WorldWideScience

Sample records for eucalyptus grandis hill

  1. Establishment of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden in vitro using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the current demand for timber from forest species, there is a need to develop new strategies for the mass propagation of eucalyptus. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of different doses of Standak Top® and CoMo Raiz® on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden from seeds in vitro.

  2. Simultaneous growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous stand-level growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis in Zimbabwe were developed from Correlated Curve Trend (CCT) and Nelder wheel experiments replicated on five different sites. Nonlinear three-stage least squares method was used to simultaneously fit prediction and projection equations for ...

  3. MANEJO DE RESIDUOS DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN SITIOS CONTRASTANTES

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Lupi; Teresa Boca; Maria De Los Angeles Garcia; Diana Diaz; Luciana Ingaramo

    2017-01-01

    En la región NE de Argentina existe poca información sobre el impacto que tienen las diferentes alternativas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha forestal sobre las propiedades edáficas. En este estudio se analizó el efecto a corto plazo de sistemas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, sobre la concentración del carbono orgánico total del suelo (COT) y la fracción particulada (COP), su estado estructural y la conductividad hidráulica saturada. El estu...

  4. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  5. Leaf area index estimation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill. in plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubal Papamija-Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimated leaf area index (LAI in Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill. plantations in four farms in the Smurfit Kappa Carton de Colombia (SKCC with three farms located in the city of Popayan (Cauca and one located in the municipality of Restrepo (Valle del Cauca. Each farm had three fertilized and three unfertilized plots with 64 individuals in each. We used three methods, Plant Canopy Analyzer 2000 (PCA 2000, flat photograph PIPEcv software and a destructive method, which was generated using a mathematical model. The first two methods were measured bimonthly for a year and the final method required trees being cut to measure their diameter. Estimation of leaf area index was 2.01 for PCA 2000, 3.12 for PIPEcv and 2.83 for the mathematical model. These values correspond to the average and range of leaf area indices obtained for each method on all farms. Statistically the three methodologies developed in this study were not closely related.

  6. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  7. Danos causados por Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill. ex Maiden. Eucalyptus grandis Hill.ex. Maiden injuries caused by Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os danos de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977 foram caracterizados em observações realizadas em campo,  laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os primeiros danos de C. spatulata em Eucalyptus grandis são provocados  pela postura, ficando uma pequena mancha preta, onde o ovo é depositado, que evolui para manchas maiores,  podendo levar a seca da gema. Os espécimens eliminam grandes quantidades de líquidos ricos em  açúcares “honeydew”, que se acumulam sobre folhas e  ponteiros, propiciando a proliferação de fungos formadores de fumagina e fungos fitopatogênicos. As  plantas atacadas ficam com as folhas deformadas,  menores que as normais, encarquilhadas, com falhas  entre as nervuras e com fumagina.  Conseqüentemente, a capacidade fotossintética  diminui. Com os danos provocados pelas picadas,  posturas, acúmulo de fumagina, aparecimento de  fungos oportunistas e a morte dos brotos, a planta  perde a dominância apical, ocorrendo uma  superbrotação no local. O ataque de C. spatulata causa uma diminuição do diâmetro das plantas e encurtamento dos internódios, ocasionando uma maior  fragilidade na área onde há esta formação. Cortes  anatômicos do caule, infestado com C. spatulata, mostram que a parte interna do lenho, na região onde  houve um superbrotamento, apresenta grande  concentração de fibras gelatinosas, que são menos  lignificadas. Estas fibras conferem menor resistência ao  caule das plantas, tornando-o frágil e susceptível a  quebra em função de ventos ou mesmo pelo próprio  peso. Além disto, as plantas atacadas apresentaram  modificações anatômicas quanto ao arranjo dos poros e  maior espessamento da casca.
    The injuries of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1977, were characterized through observations in field,  laboratory and greenhouse. The first injuries of C. spatulata in Eucalyptus grandis are caused

  8. MANEJO DE RESIDUOS DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN SITIOS CONTRASTANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lupi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En la región NE de Argentina existe poca información sobre el impacto que tienen las diferentes alternativas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha forestal sobre las propiedades edáficas. En este estudio se analizó el efecto a corto plazo de sistemas de manejo de residuos de la cosecha de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, sobre la concentración del carbono orgánico total del suelo (COT y la fracción particulada (COP, su estado estructural y la conductividad hidráulica saturada. El estudio se desarrolló en dos sitios de la Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina, en un suelo Aquic Hapluderts (S1 y en un Fluventic Hapludolls (S2. Se aplicaron los siguientes tratamientos: 1. Extracción total de residuos (ER, 2. Conservación de residuos (CR, 3. Quema de residuos-testigo (QR, 4. Doble adición de residuos (DAR. El muestreo de suelos en las profundidades 0-5 cm y 5-10 cm se realizó a los 18 (S1 y a los 22 (S2 meses de aplicar los tratamientos. En el corto plazo, el efecto de los tratamientos dependió del tipo de suelo y de la variable analizada. Los contrastes más importantes se debieron al efecto de las características intrínsecas del suelo sobre el tamaño de los agregados y la conductividad hidráulica saturada. La conservación de residuos no aumentó la concentración de COT ni modificó la calidad de la materia orgánica medida a partir de COP. El suelo Aquic Hapluderts presentó agregados más grandes, más estables y una mayor K sat en comparación con el Fluventic Hapludolls. En el Aquic Hapluderts se observó una mayor conductividad hidráulica saturada en los tratamientos con conservación de los residuos (DAR y CR, debido a que la cobertura preservaría el sistema poroso en la interfase suelo-atmosfera. El Fluventic Hapludolls fue menos estable y los tratamientos no modificaron significativamente el tamaño de los agregados ni la conductividad hidráulica saturada . Considerando que las características del sitio tienen efectos

  9. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  10. INFLUENCE OF ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND EXTRACTIVES CONTENT WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden IN QUALITY BONDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987561The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinol-formaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1% probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of wood failure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heat of fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  11. AVALIAÇÃO DA SUPERFÍCIE DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden TRATADA TERMICAMENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge and sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good, except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad. The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  12. Establishment of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden in vitro using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ed.) Biotecnologia Florestal. Editora UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais,. Brasil. Balba H (2007). Review of strobilurin fungicide chemicals. J. Environ. Sci. Health. Part. B. 42(4):441-51. Borges SR, Xavier A, Oliveira LS de, Lopes AP, Otoni WC (2011). Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus. Rev. Àrvore.

  13. MICOBIOTA ASSOCIADA À MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN DURANTE A SECAGEM AO AR LIVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de acompanhar a secagem ao ar livre da madeira serrada de Eucalyptus grandis conduzida na região de Lavras, MG e identificar a micobiota associada à madeira em diversas fases da secagem. As tábuas foram cortadas de oito toras de 3,0 m de comprimento, oriundas de três árvores, com 27 anos de idade, plantadas em área experimental da UFLA. Dos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis ao ar livre, iniciada em janeiro, consumiu 158 dias até atingir umidade próxima a 12,5%. A curva de secagem foi representada por uma equação logarítmica com coeficiente de determinação (R2 igual a 98,3%. Os fungos causadores de bolores superficiais e de manchas tiveram maior ocorrência no início da secagem. As mais altas freqüências de fungos, verificadas no início da secagem, foram observadas para Penicillium spp. e Pestalotiopsis sp. O fungo Lentinus lepideus ocorreu com maior freqüência no final da secagem.

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DO VERMICOMPOSTO NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a expressiva área de florestas plantadas com espécies do gênero Eucalyptus e o uso dessa madeira para múltiplos propósitos, sua cultura é de grande importância econômica para o Brasil. O uso de substratos com boas características físico-químicas constituem importante fator para a qualidade das mudas produzidas. Neste sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de diferentes doses de vermicomposto em tubetes com capacidade de receber aproximadamente 50 cm3 de substrato. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com Eucalyptus grandis, no período de janeiro a abril de 1997. O substrato utilizado para produção das mudas foi o solo coletado no horizonte A (0-20 cm da Unidade de Mapeamento São Pedro (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo acrescido de diferentes doses de vermicomposto (0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0 e 20,0 cm3 por tubete. O vermicomposto utilizado foi proveniente de produção de minhocas vermelhas da Califórnia (Eisenia foetida Savigny valendo-se de esterco de bovino. Após 100 dias de desenvolvimento, observou-se que as mudas de Eucalyptus grandis responderam de maneira distinta às doses aplicadas, não suportando misturas acima 15,0 cm3 (30% de vermicomposto por tubete.

  15. Influência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Considerando a expressiva área de florestas plantadas com espécies do gênero Eucalyptus e o uso dessa madeira para múltiplos propósitos, sua cultura é de grande importância econômica para o Brasil. O uso de substratos com boas características físico-químicas constituem importante fator para a qualidade das mudas produzidas. Neste sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de diferentes doses de vermicomposto em tubetes com capacidade de receber aproximadamente 50 cm3 de substrato. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com Eucalyptus grandis, no período de janeiro a abril de 1997. O substrato utilizado para produção das mudas foi o solo coletado no horizonte A (0-20 cm da Unidade de Mapeamento São Pedro (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo acrescido de diferentes doses de vermicomposto (0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0 e 20,0 cm3 por tubete. O vermicomposto utilizado foi proveniente de produção de minhocas vermelhas da Califórnia (Eisenia foetida Savigny valendo-se de esterco de bovino. Após 100 dias de desenvolvimento, observou-se que as mudas de Eucalyptus grandis responderam de maneira distinta às doses aplicadas, não suportando misturas acima 15,0 cm3 (30% de vermicomposto por tubete.

  16. Padrões de miniestacas e sazonalidade na produção de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla S. T. Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chaves Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes padrões de miniestacas no enraizamento e produção de mudas do híbrido do Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S.T. Black no verão e no inverno. Experimentos com cinco clones e 12 diferentes padrões de miniestacas foram conduzidos em duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno. A sobrevivência e enraizamento das miniestacas foram avaliados na saída da casa de vegetação e na saída da casa de sombra e, a pleno sol, a sobrevivência, a altura, o diâmetro do colo, o peso de massa seca da parte aérea e o da raiz. Os resultados indicaram que a manutenção das folhas é importante para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, e as folhas basais obtiveram maiores valores de enraizamento. Mudas produzidas no verão, utilizando miniestacas de 10 cm de tamanho, tiveram maior crescimento. A metodologia de não redução das folhas mostrou-se procedimento adequado para produção de mudas nas duas épocas do ano.

  17. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

  18. EFFECT OF THINNING AND FERTILIZATION ON Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden PITH DISPLACEMENT AND LOG END SPLITTlNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of thinning and fertilization on some log properties which influence sawn wood yield in a 21 year-old grown Eucalyptus grandis stand. Three selective thinning intensities (37, 50 and 75%, presence or absence of fertilizers on the beginning of the thinning, two diameter classes and two logs taken from two different vertical positions were taken as the study factors. The influence of the factors and their combination on tree growth stresses were indirectly evaluate through log end splitting and pith displacement in relation to its normal central position. Thinning, fertilization, diameter class and log position on the tree height did not have significant effect on pith displacement. The logs from fertilized plots presented higher log end splitting index than others.

  19. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  20. Influência do vermicomposto na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large area of planted forest with species of the genus Eucalyptus and its uses for multiple purpose, its cultivation has an economic importance in Brazil. The use of substratum with good physic-chemical characteristics is an important point for the quality of the produced seedlings. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of vermicompost in containers with capacity of about 50 cm3 of substratum. The current study was conducted in a greenhouse with Eucalyptus grandis from January to April in 1997. The substratum used for seedlings production was the soil from horizon A (0-20 cm of São Pedro Unit Mapping (yellow red Podzolic with different vermicompost quantities (0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0 and 20.0 cm3. The vermicompost was produced from red-worm from California (Eisenia foetida Savigny with cow dung. After 100 days, the results of development for the same seedlings were different depending on doses of vermicompost. It was verified that quantities over 15.0 cm3 (30% of vermicompost per container are not recommended for the seedling production.

  1. Florística e estrutura da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea do sub-bosque de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden em Viçosa, MG, Brasil Floristic and structure of tree-shrub vegetation in understory of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden stands, in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Bezerra de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea no sub-bosque de povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis na Reserva Florestal da Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG. Foram demarcadas 40 parcelas contíguas de 5 x 5 m, dispostas em transectos de 5 x 50 m, nas quais foram medidos, identificados e classificados quanto às síndromes de dispersão de sementes e às categorias sucessionais. Foram amostrados 884 indivíduos pertencentes a 50 espécies e 22 famílias. As espécies que se destacaram em valor de importância foram Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis e Erythroxylum pelleterianum, principalmente com relação à elevada densidade. Predominaram em densidade espécies secundárias tardias com síndromes de dispersão zoocórica. A riqueza florística encontrada pode ser considerada alta, por se tratar de sub-bosque de Eucalyptus grandis, e reflete o potencial da utilização dessa espécie como catalisadora de vegetação arbustivo-arbórea nativa em áreas degradadas.The objective of the present study was to analyze the floristic composition and structure of tree-shrub vegetation in understory of Eucalyptus grandis W. former Hill Maiden, Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG. Forty adjacent 5 x 5 m plots were demarcated and arranged in 5 x 50 m transects, in which individuals were measured, identified and classified in relation to seed dispersal syndromes and successional categories. Eight hundred and eighty four individuals belonging to 50 species and 22 families were recorded. The species with the highest Importance Value were Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis and Erythroxylum pelleterianum, particularly with regard to high density. Late secondary species with zoochorous dispersal syndromes prevailed in density. The founded floristic richness can be considered high for a Eucalyptus grandis understory and reflects the potential for using the species as catalyst for native

  2. Pendugaan Biomassa Akar Hutan Tanaman Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden di Areal Hutan Tanaman PT. Toba Pulp Lestari Tbk. Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaqim

    2011-01-01

    Hutan megabropsi CO2 selama proses photosintesis dan menyimpannya sebagai materi organik dalam biomassa tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan menduga biomassa akar hutan tanaman Eucalyptus grandis melalui penyusunan persamaan allometrik. Penelitian menghasilkan biomassa akar Eucalyptus grandis di lokasi penelitian berdasarkan inventarisasi metode jalur dan metode petak secara berurutan adalah 1,55 ton/ha dan 1,46 ton/ha (umur 1 tahun), 6,47 ton/ha dan 7,14 ton/ha (umur 2 tahun), 8,70 ton/ha dan 8...

  3. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  4. Forma de tronco e sortimentos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden., na região sudeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Müller

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of studing the stem shape of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden., based on 261 trees, with diameters at breast height (DBH ranging from 8 cm to 74 cm, originated from Aracruz Celulose S. A. forests, located at Depressão Central and Escudo Sul-Riograndense, in Rio Grande do Sul state, to determine the volume and assortment of wood in two classes: timber (logs with 25 cm of minimum diameter, with bark, and lengths of 5,6; 4,2 and 2,8 m, prioritizing the higher length assortments formation and industry (stems or portions of stem with diameters between 8 and 25 cm with bark. The fiftieth degree polynomial, having as dependent variable the relative diameters (di/d and independent variable the relative heights (hi/h was selected to describe the shape, with data stratification in three diameter classes (DBH: diameter until 20 cm; between 20 and 30 cm and larger than 30 cm, with coefficient of determination higher than 0,97 and standard error of the estimation lower than 6,2 %, allowing to estimate the relative and absolute volume of the assortments through integration of form function. The model adjustment for the trees complex covering all the diameters breadth generated a coefficient of determination equal to 0,98 and a standard error of the estimation equal to 6,54%, also allowing to select the model to describe the shape and assortment prediction.

  5. Early growth results of three Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus nitens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth results of three Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus nitens hybrid clonal trials and their response to snow events. ... may be better suited to high-potential, mid-altitude sites exposed to light snow risk than the currently recommended pure species. Keywords: climate change , cold tolerant, forestry, GxN, South Africa

  6. Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

  7. FUNGOS ECTOMICORRÍZICOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden EM NEOSSOLO QUARTZARÊNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lorensi de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul state, the eucalyptus planted forests are cultivated in low fertility soils, which contribute to ectomycorrhizal association. This study evaluated the effect of ectomycorrhizal isolates UFSC-Pt116, UFSC-Pt188 and UFSC-SA9 inoculation, individually and in combination, with Eucalyptus grandis in Quartzarenic Neosols. Evaluations were performed at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after sowing. Plants inoculated with isolates UFSC-Pt116, UFSC-Pt188 and UFSC-SA9 showed highest height, stem diameter, dry mass of shoot and root volume than the control. Plants inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus isolate UFSC-Pt188 showed highest content of phosphorus and potassium in shoots than non-inoculated plants. Inoculation individual ectomycorrhizal isolate UFSC-Pt116 promoted the highest height and shoot dry mass. For nitrogen and potassium, and root biomass have not showed significant differences between treatments. Then inoculation with ectomycorrhizal UFSC-Pt116, UFSC-Pt188 and UFSC-SA9 alone promoted highest height, stem diameter, dry mass of shoot and plant root volume of Eucalyptus grandis.

  8. Períodos de interferência de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis Hort. no crescimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden Periods of Commelina benghalensis interference in the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, em razão do uso contínuo de mesmos herbicidas e outros métodos de controle, vem se constituindo numa das plantas mais freqüentes em eucaliptais do Estado de São Paulo. Por isso, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos de períodos de controle e convivência dessa planta daninha sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, transplantadas no inverno e no verão. Uma única muda de eucalipto foi transplantada em caixa de cimento-amianto e submetida a períodos crescentes de convivência e de controle da trapoeraba (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias no sujo e no limpo, respectivamente, sendo a densidade de plantas de trapoeraba de 4 plantas.m-2 (nas condições de inverno e verão. Conduziu-se o ensaio por um período de 100 dias após o transplante (DAT, e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Pelos resultados da altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, biomassa seca e área foliar, verificou-se que o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 20, 60 e 20 a 60 DAT, respectivamente, no inverno. Em condições de verão, o PTPI foi menor que o PAI (10 e 40 DAT, respectivamente. Assim, não foi possível estabelecer o PCPI nessas condições.Commelina benghalensis is becomming the predominant weed invading eucalypts plantations in the State of São Paulo due to the continual use of herbicides and other control methods applied. Considering this, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of presence and control periods of Commelina benghalensis on Eucalyptus grandis initial growth, grew in winter and summer. A single eucalypt seedling was planted in a cement box and submitted to increasing periods of presence and control of Commelina benghalensis (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 days in competition or not

  9. EFEITO DA INOCULAÇÃO COM ISOLADOS DE FUNGOS ECTOMICORRÍZICOS SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS HILL EX MAIDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lorensi de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Rio Grande do Sul state, where eucalyptus reforestation is common in low fertility soils, the seedling performance may depend on the ectomycorrhizal association. In this paper, the inoculation effects of UFSC-Pt116, UFSC-Pt188 and UFSC-SA9 ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates, individually and in mixture, on Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were evaluated. Evaluations were performed at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after sowing. The individual inoculation of UFSC-Pt116 isolate promoted highest height and aerial dry mass. The seedlings inoculated with the mixture UFSC-Pt116 + UFSC-Pt188 + UFSC-SA9 accumulated highest amounts of phosphorus at 90 days. The nitrogen and potassium concentrations, and root dry mass did not show significant differences among the treatments.

  10. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter.

  11. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116 in land subject to the sandy process in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lorensi de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, innoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116, produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the city of São Francisco de Assis, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production compared to the non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter.

  12. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  13. Growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis grown in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a stand-level growth and yield model for short-rotationEucalyptus grandis grown for pulp wood production at Piggs Peak in Swaziland. The data were derived from a Nelder 1a spacing trial established with E. grandis clonal cuttings in 1998 and terminated in 2005. Planting density ...

  14. Yellow Dye Extraction from Eucalyptus Grandis Bark.

    OpenAIRE

    Chengeto Zvavamwe; Cathrine Khetiwe Mkandhla; Clever Mpofu; Vernon Phiri; Felicity Bgwoni; Bettina Khonzokuhle Ncube; Mafika Sibutha; Joel Tshuma

    2016-01-01

    In this article, yellow dye was extracted from Eucalyptus Grandis bark using methanol solvent at a temperature of 250C and pressure of 1 atmosphere. The extraction process was optimized by varying extraction material-to-liquor ratio, in the ratios of 1:100, 1:50, 3:100, 1:25, 1:20, 3:50, 7:100, 2:25, 9:100 and 1:10. The extraction pH was varied from 1 to 13 at an interval of pH 1. The mass of the dye extract was found to be directly proportional to the mass of the bark at each pH. The optimum...

  15. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kelly J; Romanel, Elisson; Jones, Rebecca C; Klocko, Amy; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Hefer, Charles A; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Naithani, Sushma; Ranik, Martin; Wesley-Smith, James; Solomon, Luke; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Myburg, Alexander A; Strauss, Steven H

    2015-06-01

    As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages, and compared these with transcriptomes of diverse vegetative tissues, including leaves, roots, and stems. A subset of 4807 genes (13% of protein-coding genes) were differentially expressed between floral buds of either stage and vegetative tissues. A similar proportion of genes were differentially expressed among all tissues. A total of 479 genes were differentially expressed between early and late stages of floral development. Gene function enrichment identified 158 gene ontology classes that were overrepresented in floral tissues, including 'pollen development' and 'aromatic compound biosynthetic process'. At least 40 floral-dominant genes lacked functional annotations and thus may be novel floral transcripts. We analyzed several genes and gene families in depth, including 49 putative biomarkers of floral development, the MADS-box transcription factors, 'S-domain'-receptor-like kinases, and selected gene family members with phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains. Expanded MADS-box gene subfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis included SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), SEPALLATA (SEP) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. These data provide a rich resource for functional and evolutionary analysis of genes controlling eucalypt floral development, and new tools for breeding and biotechnology. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Influência de idade e da posição radial nas dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and radial position on fiber and vessel dimensions of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a variação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis com quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. A amostragem do material na árvore foi feita através da coleta de três discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, ambas com o comprimento comercial de 3 m. De cada disco, retiraram-se cinco amostras, de dimensões 1,0 x 1,0 x 1,0 cm, tomadas de pontos eqüidistantes, correspondentes a 0; 25; 50; 75; e 100% da seção, no sentido radial medula-casca, fazendo-se a medição das fibras e dos vasos. Verificou-se, em todos os parâmetros, o efeito da idade e da variação radial, no sentido medula-casca, à exceção da largura e do diâmetro do lume das fibras; todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram correlação positiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of wood quantitative anatomical characteristics (fibers and vessels of Eucalyptus grandis of four different ages (10, 14, 20 and 25 years, obtained from commercial stands. Tree material sampling was collected from three disks in the bottom and top of the first two logs, both three m long. Five samples were collected from each disc at the pith-to-bark direction at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the radii. In all cases, age and pith-to-bark direction were observed to have a marked influence on all the assays, except for fiber lumen diameter and width; all the other parameters showed a positive correlation.

  17. Influência da densidade básica da madeira na qualidade da polpa kraft de clones hibrídos de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake Effect of wood basic density on kraft pulp quality of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Setúbal Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dois clones de Eucalyptus com densidades básicas de 447 e 552 kg/m³. O processo kraft foi utilizado para a produção de celulose, tendo sido aplicadas diferentes cargas de álcali para se obterem polpas com número kappa 18 ± 0,5. As polpas foram branqueadas pela seqüência ODEopDD, a alvuras de 90 ± 1% ISO, e refinadas, sendo suas propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas analisadas. A madeira de baixa densidade mostrou-se mais recomendável para a produção de celulose, por ter apresentado maior rendimento depurado, viscosidade da polpa mais elevada, ter requerido menor carga de álcali no cozimento, ter proporcionado menor teor de sólidos no licor residual e menor consumo de reagentes químicos no branqueamento. As propriedades mecânicas e estruturais das polpas não foram afetadas significativamente pela densidade básica das madeiras.Two hybrid Eucalyptus clones having 447 kg/m³ and 552 kg/m³ basic densities were used for this study. The kraft process was used for pulping the wood chips to kappa number 18±0.5 and different alkali charges were applied to reach this delignification target. Pulp was bleached to 90±1% ISO using the ODEopDD bleaching sequence. The bleached pulp was refined and its physical-mechanical properties were determined. The lower density wood was recommended for pulp production due to its lower alkali requirement for pulping, higher screened yield, superior pulp viscosity, lower black liquor solids content and lower bleaching chemical requirement. Wood basic density did not affect significantly the mechanical and structural pulp properties.

  18. Monitoramento do teor de umidade de madeiras de Pinus elliottii Engelm. E Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, sob diferentes temperaturas de secagem, através do ultra-som

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the viability of use of ultrasonic technique to estimate the wood moisture content during the drying process, samples of Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with dimensions of 3.5 cm thick, 10 cm width and 25 cm long were submitted to drying temperatures of 20, 40 and 70ºC. A PUNDIT ultrasonic equipment with plane face transducers by 50 KHz was used to measure sound velocity in the longitudinal direction of the wood. Results indicated increase of estimated ultrasonic speed with reduction of moisture content. This relationship showed to be valid for the wood from green to the end of the drying process, and the best determination coefficients were found in the eucalypt wood (R² = 81%. Although no influence of the species in the ultrasonic speed has been observed, this one was influenced by the wood specific gravity and by the drying temperature. The effect of the specific mass was directly proportional for the pinus wood. Opposite effect was observed in eucalypt wood. The ultrasonic speed tended to decrease as drying temperature increased for both species. Results suggest that this method presents good potential for the control of the drying process.

