa and failure stress is about 180 MPa. The tensile properties of the composites are analysed with a modified rule of mixtures model, which includes the effect of porosity. The experimental results...

  14. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Husna Mohd Hassan; Suhaimi Muhammed

    2013-01-01

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m 2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m 2 /g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m 2 /g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m 2 / g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m 2 / g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  15. The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroja, L.; Dias, A.C.; Capela, I.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets

  16. Assessing the Invasion Risk of Eucalyptus in the United States Using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R. Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many agricultural species have undergone selection for traits that are consistent with those that increase the probability that a species will become invasive. However, the risk of invasion may be accurately predicted for the majority of plant species tested using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment (WRA. This system has been tested in multiple climates and geographies and, on average, correctly identifies 90% of the major plant invaders as having high invasion risk, and 70% of the noninvaders as having low risk. We used this tool to evaluate the invasion risk of 38 Eucalyptus taxa currently being tested and cultivated in the USA for pulp, biofuel, and other purposes. We predict 15 taxa to have low risk of invasion, 14 taxa to have high risk, and 9 taxa to require further information. In addition to a history of naturalization and invasiveness elsewhere, the traits that significantly contribute to a high invasion risk conclusion include having prolific seed production and a short generation time. Selection against these traits should reduce the probability that eucalypts cultivated in the USA will become invasive threats to natural areas and agricultural systems.

  17. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  18. Modeling of photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated.......Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated....

  19. Detoxification of kraft pulp ECF bleaching effluents by catalytic hydrotreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Mohedano, A F; Rodríguez, J J

    2007-02-01

    Two different effluents from the D(1) and E(1) stages of the ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were treated by catalytic hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor using commercial and homemade Pd/AC catalysts. The reactor was fed with the bleaching effluent and a H(2)/N(2) gas stream. The variables studied were space-time (1.4-5g(cat)min/mL), gas to liquid flow ratio (286-1000vol.), gas feed concentration (H(2):N(2), 1:1-1:7.3vol.), temperature (25-100 degrees C) and pressure (1-11bar). Hydrotreatment performance was evaluated in terms of ecotoxicity, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and colour removal. In all the runs, the ecotoxicity of the effluents decreased as a result of the treatment, achieving reductions that ranged from 70% to 98%. Simultaneously to the reduction of toxicity, the hydrotreatment led to a decrease of the colour of the effluents, being the decrease significantly higher in the case of E(1) effluent. The AOX content was reduced by 85% and 23% for E(1) and D(1) effluents, respectively. In the case of D(1) effluent the removal of ecotoxicity was significantly higher than that of AOX, which indicates that much of the toxicity of the effluent must be associated to non-chlorinated organics. In spite of the important reduction of ecotoxicity, the biodegradability of the effluents only increased slightly. The homemade catalysts, prepared from activated carbons with a high external or non-microporous surface area and mesopore volume and a convenient surface chemistry showed a higher efficiency than the commercial one.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey...

  2. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  3. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  4. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  5. Polymorphism of myofibrillar proteins of rabbit skeletal-muscle fibres. An electrophoretic study of single fibres.

    OpenAIRE

    Salviati, G; Betto, R; Danieli Betto, D

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit predominantly fast-twitch-fibre and predominantly slow-twitch-fibre skeletal muscles of the hind limbs, the psoas, the diaphragm and the masseter muscles were fibre-typed by one-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the myofibrillar proteins of chemically skinned single fibres. Investigation of the distribution of fast-twitch-fibre and slow-twitch-fibre isoforms of myosin light chains and the type of myosin heavy chains, based on peptide 'maps' published in Cleveland. Fisch...

  6. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp resin is also influenced by effective alkali concentration of the pulping medium. With increase in effective alkali concentration from 13% to 15%, pulp pitch is reduced. The interaction effect of storage and effective alkali concentration was not significant indicating that reduction in pulp pitch caused by effective alkali ...

  7. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  8. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  9. Recruitment of dental pulp cells by dentine and pulp extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether dentine tissue and preparations of extracellular matrix (ECM) from pulp (pECM) and dentine (dECM), and breakdown products, influenced pulp cell migration. Chemotaxis transwell and agarose spot assays demonstrated that both dentine and pulp ECM molecules acted as chemoattractants for primary pulp cells. Chemoattractant activities of dECM and pECM were enhanced when subjected to acid and enzymatic breakdown, respectively. This enhanced activity following physiologically relevant breakdown may be pertinent to the disease environment. Pulp cell migration in response to dental ECMs was dependent on an active rho pathway. Recruited cells exhibited increased stem cell marker expression indicating that dental ECMs and their breakdown products selectively attract progenitor cells that contribute to repair processes. In conclusion, combined these results indicate that ECM molecules contribute to cell recruitment necessary for regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex after injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  11. Optimization of pulping conditions of abaca. An alternative raw material for producing cellulose pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; Rodríguez, A; De la Torre, M J; Ferrer, J L

    2005-06-01

    The influence of temperature (150-170 degrees C), pulping time (15-45 min) and soda concentration (5-10%) in the pulping of abaca on the yield, kappa, viscosity, breaking length, stretch and tear index of pulp and paper sheets, was studied. Using a factorial design to identify the optimum operating conditions, equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the pulping process were derived that reproduced the former with errors lower than 25%. Using a high temperature, and a medium time and soda concentration, led to pulp that was difficult to bleach (kappa 28.34) but provided acceptable strength-related properties (breaking length 4728 m; stretch 4.76%; tear index 18.25 mN m2/g), with good yield (77.33%) and potential savings on capital equipment costs. Obtaining pulp amenable to bleaching would entail using more drastic conditions than those employed in this work.

  12. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exig

  13. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  14. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  15. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando Castellanos, Dolly Melissa; Burgos Zabala, Ludy Beatriz; Rivera Botia, Diego Mauricio; Rubiano Garrido, Maria Fernanda; Divan Baldini, Vera Lucia; Bonilla Buitrago, Ruth Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ≤ 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  17. Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2005-01-01

    A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown.......A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown....

  18. Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

  19. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  20. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Eucalyptus infected with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanzhu; Guo, Wenshuo; Feng, Lizhen; Ye, Xiaozhen; Xie, Wanfeng; Huang, Xiuping; Liu, Jinyan

    2015-02-06

    Cylindrocladium leaf blight is one of the most severe diseases in Eucalyptus plantations and nurseries. There are Eucalyptus cultivars with resistance to the disease. However, little is known about the defense mechanism of resistant cultivars. Here, we investigated the transcriptome and proteome of Eucalyptus leaves (E. urophylla×E. tereticornis M1), infected or not with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii. A total of 8585 differentially expressed genes (|log2 ratio| ≥1, FDR ≤0.001) at 12 and 24hours post-inoculation were detected using RNA-seq. Transcriptional changes for five genes were further confirmed by qRT-PCR. A total of 3680 proteins at the two time points were identified using iTRAQ technique.The combined transcriptome and proteome analysis revealed that the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway (jasmonic acid and sugar) were activated. The data also showed that some proteins (WRKY33 and PR proteins) which have been reported to involve in plant defense response were up-regulated. However, photosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism were impaired by the infection of C. pseudoreteaudii. This work will facilitate the identification of defense related genes and provide insights into Eucalyptus defense responses to Cylindrocladium leaf blight. In this study, a total of 130 proteins and genes involved in the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway, cell transport, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism in Eucalyptus leaves after infected with C. pseudoreteaudii were identified. This is the first report of a comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Eucalyptus in response to Calonectria sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b) Classification...

  2. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial to machined (final condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  3. Eucalyptus sp. at the Intersection of Environment and Culture in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy M Garrett Kluthe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Eucalyptus are popular on small farms throughout Kenya, and include species such as Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalpytus globulus, and Eucalyptus grandis. Although they are fast-growing and perform well on marginal land, these trees are associated with negative environmental effects in Africa and elsewhere they have been introduced. In-person surveys were conducted with small farmers in Kenya to determine patterns of Eucalyptus sp. stand use and cultural importance. It was found that despite acknowledged short and long term environmental consequences, Eucalyptus sp. remains popular for medium term economic investment. These findings are consistent with other reports of Eucalyptus sp. woodlots serving as funding sources for education, health emergencies, etc., in parts of the world where bank loans are unavailable. Further, it was found that some farmers are using modified silviculture practices to ameliorate the negative effects of Eucalyptus sp., and others are seeking indigenous alternatives.           