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS ANATÔMICAS E DO TEOR DE EXTRATIVOS TOTAIS DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden NA QUALIDADE DA COLAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinolformaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1 % probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of woodfailure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heatof fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  20. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae Application of an alternative technique for physical soil management in cultivation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of growth of Eucalyptus grandis non-regularization when subjected to the ground. Relying on "Optical Chaos Theory" and starting from the assumption that the reforested

  1. RAPD analysis of genetic variability in a multiprovenance base population of Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden Variabilidade genética através da técnica RAPD de uma população-base multiprocedências de Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Meire Maximino Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability among individuals of a base population of Eucalyptus grandis and to build a molecular marker database for the analyzed populations. The Eucalyptus grandis base population comprised 327 individuals from Coff's Harbour, Atherton and Rio Claro. A few plants came from other sites (Belthorpe MT. Pandanus, Kenilworth, Yabbra, etc.. Since this base population had a heterogeneous composition, the groups were divided according to geographic localization (latitude and longitude, and genetic breeding level. Thus, the influence of those two factors (geographic localization and genetic breeding level on the genetic variability detected was discussed. The RAPD technique allowed the evaluation of 70 loci. The binary matrix was used to estimate the genetic similarity among individuals using Jaccard's Coefficient. Parametric statistical tests were used to compare within-group similarity of the means. The obtained results showed that the base population had wide genetic variability and a mean genetic similarity of 0.328. Sub-group 3 (wild materials from the Atherton region showed mean genetic similarity of 0.318. S.P.A. (from Coff's Harbour region had a mean genetic similarity of 0.322 and was found to be very important for maintenance of variation in the base population. This can be explained since the individuals from those groups accounted for most of the base population (48.3% for it. The base population plants with genetic similarity higher than 0.60 should be phenotypically analyzed again in order to clarify the tendency of genetic variability during breeding programs.Este estudo visou avaliar a variabilidade e distância genética dentro de uma população-base de melhoramento genético de Eucalyptus grandis. A avaliação da variabilidade genética tem como objetivos principais analisar a base genética da população-base e montar um banco de dados marcadores moleculares da população em an

  2. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

  3. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra all. ex. benth and Eucalyptus grandis w.hill ex. maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Juliana L. P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the decomposition of D. nigra and E. grandis leaves under laboratory conditions when incubated in soils from Atlantic Forest and from a 40-year-old eucalypt plantation for a year. The obtained values of pH in forest and eucalypt plantation soils were 5.61 and 4.47 and for aluminum 0.32 and 1.89mEqx100, respectively. A great number of microorganisms (total fungi, phosphate solubilising and cellulolytic organisms were found in forest soil. Litterbag study revealed a higher mass loss of the leaves in forest soil in the first four months (c. 30%. In the eucalypt plantation soils loss was observed only after eight months (c. 40%. The initial contents of N and P were greater in D. nigra than in E. grandis leaves, although lignin and cellulose contents were similar. The C/N ratio was higher in E. grandis indicating that its degradation could be slower. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the decay rates (k among the treatments. Phosphorus, lignina and cellulose were lost at the end of the experiment in all treatments. The results show the differences between decomposition of both species and the influence of forest and eucalypt plantation soils in the decomposition process.

  4. Variação das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos da madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden aos sete anos. Variation of anatomical structure of wood of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden with 7 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finê Thomaz ROCHA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A variação das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos do lenho tem um efeito marcante sobre a qualidade da madeira e o produto final. Visando obter melhores informações sobre o assunto, foram coletadas amostras de árvores dominantes, intermediárias e dominadas de Eucalyptus grandis aos sete anos, com o objetivo de verificar as variações das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos entre árvores, no sentido medula-casca e base-topo. De cada árvore foram retirados discos de madeira na base, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da altura comercial. Em cada disco foram demarcados corpos de prova a 0, 50 e 100% do raio. Os elementos anatômicos foram mensurados através de programa de análise de imagens. Os resultados permitem concluir que: (a das classes sociológicas, a dominante apresentou fibras 14% mais longas e 20% mais espessas, diâmetro de vasos 30% mais largo e raios 20% mais altos do que as outras classes; (b os maiores valores das dimensões das fibras e comprimento de vasos foram encontrados a 25% da altura comercial, os vasos apresentaram-se mais largos a 75% e a freqüência de raios foi maior no topo, e (c em todas as dimensões das fibras, o diâmetro e o comprimento dos vasos foram crescentes.The variation in the dimensions of the anatomical elements of the xylem has a marked effect on the quality of wood and on the final product. In order to obtain further information about this variation samples of dominant, intermediate and dominated 7-year-old Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected. The aim was to analyze the variation in the dimensions of the anatomical elements among trees in the pith-bark and base-top directions. Wood disks from the base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height were removed from each tree. From each disk samples at 0, 50 and 100% of the radius were defined. The anatomical elements were measured through image analysis. The results indicate that: (a of all sociological classes, the dominant one showed fibers 14% longer

  5. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many eucalypt species do not show distinct growth rings because cambial activity does not show a strong response to seasonal variation in climate. Eucalyptus grandis, one of the most important commercial hardwood species in South Africa, is one such example of a species that does not have well-defined growth rings.

  6. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the most cost-effective methods of increasing and maintaining the productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in South Africa. This silvicultural practice can be optimised by using the foliar nutrient ratios measured in plants at maximum growth as a guideline for fertiliser application. The foliar nutrient ...

  7. The potential of young, green finger-jointed Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a timber-scarce country that will most probably experience a shortage of structural softwood lumber in the near future. In this study the concept of using young, green finger-jointed Eucalyptus grandis lumber was evaluated for possible application in roof truss structures while the timber is still in the green, ...

  8. Site and stand analysis for growth prediction of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently concluded growth studies based on permanent sampling plots established across Eucalyptus grandis plantations yielded useful information for revising the current knowledge on site-growth relationships in the region. The Chapman-Richards model was used to define the height growth curves over a range of sites.

  9. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  10. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping soil fertility parameters, such as soil carbon (C), is fundamentally important for forest management and research related to forest growth and climate change. This study seeks to establish the link between Eucalyptus grandis canopy spectra and soil carbon using raw and continuum-removed spectra. Canopy-level ...

  11. Organogênese in vitro a partir de explante caulinar na regeneração de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X E. urophylla S. T. Blake In vitro regeneration from stem explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones through organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a regeneração in vitro por organogênese a partir de explante caulinar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, foram avaliados os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tiadiazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. De modo geral, pôde-se observar resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura, coloração e grau de oxidação dos calos, em função dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento foram dos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante caulinar. Houve a formação de estruturas nodulares compactas, principalmente na extremidade dos explantes caulinares, sendo essas regiões responsáveis pela regeneração de gemas adventícias. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.With the objective of testing in vitro regeneration through organogenesis from stem explants of three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, the effects of the growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-ilurea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine and NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid were evaluated. In general, a differentiated clone response in relation to intensity, texture, color and oxidation degree of calli was observed due to growth regulator treatments. The best results in callus formation were recorded for the treatments with the combination TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 and ANA (0,1 mg L-1, achieving 100% of callus formation from the stem explants. Compact node structures appeared mainly in the extremities of the stem explants, being those areas responsible for the regeneration of adventitious buds. The best regeneration response was obtained with 1,0 mg L-1 BAP.

  12. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  13. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  14. Fitossociologia de sub-bosque de cerrado em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden no município de Bom Despacho-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saporetti Jr. Amilcar Walter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado, o segundo maior bioma brasileiro, apresenta uma crescente área sujeita a impactos variados, o que desperta a necessidade de conservá-lo e desenvolver métodos para seu uso sustentável. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico de regeneração em um Cerrado no município de Bom Despacho - MG e embasar tomadas de decisões para conservação da biodiversidade. Para o estudo foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m em uma área originalmente de Cerrado, que atualmente encontra-se ocupada por um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis. A distribuição das parcelas foi feita sistematicamente. Foram amostradas todas as plantas lenhosas eretas com CAB - ao nível do solo - maior ou igual a 10 cm. A composição florística apresentou 39 espécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, com cinco espécies, Myrtaceae, com quatro, e Melastomataceae, com três, seguidas de Annonaceae, Leguminosae Papilionoideae, Nyctaginaceae, Rubiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com duas. A espécie que apresentou o maior VI foi Eucalyptus grandis (42,03%, seguida das Miconia albicans (7,69%, Brosimum gaudichaudii (6,9%, Eugenia dysenterica (4,99%, Qualea grandiflora (3,11% e Xylopia aromatica (3,01%. Das 39 espécies lenhosas nativas encontradas no sub-bosque de Eucalyptus grandis, 27 são peculiares do Cerrado e as demais são acessórias, vindas de florestas da região. Esses dados mostram que o Cerrado está em regeneração.

  15. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. © 2014 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  17. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree.

  18. Aplicação de uma técnica alternativa de manejo físico do solo no cultivo de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o processo de crescimento do Eucalyptus grandis quando submetido à irregularização do terreno. Baseando-se na "Ótica da Teoria do Caos" e partindo-se da hipótese de que as áreas reflorestadas por E. grandis são consideravelmente sensíveis às condições iniciais de preparação do solo, aplicou-se a técnica das rugosidades (variações do relevo alternando superfícies côncavas e convexas para desencadear ao longo do tempo propriedades emergentes que aceleram o processo de crescimento vegetal. A área de estudo localiza-se na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Itajaí, em Brusque, SC. Esta foi dividida em quatro parcelas menores: duas com tratamentos irregulares (IR-A e IR-B e outras duas com tratamentos regulares (R-A e R-B. Os tratamentos irregulares consistiram na abertura de cavas, utilizando-se uma retroescavadeira hidráulica, intercaladas com 1 m de largura, 4 a 5 m de comprimento e 0,5 m de profundidade. Nos tratamentos regulares foi adotado o cultivo mínimo do solo, onde o preparo do solo ficou restrito às linhas ou covas de plantio. Na análise do desenvolvimento de E. grandis (altura, diâmetro do colo e na altura do peito - DAP verificou-se diferenças estatísticas entre as técnicas de preparação do solo, sendo os maiores valores nos tratamentos irregulares. Nas parcelas irregulares (IR-A e IR-B foram encontrados os maiores valores médios de altura (5,29 m e 5,46 m, diâmetro do colo (45,65 mm e 45,4 mm e DAP (4,44 cm e 4,79 cm, respectivamente. Pressupõe-se que as rugosidades funcionaram efetivamente como componentes auxiliares na internalização da matéria, retendo água, sedimentos e nutrientes, fato que deve ter potencializado e acelerado o crescimento do E. grandis.

  19. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  20. Influência da idade na resistência natural da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden ao ataque de cupim de madeira seca (Cryptotermes brevis Tree age influence on Eucalyptus grandis wood natural resistance to deterioration by dry-wood termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou testar a resistência natural da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos ao ataque de cupins de madeira seca. As amostras foram retiradas da prancha diametral, na região próxima ao cerne mais externo, em número de seis unidades por tora, de cada uma das 16 árvores (quatro de cada idade. Cada par de amostras foi colocado em contato com 40 indivíduos, da espécie Cryptotermes brevis (cupim de madeira seca, avaliando-se cada par comparativamente com corpos-de-prova de madeira altamente suscetível ao ataque de cupins, no caso a madeira de Pinus elliottii, sob idênticas condições laboratoriais, mediante observações em intervalos periódicos. Ao término do ensaio foram registrados a porcentagem de cupins mortos e o número de furos, além do desgaste produzido por esses insetos. Verificou-se que a madeira de 10 anos foi a mais severamente atacada, com desgaste semelhante ao da testemunha. As madeiras de 14, 20 e 25 anos não diferiram estatisticamente entre si, quanto à resistência natural ao ataque de cupim de madeira seca, todas classificadas como de desgaste acentuado. A madeira de todas as idades mostrou-se altamente suscetível ao ataque de cupins, revelando a baixa resistência natural da espécie.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability in the resistance to dry-wood termites of Eucalyptus grandis wood from commercial stands of four different ages (10, 14, 20 and 25 years old. Two logs were cut from sixteen different trees, four of each age. Six pairs of samples were taken from the most recent heartwood of a central board of a log. Each pair of samples was put in contact with 40 dry-wood termite individuals, Cryptotermes brevis. Samples of Pinus elliottii, a highly susceptible species, were also offered to the insects at the same time and under the same laboratory conditions in order to compare the results. The assay lasted for 45 days. After this

  1. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  2. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  3. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  4. Modelo empirico integral de una plantacion de Eucalyptus grandis en Concordia, Entre Rios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Frangi; Carolina Perez; Juan Goya; Natalia Teson; Marcelo Barrera; Marcelo Arturi

    2016-01-01

    The Argentinian Mesopotamia is the core of fast-growing tree species plantations of the country. Eucalyptus grandis plantations constitute 90 % of the forested area with Eucalyptus spp. in NE Entre Rios. Based on previous studies on structural and functional features, a comprehensive model is here proposed on emergence of new properties linked to matter and ecosystem...

  5. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcio de Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  7. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  8. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  9. Micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis and nitens using tissue culture techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furze, M.J.; Creswell, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with nodal explants of E. grandis and E. nitens seedlings and E. grandis coppice shoots showed that a large number of plants can be produced from a single explant using micropropagation. The percentage of micropropagated shoots that formed roots was about 90% for E. grandis and 80% for E. nitens. For both species, about 90% of the rooted shoots survived after hardening off. 9 references.

  10. Application of the 3-PG model to a Eucalyptus grandis stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 3-PG model has shown considerable potential as a tool for predicting forest productivity. As part of a model validation exercise, 3-PG was applied to an irrigated and fertilised Eucalyptus grandis stand in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Simulations were run over a two-year period using appropriate initialisation data and a ...

  11. Wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis dominant and average trees submitted to drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Telles de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined, in trees of dominant and average diameter, the influence of air seasoning followed by kiln drying in the sawn wood quality of 14 years old stand of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, located in Capivari do Sul municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling of trees was performed after a pilot inventory on the basis of the dominant and average diameter at breast height (DBH. After cutting down the trees, there were selected the logs located between the DBH and 25% of commercial height. The logs were then sawn using into boards that were submitted to air seasoning from green up to 18% of moisture content, followed by kiln drying until 13% of moisture content. End checking and board crook were evaluate after sawing, following air seasoning and kiln drying. The results indicate that, both for dominant and average trees, end checking and board crook were not influenced by different wood process stage. However, the contrast between dominant and average trees shows that the magnitude of defects is higher in the average trees.

  12. INFLUENCE OF CLONE HARVESTING AGE OF Eucalyptus grandis AND HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN THE WOOD CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN KRAFT PULPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Damasceno de Morais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent efforts on the quality of the wood used in pulp and paper mills has focused in many points, among them the influence of the raw material chemical characteristics in the production process and final product quality. Considering the current demand for younger trees, the effect of the wood harvesting age in the chemical composition and in the process variables becomes a very important fact for the industries of this sector. So, the objective of this study was to characterize Brazilian eucalypt clones, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urograndis, both in different harvesting ages (1 to 8 years-old, for their chemical composition and kraft pulping parameters. Both chemical compositions of wood samples showed significant statistical variations due to the alteration of their harvesting ages. The glucan content, as well as cellulose content, basic density, and extractives tended to rise with the increase of harvesting age; while xylan and the other carbohydrate contents that compose the hemicelluloses tended to decline with the increase of the harvesting age, as well as uronic acids, acetyl groups, lignin, ashes, and S:G ratio. The 5 year-old wood samples showed the greatest pulping yield results for kappa number 17, and the yield at kappa number 17 showed strong correlation with glucan content.

  13. Stomatal characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to investigate the degree to which stomatal conductance (gs) and stomatal density differ between the clonal hybrids across seasons and in response to water stress. Plants from one E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (GC) and two E. grandis x E. urophylla (GU1 and GU2) clones were grown for 18 months in 80 l ...

  14. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  15. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  16. Contenido de nutrientes en las raices finas y el mantillo de rodales de Eucalyptus grandis de diferente edad en la Mesopotomia Argentina [Fine roots and litter nutrient content of Eucalyptus grandis stands presenting different ages in Mesopotomia Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Perez; J. Frangi; J.F. Goya; A. Luy; M. Arturi; NO-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    Entre Ríos province is an important center of Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Argentina. It was hypothesized that fine root biomass and litter mass increased with age increasing in plantations. Five, seven and seventeen year old stands of Eucalyptus grandis were sampled. All of them were first rotation stands. We estimated the mass of litter and fine roots (

  17. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  18. Modelos de predição para sobrevivência de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis Prediction models of Eucalyptus grandis plant survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telde Natel Custódio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar modelos de predição de plantas sobreviventes de Eucalyptus grandis. Utilizaram-se os seguintes modelos: modelo linear misto com os dados transformados, utilizando-se as transformações angular e BOX-COX; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição binomial e funções de ligação logística, probit e complemento log-log; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica. Os dados são provenientes de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, para avaliação de progênies maternas de Eucalyptus grandis, aos 5 anos de idade, em que a variável resposta são plantas sobreviventes. Para comparação dos efeitos entre os modelos foram estimadas as correlações de Spearman e aplicado o teste de permutação de Fisher. Foi possível concluir que, o modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica se ajustou mal aos dados e que as estimativas para os efeitos fixos e predição para os efeitos aleatórios, não se diferenciaram entre os demais modelos estudados.The objective of this work was to compare models for prediction of the survival of plants of Eucalyptus grandis. The following models were used: linear mixed model with the transformed data, by utilizing the angular transformations and BOX-COX; generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and logistic functions, probit and complement log-log links; generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function. The data came from a randomized block experiment for evaluation of Eucalyptus grandis maternal progenies at five years old, in which the variable response are surviving plants. For comparison of the effects among the models the correlations of Spearman were estimated and the test of permutation of Fisher was applied. It was possible to conclude that: the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and

  19. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  20. Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed that modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, weight loss, volumetric swelling and linear swelling were affected significantly by the thermal rectification. However, the length of exposure influenced just weight loss, while the temperature influenced all the studied properties of heat-treated wood. More significant modifications with treatments at a temperature of 200 °C or higher were found in the properties of heat-treated wood.

  1. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN AND WITHIN FAMILY SELECTIONS WITH THE COMBINED SELECTION IN PROGENY TESTS OF Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu Soares Martins

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used six experiments involving half-sub families of Eucalyptus grandis, which were carried out byCelulose Nipo Brasileira S. A. (CENIBRA at six locations. Data on circumference at breast height and plant height weremeasured. Selection methods among and within families were compared with combined selection. The combined selection wassuperior to selection among and within families due to higher estimates of genetic gains, and also for selecting a larger numberof families for recombination.

  3. Realized gain from breeding Eucalyptus grandis in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Meskimen

    1983-01-01

    E. grandis is in the fourth generation of selection in southwest Florida. The breeding strategy combines a provenance trial, genetic base population, seedling seed orchard, and progeny test in a single plantation where all families are completely randomized in single-tree plots. That planting configuration closely predicted the magnitude of genetic...

  4. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO COMPENSADO FENÓLICO DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparação, foram produzidos também painéis com lâminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído com duas formulações distintas. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa específica superior e menor redução na espessura em relação às demais espécies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistência da linha de cola demonstraram não haver diferenças estatísticas entre as espécies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexão estática, os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relação a Pinus taeda. Em relação aos efeitos de diferentes formulações do adesivo, não foram constatadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceção da resistência da linha de cola no teste úmido.

  6. Avaliação da qualidade do compensado fenólico de Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparação, foram produzidos também painéis com lâminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído com duas formulações distintas. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa específica superior e menor redução na espessura em relação às demais espécies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistência da linha de cola demonstraram não haver diferenças estatísticas entre as espécies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexão estática, os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relação a Pinus taeda. Em relação aos efeitos de diferentes formulações do adesivo, não foram constatadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceção da resistência da linha de cola no teste úmido.

  7. EFEITO DO COBRE NA POPULAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS E FUNGOS DO SOLO, NA ASSOCIAÇÃO MICORRÍZICA E NO CULTIVO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Pinus elliottii Engelm E Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Tauber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a heavy metal that can have toxic effects on microorganisms and plants. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are able to protect the plant from heavy metal toxicity, but the presence of certain metal concentrations can inhibit the growth of this fungus, damage the mycorrhizal symbiosis and also altering the development of the plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper on soil bacteria and fungus population, as well as the effects on the ectomycorrhizal association in the development of Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus elliottii and Peltophorum dubium seedlings. The survey of the soil microorganism population was carried out in a greenhouse during 60 days and the treatments consisted of applications of copper sulphate (0.7; 0.708; 0.716; 0.724 mg Kg-1 to the soil and to eucalyptus and pinus seedlings. Eucalyptus and Peltophorum dubium seedlings inoculated and not inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke and Massee Cunn (UFSC Pt 116 received copper levels of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1. The height, stem diameter, shoot and root fresh biomass, shoot and root dry biomass and ectomycorrhizal colonization were evaluated at 110 days. Soil bacteria and fungus population were altered by the presence of copper and the eucalyptus and pinus seedlings were not affected by copper addition. The inoculation of the eucalyptus and canafístula seedlings with isolate UFSC Pt 116 favored the height of the plants and the development of shoot and root fresh biomass. According to the results, canafístula was able to form an ectomycorrhizal association with the isolate tested. The eucalyptus and canafístula seedling development was inhibited by copper following inoculation with the UFSC Pt 116 isolate.

  8. EFEITO DA TERMORRETIFICAÇÃO NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Pinus taeda E Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of thermal treatment, employed under two treatment conditions on mechanical properties of wood of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. From each species, three 25-year tress were sampled, and from each one, it was taken the first 2-meter long log, which was obtained from two boards of size 7,0 x 20,0 cm (thickness x width respectively diametrically opposite from where 30 specimens were saw for each treatment. At the first one, called the combined one, the woods were subjected to heat treatment by autoclaving at 130 / ± 3°C and pressure of 2 kgf / cm ² for 3 hours and, after a conditioning period, subjected to heat in an electric oven at 160 / ± 1°C for the same period. The second treatment consisted only of heat treatment in oven. It was also evaluated the pieces of wood without treatment (control. The mechanical properties were evaluated by means of tests for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in bending, maximum resistance to compression parallel to the grain and Janka hardness according to ASTM D 143 (1995, and the impact resistance according to ABNT NBR 7190 (1997. For Pinus taeda wood, it was observed that treatment in an oven gave the worst outcomes, both due to the reduction in the values of supported load of a greater number of mechanical properties evaluated, but also as compared to the lowest increments in resistance when it was observed an increase to the same ones with heat treatment. In Eucalyptus grandis, the combined treatment decreased the greatest number of mechanical properties of wood.

  9. Killing Eucalyptus grandis cut stumps after multiple coppice rotations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To test the most effective manner in which these stumps could be killed, a trial was initiated at felling on a fourth rotation stand of E. grandis stumps in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Triclopyr (amine salt, 360 g l-1), triclopyr (butoxy ethyl ester, 480 g l-1), imazypyr (100 g l-1), metsulfuron-methyl (600 g kg-1) and a combination ...

  10. Effectiveness of ascorbic acid and PVP in the rooting of clonal minicuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in the rooting of mini-cuttings for three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Mini-cuttings were gathered from a mini-clonal hedge which had been cultivated in concrete ducts containing washed sand. Five concentrations of each antioxidant were experimentally tested on each of the three clones (C1, C2 and C3. Assessments were done of mini-cutting survival and rooting rates when leaving the greenhouse and the shade house, as well as seedling survival and growth at age 50 days. Ascorbic acid was found to be beneficial to the mini-cuttings of the clone with a lower rooting percentage (C3, whereas PVP was found to be unbeneficial to the clones being studied.

  11. Soil fertility and growth of Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silvicultural operations such as soil preparation, logging residue management and application of fertilisers can influence soil fertility, and hence nutrient uptake and tree growth. This paper reports the effect of site management practices of minimum and intensive cultivation of the soil on the growth of a stand of Eucalyptus ...

  12. Identification of molecular markers linked to early flowering in Eucalyptus grandis. Identificação de marcadores moleculares relacionados ao florescimento precoce em Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cazerta FARRO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait for tree breeding because it determines the speed of generation turnover and therefore the rapidity of genetic gains, and it is of particular interest in Eucalyptus species. In this work, we used simple sequence repeats (SSRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and specific markers for flowering to evaluate early flowering segregation in a full-sibling family of Eucalyptus grandis and to identify molecular markers associated with the control of flowering time. A cross between a normal flowering tree (wild-type and early flowering tree resulted in 118 progeny with a 1:1 Mendelian segregation ratio for flowering time (χ2 = 0.5424, P > 0.05, which suggested the action of one main gene in a locus named Early flowering in Eucalyptus grandis (PFEg. The SSR marker EMBRA 02 was related to the QTL PFEg, and identified this region as a candidate for trait control. These maps may be used as the basis for a study in which can be inserted new markers in an attempt to find more loci related to early flowering characteristic on eucalyptus. O tempo de florescimento é uma importante característica para o melhoramento genético de árvores, pois este determina o prazo para o surgimento de uma nova geração e a rapidez para o ganho genético de uma determinada espécie, como por exemplo, Eucalyptusgrandis. Neste estudo foram utilizados marcadores moleculares do tipo microssatélites, Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA – RAPD, além de marcadores específicos para avaliar a segregação do florescimento precoce em uma família de irmãos-germanos de E. grandis. Foi também verificado se esses marcadores estão associados ao controle do tempo de florescimento na espécie. A progênie de 118 indivíduos avaliada foi originada do cruzamento entre uma árvore de florescimento normal e outra de florescimento precoce. A segregação da característica de florescimento precoce apresentou uma razão de 1:1 (χ2 = 0

  13. The Eucalyptus grandis NBS-LRR gene family: physical clustering and expression hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette eChristie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is a commercially important hardwood species and is known to be susceptible to a number of pests and pathogens. Determining mechanisms of defense is therefore a research priority. The published genome for E. grandis has aided the identification of one important class of resistance (R genes that incorporate nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains (NBS-LRR. Using an iterative search process we identified NBS-LRR gene models within the E. grandis genome. We characterized the gene models and identified their genomic arrangement. The gene expression patterns were examined in E. grandis clones, challenged with a fungal pathogen (Chrysoporthe austroafricana and insect pest (Leptocybe invasa. 1215 putative NBS-LRR coding sequences were located which aligned into two large classes, Toll or interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and coiled-coil (CC based on NB-ARC domains. NBS-LRR gene-rich regions were identified with 76% organized in clusters of three or more genes. A further 272 putative incomplete resistance genes were also identified. We determined that E. grandis has a higher ratio of TIR to CC classed genes compared to other woody plant species as well as a smaller percentage of single NBS-LRR genes. Transcriptome profiles indicated expression hotspots, within physical clusters, including expression of many incomplete genes. The clustering of putative NBS-LRR genes correlates with differential expression responses in resistant and susceptible plants indicating functional relevance for the physical arrangement of this gene family. This analysis of the repertoire and expression of E. grandis putative NBS-LRR genes provides an important resource for the identification of novel and functional R-genes; a key objective for strategies to enhance resilience.

  14. [Community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantations at different slope locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhong, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-qin

    2010-09-01

    To understand the effects of slope location on the community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation, an investigation was made on the soil fauna in 3 E. grandis plantations at different slope locations in the hilly area of Sichuan Province from January to October 2009. A total of 39,2762 individuals were observed, belonging to 146 groups, 7 phyla, 16 classes, and 31 orders. The community composition, trophic group, diversity, and seasonal dynamics of soil fauna in the plantations all varied with slope. The abundance of macro-fauna, xeric meso- and micro-fauna, saprophagous macro-fauna, and omnivorous xeric meso- and micro-fauna increased with the decrease of slope, indicating that soil fauna had sensitive responses to the soil environmental factors affected by slope. Significant differences in the diversity of soil saprophagous macro-fauna and hygrophilous meso- and micro-fauna were observed at different slope locations, suggesting that these two faunal groups could be used as the indicators of the habitat heterogeneity of E. grandis plantations at different slope. Overall, slope location had definite effects on the community structure and distribution of soil fauna in the E. grandis plantations, but the effects were not statistically significant.

  15. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness and diversity of AMF spores, the rate of AMF mycorrhizal root colonization, enzymatic activity and soil and litter C, N and P. There was an increase in AMF root colonization of E. grandis when intercropped with A. mangium as well as an increase in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the presence of leguminous trees. AMF colonization and phosphatase activities were both involved in improvements in P cycling and P nutrition in soil. In addition, P cycling was favored in the intercropped plantation, which showed negative correlation with litter C/N and C/P ratios and positive correlation with soil acid phosphatase activity and soil N and P concentrations. Intercropping A. mangium and E. grandis maximized AMF root colonization of E. grandis and phosphatase activity in the soil, both of which accelerate P cycling and forest performance.

  16. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  17. Analysis of genetic diversity in Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Population genetic theory predicts that the decrease in the genetic diversity limits species ability to keep pace with the changing selection pressure (Young and. Merrian, 1992). The release of genetically diverse material is a prere- quisite for preventing inbreeding depression in future generations. Hence ...

  18. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17

  19. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  20. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exig

  1. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  2. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W. Calonego

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1 the logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2 the logs with diameter of 20 to As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábuas mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1 o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2 as toras com 20 a <25, 25 a <30 e 30 a <35 cm de diâmetro apresentaram, respectivamente, 84,2"C, 73,1"C e 45,8"C ao final da vaporização; e (3 as rachaduras foramsignificativamente menores nas toras que atingiram a temperatura de transição vítrea.

  3. Quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis planted at three locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Angeli Sansígolo

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is one of the most popular species to use as raw material for pulp production in Brazil, as it provides excellent pulping, bleaching and papermaking results. The main objective of this study is to examine the quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis, at age 4 years approximately, planted in three different soils, two of which being low fertility and one being a superior fertility soil, and their reflections on wood quality and pulping results. Chemical analyses of the soils followed guidelines developed by Raij et al. (2001, while physical and chemical properties of the wood followed ABTCP, TAPPI and ABNT standards. Chemical analyses of the soils pointed to lower fertility in Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada as opposed to higher fertility in Fazenda Mendes União. Results revealed stronger tendencies for the stand grown in the less fertile soils (Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada in comparison to the stand grown in more fertile soil (Fazenda Mendes União as to: higher wood and bark basic density, lower height and dry matter content, higher bark content, lower extractives content and higher holocellulose content, higher total and screened yields from pulping, lower specific wood consumption/t of pulp, and higher tear and tensile indices at low refining levels.

  4. Evaluating variations of physiology-based hyperspectral features along a soil water gradient in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Aardt, van J.; Main, R.; Majeke, B.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing is viewed as a cost-effective alternative to intensive field surveys in assessing site factors that affect growth of Eucalyptus grandis over broad areas. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing to discriminate between site qualities in E.

  5. Bleaching of kraft pulps produced from green liquor pre-hydrolyzed South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hemicellulose pre-extraction of South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips using green liquor, on subsequent kraft pulping and bleaching processes was studied. This was done in the context of a biorefinery mill producing both ethanol...

  6. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning and endogenous expression of a Eucalyptus grandis UDP-glucose dehydrogenase cDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica T. Veneziano Labate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH catalyzes the oxidation of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc to UDP-glucuronate (UDP-GlcA, a key sugar nucleotide involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides. A full-length cDNA fragment coding for UGDH was cloned from the cambial region of 6-month-old E. grandis saplings by RT-PCR. The 1443-bp-ORF encodes a protein of 480 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 53 kDa. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the conversion of UDP-Glc to UDP-GlcA, confirming that the cloned cDNA encodes UGDH. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA showed a high degree of identity with UGDH from several plant species. The Southern blot assay indicated that more than one copy of UGDH is present in Eucalyptus. These results were also confirmed by the proteomic analysis of the cambial region of 3- and 22-year-old E. grandis trees by 2-DE and LC-MS/MS, showing that at least two isoforms are present. The cloned gene is mainly expressed in roots, stem and bark of 6-month-old saplings, with a lower expression in leaves. High expression levels were also observed in the cambial region of 3- and 22-year-old trees. The results described in this paper provide a further view of the hemicellulose biosynthesis during wood formation in E. grandis.

  8. Cold pretreatment amplifies the responses of in vitro Eucalyptus grandis shoots to cryopreparative drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chao-Hsuan; Mycock, David J; Padayachee, Kershree

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is an important commercial forestry species in South Africa. Little is known about its response (which is both drought and cold sensitive) to cold exposure and subsequent drying. The study was to investigate the responses of E. grandis in vitro shoots to cold pretreatment. E. grandis in vitro shoots were subjected to cold pretreatment (5, 10 and 15 degrees C at different exposure periods of 1 or 3 days), different drying times (20, 40, 60 and 80 min over activated silica gel), and the combination of the selected cold pretreatment regime and subsequent drying. Cold pretreatment alone did not cause detrimental effects but elicited the accumulation of phenolic acids. Shoots exposed to 5 degrees C for 3 days had significantly higher levels of reactive oxygen species as well. The accumulation of ROS and phenolic acids was also noted in unacclimated, dried shoots, especially after 80 min of drying. In addition, these shoots had significantly higher levels of total soluble sugars, lower levels of starch and elevated proline levels. This osmotic adjustment strategy was amplified in cold acclimated, dried shoots (10 degrees C, 3 days; 80 min drying), which also had significantly lower levels of ROS, increased levels of phenolic acid, and higher water content and viability.

  9. IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE MARCADOR RAPD E SCAR RELACIONADOS AO CARACTERE FLORESCIMENTO PRECOCE EM Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Silva Domingues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de eucalipto, existem ainda poucos instrumentos disponíveis para acelerar a seleção de genótipos superiores, e uma das principais estratégias sugeridas para se acelerar este processo é a identificação de marcadores moleculares ligados a caracteres de interesse. Foram avaliados 81 marcadores RAPD em uma progênie F1 de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden segregante para o caractere florescimento precoce utilizando-se a técnica de Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA. Dentre esses marcadores, um se mostrou relacionado ao caractere, sendo então convertido em Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR, avaliado em cada indivíduo da progênie e validado em outras progênies que apresentam o caractere. O SCAR mostrou-se informativo na progênie que apresenta um dos parentais como doador do fragmento polimórfico, com eficiência de 60%. Esses resultados descrevem o primeiro marcador SCAR desenvolvido para eucalipto e confirmam a utilidade da técnica de BSA como ferramenta molecular no melhoramento genético florestal e que poderia ser empregada para localização de marcadores ligados a diferentes caracteres silviculturais.

  10. Genetic and environmental factors affecting rooting in Eucalyptus Grandis X Eucalyptus Longistrata hybrid cuttings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ?jo, J.A. and Borralho, N.M.G. 1997. Short Note: Importance of additive genetic and specific combining ability effects for rooting ability of stem cuttings in Eucalyptus globulus. Silvae Genetica 46: 307-308. Luckman, G.A. and Menary, R.S. 2002.... References Borralho, N.M.G. and Wilson, P.J. 1994. Inheritance of initial survival and rooting ability in Eucalyptus globulus stem cuttings. Silvae Genetica 43: 238-242. DWAF. 2008. Report on Commercial Timber Resources and Primary Roundwood Processing...

  11. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  12. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  13. Fractionation of organic substances from the South African Eucalyptus grandis biomass by a combination of hot water and mild alkaline treatments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An alternative way of fractionating lignocellulose biomass into its individual components, hemicelluloses, lignin and cellulose, was investigated. South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips were fractionated using a combination of hot water...

  14. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  15. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

  16. Effects of Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizers Applications on Eucalyptus grandis Growth and Soil Conditions Efeito da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano Compostado e de Adubos Minerais no Solo e na Produtividade de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Forest plantations have been studied as a potential ecosystem able to absorb organic residues as fertilizers or soil conditioners. This study evaluate the effects of the application of composted organic waste and mineral fertilizers in a Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden plantation with 86 months of age in Neossolo Quartzarênico. It was analyzed wood production, litter decomposition and the physical and chemical changes in the soil properties. It was observed that the municipal composted organic wastes resulted in an increase of 45.6% in wood volume, as compared to the control. It also increase the velocity of the litter
    decomposition on average of 28% and 16% for leaves and twigs respectively, increasing the pH level values and the availability of water in the soil (from 13% to 25% more available water in the first layer of the soil, 0 -10 cm. 
    As florestas têm sido estudadas como ecossistemas aptos à absorver resíduos orgânicos, utilizados como fertilizantes e condicionadores do solo. Este trabalho avaliou no Município de Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico, os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano compostado e da adubação mineral em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis com 86 meses de idade. Foram analisadas as produtividades de madeira, a decomposição da serapilheira e as propriedades químicas e físicas do
    solo. Verificou-se que a aplicação de lixo urbano aumentou a produtividade de E. grandis com relação à testemunha, com um ganho de 45,6 % no volume cilíndrico de madeira. O solo com aplicação de lixo urbano apresentou um menor tempo de decomposição da serapilheira, em média com reduções de 28 % para folhas e de 16 % para galhos, com aumentos no pH e na água disponível no solo de 13 % a 25 %, na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade, que podem justificar a maior
    produção de madeira obtida no final da rotação, em

  17. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados

  18. Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB, fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³ e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³. Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 e ASTM-D 1037 (1991. Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 e CSA 0437-93 (1993. As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993. A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular, foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura. Somente a resistência

  19. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis (UFV01, UFV02, UFV03, UFV04, UFV05 e UFV06. Após a aplicação do glyphosate na dose de 129,6 g ha-1, acompanhou-se diariamente o surgimento de sintomas, e aos 14 dias coletaram-se amostras de folhas aparentemente sadias para as análises microscópicas. Todos os clones apresentaram cloroses e necroses a partir do quarto dia de exposição, independentemente da formulação utilizada. O clone UFV04 não apresentou injúrias anatômicas. Nos demais clones, os herbicidas ocasionaram plasmólise, colapso celular, hipertrofia e formação de tecido de cicatrização, porém não foram diagnosticadas variações na espessura das folhas. Visualmente, o Roundup transorb® foi o herbicida que provocou maior intoxicação nas plantas. Anatomicamente, plantas expostas ao Roundup NA® apresentaram maior número de danos. O clone UFV06 foi o mais sensível à ação das formulações testadas, considerando-se tanto a análise visual quanto a anatômica. Os resultados confirmam o valor diagnóstico da análise visual e prognóstico da anatomia vegetal, sendo o estudo conjunto desses parâmetros fundamental para avaliar a sensibilidade entre os clones e o potencial fitotóxico de herbicidas.Symptomatology is one of the most important criteria used to determine the damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors in plants. However, microscopic aspects are needed to elucidate intoxication mechanisms and early injury diagnosis. This work aimed to evaluate the

  20. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  1. Comparisons between two economically valuable forest species (Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda in relation to seed behaviour under controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to analyze seed behaviour under controlled deterioration and estimate viability equations for forest species Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda. Desired moisture content levels were achieved from initial values after either rehydration over water or drying over silica gel, both at 25 ºC. Seed sub samples with 8 moisture contents each for E. grandis (1.2 to 18.1%, initial value of 11.3% and P. taeda (1.5 to 19.5%, initial value of 12.9% were sealed in laminate aluminium-foil packets and stored in incubators maintained at 40, 50 and 65 ºC. The seeds from these species exhibited true orthodox and sub-orthodox storage behaviour, respectively, however E. grandis showed higher seed storability, probably due to a different seed chemical composition. Lowest moisture content limits estimated for application of the viability equations at 65 ºC were 4.9 and 4.1 mc for E. grandis and P. taeda, on equilibrium with ±20% RH. The viability equation estimated quantified the response of seed longevity to storage environment well with K E = 9.661 and 8.838; C W = 6.467 and 5.981; C H = 0.03498 and 0.10340; C Q = 0.0002330 and 0.0005476, for E. grandis and P. taeda, respectively.

  2. Avaliação do teor de umidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por medidores elétricos resistivos. Evaluation of the Eucalyptus grandis lumber moisture content by resistancetype moisture meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Guarnetti dos SANTOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivoverificar a precisão de dois tipos de medidoreselétricos de teor de umidade durante o processo desecagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Foramretiradas amostras representativas de 14 tábuas deEucalyptus grandis e secas em estufa elétrica a40 ºC de temperatura, até que o material atingisse10% de umidade. Durante a secagem foramdeterminados, periodicamente, o teor de umidadeatravés do método de massas correntes e deverificações simultâneas com um medidor elétricoportátil (EMM e com o sistema de controle de umsecador convencional (KCS. Os resultados mostraramque: (1 o sensor de umidade KCS pode substituiro método gravimétrico durante a secagem damadeira; (2 o medidor do teor de umidade EMMsubestima os reais teores de umidade durante asecagem da madeira e não é indicado parasubstituir o método gravimétrico de determinação de umidade.The aim of the study was to evaluate theprecision of two types of electric moisture metersduring the drying process of Eucalyptus grandisboards. Samples were obtained from 14 boards ofEucalyptus grandis and they were dried in electriclaboratory oven at 40 ºC of temperature, until thewood achieve 10% of moisture content. During thedrying, the moisture content was determined bygravimetric method and simultaneous checks by anelectric moisture meter (EMM and by kilncontrol system (KCS. The results showed that:(1 the KCS can replace the gravimetric methodduring the wood drying; (2 the EMMunderestimate the real moisture content during thedrying of boards and it is not indicate as substituteof the gravimetric method.

  3. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  4. EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD REFINING ON THE FIBER MORFHOLOGY AND ON MDF PANELS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of eucalypts wood for MDF panels producing is recent in Brazil and presents larger perspective of increase, in relationship to pine wood, due to the shorter harvesting cycle and integral use of the bark in the productive process, etc,. The present work evaluated the anatomical structure and properties of MDF panels manufactured at laboratory with Eucalyptus grandis fibers obtained in three treatments. It were evaluated the variations in heating time, digester and refining pressure and specific energy. MDF panels obtained in critical refining condition showed darker fibers and cell walls transversely broken and lower resistance to internal bond, surface soundness, withdrawal of screws and swelling in thickness. MDF panels obtained after less intensive refining condition showed better physical properties. Better refining conditions increase the bulk density and hinder the adhesive recover and fiber interlace, with worse physical and mechanics properties. Fiber morphology was evaluated through stereoscope and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM, establishing relationships between chips refining treatments and MDF panels properties.

  5. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lignina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a* e matriz amarelo (b* da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos.

  6. Termorretificação e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available A termorretificação pode ser utilizada na alteração da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante às madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações colorimétricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 °C, por três, cinco e sete horas. Corpos de prova de 2 × 2 × 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliação de claridade (L, matriz vermelho (a*, matriz amarelo (b*, saturação (C e ângulo de tinta (H. A claridade (L* reduziu-se a partir de 140 °C; a matriz vermelho (a*, a partir de 140 °C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*, a saturação e o ângulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 °C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alteração da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificação escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliação do uso do material.

  7. Influence of belt speed, grit sizes and pressure on the sanding of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jorge Duarte de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sanding process is important to the quality of wood products. Sanding reduces imperfections in wood surfaces and it is important to the final product and application of paints or varnishes. There are few studies about sanding in the literature and finding out the relationship between the input parameters (i.e., species of wood, grit size, abrasive on the output parameters (i.e., roughness, force, pressure will help to improve this process. This study analyzed the influence of input parameters as belt speed (cutting speed, grit size and pressure on the output parameters as surface roughness, cutting force (sanding force and power consumption on cross-grain sanding of Eucalyptus grandis wood. The tests were performed with 3 types of grit sizes (80, 100 and 120 grit, 3 belt speeds (10, 11 and 12 m/s and 2 pressures (219.89 and 283.44 g/cm². The surface roughness was analyzed based on roughness average (Ra. Sanding efforts were analyzed by cutting force and power consumption. It was found that the 100 grit size provided the lowest cutting force. It was observed that the belt speed, pressure and grit size influenced the surface roughness, cutting force and power consumption. The best surface finishes were obtained in tests with higher pressure.

  8. Métodos de captura para formigas em pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar três métodos de coleta de formigas em uma área de pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis em Santa Maria-RS. Foram realizadas amostragens de março a agosto de 2011, utilizando-se armadilha de solo (AS, isca atrativa à base de patê de fígado de frango (IA e extração por Funil de Berlese (FB, sendo seis repetições por tratamento em cada data de coleta. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação de glifosato, tendo sido realizados controles das plantas infestantes: na linha e na entrelinha de plantio (T1; em faixa de um metro paralela à linha de plantio e de um metro na parte central da entrelinha, sem controle (T2; em faixa de meio metro paralela à linha de plantio (T3, e a testemunha, sem controle de plantas infestantes (T4. A partir dos resultados obtidos, os métodos demonstraram ser complementares entre si, sugerindo a utilização de mais de um método na captura de formigas.

  9. SEEDLINGS ESTABLISHMENT OF Eucalyptus grandis MYCORRHIZATED WITH Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 IN SANDY SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  10. Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by

  11. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND E. GRANDIS STOMATIC CONDUCTANCE IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF WATER AND ASSOCIATION WITH BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    OpenAIRE

    WILSON DA SILVA; TOCIO SEDIYAMA; ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA SILVA; FRANCISCO AFFONSO FERREIRA

    1998-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs) de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4): duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis), três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26%) e quatro populações d...

  12. Optimal management and productivity of Eucalyptus grandis on former phosphate mined and citrus lands in central and southern Florida: influence of genetics and spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle W. Fabbro; Donald L. Rockwood

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus short rotation woody crops (SRWC) with superior genotypes are promising in central and south Florida due to their fast growth, freeze resilience, coppicing ability, and site tolerance. Four Eucalyptus grandis cultivars, E.nergy™ G1, G2, G3, and/or G5, were established in 2009 at varying planting densities on a...

  13. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LVL PANELS MADE FROM Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alfonso Lara Palma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly aimed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of LVL panels made from Eucalyptus grandis, from reforestation at the region of Sengés, in Paraná state, Brazil. LVL panels were manufactured using 23 veneers (2,4mm thick each one in commercial dimension of 2.500 mm long and 1,200 mm wide. The properties of static bending were analyzed (strength and rigidity in beams of the LVL, in the flatwise and edgewise positions. The properties of compression parallel to grain and shear parallel in the plans L-X and L-Y and density in this LVL panels were also analyzed according to ASTM-D 5456/4761 and ASTM-D 198 codes. The mean values to flatwise bending MOE and MOR were 13114 MPa and 88.76 MPa, respectively, and for edgewise bending MOE and MOR were 15871 MPa and 88.63 MPa, respectively. The density (12% of the LVL panels and of the veneers were 690 kg/m3 and 649 kg/m3. The mean values to parallel compression MOE and MOR were 16856 MPa and 58.05 MPa, respectively. The mean values of the maximum resistance to shear parallel in the plans L-X and L-Y were 5.96 MPa and 591 MPa, respectively. All these values reached partially or they passed the medium limits of reference (normative codes, researches and commercial catalogs established for LVL panels and original solid wood, attesting overall the quality of those panels produced with this wood.

  14. Amenizante Orgânico e Eucalyptus grandis para Fitoestabilização de Solo Contaminado com Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudinei De Marco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho avaliou a utilização de turfa como amenizante e Eucalyptus grandis como técnica de fitoestabilização para remediar solo contaminado com cobre. O trabalho foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (2 × 6, sendo sem e com adição de turfa (200 mL L-1 de solo e seis doses de cobre adicionadas ao solo (0 mg kg-1, 60 mg kg-1, 120 mg kg-1, 180 mg kg-1, 240 mg kg-1, 300 mg kg-1 de solo, com seis repetições. Avaliaram-se a altura das mudas, o diâmetro do colo, a massa seca radicular e aérea, a área superficial específica, os teores e a quantidade acumulada de cobre no sistema radicular e na parte aérea e o índice de translocação. A adição de turfa possibilitou efeito amenizante da contaminação por cobre e favoreceu o crescimento das mudas. As mudas de Eucalyptus grandis apresentam elevado acúmulo de cobre nas raízes, o que permite indicá-la como promissora para fins de fitoestabilização de solos contaminados com cobre.

  15. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Phenolic Extracts from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of different extracts and fractions from Eucalyptus. grandis × urophylla bark (EB against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities. The ethyl acetate extract (EB-E showed the highest activity among others. Seven fractions were derived from EB-E; among them EB-E-7 showed the highest significant inhibition of both enzymes, with IC50 of 1.40±0.18 and 1.72±0.12 μg/mL, respectively. EB-E and its active fraction EB-E-7 showed highest contents of total phenolics: 178.79±4.68 and 920.4±5.46 mg GAEag−1, respectively. HPLC-MS analysis of EB-E-7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid, quercetin-glucuronide, quercetin-3-α-rhamnopyranoside, and ellagic acid rhamnoside as major compounds, together with smaller concentrations of myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-hexoside, myricetin-3-α-arabinofuranoside, and isorhamnetin. Therefore, the phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis × E. urograndis bark potently inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, having potential in prevention of hyperglycemia.

  16. Development of general biomass allometric equations for Tectona grandis Linn.f. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. plantations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Ounban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some common, general biomass allometric equations were developed and tested for estimating the stem and aboveground biomass (AGB of Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations. In total, 84 datasets for T. grandis and 94 datasets for E. camaldulensis were gathered from published papers. The general allometric equations were then developed and the slopes and elevations were tested using ANCOVA. Spacing of 2 m × 4 m, 2 m × 8 m, 3 m × 3 m and 4 m × 4 m for T. grandis and 2 m × 3 m, 2 m × 4 m, 2 m × 8 m and 3 m × 3 m for E. camaldulensis were used as control factors. The results confirmed that diameter at breast height (D and total height (H were the best parameters for biomass estimation, of which the simple combination D2H produced the best estimation. The general allometric equations which gave the best fit (p  0.05. The range of D and H was 4.4–41.2 cm and 5.5–31.0 m, respectively, for T. grandis and 0.5–19.8 cm and 1.7–26.0 m, respectively, for E. camaldulensis.

  17. Parâmetros morfológicos na avaliação de qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Morphological parameters quality for the evalution of Eucalyptus grandis seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro Gomes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de estudar os parâmetros morfológicos nas avaliações da qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis produzidas em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes. O substrato utilizado foi uma mistura de 80% de composto orgânico (CO e de 20% de moinha de carvão (MC, adubados com a presença e ausência dos elementos N, P e K. Como embalagens foram utilizados quatro tamanhos de tubetes de plástico rígido, com volumes de 50, 110, 200 e 280 cm³. A adoção da altura e da relação altura/peso de matéria seca da parte aérea deve ser considerada, por terem sido estes os parâmetros que apresentaram boa contribuição relativa à qualidade das mudas, sem contudo ser um processo destrutivo. A adoção somente da altura para estimar a qualidade de mudas, aos 90 dias de idade no tubete de 110 cm³ de volume, poderá ser utilizada por apresentar boa contribuição relativa e por ser um parâmetro de fácil determinação e não ser um método destrutivo, além de sua medição ser muito fácil.An experiment was carried out to study the morphological parameters used to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings producedin different tube sizes. A mixture of 80% organic compound (CO and 20% charcoal powder fertilized with and without N, P and K was used as substrate. Four sizes of hard plastic tubes at the volumes of 50, 110, 200 and 280 cm³ were used as packaging. Height and height/weight relationship of the aerial part dry matter should be considered, since although providing a satisfactory contribution to seedling quality pattern, the parameters did not present a destructive process. The use of height only to estimate the quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in the 110 cm³ volume tube when they were 90-day old should be used, since it presents a satisfactory relative contribution, besides being a nondestructive, easily determined and measured parameter.