  4. Process monitoring of fibre reinforced composites using optical fibre sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, G.F.; Degamber, B.

    2006-04-15

    The deployment of optical fibre based sensor systems for process monitoring of advanced fibre reinforced organic matrix composites is reviewed. The focus is on thermosetting resins and the various optical and spectroscopy-based techniques that can be used to monitor the processing of these materials. Following brief consideration of the manufacturing methods commonly used in the production of thermoset based composites, a discussion is presented on sensor systems that can be used to facilitate real-time chemical process monitoring. Although the focus is on thermosets, the techniques described can be adapted for chemical monitoring of organic species in general. (author)

  5. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Carbon fibre material for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini Noorsal; Mohd Ariff Baharom

    2010-01-01

    As science and technology continue to cross boundaries of known practices, materials and manufacturing techniques and into the frontiers of new materials, environment and applications, the opportunities for research in materials in general will inevitably increase. The unique properties of carbon fibre which combines low weight and high stiffness, makes it in ever greater demand as substitutes for traditional materials. This is due to the rising costs of raw materials and energy and the necessity to reduce carbon dioxide emission. The carbon fibres produced are particularly of high standard in terms of quality and processing characteristics especially when it is designed in structural components in the aerospace and defence industries. This results in a well structured organisation in producing the fibre starting from its raw material to the final composite products. In achieving this effort, research and communication of the progress takes a fundamental role. (author)

  7. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  8. EFFECTS OF POLYTHENE FIBRES ON SELECTED PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using polythene fibres to increase the strength of sandcrete ... Polythene fibres were got from shredded sachet water bags. .... degradable waste is more of a problem than the bio-.

  9. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  10. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  11. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  12. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  13. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  14. Growth variation and heritability in a second-generation Eucalyptus urophylla progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Chachoengsao province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Nhlanhla Dlamini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, Eucalyptus urophylla was introduced with the main purpose of supplying raw material for pulp and chip wood production. The demand for genetically improved seed is increasing to support high productivity plantation establishment. One of the tree improvement activities established to meet the high demand for improved seed was a second generation progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Thailand to provide the best material for the successful plantation program. The aim of the current study was to compare growth variation of the first and second generation of Eucalyptus urophylla progeny that could provide information on suitable families for improved quality seed. The progeny test comprised the best 45 half-sib families selected from 80 half-sib families of the first-generation progeny test. The design of the progeny test was a randomized and complete block design (16 trees/plot × 45 plots/block × 9 blocks, with 4 rows of 4 trees at a spacing of 2 m × 1 m. Growth was assessed at age 3 yr. The average height and diameter at breast height over bark (DBH, was 13.72 m, and 8.75 cm, respectively. There were highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among provenances and families in both height and DBH. The individual heritability values for height and DBH were 0.48 and 0.60, respectively. The family heritability values for height and DBH were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. These 45 half-sib families proved to be genetically superior ensuring higher productivity and contributing to the success of the Forest Industry Organization plantation at Lad Krating.

  15. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  16. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  17. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  18. Fibre optic networks for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.G.R.; Chare, P.; Barrier, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Euratom Safeguards Directorate has recently installed a fibre optic network in a new large scale nuclear facility in the European Communities. The selection, installation and commissioning of the fibre optic network is discussed from the viewpoint of network topology, physical testing, trouble shooting and authentication. The future use of fibre optic networks for safeguards applications is discussed

  19. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  20. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  1. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  2. Formulation and characterization of bread using coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour composite with addition of xanthan-gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erminawati; Sidik, W.; Listanti, R.; Zulfakar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Coconut-pulp flour is coconut flour made from by-product of coconut-milk based food products. The flour contains no gluten and high fibre, which can be considered as functional potential food. Bread made from composite-flour of coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour was studied for its physic-chemical and sensory characteristics. Addition of hydrocolloid, like xanthan-gum, was aimed to provide viscoelasticity for the dough which is essential for baked product. Composite-flour proportion used in this study was; 10CPF/90WF, 15CPF/85WF and 20CPF/80WF; and xanthan gum to total flour of 0,1% and 0,4%. Variable observed were; crumb-texture, crumb-colour, taste of coconut, preference and flavour; moisture, ash, fiber and soluble-protein contents. The research showed that addition of coconut-pulp flour in the composite-flour decreased specific volume value and increased the bread texture produced. It also increased the bread moisture-content, ash-content, fibre-content and soluble protein-content. Moreover, the xanthan-gum addition resulted in decreased specific-volume value and increased texture and fiber-content of the bread produced. Overall, the sensory characteristic of crumb colour, flavour and panellist preference revealed better than control bread made from wheat flour, however its crumb texture harder compare to control bread made from wheat flour. This study showed that coconut-pulp flour potential to be developed for production of functional food.

  3. Stress concentrations in an impregnated fibre bundle with random fibre packing

    OpenAIRE

    Swolfs, Y.; Gorbatikh, L.; Romanov, V.; Orlova, S.; Lomov, S. V.; Verpoest, I.

    2013-01-01

    The stress redistribution after a single fibre break is a fundamental issue in longitudinal strength models for unidirectional composites. Current models assume hexagonal or square fibre packings. In the present work, random fibre packings were modelled using 3D finite element analysis and compared to ordered fibre packings. Significant differences in the stress redistribution are found. Compared to square and hexagonal packings, random fibre packings result in smaller stress concentration fa...

  4. Mechanical processing of bast fibres: The occurrence of damage and its effect on fibre structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Thygesen, Anders; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Currently, separation processes used for natural fibres for composite reinforcing textiles cause a significant amount of damage to the fibres. Microscopic analysis showed that industrially processed flax (Linum usitassimium L.) fibres contained significantly more defects than green or retted ones...... to heterogeneous reactivity. Analogous findings were observed in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) fibre damaged in the laboratory under controlled conditions, emphasising the need to develop extraction and separation processes that minimise mechanical damage to the fibres....

  5. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  6. Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication

  7. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii, E-mail: rich@cs.ucsb.ed [Computer Science Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States) and Eucalyptus Systems Inc., 130 Castilian Dr., Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  8. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii

    2009-01-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  9. Mixed plantations of Eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Craig D. Whitesell; Thomas H. Schubert

    1985-01-01

    Two Eucalyptus species-E. saligna Sm. and E. grandis Hill-are especially favored in Hawaii forwood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-...

  10. Review Paper Les plantations d'Eucalyptus au Sahel : distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOUMARE

    la Francophonie pour avoir soutenu cette étude à travers une bourse de formation. RESUME ..... 1968-2000. Climat saharien. Climat sahélien. Climat soudano-sahélien. Frontières des .... universalis: Global cultivated Eucalyptus forests Map ...

  11. Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations across gradients in site and stand conditions. ... The control plot may typically be a permanent plot of an inventory network, providing representative information for a company's decisionmaking. The paired twin-plot receives intensive management ...

  12. Genetic diversity among four Eucalyptus species (myrtaceae) based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that 16 positive and 13 negative markers were detected. The marker fragments size ranged between 175 to 630 bp for the negative markers and 235 to 945 bp for the positive markers. Key words: Eucalyptus, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic diversity, DNA fingerprinting PCR, ...

  13. Metabolic responses of Eucalyptus species to different temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokochinski, Joao Benhur; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric Cornelis Hendricus; Hall, Robert David

    2018-01-01

    Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may

  14. GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CARBONIZATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPP KINETIC MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Jardim Raad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a set of general equations related to kinetic mechanism of wood compound carbonization: hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin was obtained by Avrami-Eroffev and Arrhenius equations and Thermogravimetry of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis samples, TG-Isothermal and TG-Dynamic. The different thermal stabilities and decomposition temperature bands of those species compounds were applied as strategy to obtain the kinetic parameters: activation energy, exponential factor and reaction order. The kinetic model developed was validated by thermogravimetric curves from carbonization of others biomass such as coconut. The kinetic parameters found were - Hemicelluloses: E=98,6 kJmol, A=3,5x106s-1 n=1,0; - Cellulose: E=182,2 kJmol, A=1,2x1013s-1 n=1,5; - Lignin: E=46,6 kJmol, A=2,01s-1 n=0,41. The set of equations can be implemented in a mathematical model of wood carbonization simulation (with heat and mass transfer equations with the aim of optimizing the control and charcoal process used to produce pig iron.

  15. Soil fertility and growth of Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silvicultural operations such as soil preparation, logging residue management and application of fertilisers can influence soil fertility, and hence nutrient uptake and tree growth. This paper reports the effect of site management practices of minimum and intensive cultivation of the soil on the growth of a stand of Eucalyptus ...