  18. Comparative interrogation of the developing xylem transcriptomes of two wood-forming species: Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2015-06-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process governed by genetic and environmental stimuli. Populus and Eucalyptus are fast-growing, high-yielding tree genera that represent ecologically and economically important species suitable for generating significant lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analysis of the developing xylem and leaf transcriptomes of Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis together with phylogenetic analyses identified clusters of homologous genes preferentially expressed during xylem formation in both species. A conserved set of 336 single gene pairs showed highly similar xylem preferential expression patterns, as well as evidence of high functional constraint. Individual members of multi-gene orthologous clusters known to be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis also showed conserved xylem expression profiles. However, species-specific expression as well as opposite (xylem versus leaf) expression patterns observed for a subset of genes suggest subtle differences in the transcriptional regulation important for xylem development in each species. Using sequence similarity and gene expression status, we identified functional homologs likely to be involved in xylem developmental and biosynthetic processes in Populus and Eucalyptus. Our study suggests that, while genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis show high levels of gene expression conservation, differential regulation of some xylem development genes may give rise to unique xylem properties. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. In vitro organogenesis of Eucalyptus grandis: effects of boron and calcium=Efeitos do boro e cálcio na organogênese in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro organogenesis of woody species plays an essential role in the improvement of forest products by providing saplings with high commercial value. Furthermore, mineral nutrition plays an important role in the induction of organogenic responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron and calcium in the organogenesis of nodal segments from seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis growing under in vitro conditions. The concentration of boron and calcium in MS medium was modified to induce organogenic responses in 45-day-old nodal segments used as explants. After 60 days, the fresh weight, dry weight, ratio of fresh and dry weight, relative water content and relative matter content accumulated by the explants were evaluated. The concentrations of boron and calcium in the culture medium influenced the in vitro organogenic control of Eucalyptus grandis. Reduced combinations of boron and calcium induced callus formation and dry matter accumulation in the explants. A boron concentration of 100% (1.10 mg L-1 combined with 100% (119.950 mg L-1 and 200% (239.900 mg L-1 of calcium, and 200% (2.20 mg L-1 of boron combined with 100% (119.950 mg L-1 of calcium allowed the induction of well-developed buds, which can be used for the regeneration of micro-plants.A organogênese in vitro de espécies lenhosas caracteriza-se como fator fundamental para a obtenção de mudas com interesse comercial, gerando aplicações práticas na área do melhoramento florestal. Adicionalmente, a nutrição mineral desempenha papel importante nas respostas de indução organogênica. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do boro e cálcio na organogênese de segmentos nodais oriundos de plântulas de Eucalyptus grandis germinadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais com 45 dias após a germinação foram utilizados como explantes. Os explantes foram submetidos a combinações de boro e cálcio em meio de cultura MS, visando induzir diferentes respostas organogênicas. Ao

  20. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas

  1. Métodos de estimativa de volume comercial para Eucalyptus grandis: especificidades e recomendações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schröder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Existem basicamente três métodos de estimativa de volume comercial de árvores individuais: uso do fator de forma, modelos de volume e funções de afilamento, os quais apresentam resultados diferentes quanto à precisão de variáveis e devem ser utilizados adequadamente para diferentes finalidades. A comparação entre estes três métodos foi o objetivo desta pesquisa e, para tanto, foram medidas árvores de Eucalyptus grandis provenientes de primeiro desbaste. A utilização de equação de dupla entrada foi o método mais eficiente para a determinação do volume. O uso do fator de forma se mostrou restrito e as funções de afilamento foram eficientes para elaboração de tabelas de sortimento.

  2. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  3. Qualidade e rendimento do carvão vegetal de um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Reis de Assis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the quality and yields of the charcoal of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clone commercially named GG100 for use in iron industry at different ages, plantation sites and spacing. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial electric furnace (muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 until the final temperature of 450 ºC, remaining stabilized for 30 min. The gravimetric yield in charcoal, pyroligneous extract, non condensable gases and insoluble tar, proximate and elemental chemical composition, relative apparent density and higher heating value of the charcoal were determined. In general, the charcoal evaluated may be considered homogeneous based on chemical and physical aspects and can be used in the steel sector. The apparent relative density allowed the charcoal samples differentiation produced by the same pyrolysis condition. The results obtained suggest that the density of the charcoal is highly influenced by the wood origin. It was observed that higher values of higher heating values are positively related with carbon content and negatively related with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and with gravimetric yield in charcoal.

  4. Identification of PCR-base markers linked to wood splitting in Eucalyptus Grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood splitting is a defect in eucalyptus which results in considerable losses when converting logs to solid wood products. Commonly in forestry, molecular markers are identified through studying pedigrees from a single cross. This limits...

  5. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  6. EFEITO DO INTERVALO DE IMERSÃO E DE INJEÇÃO DE AR NA MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla EM BIORREATOR DE IMERSÃO TEMPORÁRIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira; Aloisio Xavier; Ricardo Miguel Penchel Filho; Jocemar Palauro dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar diferentes intervalos de imersão (2, 4, 8 e 16 horas) e suportes de apoio (papel-filtro e espuma) dos explantes de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dentro dos recipientes de imersão temporária automatizada (RITA(r)), assim como um sistema de ventilação com entrada de ar acoplado ao recipiente dos biorreatores. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca, número de brotos e hiper-hidricidade dos explantes, na fase de multiplica...

  7. Calcium and potassium silicates and the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of silicate is a practice that has been frequently adopted in annual crops, although few studies have been conducted in order to verify its efficiency in forest tree species. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of calcium and potassium silicates in the growth of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Alambari county, State of São Paulo. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with eight treatments, three replications and 25 plants per plot, maintained at the field capacity moisture level. Seedlings were planted in plastic tubes using local substrate, basic fertilization and silicates. Diameter, height and fresh and dry biomass of the seedlings were determined 150 days after silicates treatments were applied. The use of silicates either in the substrate or through foliar application, in the production of eucalypt seedlings has proven to be inadequate when the substrate presents a balanced basic composition in terms of nutrients and pH.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.83

    O uso de silicato é uma prática que vem sendo adotada com frequência em culturas anuais, muito embora poucos trabalhos tenham sido realizados com intuito de verificar sua eficiência em espécies florestais arbóreas. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silicatos de cálcio e de potássio no crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Município de Alambari, SP. O delineamento usado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos, três repetições e 25 plantas por parcela, sendo mantidas na umidade de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram plantadas em tubetes de plástico, utilizando substrato local, com adubação básica e silicatos. Diâmetro de colo, altura e biomassa verde e seca das mudas foram determinados 150 dias após a

  8. Efeito do tempo de armazenamento de minestacas no enraizamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Effect of storage time of minicuttings on the rooting of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento de miniestacas no processo de enraizamento de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6 x 4, constituído de seis tratamentos (estaqueamento após a coleta e estaqueamento após o armazenamento em câmara fria por 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 dias e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações do porcentual de enraizamento e crescimento das miniestacas enraizadas em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e a pleno sol. Concluiu-se que o plantio das miniestacas logo após a coleta no minijardim clonal foi o que proporcionou melhor resposta ao enraizamento nos quatro clones estudados, sendo observado efeito negativo do armazenamento dos propágulos, mesmo quando realizado por curto período de tempo.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the storage time of minicuttings on the rooting process of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden carried on in a hydroponic system in small gutters. The experimental design used was of random plots, in a factorial arrangement 6 x 4, constituted by six treatments (cutting after collection, cutting after storage in cold chamber per 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 days and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. Evaluations of the rooting percentage and growth of the rooted minicuttings in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun were made. It was concluded that planting the minicuttings right after the collection in the clonal miniorchard had the best rooting response for the four clones studied and also that there was a negative effect of the storage, even when stored for a short

  9. Cinética da remoção dos extrativos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis durante polpação Kraft = Kinetics of the removal of Eucalyptus grandis wood extractives during Kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a cinética da remoção dos extrativos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis durante polpação Kraft. As polpações foram efetuadas em reatores tubulares de aço, usando-se madeira na forma de serragem nas seguintes condições: álcali ativo = 14%, sulfidez = 25%, relação licor / madeira = 10 L kg-1 de madeira seca e temperaturas de 130, 150, 160 e 180ºC durante tempos de 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 min. Após as polpações foram realizadas análises do rendimento bruto e de extrativos totais no resíduo (polpa + rejeitos. Foram determinados extrativos totais (álcool etílico-tolueno (1:2, álcool etílico e água quente, respectivamente e extrativos solúveis em acetona. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos extrativos é degradada nos primeiros 30 min. do processo de polpação. Observou-se que a remoção ocorre em duas fases bem distintas: a primeira, rápida, quando a maioria dos extrativos é removida e a última, lenta, quando pequena fração dos extrativos é removida.The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of the removal ofEucalyptus grandis wood extractives during Kraft pulping. The pulping was done in steel tubular reactors using wood saw under the following conditions: active alkali = 14%, sulfidity = 25%; liquor-to-wood ratio = 10 L kg-1 of dry wood; and temperatures of 130, 150, 160 and 180°C during 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes. After pulping, analyses were conducted of the yield and extractives in residue (pulp and reject.Total extractives (ethyl alcohol-toluene (1:2, ethyl alcohol and hot water, respectively and soluble extractives in acetone were analyzed. The results showed that most extractives are degraded in the first 30 minutes of the pulping process. It was observed that the removal occurs in two different stages: the first is rapid, where the majority of the extractives are removed, and the last is slow, where few extractives are removed.

  10. Growth models for six Eucalyptus species in Angola | Delgado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. macarthurii H.Deane & Maiden, E. resinifera Sm., E. siderophloia Benth. and E. grandis Hill ex. Maiden, for the central highlands of Angola, and used these models to simulate the development of stand characteristics.

  11. Efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas em quatro clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, arranjo bifatorial com parcelas subdivididas, tendo os intervalos de tempo nas parcelas (0, 2 e 4 horas e clones nas subparcelas (C1, C2, C3 e C4, em três repetições de 192 plantas cada. Avaliou-se o enraizamento e a sobrevivência de miniestacas na saída da casa de vegetação e casa de sombra, a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a qualidade do sistema radicular de mudas aos 50 dias de idade. Em três dos quatro clones estudados, períodos de armazenamento das miniestacas superiores a 2 horas causam redução significativa no percentual de enraizamento e na sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias de idade. No entanto, o clone C2 apresenta a máxima eficiência técnica para enraizamento na saída da casa de sombra e para sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias, quando suas miniestacas são armazenadas por, respectivamente, 2,3 e 2,5 horas; assim como apresenta maior crescimento em altura, quando armazenadas por 4 horas. Em todos os clones, mudas provenientes de miniestacas armazenadas por 4 horas apresentam qualidade do sistema radicular inferior ao sistema radicular de mudas obtidas a partir de miniestacas com 0 e 2 horas de armazenamento.

  12. Características tecnológicas da madeira de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  13. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  14. In vitro ectomycorrhiza formation by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus in Eucalyptus grandis Formação de ectomicorrizas in vitro por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus em Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Dutra Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ectomycorrhizas by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. in Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. was studied by in vitro synthesis in Petri dishes. The formation of ectomycorrhizas was observed for all strains tested. Ectomycorrhizas formed by the monokaryotic strains presented a sheath of hyphae around the roots and a Hartig net limited to the epidermis layer, typical of the angiosperm ectomycorrhizas. Colonization rates, a measure of the number of ectomycorrhizas in relation to the total number of lateral root tips, varied from 23 to 62%. Some monokaryotic strains stimulated the formation of lateral roots, promoting increases of up to 109% above the control. The presence of some of the isolates in the in vitro synthesis medium stimulated the production of thicker lateral root tips. The dimensions of the lateral roots tips and ectomycorrhizas varied from one isolate to the next, indicating a variation in their capacity to provoke morphological changes in the host plant roots. The dikaryotic strain M5M11 presented higher values for lateral root yield, number of ectomycorrhizas, and colonization percentage than the corresponding monokaryotic strains, M5 and M11. This indicated the possibility of selecting compatible performing monokaryotic isolates for the yield of superior dikaryotic strains. The set of monokaryotic strains tested varied greatly in their ability to colonize E. grandis roots and cause secondary metabolism-related morphological changes in roots, providing a wealth of model systems for the study of genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes involved in Pisolithus-Eucalyptus ectomycorrhiza formation.A formação de ectomicorrizas por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. foi estudada usando-se o método de síntese in vitro em placas de Petri. A formação de

  15. A microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezar Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast-growing Eucalyptus grandis trees are one of the most efficient producers of wood in South Africa. The most serious problem affecting the quality and yield of solid wood products is the occurrence of end splitting in logs. Selection of E. grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the South African forestry industry. We used microarray-based DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis in combination with expression profiling to develop fingerprints and profile gene expression of wood-forming tissue of seven different E. grandis trees. Results A 1578-probe cDNA microarray was constructed by arraying 768 cDNA-AFLP clones and 810 cDNA library clones from seven individual E. grandis trees onto silanised slides. The results revealed that 32% of the spotted fragments showed distinct expression patterns (with a fold change of at least 1.4 or -1.4 and a p value of 0.01 could be grouped into clusters representing co-expressed genes. Evaluation of the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the array showed that the individual genotypes could be discriminated. Conclusion A simple, yet general method was developed for genotyping and expression profiling of wood-forming tissue of E. grandis trees differing in their splitting characteristics and in their lignin contents. Evaluation of gene expression profiles and the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the chip suggest that the prototype chip developed could be useful for transcript profiling and for the identification of Eucalyptus trees with preferred wood quality traits in commercial breeding programmes.

  16. The influence of pulping and washing conditions on the properties of Eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps treated with chelants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area, M C; Carvalho, M G V S; Ferreira, P J; Felissia, F E; Barboza, O M; Bengoechea, D I

    2010-03-01

    The influence of different addition points of a chelating agent and a counter-ion exchange on the properties of Eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps is studied. Seven pulps were considered: two laboratory kraft pulps with or without the inclusion of the chelant DTPMPA (diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid)), a mill kraft pulp and four mill pulps after Ca(+2) or Na(+) counter-ion exchange followed, or not, by washing with DTPMPA addition. The laboratory pulps required lower beating energy than the industrial pulps for achieving 30 degrees SR, and the corresponding handsheets also showed better strength and optical properties, as well as a more homogeneous and smooth surface. The counter-ion exchange decreases the mechanical resistances and increases brightness. However, the effects of Ca(+2) are deeper than those of Na(+). DTPMPA added to pulping causes a decrease in calcium content whereas as a washing additive does not have a relevant impact on the mechanical and optical properties. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Streamflow responses to afforestation with Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula and to felling in the Mokobulaan experimental catchments, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David F.; Lesch, W.

    1997-12-01

    The reductions in streamflow following the afforestation of grassland with Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula in the Mokobulaan research catchments on the Mpumalanga escarpment, and the subsequent response in streamflow to clearfelling of the eucalypts are presented. Afforestation with eucalypts of an entire catchment with a virgin annual runoff of 236 mm, caused a statistically significant decrease in streamflow in the third year after planting and the stream dried up completely in the ninth year after planting. The eucalypts were clearfelled when 16 years old but full perennial streamflow did not return until five years later. Afforestation with pines of an entire catchment with a virgin annual runoff of 217 mm, produced a significant decrease in streamflow in the fourth year after planting and caused the stream to dry up completely in the twelfth year after planting. The drying up of the streams was not altogether surprising as the annual runoff was lower than the expected reductions owing to complete afforestation. The delayed return of streamflow in the clearfelled catchment is surprising though, and is attributed to the desiccation of deep, soil-water stores by the eucalypts. These stores had to be replenished before the streams could return to normal behaviour.

  18. Efeito dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bueno Goulart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos cofatores hidroquinona, prolina e triptofano, associados ao regulador de crescimento AIB (ácido indolbutírico na propagação vegetativa pelo enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal realizado em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituído de quatro concentrações para cada cofator e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram realizadas avaliações na casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e ao sol nas miniestacas enraizadas. Concluiu-se que o triptofano (0,8 mg L-1 e a hidroquinona (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicados associados ao AIB, melhoraram o enraizamento em três clones dos quatro clones avaliados; enquanto a prolina (0,2 a 0,4 mg L-1, aplicada associada ao AIB, promoveu melhoria expressiva no enraizamento das miniestacas nos quatros clones estudados, evidenciando ser entre os cofatores testados o mais eficiente.

  19. ESTABELECIMENTO A CAMPO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis MICORRIZADAS COM Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 EM SOLO ARENOSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Hentz de Mello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and the initial growth of mycorrhizated eucalypts with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 ectomycorrhizal fungus, after its transplant to area subject to the arenization process in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The area was divided into four blocks, each one with four treatments (fertile turf with and without mycorrhizae, Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae. Each parcel was composed of 16 seedlings arranged in four lines in the spacing of 1,5 m x 1,5 m, totalizing in each block 64 seedlings. 90 days after the planting in the field, the eucaliptus seedlings produced in turf with fungus in the fertile substratum presented a survival rate of 100 %, whereas for those produced in fertile turf without fingi, the survival rate was 92 %. The seedlings produced in the Quartzarenic Neosoil with and without mycorrhizae had a survival rate varying around 98 and 89 %, respectively. The produced seedlings with turf and fungus showed significant differences in height and stem diameter. This study showed that the Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced in substratum fertile turf and inoculated with the Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC Pt 116 isolated may maintain good development and establishment in the field.

  20. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available of modem planta- tion silviculture. They involve the marking, felling and removal of a proportion of the trees in the stand. Thinnings are usually applied to redistribute the growth potential of the plantation so that timber yields.... The eucalyptus plantation at Westfalia D is an- other example of how the development of a planta- tion may dominate the observed streamflow, mask- ing the effects of thinnings. The reduction in stream- flow commenced three years...

  1. Shifts in the bacterial community composition along deep soil profiles in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur Prudêncio de Araujo; Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia de; Bini, Daniel; Durrer, Ademir; Robin, Agnès; Bouillet, Jean Pierre; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in deep soils and the role of Eucalyptus and Acacia on the structure of these communities remains very limited. In this study, we targeted the bacterial community along a depth profile (0 to 800 cm) and compared community structure in monospecific or mixed plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis. We applied quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize composition of bacterial communities. We identified a decrease in bacterial abundance with soil depth, and differences in community patterns between monospecific and mixed cultivations. Sequence analysis indicated a prevalent effect of soil depth on bacterial communities in the mixed plant cultivation system, and a remarkable differentiation of bacterial communities in areas solely cultivated with Eucalyptus. The groups most influenced by soil depth were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (more frequent in samples between 0 and 300 cm). The predominant bacterial groups differentially displayed in the monospecific stands of Eucalyptus were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our results suggest that the addition of an N2-fixing tree in a monospecific cultivation system modulates bacterial community composition even at a great depth. We conclude that co-cultivation systems may represent a key strategy to improve soil resources and to establish more sustainable cultivation of Eucalyptus in Brazil.

  2. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisou a influência da densidade básica de dois clones do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 na qualidade da polpa branqueada (dimensões de fibras e propriedades físico-mecânicas. O desempenho das madeiras nos resultados da polpação, branqueamento e refino foram analisados. As polpações Kraft foram realizadas em digestor de circulação forçada para obtenção de números kappa de 17  1. As polpas não-branqueadas foram submetidas a uma pré-deslignificação com oxigênio e branqueadas pela seqüência D0EOPD1 visando à alvura de 90  1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a polpa branqueada do clone de menor densidade básica apresentou, significativamente, menor número de revoluções no moinho PFI para atingir o índice de tração de 70 N.m/g, baixo grau. Schopper Riegler, para atingir esse nível de tração, gerou folhas com valores mais elevados de volume específico e opacidade. Essas características e propriedades permitem concluir que a polpa do clone de menor densidade foi mais indicada para a fabricação de papéis de imprimir e escrever. A polpa branqueada do clone de maior densidade básica apresentou valores mais elevados de volume específico aparente, ascensão capilar Klemm e menor índice de retenção de água quando analisada sem refino. A polpa branqueada do clone de maior densidade básica mostrou características mais favoráveis para a fabricação de papéis para fins sanitários.

  3. Acúmulo de Nutrientes na Biomassa e na Serapilheira de Eucalyptus grandis em Função da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano e de Nutrientes Minerais Nutrient Accumulation in Eucalyptus grandis Biomass and Litter Using Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Quantidades significativas de resíduos orgânicos são produzidas a cada ano pela população, tornando-se indispensável obter práticas econômicas e seguras para a disposição e utilização destes. A aplicação de resíduos orgânicos em plantios florestais é uma alternativa a ser considerada. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano e da adubação mineral em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes na serapilheira e na biomassa aérea das árvores aos 86 meses de idade, em Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico. Verificou-se, nas pcarcelas experimentais com lixo urbano, maiores valores para biomassa arbórea (36,9 % de ganho com relação à testemunha e maiores conteúdos de N, P, K e Ca no sítio antes do corte das árvores. Após a retirada de madeira (alburno e cerne, observou-se também que com a manutenção das outras partes da árvore nessas parcelas, houve uma maior disponibilização desses nutrientes no sítio, cujos valores foram entre 18 % e 49 % a mais dos conteúdos encontrados para a testemunha, que poderão contribuir para a manutenção da produtividade. Os resultados evidenciaram a importância de se manter a casca das árvores no sítio, pois o descascamento feito no local propiciou, em média, um retorno de 32 % do total de nutrientes acumulados na biomassa aérea. Também, na colheita da madeira, galhos, folhas, ponteiras e serapilheira, devem ser mantidos no campo como um meio de se aumentar o estoque de nutrientes das próximas rotações.
    Large quantities of organic wastes are produced mainly in big cities, annually. There is urgent demand for safe and possible economic practices for its use on forest plantations. This study evaluated the effects of the application of urban waste and mineral fertilizers on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden plantation

  4. Caracterização e comparação entre diferentes granulometrias de serragem de Eucalyptus grandis para confecção de briquetes. Characterization and comparison between different sizes of Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for briquettes confection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Farrapo GONÇALVES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande geração de resíduos lignocelulósicos, a partir de processos industriais e da agricultura, torna o uso da biomassa uma fonte de energia térmica viável; sua compactação aumenta sua densidade, seu poder calorífico e sua resistência. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre briquetes produzidos a partir de diferentes granulometrias de serragens de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = serragem que passou pela peneira de 10 mesh e ficou retida na de 20 mesh (10 a 20; T2 = 20 a 60; T3 = 60 a 100 ; T4 = 10 a 100. As características da matéria-prima mostraram-se viáveis para a produção de briquetes, com teor de umidade de 12%, 88,65% de voláteis, 0,44% de cinzas, 10,80% de carbono fixo e poder calorífico de 4.229 kcal.kg-1. As comparações realizadas entre os tratamentos foram feitas a partir da expansão (diametral e longitudinal e de ensaios de compressão diametral para força máxima e tensão de força máxima dos briquetes. O tratamento T4 foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados nesses testes (1,04%; 15,06%; 90,22 kgf; 0,6714 MPa, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente, a nível de 5% dos outros tratamentos. A produção em larga escala do tratamento T4 viabiliza a produção dos briquetes, pois não é necessário o processo de separação granulométrica.The great generation of lignocellulose wastes from industrial processes and agriculture makes the use of biomass a source of viable thermal energy; its compaction increases its density, its calorific value and its strength. The objective of the research consisted in comparing briquettes produced from different particle sizes of sawdust of Eucalyptus grandis. The treatments were: T1 = sawdust that passed through 10 mesh sieve and was retained on the 20 mesh (10 to 20; T2 = 20 to 60; T3 = 60 to 100; T4 = 10 to 100. The characteristics of the raw material proved feasibility to produce briquettes, with moisture content of 12%, 88.65% of

  5. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento acerca da resistência dos compostos ligno-celulósicos ao ataque de microrganismos é primordial para servir de base à prevenção da deterioração e a correta destinação de emprego do material. Nesse sentido, avaliou-se a resistência natural a fungos apodrecedores de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com partículas de madeira (Eucalyptus grandis e/ou bambu (Bambusa vulgaris. Foram produzidas, em laboratório, chapas aglomeradas nas dimensões 50x50x0,95cm e massa específica pré-estabelecida em 0,70g cm-3, nas proporções de 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100 de madeira e bambu, respectivamente. A massa de partículas representou 91% da massa seca de cada painel, sendo, o restante, formado pelo adesivo ureia-formaldeído (8% e parafina (1%. Para determinação da resistência natural ao ataque de fungos xilófagos, os painéis foram testados em laboratório e utilizados os fungos Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda e Trametes versicolor (podridão branca, de acordo com a ASTM D 2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, foi observado que os painéis confeccionados com mistura de partículas de madeira e bambu apresentaram menor resistência ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores. Painéis que utilizaram apenas bambu ou madeira apresentaram resistência biológica semelhante. Dentre os fungos, T. versicolor atacou mais severamente os painéis.The knowledge about lignocellulosic compounds strength to the attack of microorganisms is essential for preventing deterioration and also for knowing the correct usage of the material. Accordingly it was evaluated the natural resistance of wood panels made of particles of wood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris to decay fungi. Particleboards were produced in laboratory, each of them with dimensions 50x50x0.95cm and density pre-set at 0.70g cm-3, in proportions of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 of wood and bamboo, respectively. The particles mass represented 91% of the

  6. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  7. RELAÇÃO ENTRE CONCENTRAÇÕES FOLIARES DE CARBOIDRATOS SOLÚVEIS TOTAIS E TOLERÂNCIA AO FRIO EM DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireli Moura Pitz Floriani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of the rustification on cold tolerance in Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, and Eucalyptus saligna Sm., by quantifying leaf contents of total soluble carbohydrates and proline. Seedlings (three months old and about 50 cm height of these species were submitted to two periods of rustification (zero and 21 days exposure to day/night temperatures of 5 ºC/1 ºC, with photoperiod of 12 hours. After each period of rustification, the seedlings were submitted, for 3 hours, to three temperatures below 0 ºC (-2 ºC, -5 ºC, and -8 ºC. The seedlings were then assessed for leaf contents of total soluble carbohydrates and proline, lethal temperature of 50 % (LT50, and cold damage index. Proline was not detected in the leaves of all species. However, in non-rustified seedlings, there were differences between the species regarding to the foliar contents of carbohydrates, with the highest values in Eucalyptus benthamii, intermediary in Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus grandis, and the lowest in Eucalyptus saligna. The rustification treatment increased leaf concentration of total soluble carbohydrates by 2.9, 2.5, 2.8, and 1.3 in Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus benthamii, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. In the seedlings not submitted to the rustification, the LT50 value was lower in Eucalyptus benthamii, intermediary in Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus grandis, and higher in Eucalyptus saligna. However, in rustified seedlings the LT50 was no different among the species. Rustification reduced the LT50, except in Eucalyptus benthamii. There was a negative correlation between leaf concentration of total soluble carbohydrates and the LT50, considering all Eucalyptus species evaluated. The results show that leaf concentration of total soluble carbohydrates can be used as an indicator of cold tolerance in species of Eucalyptus.

  8. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea con manejo tumba y quema Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea sites with slash and burn management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó la comunidad de oligoquetos bajo sitios con diferentes periodos de establecimiento y manejo de plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis, sin vegetación (SV, con cinco años en producción (Euc y vegetación secundaria con 15 años (Acah que han pasado por el proceso de tumba y quema en suelos de Acrisol en Huimanguillo, Tabasco; y se analizaron las propiedades físico-químicas del suelo (D.A., humedad, textura, pH, Ntot, MO, P, K, CIC. La recolecta de lombrices se realizó al finalizar las lluvias (agosto-octubre 2007. Se muestreó en tres parcelas con seis réplicas en cada una. Se encontró que los suelos tenían pH de 3.0-4.5 en los primeros 30cm de profundidad. Los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO y nitrógeno total (Ntot fueron significativamente menores en los sitios SV (6-8% y 0.19-0.22% respectivamente que en Euc y Acah (MO=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%. La especie Pontoscolex corethrurus domino en toda el área, presentando mayores densidades y biomasas en Euc (164.4ind/m² y 36.8g/m² respectivamente y Acah (138.7ind/m² y 19.1g/m² respectivamente, mientras que en SV sus poblaciones fueron reducidas en un 80%. Se encontró que el sistema Acah sigue presentando rasgos de un sistema perturbado, al no recuperar fácilmente la diversidad de oligoquetos y las concentraciones de nutrientes disponibles en el sueloSoil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus

  9. Desarrollo de funciones de índice de sitio para Eucalyptus grandis cultivado en la Mesopotamia argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRECHI, E.H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe desarrollaron modelos para la estimación del índice de sitio para Eucalyptus grandis implantado en la Mesopotamia argentina. Dicha estimación se llevó a cabo a través de la evaluación de una base general de datos que contó con 106 parcelas (439 mediciones, de las cuales 48 (197 mediciones pertenecían a la zona Misiones-NE Corrientes y 58 (242 mediciones a la zona Concordia-Monte Caseros (NE Entre Ríos-SE Corrientes. Analizadas las curvas promedio de evolución de la altura dominante con la edad de las dos regiones agroecológicas consideradas, se observó que sus pendientes diferían por lo que se ajustaron funciones de sitio para cada una de ellas. Fueron empleados tres métodos tradicionales, curva guía, reparametrización y ecuaciones diferenciales. El procedimiento elegido dependió de la calidad de información disponible en las zonas agroecológicas bajo estudio, aunque se priorizó que cumplieran con algunos criterios deseables para las funciones de sitio como el polimorfismo y que las alturas sean invariantes respecto de la edad índice, entre otros criterios, como también la de estabilidad frente a sus propios datos. Para la zona agro-ecológica Misiones-NE Corrientes se lograron buenos ajustes con el método de la curva Guía, mientras que para la zona Concordia-Monte Caseros se optó por el modelo de Schumacher ajustado mediante el método de aproximación algebraica diferencial (ADA.AbstractEquations for the prediction of site index of Eucalyptus grandis planted in the Mesopotamia region of Argentina, were developed. With this purpose a data base with 106 plots (439 pairs age-hdom was used; of it 48 (197 pairs age-Hdom belongs to Misiones-NE Corrientes agro ecological zone and the other 58 plots (242 pairs age-hdom belongs to the zone Concordia-Monte Caseros (SE Corrientes – NE Entre Ríos. Analyzed the evolution of the relationship between age-hdom of both zones it was determined that the slopes of the models

  10. Acúmulo e distribuição de nutrientes em Eucalyptus grandis sob diferentes densidades populacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Leite

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento realizado na região de Santa Bárbara (MG, avaliou-se o efeito da densidade populacional de plantas (DP sobre as relações nutricionais de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos consistiram de sete DP, variando de 500 a 5.000 plantas por ha-1. As avaliações, realizadas em julho de 1994, quando as plantas tinham 31 meses de idade, consistiram da coleta e análise química de amostras de tecidos vegetais dos componentes da parte aérea de uma árvore média de cada parcela e da serrapilheira. Determinaram-se as concentrações e calcularam-se os conteúdos e a eficiência de utilização de N, P, K, Ca, e Mg. As relações entre os conteúdos de P, N, K e Mg na biomassa da parte aérea, os coeficiente de utilização (CUB de P, Ca e Mg pelo tronco e a DP foram mais bem descritas por equações quadráticas. O conteúdo de Ca relacionou-se de modo linear, e os CUB de K e N não foram alterados com a DP. Analisando o balanço de nutrientes, observou-se que as quantidades de P disponível, K e Ca trocáveis existentes no solo (camada de 0 a 195 cm não seriam suficientes para suprir a demanda nutricional das plantas em um novo ciclo de crescimento, até a idade de 31 meses, em DP superiores a 833 árvores por ha-1.

  11. Construction of Allometric Relationships to Predict Growth Parameters, Stem Biomass and Carbon of Eucalyptus grandis Growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available             Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts in Sri Lanka. Tree diameter and total height were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values. Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots. According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. Carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass. Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  12. Construction of allometric relationships to predict growth parameters, stem biomass and carbon of Eucalyptus grandis growing in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMCUP Subasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of carbon storage through the establishment of man-made forests has been considered as a mitigation option to reduce increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Therefore the present study was carried out to estimate the biomass and carbon storages of the main stem of Eucalyptus grandis using allometric relationships using the plantations of Nuwara Eliya and Badulla districts. Tree diameter and total were measured for the samples trees and stem volume was estimated using a previously built individual model for the same species. Stem biomass was estimated using core samples and carbon was determined using Walkley-Black method. Finally the biomass values were converted separately to the carbon values.   Non-liner regression analysis was employed for the construction of models which had age as the explanatory variable. Linear regression was used in order to build the models to predict the above ground and stem biomass and carbon using volume as the explanatory variable. For both linear and non-linear types, the model quality was tested using R2 and fitted line plots.   According to the results, stem biomass and carbon values at the 7th year were 110.8 kg and 68.7 kg respectively. Stem biomass and carbon values at the 40th year were 1,095.8 kg and 679.4 kg respectively. The carbon content at the age 20 was 62.0% from the stem biomass.   Exponential models were proven to be better than the logistic models to predict the diameter, height, stem volume, biomass and carbon with age. R2 values and the fitted line plots indicated that the selected models are of high quality. Linear models built to predict the stem biomass and carbon using stem volume also showed the high accuracy of these models which had R2 values above 97.9%.

  13. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in

  14. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden IN STIMULATING MYCORRHIZAL SIBIPIRUNA SEEDLINGS (Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO Os metabólitos secundários extraídos de espécies florestais formadoras de ectomicorrizas podem estimular a simbiose entre fungos ectomicorrízicos e espécies florestais nativas do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de associação ectomicorrízica e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna, em condições de casa de vegetação. Plântulas de sibipiruna foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos constituídos pela presença e au...

  15. Proline content and protein patterns in Eucalyptus grandis shoots submitted to high and low temperature shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Proline content and protein patterns changes in response to temperature shocks of both acclimated and non acclimated E. grandis shoots cultivated in vitro were investigated. Analysis of soluble proteins through SDS-PAGE and proline were carried out after 12h at 12ºC (cold acclimation or 33ºC (heat acclimation, and immediately after temperature shocks at 41ºC and 0ºC. Analyses were also performed 24h after the temperature shocks (recovery period. Temperature treatment at 0ºC did not change soluble protein patterns both in acclimatized and non acclimatized plants, whereas cold temperature induced high proline levels, which kept relatively high after recovery period. Three novel, probably HSPs, proteins (90.5, 75 and 39 kDa were observed in both acclimated and non acclimated plants submitted to high temperatures. Plants exposed at 41ºC were able to recover from heat shocks after 24h, whereas they did not recover completely from cold shocks. The effect of the acclimation period on the recovering (homeostasis varied depending on the parameter evaluated, and type and duration of the temperature shock.As respostas às mudanças de temperatura de plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas de E. grandis cultivadas in vitro foram avaliadas considerando alterações dos níveis de prolina e proteínas solúveis totais. Análises de proteínas solúveis através de SDS-PAGE e prolina foram realizadas após 12h a 12ºC (aclimatação ao frio ou a 33ºC (aclimatação ao calor, e imediatamente depois dos choques térmicos a 41ºC e 0ºC. Análises também foram realizadas após um período de 24h depois dos choques térmicos (período de recuperação. O tratamento de temperatura a 0ºC não alterou o padrão de proteínas nas plantas aclimatadas e não aclimatadas, entretanto a temperatura baixa induziu altos níveis de prolina, que se mantiveram relativamente altos após o período de recuperação. Três novas proteínas (90,5, 75 e 39 kDa, provavelmente

  16. EFEITO DO INTERVALO DE IMERSÃO E DE INJEÇÃO DE AR NA MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla EM BIORREATOR DE IMERSÃO TEMPORÁRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate different immersion frequencies (2, 4, 8 and 16 h and explants supports (filter paper and foam of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clone inside RITA ® bioreactors; and a ventilation system with additional air input coupled to the bioreactor containers. It was evaluated the explants fresh weight, number of shoots and hyperhydricity and in vitro axillary bud multiplication. The immersions every two and four hours and the filter paper showed higher growth and number of shoots, but caused a greater percentage of hyperhydric shoots. Under the conditions and system tested, the additional air injection in the RITA ® bioreactor did not influence the culture growth.

  17. Mudanças da fertilidade do solo e crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido Changes in soil fertility and growth of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Rocha

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Antes da recomendação em larga escala de biossólido em plantações florestais, é preciso compreender seus efeitos no solo e na planta. Assim, a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e o crescimento de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizado com biossólido foram avaliados em um experimento na Estação Experimental de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (SP, ESALQ/USP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove tratamentos: (1 Testemunha; (2 Adubação mineral; (3 5 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (4 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (5 10 t ha-1 de bios.; (6 10 t ha-1 de bios. + K + P; (7 15 t ha-1 de bios. + K; (8 20 t ha-1 de bios. + K, e (9 40 t ha-1 de bios. + K. Foram analisadas quimicamente amostras de solo (camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm e de folhas. A produção de madeira foi avaliada por meio da colheita e pesagem de árvores. Até 32 meses após a aplicação do biossólido, 36 meses pós-plantio, constataram-se aumentos do pH, dos teores de C orgânico, de P-resina e de Ca trocável nas três camadas, diretamente associados às doses de biossólido aplicadas. Os teores de S-SO4(2- e K trocável diminuíram 13 meses após a aplicação do biossólido e, 19 meses depois, os teores estavam aumentados. O Al trocável diminuiu com o aumento das doses de biossólido, nas três camadas amostradas. A aplicação de biossólido influiu positivamente na nutrição das plantas, proporcionando uma produção de madeira igual à obtida no tratamento que só recebeu adubação mineral (1,5 t ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e, em kg ha-1, 98 de N, 79,5 de P2O5, 165 de K2O, 1,3 de B e 1,2 de Zn, quando a dose de biossólido foi equivalente a 12 t ha-1.Before recommending biosolids at large scale for forest plantations it is necessary to have an ample understanding of its effects on soil and plant. Thus, it was evaluated the soil fertility, nutritional status and growth of a Eucalyptus grandis plantation fertilized

  18. Comparação do fator de empilhamento sob diferentes condições para madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / A comparison of wood piling factor under different conditions for Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson dos Santos Lisboa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente trabalho tem por objetivo comparar os fatores de empilhamento obtidos em três métodos distintos de empilhamento: 1 empilhamento em cima do caminhão; 2 empilhamento mecânico no pátio da fábrica e 3 empilhamento manual no pátio da fábrica. Os dados empregados são originários de um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis, visando à produção de celulose e pertencente ao GRUPO LWART, situado no município de Lençóis Paulista, SP, cortado aos sete anos de idade através do sistema semi-mecanizado. Foram analisados dados provenientes de vinte pilhas de madeira, formadas por toras de 2,80 m de comprimento e diâmetro mínimo de 6,0 cm. O fator de empilhamento de cada pilha (FE foi obtido pela relação entre o volume da pilha em metros estéreos (st e o correspondente volume sólido em metros cúbicos (m³. O volume sólido (m³ foi obtido pelo método de Smalian. Para calcular o volume estéreo (st para três diferentes métodos de empilhamento foi utilizada uma régua graduada para medir a altura, a largura e o comprimento da pilha. Os três métodos de empilhamento foram comparados estatisticamente a partir de uma análise de variância, considerando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde os métodos foram considerados tratamentos e as pilhas repetições. Na ocorrência de diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, o teste Tukey foi utilizado para comparar suas médias, considerando um nível de 5% de significância. A análise estatística indicou diferenças significativas entre o método de empilhamento manual ou tratamento 3, dos demais métodos, ou seja, método do empilhamento em cima do caminhão e método de empilhamento mecânico. Conclui-se então, que é errôneo aplicar um fator de empilhamento médio, se houver diferentes formas de empilhar a madeira.AbstractThe research objective has been to compare the wood piling factors obtained from three distinct methods: 1 piling up on the truck; 2 mechanical

  19. Alterações morfológicas em Eucalyptus grandis sob aplicação de biorreguladores no período juvenil (Nota Científica. Morphological modifications in Eucalyptus grandis with application of bioregulators at juvenile stage (Scientific Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Bueno de MORAES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a aplicação dos biorreguladores vegetais paclobutrazol, ácido giberélico e ethefon em mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, com o intuito de acompanhar as modificações promovidas pelos hormônios sintéticos durante a fase juvenil. Foram efetuadas avaliações morfológicas como altura (cm e diâmetro do colo (mm e medições indiretas do índice de clorofila. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. A aplicação de paclobutrazol (PBZ promoveu alterações morfológicas nas folhas dos indivíduos como: redução no tamanho, modificação da cor e limbo coriáceo. Foram também verificadas redução no comprimento dos internódios, quebra de dormência de gema e desenvolvimento de ramos laterais, redução do porte das plantas (68% e aumento da quantidade de clorofila (29%.Já o ácido giberélico (GA3 demonstrou ser substância importante relacionada ao desenvolvimento vegetativo, estimulando o crescimento em altura das plantas (41%, mostrando-se inadequado em promover alterações que indicassem o amadurecimento dos tecidos vegetais. O ethefon não promoveu nenhuma alteração significativa na espécie Eucalyptus grandis. This aim of this study was the application of plant bioregulators: paclobutrazol, giberelic acid, and ethefon in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Morphologic evaluations were done, as plant height (cm and stem diameter (mm and indirect measurement of chlorophyll index. The statistical design was in randomized blocks, through split-plot schedule, with three replications. The paclobutrazol (PBZ have promoted leaf morphological variations as: accentuation of central nervures, reduction in size, modification in color and coriaceous leaves. We also verified reduction in internode lengths; overcoming seed dormancy, and development of lateral branches, reduction of plant height (68%, increasing of chlorophyll amount (29%. Giberelic

  20. Ectomicorriza in vitro entre Hydnangium sp. e Eucalyptus grandis e análises de seqüências de genes de Hydnangium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Juline Marta

    2009-01-01

    Hydnangium sp. é um fungo basidiomiceto capaz de formar ectomicorriza com espécies de Eucalyptus. Os sistemas de micorrização in vitro vêm sendo largamente utilizados para estudar interações micorrízicas, tornando-se um sistema simples e reproduzível para as análises de expressão de genes envolvidos na interação. Neste trabalho, a técnica de micorrização in vitro para a interação do fungo Hydnangium sp. com E. grandis foi realizada para as fases de colonização, diferenciação e funcionamento d...

  1. In vitro Scleroderma laeve and Eucalyptus grandis mycorrhization and analysis of atp6, 17S rDNA, and ras gene expression during ectomycorrhizal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Pereira, Maíra; Betancourth, Blanca Mercedes Leguízamo; Teixeira, Janaina Aparecida; Zubieta, Mariane Paludetti; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi; Costa, Mauricio Dutra; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between fungi and plants that form ectomycorrhizae (ECM) promotes alterations in the gene expression profiles of both organisms. Fungal genes expression related to metabolism were evaluated at the pre-symbiotic stage and during the ECM development between Scleroderma laeve and Eucalyptus grandis. Partial sequences of ATP synthase (atp6), translation elongation factor (ef1α), the RAS protein (ras), and the 17S rDNA genes were isolated. The expression of the atp6 and 17S rDNA genes during the pre-symbiotic stage showed an approximately threefold increase compared to the control. During ECM development, the expression of the 17S rDNA gene showed a 4.4-fold increase after 3 days of contact, while the expression of the atp6 gene increased 7.23-fold by the 15th day, suggesting that protein synthesis and respiratory chain activities are increased during the formation of the mantle and the Hartig net. The ras gene transcripts were only detected by RT-PCR 30 days after fungus-plant contact, suggesting that RAS-mediated signal transduction pathways are functional during the establishment of symbiosis. The present study demonstrates that alterations in gene expression occur in response to stimuli released by the plant during ECM association and increases the understanding of the association between S. laeve and E. grandis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, P B; Azar, S; SanClemente, H; Mounet, F; Dunand, C; Marque, G; Marque, C; Teulières, C

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses. The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses. The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive. These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Cao

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses.The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses.The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive.These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  4. Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt

  5. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  6. Variation in water-use efficiency and delta-C-13 levels in eucalyptus-grandis clones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olbrich, BW

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available . It is suggested that differences between sample trees in carbon allocation and leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficits may account for the poor correlation between delta-C-13 and WUE in the four E. grandis clones studied....

  7. Comparação entre uso de água em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis e floresta ombrófila densa (Mata Atlântica na costa leste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Auro Campi de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma controvérsia histórica sobre o uso de água em plantações de eucalipto em vários países onde estas plantações vêm se expandindo. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um monitoramento hidrológico intensivo que vem sendo realizado desde 1994 em uma microbacia no município de Aracruz-ES, Brasil. As medições realizadas nos plantios de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden e em uma floresta nativa (Mata Atlântica e as estimativas a partir de modelos hidrológicos para o cálculo de balanço hídrico demonstram que as plantações de eucalipto se comparam à floresta nativa quanto à evapotranspiração anual e ao uso de água do solo. Considerando o ciclo de crescimento do eucalipto para produção de celulose, o uso de água pela plantação pode ser inferior ao da floresta nativa, principalmente no início do ciclo. A análise da relação entre evapotranspiração e precipitação mostrou que em anos em que a precipitação é próxima à média anual existe um equilíbrio entre a perda e a entrada de água através da precipitação pluviométrica.

  8. Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antidiabetes drugs)Eucalyptus leaf extract might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. ... sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed. Some medications ...

  9. Quantifying and modelling the effects of environmental factors on wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available -blade saw ......................................................................................... 77 Figure 3.4. Transverse section of E. grandis xylem illustrating the different cell types. A – Vessel cell; B – Fibre cells; C – Axial parenchyma cells; D... - PLAGIARISM I, Sasha Naidoo declare that 1. The research reported in this thesis, except where otherwise indicated, is my original research. 2. This thesis has not been submitted for any degree or examination at any other university. 3...

  10. Mapeamento de QTLs para características de qualidade da madeira e crescimento em híbridos (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Barros Rocha; Everaldo Gonçalves de Barros; Cosme Damião Cruz; Antônio Marcos Rosado; Elza Fernandes Araújo

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed to characterize and identify QTLs for wood quality and growth traits in E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids. For this purpose a RAPD linkage map was developed for the hybrids (LOD=3 and r=0.40) containing 52 markers and 12 linkage groups. Traits related to wood quality and growth were evaluated in the QTL analyses. QTL analyses were performed using chi-square tests, single-marker, interval mapping and composite interval mapping analyses. All approaches led to the identifi...

  11. The Transcriptome and Terpene Profile of Eucalyptus grandis Reveals Mechanisms of Defense Against the Insect Pest, Leptocybe invasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Caryn N; Külheim, Carsten; Myburg, Alexander A; Slippers, Bernard; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2015-07-01

    Plants have evolved complex defenses that allow them to protect themselves against pests and pathogens. However, there is relatively little information regarding the Eucalyptus defensome. Leptocybe invasa is one of the most damaging pests in global Eucalyptus forestry, and essentially nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing the interaction between the pest and host. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the transcriptional landscape and terpene profile of a resistant and susceptible Eucalyptus genotype in an effort to improve our understanding of this interaction. We used RNA-seqencing to investigate transcriptional changes following L. invasa oviposition. Expression levels were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. Terpene profiles were investigated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectometry on uninfested and oviposited leaves. We found 698 and 1,115 significantly differentially expressed genes from the resistant and susceptible interactions, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Mapman analyses identified putative defense mechanisms including cell wall reinforcement, protease inhibitors, cell cycle suppression and regulatory hormone signaling pathways. There were significant differences in the mono- and sesquiterpene profiles between genotypes and between control and infested material. A model of the interaction between Eucalyptus and L. invasa was proposed from the transcriptomic and chemical data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modificações na produtividade e nas características físicas e químicas da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis causadas pela adubação com lodo de esgoto tratado Changes in productivity and physicochemical characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis wood caused by sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus grandis é uma das espécies mais cultivadas no Brasil devido à sua produtividade e qualidade da madeira. Avaliaram-se o efeito da aplicação de lodo de esgoto tratado (0 a 40 t ha-1 base seca e uma dose de adubo mineral nos atributos físicos e químicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de árvores com cinco anos de idade, no Município de Itatinga, São Paulo, Brasil. O tipo de solo foi caracterizado como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico (argila = 120 g kg-1 na camada de 0-20 cm e o clima, como mesotérmico úmido (Cwa, segundo a classificação de Köeppen. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. O diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, a altura das árvores e o volume de madeira foram obtidos em todas as parcelas de oito árvores com DAP na classe de maior freqüência. As caracterizações físicas e químicas da madeira foram realizadas de acordo com as normas da ABTCP, TAPPI e ABNT. O lodo de esgoto diminuiu a densidade básica da madeira, mas não afetou os teores de celulose, lignina, extrativos e o poder calorífico da madeira. O decréscimo de densidade da madeira pela adubação com lodo de esgoto foi compensado pela maior produtividade de madeira.Eucalyptus grandis is the most planted species in Brazil due to its productivity and quality of wood. The effect of growing rates of treated sewage sludge (0 to 40 Mg. ha-1 dry base and one rate of mineral fertilizer on physicochemical attributes of Eucalyptus grandis wood were evaluated. The studied trees were five years old. The experimental area is located in the municipality of Itatinga, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The soil was characterized as a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (clay = 120 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm layer. The climate was characterized as a humid mesothermic (Cwa, according to Köeppen classification. The plots were established in a randomized complete block design, with 6 treatments and 4 replicates. The

  13. Consumo Foliar de Eucalyptus spp. por Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Calixto Morais

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. The productive potential of forest stands is reduced by pest occurrence among other factors. In Brazil, leaf-cutting ants are the most severe eucalypt pests. Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr is prevalent in the south east Brazil. However, scarce information about its potential damage for Eucalyptus forests is available. This work deals to quantifying the eucalypt leaf-consumption by such specie of leaf-cutting ant. Fresh leaves were taken from trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and served to different colonies of A. disciger, during 24 hours period, over eight different times. Leaf-consumption was calculated throughout fresh weights of leaves, before and after ants foraging. Each colony of A. disciger consumed 38.8 ± 3.2 g e 22.0 ± 2.3 g of eucalypt leaves, per day.

  14. CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA E E. GRANDIS, EM RESPOSTA A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ÁGUA NO SOLO E DE CONVIVÊNCIA COM BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA STAPF

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA WILSON DA; SEDIYAMA TOCIO; SILVA ANTÔNIO ALBERTO DA; FERREIRA FRANCISCO AFFONSO

    1998-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da interferência de Brachiaria brizantha sobre a condutância estomática (gs) de mudas de Eucalyptus citriodora e E. grandis, cultivadas em solos com diferentes níveis de água, em condições de casa de vegetação, entre dezembro de 1995 e fevereiro de 1996. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (2 x 3 x 4): duas espécies de eucalipto (E. citriodora e E. grandis), três níveis de água (20, 23 e 26%) e quatro populações d...