  16. Ongoing molecular studies of Eucalyptus powdery mildew in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. R. Fonseca; L. M. S. Guimaraes; R. P. Pires; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; A. C. Alfenas

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew diseases are caused by biotrophic fungi in the Erysiphales. These fungal pathogens are easily observed by the whitish powdery appearance caused by their colonization of the aerial surfaces on living plants (Stadnik & Rivera, 2001) (Figure 1). In Brazil, powdery mildew of Eucalyptus spp is increasing under the current nursery production...

  17. Physiological responses to glyphosate are dependent on Eucalyptus urograndis genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of Eucalyptus urograndis genotypes (C219 and GG100) to glyphosate in growth chambers. As glyphosate dose increased (18 up to 720 g ae ha-1), CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance decreased fastest and strongest in ...

  18. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  19. Using chlorophyll fluorescence to determine stress in Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using chlorophyll fluorescence to determine stress in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings: scientific paper. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... factors affect the functioning of the photosynthetic system, the status of the photosynthetic apparatus is a good indicator of the plant in terms of stress and stress adaptation.

  20. Stomatal characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the stomatal response occurring during water stress and subsequent recovery of three Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrids. The aim was to investigate the degree to which stomatal conductance (gs) and stomatal density differ between the clonal hybrids across seasons and in response to water stress.

  1. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the most cost-effective methods of increasing and maintaining the productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in South Africa. This silvicultural practice can be optimised by using the foliar nutrient ratios measured in plants at maximum growth as a guideline for fertiliser application. The foliar nutrient ...

  2. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  3. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  4. Eucalyptus plantlet growth in relation to foliar application with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In one experiment at greenhouse, condition was established to determine the effects of complete fertilizers on growth of plantlet Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Southeast of Iran. This experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Center, University of Zabol, in autumn year of 2008. This study was designed as a ...

  5. Responses of Eucalyptus species to fertilizer applications made at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early research trials in South Africa have shown that Eucalyptus species generally respond positively to the addition of nutrients at planting. However, as most of these research trials were located in KwaZulu-Natal, it was important to investigate the nature of the response in other afforested regions of the country where this ...

  6. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping soil fertility parameters, such as soil carbon (C), is fundamentally important for forest management and research related to forest growth and climate change. This study seeks to establish the link between Eucalyptus grandis canopy spectra and soil carbon using raw and continuum-removed spectra. Canopy-level ...

  7. The conservation and breeding of Eucalyptus urophylla : a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus urophylla is one of the most commercially important forest species in the world, primarily as a hybrid parent. However, the conservation status of the majority of the populations where it naturally occurs on seven islands in eastern Indonesia range from critically endangered to vulnerable. We examine the ...

  8. assessment of acidity levels in eucalyptus camaldulensis barks from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  9. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  10. Assessment of acidity levels in Eucalyptus Camaldulensis barks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  11. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  13. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  14. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  15. Growth models for six Eucalyptus species in Angola | Delgado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. macarthurii H.Deane & Maiden, E. resinifera Sm., E. siderophloia Benth. and E. grandis Hill ex. Maiden, for the central highlands of Angola, and used these models to simulate the development of stand characteristics.

  16. Assessment of wood density of seven clones of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of evaluating the correlation of wood basic density with age in seven Eucalyptus grandis clones planted in Brazil, five trees in each clone were sampled at the ages of 0, 5, 1, 5, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 5 and 7, 5 years. The analysis of these samples showed that the intraclonal variation of the basic density (except for 0, ...

  17. Developing clones of Eucalyptus cloeziana resistant to rust (Puccinia psidii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael F. Alfenas; Marcelo M. Coutinho; Camila S. Freitas; Rodrigo G. Freitas; Acelino C. Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Besides its high resistance to Chrysoporthe cubensis canker, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. is a highly valuable tree species for wood production. It can be used for furniture, electric poles, fence posts, and charcoal. Nevertheless, it is highly susceptible to the rust caused by Puccinia psidii, which...

  18. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  19. Growth response at age 10 years of five Eucalyptus genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, following the 1999 drought event a trial was established in a drought-prone area, planted to a number of genotypes that were deemed to be more tolerant to water stress than Eucalyptus grandis. Each species was planted at stand densities of 816, 1 600 and 2 066 stems ha-1, where 1 600 stems ha-1 represented the ...

  20. PULP OBTAINING METHOD FOR PACKAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for obtaining pulp which is used for production of cardboard, paper and package while using carbon dioxide and hydrazine hydrate and neutral-sulfite  shive cooking. Output increase of  the desired product can be explained by reduction in destruction of plant raw material carbohydrates during its cooking process. Quality improvement of the desired product (improvement in bleaching and output is attributed to the fact that usage of carbon dioxide and hydrazine contributes to provision of polysaccharide chain resistance to destruction due to the presence of  end links having structure of metasaccharinic and aldonic acids.The author has developed a new method for pulp obtaining on the basis of the executed investigations  and literature data.  СО2 and hydrazine hydrate have been used for obtaining pulp. Method invention concerns pulp obtaining and it can be used for paper and cardboard package manufacturing in pulp and paper industry.The method is to be carried in the following way: pulp-containing plant raw material is loaded into an autoclave and then aqua solution of sodium monosulfite containing hydrazine hydrate that constitutes 4–5 % of absolute dry pulp-containing raw material mass with liquid module 1:6–1:8 is supplied into the autoclave. The autoclave is closed for operation under pressure and the solution is carbonated under pressure which constitutes 5–8 % of absolute dry plant raw material (shover. Temperature is subsequently raised up to 180 °С in the space of 2 hours and cooking is carried out in the course of 4 hours. Usage of  the proposed method for shover cooking makes it possible to reduce monosulfite cooking process and improve qualitative characteristics and output of the desired product.  In addition to above mentioned fact there is a possibility to improve bleaching and final product output. 

  1. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p haylage. There was a significantly (p haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  2. Flow diagnostics using fibre optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hypersonic vehicle with a 2-component fibre-optic strain-gauge balance. ... ment suffers a fall in accuracy to uncomfortable levels (more than 5%) and the measurement .... 15 kW motor with an associated thyristor speed-control system.

  3. Nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    is potentially the case for microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs). Another advantage is that polymer materials have a higher biocompatibility than silica, meaning that it is easier to bond certain types of biosensor materials to a polymer surface than to silica. As with silica PCFs, it is difficult...

  4. Connections on discrete fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, N.S.; Cambridge Univ.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to gauge fields on a discrete space-time is proposed, in which the fundamental object is a discrete version of a principal fibre bundle. If the bundle is twisted, the gauge fields are topologically non-trivial automatically. (orig.)

  5. Cool application for Optical Fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    In a new first for CERN, optical fibres have been put on test to measure very low temperatures. If these tests prove successful, this new technology could lead to important cost-saving changes in the way the temperatures of superconducting magnets are measured. There was excitement in the air last March when the team led by Walter Scandale and Luc Thévenaz tested very low temperature measurement using optical fibres. This spring in CERN's Cryogenics lab an idea was put to the test as a new kind of low-temperature thermometry using optical fibres was tested down to 2 Kelvin (around 300 degrees below room temperature), and the first results are looking good. Optical fibres are well known for their ability to carry large amounts of data around the world, but it is less well known that they can be used for measuring temperatures. The intuition that they might be able to measure very low temperatures - such as those of the LHC magnets - came to the attention of CERN's Walter Scandale at the Optical Fi...