  15. Comparação da matéria orgânica e de outros atributos do solo entre plantações de Acacia mangium e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garay I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de eucalipto e acácia são amplamente utilizadas em plantios agroflorestais e reflorestamentos. Com o intuito de comparar a reconstituição das camadas orgânicas do solo, i.e., dos horizontes húmicos, estabelecendo-se uma relação com propriedades edáficas, sob plantações de Acacia mangium e Eucalyptus grandis, foram feitas coletas dos horizontes holorgânicos e hemiorgânicos do solo. Os referidos plantios encontravam-se na região de Tabuleiros Terciários no norte do estado do Espírito Santo e pertenciam à Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce. As coletas foram feitas quando os plantios tinham sete anos de idade, em quatro estações. Acacia mangium apresentou maior estoque de folhiço (10 t ha-1, em média, tanto na camada L, de folhas inteiras, como na camada F, de folhas fragmentadas, do que Eucalyptus grandis (5 t ha-1, em média. O material foliar em acácia apresentou menor relação C/N que o de eucalipto, cerca da metade, decorrente dos maiores teores de nitrogênio. Quanto às análises químicas de carbono e nutrientes, no solo sob Acacia mangium, foram observadas, de modo geral, maiores quantidades destes elementos que no solo sob Eucalyptus grandis (e.g., carbono: 1,74 dag kg-1 vs 1,23 dag kg-1 e cálcio: 3,34 cmol c kg-1 vs 2,75 cmol c kg-1. O conjunto destes resultados evidencia que os aportes orgânicos sob Acacia mangium em relação a Eucalyptus grandis foram responsáveis pela maior incorporação de matéria orgânica e nutrientes ao solo. Estes dados, no entanto, comparados aos obtidos em estudos na floresta primária, mostraram que o carbono e os nutrientes do solo, em ambas as plantações, são menores que na floresta, evidenciando que, após sete anos de plantio, os teores de fertilidade e matéria orgânica do subhorizonte A11 não estavam restabelecidos.

  16. Avaliação comparativa de iscas atrativas a partir da riqueza de espécies de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae numa floresta de Eucalyptus grandis, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar diferentes iscas atrativas, buscando eficiência quanto à riqueza de espécies de formigas epigéicas, potenciais bioindicadores da qualidade ambiental, em uma área antropizada, com Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden (Myrtaceae, com 16 anos, e aproximadamente cinco hectares, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram realizadas utilizando-se cinco tipos de iscas: sardinha com óleo (SO, sardinha com tomate (ST, patê de frango (FR, patê de fígado de frango (FG e atum sólido (AT distribuídas aleatoriamente na área, em intervalos de cinco metros, com cinco repetições, totalizando 25 unidades experimentais, amostradas a cada estação do ano, de novembro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Após 60 minutos de exposição, todo o material presente sobre a armadilha foi recolhido e acondicionado em recipientes com álcool 70 % e em seguida, encaminhado ao laboratório de entomologia para separação em morfo-espécies para posterior identificação. Coletaram-se 3072 indivíduos, distribuídos em 14 espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros e quatro subfamílias. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as riquezas médias observadas de espécies nas iscas (DMS = 2,3252 ; g.l. = 19, p > 0,05. A isca constituída de sardinha com óleo apresentou maior riqueza média observada de espécies (SM = 5,75, porém a isca a base de patê de fígado de frango apresentou maior riqueza de espécies (S = 13, sendo que, Pseudomyrmex termitarius ocorreu somente nestas duas. Das espécies amostradas, nenhuma apresentou preferência por uma única isca atrativa específica, espécies de Brachymyrmex, Camponotus, Pheidole, Wasmannia e Solenopsis foram comuns nas cinco iscas. Portanto, no momento da escolha de uma das iscas avaliadas para a realização da amostragem de formigas epigéicas, sugere-se ponderar, além da riqueza específica, a não- presen

  17. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  18. Allelopathic effects of volatile organic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis rhizosphere soil on Eisenia fetida assessed using avoidance bioassays, enzyme activity, and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqun, Tang; Jian, Zhang; Junli, Yu; Chunzi, Wang; Danju, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures. In addition, the toxicities of VOCs were investigated using a soil avoidance test and comet assay. The results revealed that E. fetida exhibited significant avoidance behavior towards the highest concentrations of undecane, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, and 2,2,4,6,6-pentametyl heptane. The tail DNA percentages were significantly increased for all experimental treatments relative to control. However, under the treatments of VOCs, Olive tail moment content and comet tail length also display an obvious increase compared to control, except for that of octane, undecane and decane treatments. As VOC concentrations and durations increased in the soil, activities of AChE, SOD, and GST were either stimulated or inhibited. Among the VOCs, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol exerted stronger effects on enzymatic activities. In summary, VOCs in rhizosphere soils of E. grandis might exert a toxic impact on E. fetida, among which 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol have the strongest effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parâmetros cinéticos de adesivos produzidos a partir de taninos de Anadenanthera peregrina e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crise do petróleo, na década de 70, pesquisas tiveram o objetivo de substituir parcial ou totalmente os adesivos convencionais, à base de petróleo. Uma forma de substituição foi a utilização de fontes naturais, como os taninos, provenientes de algumas espécies arbóreas. Porém, os taninos apresentam algumas limitações de uso, que podem ser superadas através da sulfitação e da hidrolise ácida. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da hidrólise ácida e sulfitação de taninos extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Anadenanthera peregrina, nos parâmetros cinéticos dos adesivos tânicos, através da técnica de calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC. Os taninos foram hidrolisados com ácido acético ou ácido clorídrico a 10N, empregando-se três valores de pH e três tempos de reação. A sulfitação foi realizada em solução de sulfito de sódio, à 5%, em três tempos de reação. A energia de ativação, entalpia e temperatura de cura dos adesivos foram reduzidas pela hidrólise e sulfitação dos taninos, porém apresentaram banda larga de polimerização. O tempo de reação dos taninos não teve efeito sobre os parâmetros cinéticos.

  20. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kemler

    Full Text Available The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters. Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  1. Combinação de dois métodos não industriais no tratamento preservativo de moirões de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effect of the combination of two non-industrial methods to treat fence posts of Eucalyptus grandis, on the penetration and retention of water borne preservative. Thus, four fences with 2.20 m in length were treated by replacement of sap and simple diffusion alone and other four ones have combined the two techniques, with water-borne CCB 50% preservative at a concentration of 3.5%. After each treatment condition, the pieces were seasoned in the shade for 30 days. Disks were taken at 0.60 and 1.60 m from the base of the pieces which had one side sanded for analysis of the penetration of the preservative using a solution of chrome azurol S. From the same parts, test specimens were also manufactured in diametrically opposed positions with dimensions of approximately 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal to analyze the retention of the element copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and boron by visible spectrophotometry with azomethine-H, also known as colorimetry. The retention values obtained were compared with the minimum recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - ABNT for water borne preservatives which is 6.5 kg of active ingredients per m³ of wood. The penetration achieved by the combined method was considered sufficient for non-industrial treatment, while the retention values were higher than the retention of at least 6.5 kg of active ingredients / m³ of treated wood in all positions and portions evaluated.

  2. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  3. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO, INCIDÊNCIA DE Rhizoctonia sp. E EFEITO ANTIXENOSE PARA A FORMIGA-CORTADEIRA Atta sexdens rubropilosa F. EM CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla TRATADOS COM GIBERELINA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Santos Matos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A competitividade do setor florestal brasileiro, fruto das condições climáticas e tecnologia empregada, faz que o país ocupe posição de destaque no cenário mundial. Apesar do elevado crescimento brasileiro no setor florestal, é necessário o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que proporcionem aumento de produtividade. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito fisiológico da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de giberelina (GA3 no acúmulo de biomassa do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla "E. urograndis GG 100" e, também, verificar o efeito da aplicação de hormônio sobre a incidência de Rhizoctonia sp. e sobre efeito antixenose (não preferência ao corte de folhas pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa. O experimento foi conduzido em bancada a pleno sol, seguindo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Mudas clonadas de E. urograndis GG 100, com 120 dias de idade, cultivadas sob bancada a pleno sol em vasos de 12 L, com substrato à base de subsolo, areia e esterco foram tratados com 50 mL de GA3, nas seguintes concentrações: 0; 50; 100; 150; e 200 mg L-1. Aos 40 dias após a imposição dos tratamentos, as análises foram realizadas. A aplicação de giberelina intensificou o crescimento vegetativo das plantas de eucalipto e promoveu o maior acúmulo de biomassa no mesmo período de tempo de plantas não tratadas. As mudas tratadas com giberelina apresentaram vigoroso crescimento vegetativo, principalmente na concentração de 150 mg L-1. Adicionalmente, as mesmas plantas exibiram maior preferência por formigas-cortadeiras e menor área foliar lesionada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia sp.

  4. Fator de cubicação para toretes de Eucalyptus grandis e sua variação com o tempo de exposição ao ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicios Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the express wood volume in stere needs to be converted into cubic meter. This is possible estimating a cubication factor (Fc. With the objective of determining the Fc for Eucalyptus grandis and its variation in wood pieces of different lengths of 1 and 2,3m due to time of exposure to the environment, in the summer and in the winter, six stacks of woodpiles were made in the dimensions 3x2x1m and six piles in the dimensions 3x2x2, 3m, installed in the summer and in the winter. Medium Fcc´s obtained by the reason of volumes presented smaller variation in comparison to the ones obtained by angular counting. The statistical analysis indicated difference (α < 5% in the variables of the main effect, that is: in the climatic station (F = 18.72, in the time of exhibition (F = 6.51 and in the length of the stacks (F = 35.18. The analysis of the correlation indicated that Fc was also influenced by the top cracks, by the humidity of the wood and by the atmospheric variability. The average values of Fcc´s indicated a stabilization after ninety days of the installation of the piles. The stacks of Eucalyptus grandis presented dimensional variation when exposed to the atmosphere, making the Fc to vary in the time of exhibition at environment.

  5. Relação da tolerância ao frio de espécies do gênero Eucalyptus e Pinus com a presença de carboidratos totais em sementes e mudas

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Priscilla Félix

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a concentração de carboidratos solúveis totais em diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus e Pinus taeda Le sua relação com a tolerância ao frio, além de determinar o melhor método de descongelamento em sementes de Eucalyptus. Foram utilizadas sementes puras de três clones das espécies: Eucalyptus dunii Maiden, E. benthamii Maiden et Cambage E. grandis Hill ex Maiden e E. saligna Smith. Utilizou-semudas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, de dois clones cada. As sementes e as mudas, fo...

  6. Caracterização da estrutura anatômica, densidade básica e morfologia de cavacos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de painéis MDF Characterization of wood anatomy, basic density, and morphology of Eucalyptus grandis chips for MDF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na produção dos painéis "Medium Density Fiberboard" (MDF confeccionados com madeira de espécies de Eucalyptus spp de rápido crescimento evidencia a necessidade da caracterização dos seus componentes celulares, da densidade básica e da morfologia de cavacos. Com esse objetivo, foram coletadas três amostras de cavacos de madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, na linha de produção de indústria de painel. Em laboratório, os cavacos foram dissociados por maceração, para a avaliação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos; determinou-se a densidade básica dos cavacos, bem como se caracterizaram a sua espessura e morfologia. Os resultados indicaram valores médios de 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm para o comprimento, largura, diâmetro do lume e espessura média da parede das fibras, respectivamente. A densidade básica da madeira foi de 0,432 g/cm³ e a espessura dos cavacos, de 4,36 mm. Os valores médios de retenção dos cavacos foram de 0,9-16,9-44,5-30,7-6,1-0,9% nas peneiras 40, 25, 16, 8, 3,35 mm e fundo, respectivamente, sendo 75,2% retidos nas peneiras de 16-8 mm de abertura. Os resultados das análises anatômicas e morfológicas dos cavacos de madeira foram discutidos e comparados com informações da literatura especializada e correlacionados com o processo produtivo de chapas MDF.The increase of the MDF panels (Medium Density Fiberboard production by the use of the fast growing eucalypt wood species it evidences the need of the characterization of the cellular components, basic density and the chips morphology. With this aim 3 samples of wood chips of Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected, in the production line of panel industry. In laboratory, the wood chips were dissociated by maceration for the evaluation of the fiber and vessels dimensions; the wood basic density was determined and the thickness and morphology were characterized. The results indicated mean values of 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm for the fiber length

  7. Modelagem do balanço hídrico em microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Quintão Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o número de plantios comerciais de espécies florestais de crescimento rápido vem aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Contudo, os possíveis impactos desse aumento sobre os recursos hídricos ainda são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a modelagem do balanço hídrico em uma microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no Leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em uma microbacia experimental com área total de 40 ha durante o ano hidrológico, compreendido entre outubro de 2009 e setembro de 2010. A principal entrada de água no sistema via precipitação pluvial e os dados meteorológicos foram coletados por uma estação automática instalada no interior da área de estudo. As principais saídas foram estimadas pela equação modificada de Penman-Monteith e pela mensuração do deflúvio gerado na saída da bacia. Do total precipitado (1.123 mm durante o ano, 9% (106 mm retornaram à atmosfera via interceptação, 66% (740 mm via transpiração da cultura e 11% (119 mm pela evaporação do solo, que somados corresponderam à aproximadamente 86% da entrada de água na microbacia. Do deflúvio total gerado (~147 mm, apenas 4,29 mm (0,4% foram convertidos em escoamento superficial. Pode-se concluir que durante o ano hidrológico monitorado o balanço entre as principais entradas e as saídas de água na microbacia foi equalizado, não comprometendo a disponibilidade hídrica natural no curso d'água.

  8. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea con manejo tumba y quema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó la comunidad de oligoquetos bajo sitios con diferentes periodos de establecimiento y manejo de plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis, sin vegetación (SV, con cinco años en producción (Euc y vegetación secundaria con 15 años (Acah que han pasado por el proceso de tumba y quema en suelos de Acrisol en Huimanguillo, Tabasco; y se analizaron las propiedades físico-químicas del suelo (D.A., humedad, textura, pH, Ntot, MO, P, K, CIC. La recolecta de lombrices se realizó al finalizar las lluvias (agosto-octubre 2007. Se muestreó en tres parcelas con seis réplicas en cada una. Se encontró que los suelos tenían pH de 3.0-4.5 en los primeros 30cm de profundidad. Los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO y nitrógeno total (Ntot fueron significativamente menores en los sitios SV (6-8% y 0.19-0.22% respectivamente que en Euc y Acah (MO=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%. La especie Pontoscolex corethrurus domino en toda el área, presentando mayores densidades y biomasas en Euc (164.4ind/m² y 36.8g/m² respectivamente y Acah (138.7ind/m² y 19.1g/m² respectivamente, mientras que en SV sus poblaciones fueron reducidas en un 80%. Se encontró que el sistema Acah sigue presentando rasgos de un sistema perturbado, al no recuperar fácilmente la diversidad de oligoquetos y las concentraciones de nutrientes disponibles en el suelo

  9. Variación de la densidad básica de la madera de Eucalyptus grandis en arboles de siete años de edad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango A. Bibiana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estima la variación de la densidad básica de la madera con la altura de los árboles en clones de Eucalyptus grandis de 7 años de edad, seleccionados en plantaciones forestales de la empresa Smurfit Cartón de Colombia localizadas en los municipios de Restrepo, Pereira y Popayán, encontrándose que la densidad decrece desde la base del árbol hacia el nivel del D.A.P y luego, a partir de este aumenta hacia la copa hasta el 75% de la altura total del árbol. De igual manera se establecen correlaciones entre la densidad básica media de la madera en función de las tres zonas de estudio y los diferentes clones. Se comparan tanto las metodologías empleadas para la determinación de la densidad básica (Norma Tappi 258-om-94 y el Método del Máximo Contenido de Humedad como los diferentes tipos de muestras empleadas para la determinación de la misma (muestras tipo disco de madera y muestras de barreno. El rango de variación de la densidad básica media para las muestras tipo disco de madera fue de 0.40 a 059 g/cm3 y para las muestras de barreno fue de 0.38 a 0.55 g/cm3. Respecto a los métodos para la determinación de la densidad básica media de la madera en muestras de barreno, el método del máximo contenido de humedad mostró una subestimación de aproximadamente 3% de la misma en comparación con los valores obtenidos por el método de la balanza hidrostática.

  10. Variação genética para os teores dos macro e micronutrientes após aplicação de 2,4-D em progênies de Eucalyptus grandis. Genetic variation in the levels of macro and micronutrients after 2,4-D application on Eucalyptus grandis progenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins FRAGOSO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil triplicou sua produção florestal de eucalipto desde 1970, alcançando médias de 45 m3 .ha-1.ano-1. Muitos avanços técnicos contribuíram para essa produtividade, entre eles a utilização de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas. O produto 2,4-D destaca-se como herbicida seletivo às dicotiledôneas utilizado nas grandes culturas, entre elas está a cultura do eucalipto. O 2,4-D também pode ser usado como regulador vegetal, auxina (Ax, em subdosagem, podendo gerar incrementos nutricionais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento morfológico do vegetal após testes preliminares para obtenção de dosagem ideal, que no presente trabalho foi de 3,75 µL L-1. Assim, o trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a aplicação de auxina em um teste de progênies de Eucalyptus grandis, na fase de mudas, para estimar os parâmetros genéticos das variações dos elementos minerais nas plantas, com base no procedimento REML/BLUP. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com 20 progênies em três repetições, 16 plantas por parcela, totalizando 960 plantas. Como fatores norteadores, após 15 dias da aplicação do produto, foram avaliados os macro e micronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn nos tecidos vegetais da parte aérea. Como resultado, verificou-se que o 2,4-D age como auxina, quando aplicada em subdosagem (3,75 µL L-1, promovendo o desenvolvimento das mudas de E. grandis e permite a expressão da variação genética, sendo que o CVg variou de 1,22% (S a 13,51% (Ca. Apenas os teores de N (43,05%, Fe (56,545% e Cu (58,37% apresentaram acurácias inferiores a 70%. Os maiores coeficientes de variação relativa foram para os teores de Ca (2,0 em relação à escolha de uma variável para a seleção com base nos macronutrientes e Mn (1,16 no caso dos micronutrientes. The forest tree production in Brazil was three times greater than through 70’s decade, reaching the wood volume averages by 45 m3 .ha-1.year-1. Many

  11. Formação de ectomicorrizas por monocários e dicários de Pisolithus sp. e interações nutricionais em Eucalyptus grandis Formation of ectomycorrhizae by monokaryons and dikaryons of Pisolithus sp. and nutritional interactions in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de basidiósporos de Pisolithus spp. dá origem a monocários, caracterizados por possuírem um único núcleo haplóide por célula. No campo, o eucalipto associa-se a micélios dicarióticos de Pisolithus spp., não havendo relatos sobre a capacidade dos monocários em estabelecer a associação ectomicorrízica com a planta hospedeira nessas condições. Embora os monocários de Pisolithus sp. sejam capazes de formar a associação ectomicorrízica in vitro, nada se sabe sobre a capacidade dessas estirpes em promover a absorção de nutrientes e o crescimento do eucalipto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a formação de ectomicorrizas por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus sp. em Eucalyptus grandis, sob condições de casa de vegetação, bem como investigar as relações entre o estabelecimento da associação e o crescimento e a absorção de P, Ca, Mg, K, Cu e Zn pelas plantas. Caracterizou-se, também, a produção de massa seca micelial e a absorção de nutrientes pelos isolados fúngicos in vitro. Os isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos testados variaram na produção de massa seca micelial e na capacidade de absorção de nutrientes. Em geral, os monocários apresentaram maiores índices de eficiência de utilização de nutrientes do que os dicários. Todos os isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos formaram ectomicorrizas típicas quando associados com E. grandis. A presença dos isolados fúngicos monocarióticos associados às raízes laterais resultou em aumento do diâmetro radial das células da epiderme radicular, característico das ectomicorrizas de eucalipto, indicando que os monocários, à semelhança dos dicários, são capazes de produzir reguladores de crescimento. As médias de percentagem de colonização das raízes pelos isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos variaram de 12 a 76 %. A absorção de Ca, Mg e K foi estimulada de forma expressiva pela presença das

  12. Eucalipto, madeira serrada, metodologia de amostragem, regressão multivariada. Log sampling of Eucalyptus grandis trees submitted to selection for sawn timber and energy purposes Amostragem de toras de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis selecionadas para finalidades de serraria e energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Telles dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By the assessment of ten technological traits of eucalypt wood for sawn timber and energy purposes,
    it was developed a multivariate statistical procedure in order to determine the sequence of logs to be sampled, in such a way to represent all statistical variation contained within the tree and, accordingly, to establish the appropriate sampling intensity. In the present work, it was used a total of 40 logs from four trees of Eucalyptus grandis provenance Concórdia-SC aged 18 years. By using principal components regression analysis and stepwise selection techniques, it was showed that only two logs, corresponding to the first (0.05 m to 2.60 m and fourth (8.85 m to 11.40 m positions into the tree, contained 99.2 % of the total variation detected originally. In the case of adopting a single log, the recommendation was over the fourth log, which represented 97.5 % of the total
    amount of the original variation. For the referred  population, the statistical procedure contributed substantially to reduce the high time-consuming and financial costs that are normally associated to studies oriented to this goal, without affecting the original statistical information exhibited by the whole group of logs that would be usually sampled.A partir da avaliação de dez características tecnológicas de madeira de eucalipto para fins de serraria e energia, desenvolveu-se procedimento estatístico multivariado para se determinar a seqüência de toras a ser amostrada, de forma a representar acumuladamente toda a variação estatística presente na árvore e, com isso, estabelecer a intensidade adequada de amostragem. Neste estudo, foram utilizadas 40 toras oriundas de quatro árvores de Eucalyptus grandis aos 18 anos de idade procedentes de Concórdia, SC. Com o uso de técnicas de regressão multivariada de componentes principais e seleção por etapas, chegou-se à conclusão que amostrandose apenas duas toras, correspondentes à primeira (0,05 m a 2

  13. Volume de madeira e concentração foliar de nutrientes em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizadas com lodos de esgoto úmido e seco Wood volume and foliar concentration of nutrients in Eucalyptus grandis after wet and dry sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Muller da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, diversos municípios estão construindo estações de tratamento de esgoto (ETEs, e futuramente serão produzidas anualmente milhares de toneladas de lodo para as quais deverá ser dada destinação adequada. O lodo de esgoto tratado (biossólido é o resíduo resultante do tratamento do esgoto urbano, e sua disposição final precisa ser bem planejada devido às implicações sanitárias, ambientais, econômicas e sociais. Apresenta elevado teor de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e poderia ser utilizado como fertilizante em plantios florestais. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na Estação de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (Universidade de São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de três doses (10, 20 e 30 t ha-1 dos lodos de esgoto úmido (torta e seco (granulado, complementados com K e B e aplicados ao solo nas linhas de plantio em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis. Dezoito meses após a implantação das mudas no campo, o volume dos troncos demonstrou aumento significativo (ao redor de 130% no tocante ao crescimento dos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos úmido e seco em relação à testemunha sem aplicação de fertilizante, bem como teve resultado semelhante ao do tratamento com adubo mineral. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com a aplicação dos biossólidos úmido e seco. Com relação à nutrição mineral, foi observado aumento da concentração dos elementos P, Ca e Zn nas folhas com as maiores doses dos biossólidos, e verificou-se efeito inverso de Mn. As concentrações foliares de todos os nutrientes nos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos mantiveram-se dentro dos limites observados usualmente nas plantações comerciais, não havendo sinais de desequilíbrio nutricional.In Brazil, several municipalities are building waste treatment plants and in the future thousands of tons of sewage sludge will be generated. Sewage sludge is the waste left

  14. Mapping of QTLs related with wood quality and developmental characteristics in hybrids (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla Mapeamento de QTLs para características de qualidade da madeira e crescimento em híbridos (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to characterize and identify QTLs for wood quality and growth traits in E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids. For this purpose a RAPD linkage map was developed for the hybrids (LOD=3 and r=0.40 containing 52 markers and 12 linkage groups. Traits related to wood quality and growth were evaluated in the QTL analyses. QTL analyses were performed using chi-square tests, single-marker, interval mapping and composite interval mapping analyses. All approaches led to the identification of similar QTLs associated with wood density, cellulose pulp yield and percentage of extractives, which were detected and confirmed by both the interval mapping and composite interval mapping methodologies. Some QTLs regions were confirmed only by the composite interval mapping methodology: percentage of soluble lignin, percentage of insoluble lignin, CBH and total height. Overlapping QTLs regions were detected, and these, can be the result of major genes involved in the regulation and control of the growth traits by epistatic interactions. In order to evaluate the effect of early selection using RAPD molecular data, molecular markers adjacent to QTLs were used genotype selection. The analysis of selection differential values suggests that for all the traits the phenotypic selection at seven years should generate larger genetic gains than early selection assisted by molecular markers and the combination of the strategies should elevate the selection efficiency.O presente trabalho teve como objetivos a caracterização e identificação de QTLs para características de crescimento e de qualidade da madeira em híbridos de eucalipto derivados do cruzamento entre E. grandis e E. urophylla. Para isso foi desenvolvido um mapa de ligação RAPD pouco saturado (LOD = 3 e r = 0,40 contendo 52 marcas e 12 grupos de ligação. Características de qualidade da madeira e características de crescimento foram avaliadas quanto à presença de QTLs. Foram utilizadas

  15. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  16. EFEITO DA APLICAÇÃO DO POTÁSSIO, DO SÓDIO E DA DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA NA DENSIDADE APARENTE A 12% DE UMIDADE DO LENHO JUVENIL DE ÁRVORES DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Resende Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressive area of forest plantations fast-growing of eucalyptus in Brazil and in other regions of the world is under the influence of climate change, water stress and low soil fertility, affecting the growth and the quality of the wood from the trees. This study aimed to evaluate the apparent density at 12% relative humidity of the wood of Eucalyptus grandis trees with 12, 24 and 36 months, with reduced rainfall and nutrition K and Na. The treatments were defined by two water regimes (100% and 66% of rainfall, with artificial reduction with polyethylene sheeting and three types of nutrition: K (K - 4.5 kmol/ha, N (Na - 4.5 kmol/ha and control. The apparent density of the samples of diameter at breast height was determined by densitometry profile from digital images of rays X. The results indicated a significant difference in nutrition treatments and water availability in relation to the density of the wood. The radial apparent density profiles showed higher differences in the wood from the third year of evaluation. Digital images of the wood obtained by X-rays allowed to analyze the variation of the apparent density of the wood. Work results may be used as subsidies for the adoption of silvicultural practices in forest plantations in areas with water stress and/or affected by climate change as well as the partial replacement of K by Na.