  6. Laser–fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waz, A T; Kaczmarek, P R; Abramski, K M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new solutions for laser vibrometry, which are based on fibre vibrometry in the third telecommunication window. The scattered laser beam from a vibrating object is guided by a fibre collimator and coherently detected through heterodyning it with an acousto-optical frequency-shifted reference beam. The concept of measuring vibration parameters from many points of the vibrating object has been inspired by wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in fibre telecommunications. The N-independent WDM separated 15XX nm fibre-coupled laser diodes (used for optical fibre telecommunications) form a system of sources for multipoint vibration measurement according to the rule 'one wavelength–one point'

  7. Fibre optic cable in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Berwyn

    1987-01-01

    The uses of optical fibre cables to transmit light signals include medical applications and telecommunications. In the nuclear industry the applications include process control and monitoring, conventional datacoms, security fencing and sensors. Time division multiplexing is described and currently available fibre optic multipexers are listed and explained. Single and multimode fibres are mentioned. Fibre optics are also used in cryogenics, to monitor the integrity of the storage vessels for cryogenic liquids. The uses of fibre optics at Hartlepool, Heysham I and Torness are mentioned in particular. (UK)

  8. Estimating foliar nitrogen in Eucalyptus using vegetation indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N has commonly been applied in Eucalyptus stands in Brazil and it has a direct relation with biomass production and chlorophyll content. Foliar N concentrations are used to diagnose soil and plant fertility levels and to develop N fertilizer application rates. Normally, foliar N is obtained using destructive methods, but indirect analyses using Vegetation Indexes (VIs may be possible. The aim of this work was to evaluate VIs to estimate foliar N concentration in three Eucalyptus clones. Lower crown leaves of three clonal Eucalyptus plantations (25 months old were classified into five color patterns using the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart. For each color, N concentration was determined by the Kjeldahl method and foliar reflectance was measured using a CI-710 Miniature Leaf Spectrometer. Foliar reflectance data were used to obtain the VIs and the VIs were used to estimate N concentrations. In the visible region, the relationship between N concentration and reflectance percentage was negative. The highest correlations between VIs and N concentrations were obtained by the Inflection Point Position (IPP, r = 0.97, Normalized Difference Red-Edge (reNDVI, r = 0.97 and Modified Red-Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDI, r = 0.97. Vegetation indexes on the red edge region provided the most accurate estimates of foliar N concentration. The reNDVI index provided the best N concentration estimates in leaves of different colors of Eucalyptus urophylla × grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla × urophylla (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0.91 g kg−1.

  9. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Kuo, Po-Chih; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between −3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  10. Eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an emerging pest of eucalyptus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new emerging pest of eucalyptus, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle, was first found in Italy but mistakenly identified as Aprostocetus sp.. This was followed by another report of an infestation from Turkey in early 2000. It was first formally described in 2004 from Australia as Leptocybe invasa a...

  11. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  12. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  13. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  14. Plant fibre composites - porosity and volumetric interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Thygesen, Anders; Lilholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    the combination of a high fibre volume fraction, a low porosity and a high composite density is optimal. Experimental data from the literature on volumetric composition and density of four types of plant fibre composites are used to validate the model. It is demonstrated that the model provides a concept......Plant fibre composites contain typically a relative large amount of porosity, which considerably influences properties and performance of the composites. The large porosity must be integrated in the conversion of weight fractions into volume fractions of the fibre and matrix parts. A model...... is presented to predict the porosity as a function of the fibre weight fractions, and to calculate the related fibre and matrix volume fractions, as well as the density of the composite. The model predicts two cases of composite volumetric interaction separated by a transition fibre weight fraction, at which...

  15. Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrett, Thomas O H; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2012-01-01

    The applications of optical fibre technology to laser velocimetry are diverse and often critical to their successful implementation, particularly in harsh environments. Applications range from the use of optical fibres for beam delivery and scattered light collection, aiding the miniaturization of instrument probes, to the use of imaging fibre bundles for imaging the flow field in planar velocimetry systems. Optical fibre techniques have also been used in signal processing, for example fibre frequency shifters, and optical fibre devices such as amplifiers and lasers have been exploited. This paper will review the use of optical fibres in point-wise laser velocimetry techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry and laser transit anemometry, as well as in planar measurement techniques such as particle imaging velocimetry and planar Doppler velocimetry. (topical review)

  16. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Botequim, B.; Oliveira, T.M.; Ager, A.; Pirotti, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands for wood supply for the pulp industry and conserving carbon. Area of study: The study area was located in Serra do Socorro (Torres Vedras, Portugal, covering ~1449 ha) of predominantly Eucalyptus globulus Labill forests managedcultivated for pulpwood by The Navigator Company. Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024) we simulated: (1) surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1) and carbon storage (Mg ha-1); (2) fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1), and flame length (m), with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3) optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD). Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. (Author)

  17. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feeding high fibre diets changes luminal environment and morphology in the intestine of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    -products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, pea hull, brewer's spent grain, and seed residue). The diets were fed for a four-week period to 12 sows (4 for each diet). Sows were stunned 4 h post-feeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestines......Sows were fed three diets varying in type and level of dietary fibre (DF). The low fibre diet (LF; 17% DF) was based on wheat and barley. In the two high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF;  44% DF), the cereal part of the diet was substituted with different co....... The carbohydrate load to the large intestine was 538-539 g/d when feeding the high DF diets and 190 g/d when feeding diet LF. Feeding sows the high DF diet containing large proportion of soluble DF resulted in a lower dry matter content of digesta (23 contra 28%), a higher tissue weight (2.9 contra 2.0 kg...

  19. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  20. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados

  1. RNA-Seq using two populations reveals genes and alleles controlling wood traits and growth in Eucalyptus nitens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Thavamanikumar

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65% were down-regulated and 1402 (35% were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes and of these 640 SNPs (30% occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth.

  2. Effects of transportation time after extraction on the magnetic cryopreservation of pulp cells of rat dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Suan Huang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The freezing technique used in this animal study provided positive effects on pulp cell storage. In addition, the storage time before the freezing procedure is an important issue for cryopreserving pulp cells in intact teeth.

  3. Ranking mechanical pulps for their potential to photoyellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2000-01-01

    Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of mechanical-...

  4. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 100 / Thursday, May...-OAR-2012-0640; FRL-9815-9] RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection... performance standards for kraft pulp mills. These revised standards include particulate matter emission limits...

  5. Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    also other applications like in the chemical industry. (Biermann, 1993). Therefore pulp is a very .... digester was maintained at an operating condition of. 170°C, pressure of 2 bars, with liquor to wood ratio of 4:1. Cooking ... The effects of different concentrations of pulping liquor on the yield of pulp from the wood species are ...

  6. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    OpenAIRE

    Batista,Djeison Cesar; Klitzke,Ricardo Jorge; Rocha,Márcio Pereira da; Muñiz,Graciela Inez Bolzon de; Batista,Tharcia Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial) to machined (final) condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content...

  7. Betatron activation analysis of cupriferous flotation pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Matenko, J.; Mencel, J.; Janiczek, J.; Kielsznia, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of copper determination in cupriferous flotation pulp by photo-activation analysis using betatron and another equipments of existent ''analytical line'' intended for copper determination in dry samples has been described. An activation has been achieved with 14.9 MeV γ-photons. The excitation activity was investigated by using two scintillation detectors and a fast coincidence circuit with resolution time 80 ns. The precision of method was determined as +- 4.25% in 0.95 confidence level for pulp with concentration 5% Cu and +- 24% for 0.06% Cu. (author)

  8. Genome-wide variation in recombination rate in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gion, Jean-Marc; Hudson, Corey J; Lesur, Isabelle; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-08-09

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process. It not only generates diversity, but influences the efficacy of natural selection and genome evolution. There can be significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between species, however this variation is not well understood outside of a few model taxa, particularly in forest trees. Eucalypts are forest trees of global economic importance, and dominate many Australian ecosystems. We studied recombination rate in Eucalyptus globulus using genetic linkage maps constructed in 10 unrelated individuals, and markers anchored to the Eucalyptus reference genome. This experimental design provided the replication to study whether recombination rate varied between individuals and chromosomes, and allowed us to study the genomic attributes and population genetic parameters correlated with this variation. Recombination rate varied significantly between individuals (range = 2.71 to 3.51 centimorgans/megabase [cM/Mb]), but was not significantly influenced by sex or cross type (F1 vs. F2). Significant differences in recombination rate between chromosomes were also evident (range = 1.98 to 3.81 cM/Mb), beyond those which were due to variation in chromosome size. Variation in chromosomal recombination rate was significantly correlated with gene density (r = 0.94), GC content (r = 0.90), and the number of tandem duplicated genes (r = -0.72) per chromosome. Notably, chromosome level recombination rate was also negatively correlated with the average genetic diversity across six species from an independent set of samples (r = -0.75). The correlations with genomic attributes are consistent with findings in other taxa, however, the direction of the correlation between diversity and recombination rate is opposite to that commonly observed. We argue this is likely to reflect the interaction of selection and specific genome architecture of Eucalyptus. Interestingly, the differences amongst

  9. Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entre 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento.