  17. Microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available . grandis trees onto silanised slides. The results revealed that 32% of the spotted fragments showed distinct expression patterns (with a fold change of at least 1.4 or -1.4 and a p value of 0.01) could be grouped into clusters representing coexpressed genes...

  18. Effect of moisture availability on wood density and vessel characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis in the warm temperate region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available intolerant of adverse conditions, and performs poorly when planted on shallow soils and/or on dry sites. A study was conducted to assess the effect of moisture availability on the wood density and vessel characteristics of E. grandis grown in the warm...

  19. Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo Effects of the purification and enrichment of wood tar creosote on preservation of Eucalyptus grandis wood, after 48 months of field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1, recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2. Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enriquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Estacas obtidas do alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula cheia. A eficiência das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada com a do creosoto mineral. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. Os resultados indicam que o creosoto 2 + pentaclorofenol foi superior aos creosotos 1 e 2 + TBTO, aos creosotos 1 e 2 + naftenato de zinco e ao creosoto 1 puro, sendo semelhante ao creosoto mineral. O creosoto 2 foi superior ao creosoto 1 apenas para a localidade de Leopoldina. De modo geral, a vida média da madeira não-tratada ficou entre 12 e 24 meses, a da madeira tratada com o creosoto 1 + TBTO entre 24 e 37 meses e a da tratada com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de zinco entre 37 e 48 meses e a com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de cobalto, creosoto 2 puro e creosoto 2 + naftenato de zinco ou TBTO foi de 48 meses. No atual estágio da pesquisa, não é possível estimar a vida média da madeira tratada com as demais soluções preservativas testadas, pois ainda não atingiram os 60% das estacas quebradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of purifying and enriching wood tar creosote against wood decay after 48 months in field testing. By distillation of wood tar, the crude wood tar (creosote 1 was

  20. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  1. Produção, Estoque e Retenção Hídrica da Serrapilheira em Encosta Sob Plantio de híbridos de Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus grandis: Médio Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Coelho Netto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As áreas de Eucalyptus têm se espalhado rapidamente no médio vale do rio Paraíba do Sul e seus efeitos ambientais ainda são ambivalentes e pouco documentados (Vianna et al., 2007. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a produção e o estoque de serrapilheira em encostas sob plantio de Eucalyptus e verificar sua capacidade de retenção hídrica, como suporte ao entendimento das respostas hidrológicas as entradas de chuvas. A área de estudo está localizada na bacia do rio Sesmarias, numa área coberta por Eucalyptus grandis x urophyla, com espaçamento 3 x 2 m (1666 árvores.ha-1, plantadas em abril de 2004. A serrapilheira foi coletada em quatro diferentes posições usando quadrados de 0,5m para medição de produção, e quadrados de 0,25m para medição do estoque. As amostras foram secas, pesadas, separadas em frações (folhas, galhos, gramínea e raízes + material fino, as quais também eram pesadas. A produção apresentou aumento com a diminuição das chuvas, e foi maior no divisor (10,2 Mg.ha-1 que na encosta(6,6 Mg.ha-1. O estoque de serrapilheira apresenta uma tendência de aumento, com acúmulo anual de 2,2 Mg.ha-1, e é composto principalmente por folhas. A capacidade de retenção hídrica de 235% aproxima-se dos valores encontrados em Floresta Tropical Chuvosa de Encostas (200% - 259%.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DE PAINÉIS MDF DE MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis CONFECCIONADOS EM LABORATÓRIO E EM LINHA DE PRODUÇÃO INDUSTRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MDF panels of Eucalyptus grandis wood fibers were made in either experimentally in a laboratory or on an industrial production line. In order to analyze the influence of the production condition, the anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of the panels were determined. The wood refining induced the transversal rupture of the transversal fiber wall. The MDF panels obtained from the industrial production line presented less swelling in thickness and absorption values and improved mechanical properties in the requirements of bending strength, module of elasticity and surface resistance. For laboratory MDF panels, it was possible to verify a statistically significant correlation between bending strength and module of elasticity, medium density and internal bond and swelling in thickness and absorption. This tendency was also true for the MDF panels obtained in real conditions of production, however without statistical significance. By comparing the quality properties of MDF panels produced in the laboratory with those obtained in real conditions of production, it was sought to standardize the established variables for obtaining panels on a small scale, as well to make possible the safe transfer and divulgation of information obtained in the laboratory.

  3. Produção de chapas de partículas orientadas “OSB” de Eucalyptus grandis com diferentes teores de resina, parafina e composição em camadas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Ivakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência dos seguintes parâmetros de processo de produção sobre as propriedades das chapas "OSB": composição das chapas em camadas cruzadas com proporções face-miolo-face de 30-40-30 e 20-60-20 em relação à composição homogênea; e, quantidades de 3, 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, com incorporação de 0,5 e 1,0% de emulsão de parafina. Os resultados demonstraram que a composição das chapas, com a relação 20-60-20, apresentou melhor balanço das propriedades de flexão estática entre os sentidos de ensaios paralelo e perpendicular ao plano da chapa. A quantidade de 6,0% de resina foi a que resultou em melhores propriedades físico-mecânicas das chapas "OSB". A produção de chapas "OSB" de Eucalyptus grandis, com 4,5 e 6,0% de resina fenol-formaldeído, superou as exigências mínimas de propriedades mecânicas das chapas "OSB" referendadas pela norma canadense CSA 0437-0 (1993.

  4. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (α-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified

  5. Damage caused by different levels of artificial defoliation, simulating the leaf-cutting ants attack on young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis Danos causados por diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial para simulação do ataque de formigas cortadeiras em Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Reis Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The artificial defoliation allows to measure the defoliation intensity caused by insects. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the damages caused by leaf-cutting ants in young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis using different levels of artificial defoliation. A classification was established according to defoliation levels that were caused by leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda: level 1: 50%, level 2: 75%, level 3: 100% and level 4: 100%, including the cut of the apical meristem. And in E. grandis: level 1: 50% of defoliation; level 2: 75% and level 3: 100%. After one year, the P. taeda seedlings had losses in diameter and height for defoliation level above 75%. Seedlings severely defoliated (level 4, had losses of 37.0% in height and 45.4% in diameter. The E. grandis seedlings had losses since three months old and the reductions were proportional to the defoliation intensity. After one year, the losses of 13.3% in height and 20% in diameter were verified in plants with 100% of defoliation. P. taeda plants are more damaged by leaf-cutting attack.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.37

    A desfolha artificial permite mensurar a intensidade do dano devido à desfolha causada por insetos. No presente estudo, buscou-se avaliar os danos causados por formigas cortadeiras em plantios de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis com 30 dias de idade. Foi estabelecida uma classificação baseada em níveis de desfolha semelhantes aos causados por formigas cortadeiras. Para P. taeda, os níveis foram: N1: 50%, N2: 75%, N3: 100% e N4: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Para E. grandis, os níveis foram N1: 50%, N2: 75% e N3: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Após um ano, as mudas de P. taeda tiveram perdas em altura e diâmetro nos níveis de N2 a N4. Mudas de P. taeda desfolhadas no nível N4 apresentaram perdas de

  6. Efeitos do meio de cultura e da relação BAP/ANA na multiplicação in vitro de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla em biorreator de imersão temporária

    OpenAIRE

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira; Aloisio Xavier; Ricardo Miguel Penchel Filho; Wagner Campos Otoni; João Batista Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Foram realizados três experimentos individuais com o objetivo de testar diferentes meios de cultura e combinações entre os fitorreguladores BAP e ANA na multiplicação de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, utilizando o biorreator de imersão temporária RITA®. O meio de cultura MS e a frequência de imersão a cada 2 h promoveram maior massa fresca e número de brotos por explantes. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao crescimento das culturas entre os dois clones avaliados. A combinação...

  7. POLPAÇÃO KRAFT E KRAFT/AQ DA MADEIRA PRÉ-HIDROLISADA DE HÍBRIDO DE Eucalyptus urophylla x grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood of the gender Eucalyptus occupies a prominence place among other cellulose sources due to its chemical composition, its low cost, abundance and availability. Among the chemical pulping processes, kraft process is the most extensively one used for the production of cellulosic pulps starting from eucalyptus wood. The anthraquinone (AQ usage in the pulping has as main purposes to increase the delignification rate as well as to protect the pulp from the carbohydrate degradation. The present work has aimed to use the anthraquinone as an addictive in the cooking seeking to reduce the load of applied sulphidity without harming the quality of the pulp. The kraft and kraft/AQ cooking were accomplished in rotative laboratorial digester being varied the active alkali initially (10, 13, 16 and 19% and, later, the sulphidity (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%, maintaining the other conditions constant aiming to obtain pulp with kappa number close to nine. Starting from the variation of the active alkali and of the sulphidity, delignification curves were established between active alkali and kappa number and, sulphidity and kappa number, where it was possible to establish the minimum necessary amounts of alkali, as well as of the sulphidity. Starting from the cooking, it was possible to establish the active alkali and sulphidity loads of 17,4% and 8,8%, respectively. The cooking to the certain conditions presented screened yield of 48,63%, and the yield based on the initial mass of wood was of 42,24%, obtaining a high quality pulp, in other words, with low number kappa and hemicelluloses tenor (0,41% and high tenor of alpha cellulose (98,49%.

  8. Inventário Florestal Utilizando Técnicas de Silvicultura de Precisão em Povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro dos Santos

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar o estoque de madeira por amostragem sistemática e pelas tecnologias de geoinformação a fim de elaborar mapas de produtividade florestal, como forma de pós-estratificação do inventário florestal. Foram alocadas 24 parcelas de 625 m2 posicionadas a cada 70 m de distância. O mapa de produtividade foi gerado após seleção de um modelo para ajuste do semivariograma entre os volumes das parcelas. Estimou-se um volume total de 3.753,9 m3 com o inventário florestal por amostragem sistemática, enquanto com o mapa de produtividade elaborado com técnicas de silvicultura de precisão determinou-se um volume total de 3.768,9 m3. A análise de variância comprovou que existe diferença significativa entre as médias dos estratos e a partir desta constatação as estimativas foram geradas por estrato, estimando-se então, um volume total de 3.772,9 m3. A técnica de silvicultura de precisão mostrou ser uma ferramenta eficiente na pós-estratificação de inventários florestais.

  9. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial to machined (final condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  10. Simulación del impacto de diferentes regímenes de cosecha sobre el capital de nutrientes e indicadores económicos en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis del NE de Entre Ríos, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Goya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect on soil productivity of harvesting forestry products deserved special attention in last years. Consequently, it is necessary to establish quantitative indices of environmental and economic impact for the different management stages. The decision of planting forestry trees is dependent on financial indicators; high costs may change investor decision. Maintaining soil nutrient stock as a baseline for productivity support may be an indicator of ecological sustainability; however, it can increase costs. Our objective was to answer the following: (i How each harvest scenario affect the nutrient stability of plantations? (ii Which of the alternative scenarios is of higher financial value at present? And (iii Does the present scenario of higher financial value persist if, for maintaining ecological sustainability, we conserve or replace the nutrients exported during harvest? We simulated different types of harvest and crop residue treatments in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis of 8 and 11 years old. Nutrient export in different scenarios was quantified and ecological stability indices -Plantation Stability Index (PEI-, and financial indices –Present Net Worth, Soil Expectation Value and Internal Rate of Return - were analyzed considering the cost of nitrogen replacement. The scenario of total harvest and residue burning gave losses of 491 and 369 kgN.ha-1 for 8 and 11 years rotation, respectively. PEI have shown that complete tree harvest and residue burning cause the highest ecological impact with index values superior to 2.5 (>0.5= instability; economic indices lowered when soil nutrients are recovered through fertilization inputs. Revenues reduction may affect the decision of planting commercial trees, alerting and stimulating to improve harvest practices at harvest and post-harvest stages. RESUMEN El efecto de la cosecha de productos forestales sobre la productividad edáfica ha adquirido singular atención últimamente. Por

  11. Vesicular-arbuscular-/ecto-mycorrhiza succession in seedlings of. Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Vera Lúcia dos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM and ectomycorrhizae (ECM in the same root system was observed when species of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, E. citriodora Hook f., E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. cloeziana F. Muell. and E. camaldulensis Dehnh were simultaneously inoculated with Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gederman and Pisolithus tinctorius (Per. Cocker & Couch, isolate Pt 90A. The succession between the two fungi was observed. In general ectomycorrhizal colonization increased followed by a decrease in AM. Pisolithus tinctorius was favored in simultaneous inoculation with G. etunicatum, and the positive effect of the simultaneous inoculation of both fungi in the percent colonization by the AM fungus occurred up to 60 days after inoculation. After 120 days, colonization of roots by G. etunicatum decreased in the presence of P. tinctorius. When inoculated simultaneously, the proportion of AM and ECM varied with evaluation time, while the combined percentage of mycorrhizal roots approached the maximum and remained more or less constant after 60 days, suggesting that there could be competition between the fungi for limiting substrate. The maximum percent mycorrhizal colonization varied with Eucalyptus species and the highest value was observed for E. camaldulensis, followed in order by E. citriodora, E. urophylla, E. grandis and E. cloeziana.

  12. Crescimento e absorção de fósforo em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis associadas a fungos micorrízicos em diferentes doses de fósforo e potenciais de água do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Fernandes

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a produção de parte aérea (MS, a absorção (CP e a eficiência de utilização de fósforo (EUP por plantas de Eucalyptus grandis inoculadas com Glomus etunicatum (Ge e, ou, Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt, em diferentes combinações entre doses de P e potenciais hídricos do solo (ψ, utilizando-se técnica de raízes subdivididas em vasos geminados, em casa de vegetação. Um dos vasos do conjunto geminado continha os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial de duas doses de P (P60 e P120, correspondentes a adições de 60 e 120 mg dm-3 de solo, três ψ (-10, -40 e -300 kPa e quatro tratamentos com inóculos fúngicos (não inoculado, Ge, Pt, Ge + Pt. Outro vaso do conjunto continha 4,5 litros de solução nutritiva, sem P. Independentemente da dose de P adicionada, a colonização por Ge foi reduzida com a diminuição do ψ. Quanto à colonização por Pt, observou-se ausência de resposta a ψ em P60 e aumento em P120. A colonização ectomicorrízica foi reduzida quando Pt foi inoculado concomitantemente a Ge. Aumentos do CP, em função do incremento do ψ, foram observados em P60 e P120. No entanto, MS e EUP responderam positivamente à elevação de ψ apenas em P120. A inoculação isolada com Ge não apresentou efeito sobre as plantas, nas combinações entre ψ e P. A colonização por Pt apresentou efeitos diferenciados sobre as plantas, dependendo das condições de ψ e P no solo. Na combinação P60 e -300 kPa, correspondente à situação de menor disponibilidade de P, observou-se efeito deletério da colonização por Pt, isolada ou concomitantemente com Ge, sobre a EUP das plantas. Efeitos positivos da inoculação isolada com Pt sobre o CP foram observados nas combinações entre P120 e ψ de -10 kPa e -40 kPa, embora apenas na segunda situação este maior CP tenha sido acompanhado de incremento da MS.

  13. Evaluation of the throughfall and stemflow nutrient contents in mixed and pure plantations of Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis Avaliação do conteúdo de nutrientes na água de precipitação interna e de escoamento pelo tronco em plantios de Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The interception of the rainfall by the forest canopy has great relevance to the nutrient geochemistry cycle in low fertility tropical soils under native or cultivated forests. However, little is known about the modification of the rainfall water quality and hydrological balance after interception by the canopies of eucalyptus under pure and mixed plantations with leguminous species, in Brazil. Samples of rainfall (RF, throughfall (TF and stemflow (SF were collected and analyzed in pure plantations of mangium (nitrogen fixing tree -NFT, guachapele (NFT and eucalyptus (non-nitrogen fixing tree -NNFT and in a mixed stand of guachapele and eucalyptus in Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nine stemflow collectors (in selected trees and nine pluviometers were randomly disposed under each stand and three pluviometers were used to measure the incident rainfall during 5.5 months. Mangium conveyed 33.4% of the total rainfall for its stem. An estimative based on corrections for the average annual precipitation (1213 mm indicated that the rainfall's contribution to the nutrient input (kg ha-1 was about 8.42; 0.95; 19.04; 6.74; 4.72 and 8.71 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, P, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+, respectively. Throughfall provided the largest contributions compared to the stemflow nutrient input. The largest inputs of N-NH4+ (15.03 kg ha-1 and K+ (179.43 kg ha-1 were observed under the guachapele crown. Large amounts of Na+ denote a high influence of the sea. Mangium was the most adapted species to water competitiveness. Comparatively to pure stand of eucalyptus, the mixed plantation intensifies the N, Ca and Mg leaching by the canopy, while the inputs of K and P were lower under these plantations.A interceptação da chuva pela copa das florestas tem grande relevância no ciclo biogeoquímico de nutrientes nos solos de baixa fertilidade sob florestas nativas e plantadas. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre as modificações na qualidade dessa água e no balan

  14. Alterações na estrutura anatômica da madeira de cavacos de eucalyptus grandis em três condições de desfibramento para a confecção de painéis MDF Changes in the anatomical structure of eucalyptus grandis wood chips in three conditions wood chip refining for production of MDF panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da madeira de eucalipto na confecção de painéis MDF é recente, tornando-se necessário entender as modificações em sua estrutura anatômica durante as etapas do processo industrial, notadamente no desfibramento dos cavacos. Com esse objetivo, neste estudo foram aplicadas três condições diferenciadas de desfibramento dos cavacos, alterando-se (i o tempo de aquecimento, (ii as pressões de digestão e de desfibramento e (iii a energia específica de desfibramento, sendo avaliadas as características anatômicas dos componentes celulares da madeira. O aumento da intensidade de refino dos cavacos de madeira reduziu o comprimento médio das fibras e aumentou o porcentual de fibras quebradas, corroborando as imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, além da diminuição do número dos vasos e de células de parênquima. Essa condição de desfibramento mais intensa promoveu, também, um característico escurecimento da coloração da polpa composta pelos elementos celulares da madeira. A aplicação de variáveis de desfibramento mais brandas aumentou a presença de feixes de fibras e do número de vasos e de parênquima, resultando em uma polpa de coloração mais clara. As alterações das características morfológicas dos componentes celulares da madeira dos cavacos de eucalipto, após o tratamento de desfibramento, relacionaram-se com as etapas do processo operacional e com a qualidade tecnológica dos painéis de fibras MDF.The use of eucalyptus wood for production of MDF panels is recent, becoming necessary to understand the changes in the anatomical structure during the stages of industrial processing, especially during wood chip refining. With this aim, in the present work three different conditions of wood chip refining were applied (i chip heating time, (ii digestion and refining pressures and (iii the specific refining energy, and the anatomical characteristics of wood cell components were evaluated

  15. Efeitos do meio de cultura e da relação BAP/ANA na multiplicação in vitro de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla em biorreator de imersão temporária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos individuais com o objetivo de testar diferentes meios de cultura e combinações entre os fitorreguladores BAP e ANA na multiplicação de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, utilizando o biorreator de imersão temporária RITA®. O meio de cultura MS e a frequência de imersão a cada 2 h promoveram maior massa fresca e número de brotos por explantes. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao crescimento das culturas entre os dois clones avaliados. A combinação 1,0 µM de BAP com 0,5 µM de ANA foi a que resultou maiores médias em relação à massa fresca e ao número de brotos. As culturas apresentaram alto percentual de hiper-hidricidade, sendo essa desordem fator limitante nas condições deste estudo para o cultivo de Eucalyptus em biorreatores.

  16. Effect of age on calorific value and some mechanical properties of three Eucalyptus species grown in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Tsegaye Bekele [Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Shashemene (Ethiopia)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of age on calorific value, specific gravity, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of three plantation grown Eucalyptus species in the south-central highlands of Ethiopia was investigated. The species investigated were Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. saligna Sm. and E grandis W. Hill ex Maid. The investigation was made on sample trees taken from age sequences of stands of the three species. Calorific values were determined on sample discs taken at 4, 8, 12 and 16 m up the stems of the sample trees. Calorific values were also determined for heartwood and sapwood of each disc separately. Specific gravity, MOR and MOE were investigated on a 1 -m long sample log taken from the butt end of each sample tree. The results showed that there was no significant difference in calorific values between the three species when considering a similar age category. Similarly, there was no significant difference in calorific values between disc positions and wood types (heartwood versus sapwood) within species. However, calorific values tend to increase along the tree stem towards the treetop for each of the three species. Correlation between calorific values of each disc position and tree age was generally weak and dominantly negative for E. saligna and E. globulus, but positive for E. grandis. On the other hand, there was a weak but positive correlation between tree age and specific gravity and MOR for the three species. MOE was almost non-correlated with age. Generally, the results showed that waiting for older ages for the three Eucalyptus species may not further increase their calorific values. Hence, stands of the three Eucalyptus species can be harvested and used for fuelwood at an early age as traditionally managed on short-rotation basis. (author)

  17. Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, water stress reduced shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity with significant interclonal effects. Plant biomass, leaf area and leaf weight ratio were significantly lower in the water-stressed plants, but there were no differences between the clones. In conclusion, the waterstress treatment did not ...

  18. Characterization of eucalyptus clones subject to wind damage

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuncio, Antônio José Vinha; Carvalho, Amélia Guimarães; Carneiro, Angélica de Cassia Oliveira; Valenzuela, Paulina; Gacitúa, William; Leite, Fernando Palha; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to test a new methodology to assess the resistance of trees to wind damage and determine the characteristics that increase clone resistance to winds. Tree resistance to breakage, basic density, ultrastructure, anatomy, mechanical properties, and wood growth stress have been evaluated in seven Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clones, collected from a region with a high incidence of wind damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the tr...

  19. Standardization and optimization of core sampling procedure for carbon isotope analysis in eucalyptus and variation in carbon isotope ratios across species and growth conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available and optimization of core sampling procedure for carbon isotope analysis in eucalyptus and variation in carbon isotope ratios across species and growth conditions Mohan Raju, B#; Nuveshen Naidoo*; Sheshshaayee, M. S; Verryn, S. D*; Kamalkannan, R^; Bindumadhava... isotope analysis in Eucalyptus. Methods Expt 1: * Cores were taken from periphery to pith in 5 year old trees of Eucalyptus * Five half sib families of Eucalyptus grandis & E. urophylla were used ? Cores were further subdivided into 5 fragments...

  20. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  1. Using chlorophyll fluorescence to determine stress in Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot trial was conducted to determine the effect of light, water and nutrient stress on the fluorescence emission of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Flourescence measurements were made on potted plants with a Hansatech Plant Efficiency Analyser, every one to two days from stress initiation until trial termination. The results ...

  2. Influence of irrigation and fertilisation on early growth of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of irrigation and fertilisation on early growth of Eucalyptus grandis. Janine M Campion, Mary C Scholes. Abstract. No Abstract Available Discovery and Innovation Vol.15(3&4) 2003: 213-220. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson B. G. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1; vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1; and vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff (1:1. These mixtures were added to 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg of controlled-release fertilizer per cubic meter of substrate. The substrates that do not support root development and have lower water retention, independently of the dose of controlled-release fertilizer, reduce the quality of the root system. For substrates with proper values of water retention, such as vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1 and vermiculite+carbonised rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1, the utilization of dose 2 kg of controlled-release fertilizer to each cubic meter is enough to promote cuttings with greater quality of the root systems and proper heights and stem diameters.

  4. Caracterização das propriedades físico-mecânicas da madeira de eucalipto com diferentes densidades Characterization of physical and mechanical properties of eucalyptus lumber with different specific gravities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Silveira Lobão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar um lote de madeira de eucalipto comercializada por uma empresa do setor florestal brasileiro. Utilizou-se, neste trabalho, a madeira de Eucalyptus, provavelmente E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden., adquirida no mercado local e no estado de secada ao ar. Todo o lote foi dividido em dois sublotes, um de madeira mais pesada e outro da mais leve, porque se percebeu, no recebimento do carregamento, que havia nele tábuas com diferenças notáveis de peso. Os corpos-de-prova foram preparados a partir de tábuas retiradas ao acaso de cada um desses dois sublotes. Fez-se, portanto, a caracterização dessa madeira para possíveis comparações dos valores de suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas, segundo a norma NBR 7190 (1997. Feitos os testes, de fato pôde-se verificar a existência de duas populações de tábuas com propriedades mecânicas significativamente diferentes.The objective of the present work was to characterize a lot of Eucalyptus wood marketed by a Brazilian forest company. In this work, Eucalyptus wood, probably E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, was purchased in the local market in the air-dry condition. The whole lot was subdivided in two sub-lots; one with heavier wood, the other with lighter. The reason for this was that the shipment arrived with boards having notable differences in weight. Test-specimens were prepared from boards taken from each sub-lot. The characterization was therefore carried out in twice as many test-specimens as required by Brazilian standards, as described in the NBR 7190 (1997 standard. The tests showed the existence of two board populations with significantly different mechanical properties.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii WOOD FOR KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

  6. QUALIDADE DA SECAGEM CONVENCIONAL CONJUNTA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian industry commonly dries different species of eucalypt in a same load because of the difficulty of identifying the species, hybrids and clones, and also by optimizing the use of the kiln. However, this practice is not recommended in the literature. The aim of this work was to verify the quality of grouped conventional drying of Eucalyptus saligna , Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii from clonal plantations. To this end, three loads were dried with the three species together in a pilot conventional dry kiln. The criteria used to analyze the quality of dried wood were final moisture content, end checks, cupping, collapse, moisture gradient and drying stresses. Eucalyptus grandis showed the best quality of drying, followed by Eucalyptus saligna , and both species have potential to be kiln dried together. Eucalyptus dunnii had the worst quality of drying, and should not be kiln dried together with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The basic density and shrinkage were good parameters for the expected quality of the drying of eucalyptus species, in which less dense and more dimensionally stable species had better quality of drying. The drying schedule used must be modified to further drying of these species, especially regarding to uniformity and conditioning periods, which were considered insufficient.