  10. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  11. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  12. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALLISTO M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  13. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CALLISTO

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  14. Transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons in Eucalyptus genus are differentially expressed and insertionally polymorphic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Silva, Juliana Costa; Borges, Rafael Junqueira; Matioli, Fábio Filippi; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Marino, Celso Luis

    2015-08-14

    In Eucalyptus genus, studies on genome composition and transposable elements (TEs) are particularly scarce. Nearly half of the recently released Eucalyptus grandis genome is composed by retrotransposons and this data provides an important opportunity to understand TE dynamics in Eucalyptus genome and transcriptome. We characterized nine families of transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons from Copia and Gypsy superfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis genome and we depicted genomic distribution and copy number in two Eucalyptus species. We also evaluated genomic polymorphism and transcriptional profile in three organs of five Eucalyptus species. We observed contrasting genomic and transcriptional behavior in the same family among different species. RLC_egMax_1 was the most prevalent family and RLC_egAngela_1 was the family with the lowest copy number. Most families of both superfamilies have their insertions occurring Eucalyptus species. Using EST analysis and qRT-PCRs, we observed transcriptional activity in several tissues and in all evaluated species. In some families, osmotic stress increases transcript values. Our strategy was successful in isolating transcriptionally active retrotransposons in Eucalyptus, and each family has a particular genomic and transcriptional pattern. Overall, our results show that retrotransposon activity have differentially affected genome and transcriptome among Eucalyptus species.

  15. Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB, fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³ e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³. Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 e ASTM-D 1037 (1991. Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 e CSA 0437-93 (1993. As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993. A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular, foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura. Somente a resistência

  16. CCD technology beyond fibre optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuffen, J.

    1988-01-01

    For the past 25 years the accepted method of viewing inside industrial components, or indeed the human body, has been by the use of either flexible or rigid fibre optics. In the last five years however, many developments have enabled television cameras to reduce to a size small enough to allow internal viewing of an object, without prior dismantling. This concept was achieved five years ago, with the Welch Allyn Videoprobe 2000, a charge coupled device. (author)

  17. A discrete fibre dispersion method for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of fibrous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kewei; Ogden, Ray W; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2018-01-01

    Recently, micro-sphere-based methods derived from the angular integration approach have been used for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of soft biological tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that many of the widely used numerical integration schemes over the unit sphere are inaccurate for large deformation problems even without excluding fibres under compression. Thus, in this study, we propose a discrete fibre dispersion model based on a systematic method for discretizing a unit hemisphere into a finite number of elementary areas, such as spherical triangles. Over each elementary area, we define a representative fibre direction and a discrete fibre density. Then, the strain energy of all the fibres distributed over each elementary area is approximated based on the deformation of the representative fibre direction weighted by the corresponding discrete fibre density. A summation of fibre contributions over all elementary areas then yields the resultant fibre strain energy. This treatment allows us to exclude fibres under compression in a discrete manner by evaluating the tension-compression status of the representative fibre directions only. We have implemented this model in a finite-element programme and illustrate it with three representative examples, including simple tension and simple shear of a unit cube, and non-homogeneous uniaxial extension of a rectangular strip. The results of all three examples are consistent and accurate compared with the previously developed continuous fibre dispersion model, and that is achieved with a substantial reduction of computational cost. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Fatigue Damage Evolution in Fibre Composites for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk

    on the micro-scale in the non-crimp fabric based composites used for wind turbine blades. The results show that fibre fractures in the unidirectional (UD) load carrying fibre bundles initiate from off-axis cracks in the thin supporting backing fibre bundles. With an increasing number of fatigue load cycles......, the UD fibre fractures progress gradually into the thickness direction of the UD fibre bundles, which eventually results in final fracture of the fibre composite. It is also found that the UD fibre fracture regions generally grow larger and initiate earlier at cross-over regions of the backing fibre...... bundles than at single backing fibre bundle regions. Furthermore, UD Fibre fractures are only observed to initiate at locations where the backing fibre bundles are ‘in contact’ with a UD fibre bundle. By observing the damage progression in 3D, it is also clear that the UD fibre fractures initiated...

  19. Effects of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Variables on the Durian Rind Pulp and Paper Characteristics: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Rahmad Talib, Mohd; Sian, Lau Lee

    2017-08-01

    Good combination of pulping variables is required to obtain the quality pulp and paper characteristics. Thus, in this preliminary work, naturally dried durian rind were pulped under Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with 18% to 22% alkali charge, 0% to 0.1% Anthraquinone (AQ) charge, 90 minutes to 150 minutes of cooking time and 150°C to 170°C to investigate the effect of pulping variables on the characteristics of the pulp and paper. Pulping condition with 0% of AQ charge was also conducted for comparison. Results indicated that the best screen yield percentage, reject yield percentage, freeness, drainage time, tear index, number of folds and optical properties were shown by the pulp produced with combination of the highest active alkali (22%), AQ charge (0.1%), cooking time (150 minutes) and cooking temperature (170°C) except apparent density, tensile index and burst index. This preliminary result shows that the optimum quality of durian rind pulp as a potential papermaking raw material pulp could be produced by selecting the good combination of pulping variables which influences the pulp and paper characteristics.

  20. Identification of lipolytic enzymes isolated from bacteria indigenous to Eucalyptus wood species for application in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ) and characterized. Phenol red agar plates supplemented with 1% olive oil or tributyrin was ascertained to be the most favourable method of screening for lipolytic activity. Lipolytic activity of the various enzymes were highest at 45–61 U/ml at the optimum...

  1. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of wastewaters from chlorine and total chlorine-free bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, G.; Soto, M.; Field, J.; Mendez-Pampin, R.; Lema, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chlorine bleaching effluents are problematic for anaerobic wastewater treatment due to their high methanogenic toxicity and low biodegradability. Presently, alternative bleaching processes are being introduced, such as elemental chlorine-free (ECF) and total chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching. The

  2. Factors That Improve the Impact Responses of Ukam Plant Fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural fibres around us have mechanical properties capable of making them compete effectively with synthetic fibres in the development of fibre reinforced composites. Synthetic fibres (such as glass fibres) and resins (such as polyester resin) have long been used in the development of structural components for car bodies, ...

  3. Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available he sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K, half life (t0,5 and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 . The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%. The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  4. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  5. Effect of Urea Addition on Soda Pulping of Oak Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Nam-Seok; Matsumoto, Yuji; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Oga, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to find a sulfur-free additive for alkaline pulping liquors that would have an effect similar to that of sulfide in kraft pulping. Some reagents that partially fulfill this role have been found, but they are too expensive to be used in the quantities required to make them effective. As an alternative method to solve air pollution problem and difficulty of pulp bleaching of kraft pulping process, NaOH-Urea pulping was applied. The properties of NaOH-Urea pul...

  6. Characterization of Coronal Pulp Cells and Radicular Pulp Cells in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Sato, Momoko; Toriumi, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp has garnered much attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in permanent third molars, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth and from supernumerary teeth (mesiodentes) have been identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. Dental pulp is divided into 2 parts based on the developing stage: the coronal pulp and the radicular pulp. Root formation begins after the crown part is completed. We performed a sequential study to examine the differences between the characteristics of coronal pulp cells (CPCs) and radicular pulp cells (RPCs) from permanent teeth, mesiodentes, and deciduous teeth. Interestingly, although we have not obtained any data on the difference between CPCs and RPCs in permanent teeth, there are some differences between the characteristics of CPCs and RPCs from mesiodentes and deciduous teeth. The MSC characteristics differed between the RPCs and CPCs, and the reprogramming efficiency for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was greater in RPCs than in CPCs from deciduous teeth. The proportion of CD105 + cells in CPCs versus that in RPCs varied in mesiodentes but not in permanent teeth. The results indicate that the proportion of CD105 + cells is an effective means of characterizing dental pulp cells in mesiodentes. Taken together, the stem cells in deciduous and supernumerary teeth share many characteristics, such as a high proliferation rate and an immunophenotype similar to that of DPSCs. Thus, mesiodentes accidentally encountered on radiographs by the general dental practitioner might be useful for stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Zarita Zainuddin; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Pauline Ong; Amran Shafie

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependen...

  8. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Harakava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

  9. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  10. Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1999-01-01

    Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition...... of 0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish...

  11. Theorem of comparative sensitivity of fibre sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belovolov, M. I.; Paramonov, V. M.; Belovolov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    We report an analysis of sensitivity of fibre sensors of physical quantities based on different types of interferometers. We formulate and prove the following theorem: under the time-dependent external physical perturbations at nonzero frequencies (i.e., except the static and low-frequency ones) on the sensitive arms of an interferometer in the form of multiturn elements (coils), there exist such lengths L of the measuring arms of the fibre interferometers at which the sensitivity of sensors based on the Sagnac fibre interferometers can be comparable with the sensitivity of sensors based on Michelson, Mach - Zehnder, or Fabry - Perot fibre interferometers, as well as exceed it under similar other conditions (similar-type perturbations, similar arm lengths and single-mode fibre types). The consequences that follow from the theorem, important for practical implementation of arrays of fibre sensors for measurement purposes and the devices with stable metrological properties, are discussed.

  12. Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fibre Comprising a Fibre Grating in the Cladding and its Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An optical fibre is provided having a fibre cladding around a longitudinally extending optical propagation core. The cladding has a reflection region of a varying refractive index in the longitudinal direction....

  13. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  14. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  15. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  16. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  17. Pulp regeneration by transplantation of dental pulp stem cells in pulpitis: a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Yayoi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Matsushita, Kenji

    2017-03-09

    Experiments have previously demonstrated the therapeutic potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) for complete pulp regeneration. The aim of the present pilot clinical study is to assess the safety, potential efficacy, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of MDPSCs in pulpectomized teeth. Five patients with irreversible pulpitis were enrolled and monitored for up to 24 weeks following MDPSC transplantation. The MDPSCs were isolated from discarded teeth and expanded based on good manufacturing practice (GMP). The quality of the MDPSCs at passages 9 or 10 was ascertained by karyotype analyses. The MDPSCs were transplanted with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in atelocollagen into pulpectomized teeth. The clinical and laboratory evaluations demonstrated no adverse events or toxicity. The electric pulp test (EPT) of the pulp at 4 weeks demonstrated a robust positive response. The signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the regenerated tissue in the root canal after 24 weeks was similar to that of normal dental pulp in the untreated control. Finally, cone beam computed tomography demonstrated functional dentin formation in three of the five patients. Human MDPSCs are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration in humans in this pilot clinical study.

  18. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, S.E.; Sokker, S.S.; Dessooki, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  19. Dietary fibre in foods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods li...

  20. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of fibre orientation on the performance of steel fibre-reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Grünewald, Steffen; Laranjeira de Oliveira, Filipe; Walraven, Joost; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Molins i Borrell, Climent

    2012-01-01

    The performance of fibre-reinforced materials in the hardened state depends on the material behaviour, the production method and influences related to the structure. The position and the orientation of fibres in a structure can differ from the homogenous distribution and the random orientation in a mixer. Due to the flow of the concrete, fibres are able to orient which makes the prediction of the structural behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete more complex, but it also offers the potential ...

  3. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Polarisation reflectometry of anisotropic optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Yurii A.; Kryukov, Igor'I.; Pervadchuk, Vladimir P.; Toroshin, Andrei Yu

    2009-11-01

    Anisotropic, polarisation-maintaining fibres have been studied using a reflectometer and integrated optic polariser. Linearly polarised pulses were launched into the fibre under test at different angles between their plane of polarisation and the main optical axis of the fibre. A special procedure for the correlation analysis of these reflectograms is developed to enhance the reliability of the information about the longitudinal optical uniformity ofanisotropic fibres.

  4. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus...

  5. Characterization and Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides in Cocoa Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Struyf, Nore; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Baert, Eline; Hemdane, Sami; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M; Hendrickx, Marc; Steensels, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

  6. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  7. History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Rockwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first organized Eucalyptus research in Florida was begun by the Florida Forests Foundation in 1959 in southern Florida. This research was absorbed by the USDA Forest Service and the Florida Division of Forestry in 1968. In the early 1970s, the Eucalyptus Research Cooperative formed to provide additional support emphasized E. grandis, E. robusta, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis and developed cultural practices for commercial plantations in southern Florida. In 1978, this cooperative united with the Hardwood Research Cooperative at North Carolina State University until 1985 when the 14-year effort ended after three severe freezes from 1983 to 1985. Eucalyptus planting and research were continued with a Florida-wide focus by the University of Florida and collaborators starting in 1980. The collective accomplishments in terms of genetic resources and commercial planting are summarized. For example, fast-growing, freeze-resilient E. grandis seedlings are produced by advanced generation seed orchards, five E. grandis cultivars are commercially available, as are E. amplifolia and Corymbia torelliana seeds. Genetic improvement of these and other species is ongoing due to beneficial collaborations. Short Rotation Woody Crop systems are promising for increasing productivity and extending uses beyond conventional pulpwood to applications such as windbreaks, dendroremediation, and energy wood.

  8. Characterization of abiotic stress genes from different species of eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Kausar, H.; Saleem, F.; Zafarullah, A.

    2015-01-01

    The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)

  9. Unintentional exposure of young children to camphor and eucalyptus oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaman, Z; Pellechia-Clarke, S; Bailey, B; McGuigan, M

    2001-02-01

    Essential oils, such as camphorated and eucalyptus oils, are volatile oils that can be absorbed by mouth and through the skin; if ingested orally by children, they can be harmful, even life-threatening. To determine the frequency of essential oil ingestion among children in Toronto, Ontario. Charts from December 1995 through March 1997 at the Ontario Regional Poison Information Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were reviewed to collect information on calls about essential oil ingestion, and a search of MEDLINE articles from 1966 to 1998 was conducted using the key words: 'camphor', 'eucalyptus', 'paediatric', and 'poisoning'. Callers to the Poison Information Centre reported that 251 children had ingested an essential oil or product: eucalyptus oil 50 children; camphorated oil 18 children; VapAir (Drug Trading, Canada) vaporizing liquid 93 children; and Vicks VaporRub (Procter & Gamble, Canada) 90 children. The most common symptoms were cough, vomiting and cough associated with vomiting. Two children had seizures but recovered. The MEDLINE search found 18 reports of paediatric ingestion of the oils or oil products. The main symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, coma and seizures. One child died. Although widely used by health care consumers, essential oils and the products that contain them can be harmful when ingested by children. Further education for parents and other caregivers about the risks involved in exposure to these products is required.

  10. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Minogue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-complete weed control obtained with glyphosate directed sprays. Applications prior to weed emergence were most effective for weed control and, with the exception of imazapic, all resulted in enhanced eucalyptus growth relative to the nontreated control. Among postemergent treatments, only imazamox enhanced stem volume. Among selective herbicide treatments, preemergent 2240 g ha−1 oxyfluorfen produced the best growth response, resulting in stem volume index that was 860% greater than the nontreated control, although only 15% of the volume index obtained with near-complete weed control. Imazapic was the most phytotoxic of all herbicides, resulting in 40% mortality when applied preemergent. Survival was 100% for all other herbicide treatments. This research found the previously nontested herbicides imazamox and imazapic to be effective for selective weed control and refined application rate and timing of five herbicides for use in clonal plantations.

  11. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  12. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  13. Fibre optic power meter calibration uncertainties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available the patch cord, alternatively feeding into the standard or UUT is labelled ‘reference patch cord’. It is preferred to use a patch cord with a ceramic fibre tip (not metal fibre tip) to reduce reflections between the fibre tip and the detector... tightening effect To empirically quantify the effect of connector tightening, two readings are taken at each measurement, which for briefness are labelled "tight" and "un-tight". A "tight" connection is when the fibre connector is tightened...

  14. New and improved method of investigation using thermal tools for characterization of cellulose from eucalypts pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengowski, Elaine Cristina, E-mail: elainelengowski@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Anatomia e Qualidade da Madeira – LANAQM, Departamento de Engenharia e Tecnologia Florestal – DETF/Universidade Federal do Paraná, (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Magalhães, Washington Luiz Esteves, E-mail: washington.magalhaes@embrapa.br [Embrapa Florestas, Estrada da Ribeira km 111 P.O. Box 319, 83411-000 Colombo, PR (Brazil); Programa de Pós Graduação em Engenharia de Materiais – PIPE Universidade Federal do Paraná, (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Nisgoski, Silvana, E-mail: silnis@yahoo.com [Laboratório de Anatomia e Qualidade da Madeira – LANAQM, Departamento de Engenharia e Tecnologia Florestal – DETF/Universidade Federal do Paraná, (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Muniz, Graciela Inês Bolzon de, E-mail: graciela.ufpr@gmail.com [Laboratório de Anatomia e Qualidade da Madeira – LANAQM, Departamento de Engenharia e Tecnologia Florestal – DETF/Universidade Federal do Paraná, (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa [Embrapa Florestas, Estrada da Ribeira km 111 P.O. Box 319, 83411-000 Colombo, PR (Brazil); Lazzarotto, Marcelo, E-mail: marcelo.lazzarotto@embrapa.br [Embrapa Florestas, Estrada da Ribeira km 111 P.O. Box 319, 83411-000 Colombo, PR (Brazil)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • Cellulose was treated to modify its crystallinity. • Cellulose was characterized by X-ray diffraction to evaluate Segal’s index. • TGA and DTA with chemometric tools were used to predict Segal’s index. • MLR model was applied to predict XRD cellulose Segal’s index from TGA curves. • MLR model was applied to predict XRD cellulose Segal’s index from DTA curves. - Abstract: Despite cellulose being the most abundant biopolymer on earth and an important commodity, there is a lack of deeper knowledge about its structure as well as faster and more efficient characterization techniques. This paper presents preparation of nanocellulose from bleached cellulose pulp of Eucalyptus by chemical and mechanical pre-treatments, while the cellulose was given treatment to obtain a great range of crystallinity index. The nanocellulose is characterized by X-ray diffraction to evaluate Segal’s index while chemometric tools by TGA and DTA were used to predict Segal’s index. DTA curves, along with multivariate statistical model, presented better result than TGA. The coefficient of variation and standard error of prediction for the proposed models using external validation samples were in the range of 0.91–0.96 and 4.18–8.71, respectively. These successful mathematical models are discussed by correlating them with the observed characteristics of cellulose.

  15. New and improved method of investigation using thermal tools for characterization of cellulose from eucalypts pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengowski, Elaine Cristina; Magalhães, Washington Luiz Esteves; Nisgoski, Silvana; Muniz, Graciela Inês Bolzon de; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa; Lazzarotto, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cellulose was treated to modify its crystallinity. • Cellulose was characterized by X-ray diffraction to evaluate Segal’s index. • TGA and DTA with chemometric tools were used to predict Segal’s index. • MLR model was applied to predict XRD cellulose Segal’s index from TGA curves. • MLR model was applied to predict XRD cellulose Segal’s index from DTA curves. - Abstract: Despite cellulose being the most abundant biopolymer on earth and an important commodity, there is a lack of deeper knowledge about its structure as well as faster and more efficient characterization techniques. This paper presents preparation of nanocellulose from bleached cellulose pulp of Eucalyptus by chemical and mechanical pre-treatments, while the cellulose was given treatment to obtain a great range of crystallinity index. The nanocellulose is characterized by X-ray diffraction to evaluate Segal’s index while chemometric tools by TGA and DTA were used to predict Segal’s index. DTA curves, along with multivariate statistical model, presented better result than TGA. The coefficient of variation and standard error of prediction for the proposed models using external validation samples were in the range of 0.91–0.96 and 4.18–8.71, respectively. These successful mathematical models are discussed by correlating them with the observed characteristics of cellulose.

  16. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings (20, 30, 40, 50wt% and in some cases 35 and 45 wt%. Flax and jute fibre reinforced PP composites were also fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties, odour emission and structure properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strengths were found to increase for fibre loadings up to 40 wt% and then decreased. Falling weight impact tests were also carried out and the same tendency was observed. Owing to the addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH-PP, the tensile, flexural and falling weight impact properties were found to increase in between 30 to 80% for different fibre loadings. When comparing jute and flax fibre composites with abaca fibre composites, jute fibre composites provided best tensile properties but abaca fibre polypropylene composites were shown to provide best notch Charpy and falling weight impact properties. Odours released by flax fibre composites were smaller than jute and abaca fibre composites.

  17. Fermentable soluble fibres spare amino acids in healthy dogs fed a low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambacq, Wendy; Rybachuk, Galena; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rochus, Kristel; Wuyts, Brigitte; Fievez, Veerle; Nguyen, Patrick; Hesta, Myriam

    2016-06-28

    Research in cats has shown that increased fermentation-derived propionic acid and its metabolites can be used as alternative substrates for gluconeogenesis, thus sparing amino acids for other purposes. This amino acid sparing effect could be of particular interest in patients with kidney or liver disease, where this could reduce the kidneys'/liver's burden of N-waste removal. Since dogs are known to have a different metabolism than the obligatory carnivorous cat, the main objective of this study was to assess the possibility of altering amino acid metabolism through intestinal fermentation in healthy dogs. This was studied by supplementing a low-protein diet with fermentable fibres, hereby providing an initial model for future studies in dogs suffering from renal/liver disease. Eight healthy dogs were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: sugar beet pulp and guar gum mix (SF: soluble fibre, estimated to mainly stimulate propionic acid production) or cellulose (IF: insoluble fibre). Treatments were incorporated into a low-protein (17 %) extruded dry diet in amounts to obtain similar total dietary fibre (TDF) contents for both diets (9.4 % and 8.2 % for the SF and IF diet, respectively) and were tested in a 4-week crossover feeding trial. Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and post-prandial fermentation metabolites in faeces and plasma were evaluated. Dogs fed the SF diet showed significantly higher faecal excretion of acetic and propionic acid, resulting in a higher total SCFA excretion compared to IF. SF affected the three to six-hour postprandial plasma acylcarnitine profile by significantly increasing AUC of acetyl-, propionyl-, butyryl- + isobutyryl-, 3-OH-butyryl-, 3-OH-isovaleryl- and malonyl-L-carnitine. Moreover, the amino acid plasma profile at that time was modified as leucine + isoleucine concentrations were significantly increased by SF, and a similar trend for phenylalanine and tyrosine's AUC was found. These results indicate

  18. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; van Haag, J.; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material's properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  19. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van; Schöngart, M.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA

  20. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van; Schöngart, M. [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Pontstr. 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  1. Non-Linear Fibres for Widely Tunable Femtosecond Fibre Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard

    and numerically. For the intermodal four-wave mixing experiment an alternative version of the Generalised Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation is derived, which includes the correct dispersion of the transverse field. It is observed that the alternative version of the Generalised Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation......, as opposed to the commonly used version, is able to reproduce the intermodal four-wave mixing experiment. The relation between the intramodal self-phase modulation and the intramodal Raman effect is determined from experimental measurements on a number of step-index fibres. The Raman fraction is found...

  2. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  3. Speciation and distribution of Botryosphaeria spp. on native and introduced Eucalyptus trees in Australia and South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Fourie, G.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Carnegie, A.J.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Botryosphaeria spp. are important canker and die-back pathogens that affect Eucalyptus spp. They also occur endophytically in Eucalyptus leaves and stems. For the purpose of this study, Botryosphaeria strains were isolated from diseased and symptomless Eucalyptus material from Australia and South

  4. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

  5. Blast Resistance of Slurry Infiltrated Fibre Concrete with Waste Steel Fibres from Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drdlová Martina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste steel fibres (coming from the recycling process of the old tires in production of blast resistant cement based panels was assessed. Waste fibres were incorporated in slurry infiltrated fibre concrete (SIFCON, which is a special type of ultra-highperformance fibre reinforced concrete with high fibre content. The technological feasibility (i.e. suitability of the waste fibres for SIFCON technology was assessed using homogeneity test. Test specimens were prepared with three volume fractions (5; 7.5 and 10 % by vol. of waste unclassified fibres. SIFCON with industrial steel fibres (10% by vol. and ultra-highperformance fibre concrete with industrial fibres were also cast and tested for comparison purposes. Quasi-static mechanical properties were determined. Real blast tests were performed on the slab specimens (500x500x40 mm according to the modified methodology M-T0-VTU0 10/09. Damage of the slab, the change of the ultrasound wave velocity propagation in the slab specimen before and after the blast load in certain measurement points, the weight of fragments and their damage potential were evaluated and compared. Realized tests confirmed the possibility of using the waste fibres for SIFCON technology. The obtained results indicate, that the usage of waste fibres does not significantly reduce the values of SIFCON flexural and compressive strength at quasi-static load - the values were comparable to the specimens with industrially produced fibres. With increasing fibre content, the mechanical parameters are increasing as well. Using of the waste fibres reduces fragmentation of SIFCON at blast load due to the fibre size parameters. Using of low diameter fibres means more fibres in the matrix and thus better homogeneity of the whole composite with less unreinforced areas. Regarding the blast tests, the specimen with waste steel fibres showed the best resistance and outperformed also the specimen with commercial fibres. Using of

  6. Investigation on effect of fibre hybridization and orientation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... for fibres to assess their efficiency. The first ... alternative to flax spun yarns. Bledzki et al ... Natural fibre composite are renewable, light in weight with ..... absorbs more energy due to hybridization of abaca and neem fibres.

  7. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  8. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  9. In vitro anticancer properties of selected Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sakoff, Jennette; Bond, Danielle R; Predebon, Melanie; Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; van Altena, Ian A; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    In spite of the recent advancements in oncology, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer has not improved over the last five decades. Eucalypts have been linked with cytotoxic and anticancer properties in various studies; however, there is very little scientific evidence that supports the direct role of eucalypts in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. This study assessed the anticancer properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of four Eucalyptus species using an MTT assay. The most promising extracts were further evaluated using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptotic studies were performed using a caspase 3/7 assay in MIA PaCa-2 cells. The aqueous extract of Eucalyptus microcorys leaf and the ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus microcorys fruit inhibited the growth of glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, lung and pancreatic cancer cells by more than 80% at 100 μg/mL. The E. microcorys and Eucalyptus saligna extracts showed lower GI 50 values than the ethanolic Eucalyptus robusta extract in MIA PaCa-2 cells. Aqueous E. microcorys leaf and fruit extracts at 100 μg/mL exerted significantly higher cell growth inhibition in MIA PaCa-2 cells than other extracts (p  0.05) were observed in aqueous E. microcorys leaf (86.05 ± 4.75 μg/mL) and fruit (64.66 ± 15.97 μg/mL) and ethanolic E. microcorys leaf (79.30 ± 29.45 μg/mL) extracts in MIA PaCa-2 cells using the CCK-8 assay. Caspase 3/7-mediated apoptosis and morphological changes of cells were also witnessed in MIA PaCa-2 cells after 24 h of treatment with the extracts. This study highlighted the significance of E. microcorys as an important source of phytochemicals with efficacy against pancreatic cancer cells. Further studies are warranted to purify and structurally identify individual compounds and elucidate their mechanisms of action for the development of more potent and specific chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON LIGHT TRANSMITTING CONCRETE BY USING OPTICAL FIBRE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suganya; S. Minu Gopika

    2017-01-01

    Light transmitting concrete is one of the fibre reinforced concrete which is mainly used for aesthetic application by incorporating the optical fibres in concrete. Optical fibres help to transmit the light through the fibres and the end-light type of fibre is used to increase the aesthetic appearance of the concrete which is like a transparent concrete. Fibres are arranged in different layers, to increase the load carrying capacity and also the pattern can be created to make the concrete deco...

  11. Management of Eucalyptus plantations influence small mammals’ density: evidences from Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, D; Carrilho, M; Mexia, T; Kobel, M; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Rosalino, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Forestry plantations, and particularly those of exotic Eucalyptus, are important man-made systems in Europe, and especially in Portugal, where these represent now the largest fraction of forested areas. Eucalyptus plantations may have impacts on vertebrate communities in Europe; however, these have

  12. Eucalyptus beyond its native range: Environmental issues in exotic bioenergy plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Eric D. Vance; Thomas R. Fox; Matias Kirst

    2013-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus is native to Australia and Indonesia but has been widely planted in many countries. Eucalyptus has proven to be particularly successful in tropical and subtropical regions. Several species are also successful in some temperate regions, but problems with sudden and severe frosts pose limitations. Current...

  13. Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

  14. Effect of surfactant concentration on the spreading properties of pesticide droplets on Eucalyptus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The area wetted by 500-µm diameter droplets of pesticide and deionised water placed at different positions on Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis (E.u × E.g) and Eucalyptus tereticornis (E.t) leaves was determined at an air temperature of 30 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. Dimethyl dichlorovinyl ph...

  15. Herbicide site preparation and release options for eucalyptus plantation establishment in the western gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; John Johnson; Eric L. Taylor; Brad Osbon

    2012-01-01

    Cold-tolerant species of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) are increasingly grown in the Western Gulf region as short-rotation pulpwood feedstock. Operational chemical suppression of competing vegetation has been relatively costly and inefficient because it requires frequent applications of glyphosate applied via backpack sprayers. A series of studies...

  16. Effects of irrigation on water use and water use efficiency in two fast growing Eucalyptus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Jose Stape; Michael G. Ryan; Auro C. Almeida; Juan Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy almost 20 million ha worldwide and exceed 3.7 million ha in Brazil alone. Improved genetics and silviculture have led to as much as a three-fold increase in productivity in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and the large land area occupied by these highly productive ecosystems raises concern over their...

  17. Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Ernest Dixon IV; Robert C. Abt; Navinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species’ sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how...

  18. Viscoelastic Properties of Dental Pulp Tissue and Ramifications on Biomaterial Development for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Zhou, Jian; Kim, Sahng G; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    A critical step in biomaterial selection effort is the determination of material as well as the biological properties of the target tissue. Previously, the selection of biomaterials and carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been solely based on empirical experience. In this study, first, the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of miniature pig dental pulp were characterized using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and uniaxial compression at a constant rate. They were then compared with the properties of hydrogels (ie, agarose, alginate, and collagen) that are widely used in tissue regeneration. The comparisons of the linear viscoelastic material functions of the native pulp tissue with those of the 3 hydrogels revealed the gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over a relatively large range of time scales (ie, over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps). At the constant gelation agent concentration of 2%, the dynamic properties (ie, storage and loss moduli and the tanδ) of the collagen-based gel approached those of the native tissue. Under uniaxial compression, the peak normal stresses and compressive moduli of the agarose gel were similar to those of the native tissue, whereas alginate and collagen exhibited significantly lower compressive properties. The linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the more appropriate selection of biogels for dental pulp regeneration via the better tailoring of gelation agents and their concentrations to better mimic the dynamic and compressive properties of native pulp tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunolocalization of bone-resorptive cytokines in rat pulp and periapical lesions following surgical pulp exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani-Ishii, N; Wang, C Y; Stashenko, P

    1995-08-01

    The bone-resorptive cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including pulpitis and apical periodontitis.To further elucidate their role in these disorders, we have identified cells that express IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha in infected pulps and in developing rat periapical lesions after surgical pulp exposure. As detected by immunohistochemistry, IL-1 alpha- and TNF alpha-positive cells were present as early as 2 days after pulp exposure in both the pulp and periapical region. The numbers of cytokine-expressing cells increased up to day 4 in the pulp and up to day 30 in the periapex. In contrast, cells expressing IL-1 beta and TNF beta, the homologous forms of these mediators, were not found in pulp or periapical lesions during this period. Cells expressing IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha were identified primarily as macrophages and fibroblasts, with occasional staining of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were also positive, whereas lymphocytes were negative. In general, cytokine-expressing cells were located proximal to abscesses and the root apex. These findings demonstrate that cells that express bone-resorptive cytokines IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha are present immediately after pulp exposure in this model, which supports the hypothesis that these mediators play a key role in pulpal and periapical pathogenesis, including the concomitant bone destruction. They also indicate that both resident connective tissue cells as well as infiltrating cells express bone-resorptive cytokines in response to infection in these lesions.

  20. Behavior of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus citriodora Seedlings Grown in Soil Contaminated by Arsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Freire Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Persistent areas of tailings and deposits from coal and gold mining may present high levels of arsenic (As, mainly in the arsenate form, endangering the environment and human health. The establishment of vegetation cover is a key step to reclaiming these environments. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla and E. citriodora seedlings for use in phytoremediation programs of arsenate-contaminated areas. Soil samples were incubated at increasing rates (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg dm-3 of arsenic (arsenate form, using Na2HAsO4 for 15 days. The seedlings were produced in a substrate (vermiculite + sawdust and were transplanted to the pots with soil three months after seed germination. The values of plant height and diameter were taken during transplanting and 30, 60 and 90 days after transplanting. In the last evaluation, the total leaf area and biomass of shoots and roots were also determined. The values of available As in soil which caused a 50 % dry matter reduction (TS50%, the As translocation index (TI from the roots to the shoot of the plants, and its bioconcentration factor (BF were also calculated. Higher levels of arsenate in the soil significantly reduced the dry matter production of roots and shoots and the height of both species, most notably in E. urophylla plants. The highest levels of As were found in the root, with higher values for E. citriodora (ranging from 253.86 to 400 mg dm-3. The TI and BF were also reduced with As doses, but the values found in E. citriodora were significantly higher than in E. urophylla. E. citriodora plants presented a higher capacity to tolerate As and translocate it to the shoot than E. urophylla. Although these species cannot be considered as hyperaccumulators of As, E. citriodora presented the potential to be used in phytoremediation programs in arsenate-contaminated areas due to the long-term growth period of this species.