  7. Hea õpetamise grandi saajad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Õpetamise uurimist alustavad grandi toel Andrus Org, Riina Oruaas, Natalja Zagura (humanitaar- ja kunstide valdkond), Stefano Braghiroli, Aet Kiisla, Tiiu Taur (sotsiaalteadused), Marje Oona, Oivi Uibo, Daisy Volmer (meditsiinitead.), Svetlana Ganina, Natalja Lepik ja Raivo Raid (loodus- ja täppistead.)

  8. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Profile of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell. K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan Dezsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the phenolic profile of Eucalytus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell. K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson leaves. Both leave extracts contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC/MS method. The main flavonoid was hyperoside and its highest amount was found in E. globulus (666.42 ± 5.02 μg/g dw plant material. Regarding the flavonol profile, myricetin was the dominant compound and its highest amount was found in C. ficifolia leaves (124.46 ± 0.24 μg/g dw plant material. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays, revealing an important antioxidant potential for both species. In the antimicrobial assays, C. ficifolia extract was found to be more active than E. globulus against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains with the exception of Bacillus subtilis. The results of the present study provide new valuable data regarding the bioactivities of these medicinal species.

  9. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  10. EFFECT OF COPPER ON SOIL BACTERIA AND FUNGUS POPULATION, ON MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATION AND ON PRODUCTION OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Pinus elliottii Engelm AND Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel) Taubert SEEDLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Lílian Castilho dos Santos; Manoeli Lupatini; Lineu Trindade Leal; Guilherme Karsten Schirmer; Marciel Redin

    2010-01-01

    RESUMO O cobre é um metal pesado que pode exercer efeitos tóxicos para micro-organismos e plantas. Os fungos ectomicorrízicos são capazes de proteger a planta hospedeira da toxidez dos metais pesados, mas a presença de certas concentrações de metais pode inibir o crescimento destes, prejudicando a simbiose micorrízica e alterar o desenvolvimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de doses de cobre na população de bactérias e fungos do solo, bem como seus efeitos na as...

  11. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available because total biomass also includes branches, bark, leaves, and roots. Many tree species have been used in planation forests in South Africa. The softwood plantations are predominantly Pinus patula, while the hardwoods are predominantly Eucalyptus... patula Eucalyptus grandis Component 20 years 8 years 7 years Bole wood 70.7 66.6 75.2 Branch wood 10.1 9.4 2.7 Bark 5.9 7.5 7.1 Leaves 1.5 3.6 2.3 Roots 11.5 (13.0) ~ (12.7) a 'Root biomass was not measured but is estimated to constitute 15...

  12. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.

  13. Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

  14. Sur l'origine fongique des galles observées chez les Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    Eucalyptus botryoides, E. bridgesiana, E. camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. gunii,. E. grandis, E. robusta, E. saligna, E. tereticornis et. E. viminalis) se développant à travers le bassin méditerranéen, le Moyen Orient (Sánchez, 2003 ;.

  15. Hexenuronic acid in South African Eucalyptus hybrid clones: optimization of the acid hydrolysis (A) stage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available pulps produced from a Eucalyptus hybrid clone, E. grandis x E. urophylla, were subjected to acid hydrolysis at varied temperature and reaction times. The pH was kept constant at 3.5 for all experiments. The results showed that the A-stage was efficient...

  16. History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Rockwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first organized Eucalyptus research in Florida was begun by the Florida Forests Foundation in 1959 in southern Florida. This research was absorbed by the USDA Forest Service and the Florida Division of Forestry in 1968. In the early 1970s, the Eucalyptus Research Cooperative formed to provide additional support emphasized E. grandis, E. robusta, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis and developed cultural practices for commercial plantations in southern Florida. In 1978, this cooperative united with the Hardwood Research Cooperative at North Carolina State University until 1985 when the 14-year effort ended after three severe freezes from 1983 to 1985. Eucalyptus planting and research were continued with a Florida-wide focus by the University of Florida and collaborators starting in 1980. The collective accomplishments in terms of genetic resources and commercial planting are summarized. For example, fast-growing, freeze-resilient E. grandis seedlings are produced by advanced generation seed orchards, five E. grandis cultivars are commercially available, as are E. amplifolia and Corymbia torelliana seeds. Genetic improvement of these and other species is ongoing due to beneficial collaborations. Short Rotation Woody Crop systems are promising for increasing productivity and extending uses beyond conventional pulpwood to applications such as windbreaks, dendroremediation, and energy wood.

  17. MIXED AND MONOSPECIFIC STANDS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK-WATTLE. II - FINE ROOT BIOMASS DENSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Viera,Márcio; Schumacher,Mauro Valdir; Liberalesso,Edenilson Vieira; Rodríguez-Soalleiro,Roque

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fine root biomass density (FRBD) in mixed and monospecific stands of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla and Acacia mearnsii(black wattle) in Bagé-RS (Southern Brazil). An experimental trial was installed with three treatments: 100% Eucalyptus (100E); 100% Acacia mearnsii (100A); 50% Eucalyptus + 50% Acacia mearnsii (50E:50A). The trial was carried using a randomized block design with three replicates. The fine root (≤ 2.0mm) biomass density was determin...

  18. Compatibility and ectomycorrhiza formation among Pisolithus Isolates and Eucalyptus spp Compatibilidade e formação de Ectomicorrizas entre Isolados de Pisolithus e Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinto Liparini Pereira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine isolates of the ectomycorrhiza fungus Pisolithus sp. from different geographical and host origins were tested for their ability to form ectomycorrhizae on Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The ectomycorrhiza-forming capacity of isolates varied greatly from one eucalypt species to the other. All isolates from Eucalyptus, nine from Pinus spp. and two isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with E. grandis and E. urophylla. Root colonization rates varied from 0 to 5.2 % for all Pinus isolates and those from unknown hosts. Colonization rates for these isolates were lower than those observed for Eucalyptus isolates (0.8 to 89.4 %. Three isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with neither Eucalyptus species. The main characteristic for distinguishing Pinus from Eucalyptus isolates was mantle color. These data corroborate previous results obtained in our laboratory indicating that the isolates tested represent at least two distinct different species within the genus Pisolithus.Vinte e nove isolados do fungo ectomicorrízico Pisolithus sp., de diferentes regiões geográficas e hospedeiros, foram testados quanto à capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas em plântulas de Eucalyptus grandis e E. urophylla sob condições de casa de vegetação. Os isolados apresentaram grande variação na capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas com ambas as espécies de eucalipto. Todos os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus, 9 originalmente obtidos de Pinus spp. e dois isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos formaram micorrizas com E. grandis e E. urophylla. A taxa de colonização radicular dos isolados originalmente obtidos de Pinus e dos isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos variou de 0 a 5,2 %. A taxa de colonização para esses isolados foi menor do que as obtidas para os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus (0,8 a 89,4 %. Três isolados obtidos de hospedeiros desconhecidos não formaram

  19. Quality of Eucalyptus Wood Grown in Rio de Janeiro State for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna, from production areas of Rio de Janeiro State, intended for energy use. The selection consisted of six trees per specie, at six years old. The wood samples had its basic density determined, then, was subjected to the pyrolysis process with 500 °C of final temperature. Charcoal, pyroligneous liquid and non-condensable gases yields were determined. In addition, the charcoal had its immediate analysis performed to determine the levels of volatiles matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and principal component analysis. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis were effective to predict recommended species. Based on the results, the most recommended specie for energy purposes was the Eucalyptus grandis.

  20. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Gebreslasie

    SOC) content, based on .... are reliably differentiated into broad regions of growth potential, i.e. poor, medium, and good (Smith et al. 2005). ..... and short wave infrared region (400–2500 nm) during a controlled decomposition process. Remote ...

  1. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ranking among genetic checks was fairly similar in the BSOs at Mtao, suggesting that the design of the BSOs is satisfactory for producing a ranking of families at two years at this site. However ranking among the genetic checks at Mtao differed from those at Mukandi. Genetic correlation between height at two years and ...

  2. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The DRIS norms for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) relative to N corresponded to the target values recommended for maintaining optimal nutrient status in other forest species, but the calcium (Ca): N and magnesium (Mg): N ratios were much higher, indicating possible luxury consumption of these elements. Foliar ratios ...

  3. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available time (cf. Dunin and Aston 1984, Calder 1992). Materials and methods Site descriptions and treatments Two experimental sites were chosen in Frankfort State Forest (24°49′ S, 30°43′ E) in the Mpumalanga (formerly Eastern Transvaal) province of South..., and the size of the wound at each probe set location was measured (to the nearest 0.1 mm) with a 7X scale loupe. The wound measure- ments were taken midway between the line heater position and both the upper and lower thermistors. Swanson and Whitfield’s...

  4. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  5. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  6. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and

  7. Yields in high density, short rotation intensive culture (SRIC)—plantations of Eucalyptus and Other Hardwood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Sachs; C.B. Low

    1983-01-01

    Initial high density (17,200 trees ha-1, 6961 trees a-1) plantations of Eucalyptus grandis yielded up to 22 oven dry tons (ODT) ha-l yr-I (10 ta-1 yr-1) on an approximate 6 month rotation. Border effects could not be eliminated from the small sized plots used...

  8. The effects of wood storage on the chemical composition and indigenous microflora of eucalyptus species used in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available eucalypt species [Eucalyptus nitens, E. grandis, and E. dunnii (of different site qualities)] wood and generated pulp was performed. This study aimed at determining the effects of wood storage at -20°C (for 6 months), by examining their chemical composition...

  9. Comparative genomics of Eucalyptus and Corymbia reveals low rates of genome structural rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J B; Vaillancourt, R E; Potts, B M; Lee, D J; King, G J; Baten, A; Shepherd, M; Freeman, J S

    2017-05-22

    Previous studies suggest genome structure is largely conserved between Eucalyptus species. However, it is unknown if this conservation extends to more divergent eucalypt taxa. We performed comparative genomics between the eucalypt genera Eucalyptus and Corymbia. Our results will facilitate transfer of genomic information between these important taxa and provide further insights into the rate of structural change in tree genomes. We constructed three high density linkage maps for two Corymbia species (Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and Corymbia torelliana) which were used to compare genome structure between both species and Eucalyptus grandis. Genome structure was highly conserved between the Corymbia species. However, the comparison of Corymbia and E. grandis suggests large (from 1-13 MB) intra-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred on seven of the 11 chromosomes. Most rearrangements were supported through comparisons of the three independent Corymbia maps to the E. grandis genome sequence, and to other independently constructed Eucalyptus linkage maps. These are the first large scale chromosomal rearrangements discovered between eucalypts. Nonetheless, in the general context of plants, the genomic structure of the two genera was remarkably conserved; adding to a growing body of evidence that conservation of genome structure is common amongst woody angiosperms.

  10. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it

  11. Consortium of eucalyptus with forage sorghum in semiarid of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Juliano Brant Albuquerque

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective was to estimate the wood yield and essential oil content in three clones of eucalyptus that were planted in four contrasting arrangements and intercropped with sorghum. Eucalyptus clones MA2001 (Eucalyptus camaldulensis x E. tereticornis, A144 (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, and GG100 (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, were planted in single rows (10x2m, double rows (2x3+15m and 2x3+20m; and, triple rows (2x3x2+10m in a randomized, complete block design experiment with four replicates. Our results demonstrated that planting spacing did not influence the essential oil yield or diameter at breast height in the clones. However, higher density plantings were shown to result in higher fresh weight of branches and leaves per plant. MA2001 grew taller, produced higher quantity of fresh biomass of branches and leaves per plant and volume of wood per hectare, and yielded more essential oil yield than the other clones. We concluded that MA2001 is the most suitable of the clones tested here for cultivation in water deficit conditions.

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus Volatile Oil in View of Thermodynamic Modelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Sovová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to determine this relationship in the case of eucalyptus oil. The oil from the leaves of Eucalyptus grandis L., which was selected for experiments, is rich in a monoterpene alfa-pinene, a monoterpene oxide 1,8-cineole, a sesquiterpene aromadendrene, and a sesquiterpene alcohol globulol. The composition of saturated vapour phase in volatile oil+CO2 system was measured by sampling the extract from either milled dry leaves or essential oil on inert carrier, using ...

  13. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  14. Red Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  15. Hill's equation

    CERN Document Server

    Magnus, Wilhelm

    1979-01-01

    The hundreds of applications of Hill's equation in engineering and physics range from mechanics and astronomy to electric circuits, electric conductivity of metals, and the theory of the cyclotron. New applications are continually being discovered and theoretical advances made since Liapounoff established the equation's fundamental importance for stability problems in 1907. Brief but thorough, this volume offers engineers and mathematicians a complete orientation to the subject.""Hill's equation"" connotes the class of homogeneous, linear, second order differential equations with real, period

  16. Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production in the tropics, but little is known about the physiological processes that control growth and their regulation. We examined the main environmental factors controlling growth and resource use across a geographic gradient with clonal E. grandis x urophylla in north-eastern Brazil. Rates of...

  17. INFLUENCE OF CLONE HARVESTING AGE OF Eucalyptus grandis AND HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN THE WOOD CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN KRAFT PULPABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique Damasceno de Morais; Dalton Longue Júnior; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Elisa Helena da Costa Morais; Carolina Marangon Jardim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent efforts on the quality of the wood used in pulp and paper mills has focused in many points, among them the influence of the raw material chemical characteristics in the production process and final product quality. Considering the current demand for younger trees, the effect of the wood harvesting age in the chemical composition and in the process variables becomes a very important fact for the industries of this sector. So, the objective of this study was to characterize ...

  18. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer; Melhorando a disponibilidade de fosforo da rocha fosforica de Patos para eucalipto: um estudo com radiotracador 32P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez [Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agriculturea Tropical (INIFAT), Santiago de las Vegas, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: falvarez@cena.usp.br; Muraoka, Takashi; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do Solo; Franzini, Vinicius Ide [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Solos e Nutricao de Plantas; Rocha, Alexandre Prado [Escola de Engenharia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  19. LEVANTAMENTO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE Eucalyptus spp. POR MEIO DE ARMADILHA LUMINOSA EM SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of eucalyptus has become an important economic activity in Brazil. However, with the increase of the plantation areas, some entomological problems tend to increase in the same proportion. The constant monitoring of the insects associated with homogeneous planting systems is very important in order to seek the development of programs for integrated pest management. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform a survey on the insect populations associated with Eucalyptus spp., in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The collects were carried out by light traps from July 2008 to August 2009 in three-year-old stands with the species: Eucalyptus dunni, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla . The insects collected were analyzed using the faunistic indices, frequency, abundance, diversity, and constancy. The correlation between the pest species identified and the meteorological variables for the period were also performed. We collected 3623 individuals belonging to eight orders (Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. Three species and three genus of lepidoptera defoliators considered of economic importance were identified: Automeris illustris, Eupseudosoma sp., Sabulodes sp., Sarsina sp., Thyrinteina arnobia and Agrotis ipsilon as well as the borer Phoracantha semipunctata . Our results show that there are important pest species of Eucalyptus already established in the region therefore some constant monitoring is required so that these species do not cause damage to plantations.

  20. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  1. Caracterização tecnológica da madeira de Eucalyptus benthamii para produção de celulose kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

  2. Eucalyptus urograndis stem proteome is responsive to short-term cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Almeida Leonardi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus urograndis is a hybrid eucalyptus of major economic importance to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. Although widely used in forest nurseries around the country, little is known about the biochemical changes imposed by environmental stress in this species. In this study, we evaluated the changes in the stem proteome after short-term stimulation by exposure to low temperature. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protein identification, 12 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and successfully identified after stringent database searches against a protein database from a closely related species (Eucalyptus grandis. The identification of these proteins indicated that the E. urograndis stem proteome responded quickly to low temperature, mostly by down-regulating specific proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and signaling. The results of this study represent the first step in understanding the molecular and biochemical responses of E. urograndis to thermal stress.

  3. Detection and mapping of a lethal locus in a eucalyptus hybrid population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barbosa Rosado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the existence of a lethal locus in a eucalyptus hybrid population, and to quantify the segregation distortion in the linkage group 3 of the Eucalyptus genome. A E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrid population, which segregates for rust resistance, was genotyped with 19 microsatellite markers belonging to linkage group 3 of the Eucalyptus genome. To quantify the segregation distortion, maximum likelihood (ML models, specific to outbreeding populations, were used. These models consider the observed marker genotypes and the lethal locus viability as parameters. The ML solutions were obtained using the expectation‑maximization algorithm. A lethal locus in the linkage group 3 was verified and mapped, with high confidence, between the microssatellites EMBRA 189 e EMBRA 122. This lethal locus causes an intense gametic selection from the male side. Its map position is 25 cM from the locus which controls the rust resistance in this population.

  4. Densidad de la madera en clones de Eucalyptus por densitometría de rayos X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Arango

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Brasil y en diversos países se han verificado avances significativos en la silvicultura clonal intensiva con diferencias marcadas entre clones de especies e híbridos de Eucalyptus en lo referente a los parámetros de crecimiento y desarrollo. Al mismo tiempo, en los últimos años, se introdujo el concepto de uso múltiplo del leño de los árboles con la utilización de la madera como fuente de celulosa y papel, madera sólida y otras aplicaciones como estrategia de aumento de la rentabilidad del emprendimiento forestal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el índice de uniformidad de la madera y la variación de la densidad en el sentido radial por densitometría de rayos X de árboles de 8 años de edad de clones de Eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, buscando posibilitar la optimización de su uso. Por sus características silviculturales se seleccionaron los 5 mejores clones de la especie e híbrido de las plantaciones clonales localizadas en el municipio de San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP de la Cia Suzano de Celulosa y Papel. Se caracterizaron 3 modelos de variación radial de la densidad y la formación de 3 tipos de madera (juvenil, de transición y adulta; el valor medio de densidad aparente de la madera en los clones fue de 0,46 y 0,54 g/cm3, para el Eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, respectivamente.

  5. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagen Li

    Full Text Available Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR, expressed sequence tag (EST derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS, and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age and wood density (56 months were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa.

  6. FCH_Crenichthys_baileyi grandis_19850927

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Hiko White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi grandis) occur. "Nevada, Lincoln County. Each of...

  7. Influence of coupling agent in compatibility of post-consumer HDPE in thermoplastic composites reinforced with eucalyptus fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Catto,André Luis; Stefani,Bruno Vicari; Ribeiro,Vanda Ferreira; Santana,Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and wood fiber from species Eucalyptus grandis (EU) to manufacture experimental composite panels. The use of maleated polyethylene as coupling agent (CA) improved the compatibility between the fiber and plastic matrix. The mechanical properties of the resultant composites were compared with polymer with and without compatibilizer. The influence of the coupling agent (CA) in the polymer matrices and comp...

  8. Absorção e translocação de silício em mudas de eucalipto cultivadas em latossolo e cambissolo Silicon uptake and translocation by eucalyptus seedlings cultivated in latosol (oxisol and cambisol (inceptisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a absorção e a translocação de Si em mudas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill. Ex Maiden cultivadas em amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distrófico e de Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico, foram realizados dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação. Cada solo foi submetido a três incubações seqüenciais para a aplicação dos tratamentos: a CaCO3+MgCO3 para manter o pH em torno de 6,0; b fertilização básica com macro e micronutrientes; c seis doses de Si (CaSiO3. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos contendo 2,7 dm3 de solo. O teor de Si solúvel em água no solo e o conteúdo de Si nas raízes e parte aérea das plantas foram avaliados aos 60, 90 e 120 dias do transplantio, ajustando-se superfícies de resposta dessas variáveis às doses de Si e às épocas. Determinaram-se os índices de eficiência de absorção e de utilização do Si pelas plantas e a porcentagem de Si translocado. Na fase inicial de crescimento (60 dias, as mudas absorveram muito pouco Si, e a eficiência de translocação foi máxima aos 60 dias, ficando a maior parte do elemento retida nas raízes a partir dessa época. O teor de Si solúvel em água no solo reduziu-se com o tempo, mas a absorção do elemento pelo eucalipto não foi responsável pelo fato. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o eucalipto não é uma planta acumuladora de Si, embora seja responsiva ao mesmo.With the objective of studying the absorption and the translocation of Si by seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill. Ex Maiden cultivated in samples of a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol and of a dystrophic Haplic Cambisol (Inceptisol, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions. Each soil was submitted to three sequencial incubations for the application of the treatments: a CaCO3+MgCO3 to maintain the pH around 6.0; b basic fertilization with macro and micronutrients; c six doses of Si (CaSiO3. The plants were grown in pots containing 2.7 dm3 of soil. The

  9. Starvation-induced morphological responses of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Status of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, as a pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the United States has diminished because of progress by eradication programs. However, this pest remains of critical importance in South America, and intractable populations in extreme South Texas ...

  10. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  11. Genomic research in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poke, Fiona S; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Reid, James B

    2005-09-01

    Eucalyptus L'Hérit. is a genus comprised of more than 700 species that is of vital importance ecologically to Australia and to the forestry industry world-wide, being grown in plantations for the production of solid wood products as well as pulp for paper. With the sequencing of the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the recent completion of the first tree genome sequence, Populus trichocarpa, attention has turned to the current status of genomic research in Eucalyptus. For several eucalypt species, large segregating families have been established, high-resolution genetic maps constructed and large EST databases generated. Collaborative efforts have been initiated for the integration of diverse genomic projects and will provide the framework for future research including exploiting the sequence of the entire eucalypt genome which is currently being sequenced. This review summarises the current position of genomic research in Eucalyptus and discusses the direction of future research.

  12. Pre-Infection Stages of Austropuccinia psidii in the Epidermis of Eucalyptus Hybrid Leaves with Different Resistance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ruiz Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rust is a major Eucalyptus spp. disease, which is especially damaging for early-stage plants. The aim of this study was to verify the pre-infection process of Austropuccinia psidii (A. psidii in the leaves of three phenological stages of Eucalyptus clones with different resistance levels. Plants from the hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis with variable levels of resistance to this disease were used. The pathogen was inoculated in vitro on abaxial leaf discs of first, third, and fifth leaf stages and maintained under conditions suitable for disease development. Subsequently, samples from these discs were collected 24 and 120 h after inoculation and processed using scanning electron microscopy analysis. No symptoms were seen in any leaf stage of the resistant clone. Additionally, a low incidence of A. psidii germination (1.3–2% and appressoria (0–0.5% in three leaf stages was observed. However, the first leaf stage of the susceptible clone presented germination of large numbers of urediniospores (65% with appressoria (55% and degradation of the cuticle and wax. From the third stage, the percentage of germinated urediniospores (<15% and appressoria (<2% formation of this clone decreased. Protrusions on the leaf surface, associated with the pathogen, were observed on the first and third leaf stages of the resistant clone and on the fifth stage of the susceptible clone, suggesting a possible defensive plant reaction.

  13. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption

  14. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in

  15. Advancing Eucalyptus genomics: identification and sequencing of lignin biosynthesis genes from deep-coverage BAC libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrna David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus species are among the most planted hardwoods in the world because of their rapid growth, adaptability and valuable wood properties. The development and integration of genomic resources into breeding practice will be increasingly important in the decades to come. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries are key genomic tools that enable positional cloning of important traits, synteny evaluation, and the development of genome framework physical maps for genetic linkage and genome sequencing. Results We describe the construction and characterization of two deep-coverage BAC libraries EG_Ba and EG_Bb obtained from nuclear DNA fragments of E. grandis (clone BRASUZ1 digested with HindIII and BstYI, respectively. Genome coverages of 17 and 15 haploid genome equivalents were estimated for EG_Ba and EG_Bb, respectively. Both libraries contained large inserts, with average sizes ranging from 135 Kb (Eg_Bb to 157 Kb (Eg_Ba, very low extra-nuclear genome contamination providing a probability of finding a single copy gene ≥ 99.99%. Libraries were screened for the presence of several genes of interest via hybridizations to high-density BAC filters followed by PCR validation. Five selected BAC clones were sequenced and assembled using the Roche GS FLX technology providing the whole sequence of the E. grandis chloroplast genome, and complete genomic sequences of important lignin biosynthesis genes. Conclusions The two E. grandis BAC libraries described in this study represent an important milestone for the advancement of Eucalyptus genomics and forest tree research. These BAC resources have a highly redundant genome coverage (> 15×, contain large average inserts and have a very low percentage of clones with organellar DNA or empty vectors. These publicly available BAC libraries are thus suitable for a broad range of applications in genetic and genomic research in Eucalyptus and possibly in related species of Myrtaceae

  16. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Michele Santos Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  17. Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clones não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicação. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulação, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout® e ao Roundup transorb®. As características quantitativas da superfície foliar não foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alterações micromorfológicas ocorreram na ausência de danos visíveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como erosão e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestação por hifas fúngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulação utilizada. A avaliação anatômica da superfície foliar foi relevante para descrição e interpretação dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicação indicam o Zapp QI® como a formulação de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejáveis da deriva.The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI®. No differences in tolerance to glyphosate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI® presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also reduced height of the plants exposed to Scout® and Roundup transorb®. Leaf surface characteristics were not affected by glyphosate application. However, the micromorphological damages occurred prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, and were observed on both faces of the epidermis, in all clones tested. Damages such as erosion and amorphous aspect of epicuticular waxes and infestation of fungal hyphae occurred, independently of the formulation used. The anatomical evaluation of the leaf surface effectively described the damages caused by glyphosate. The growth and intoxication data indicate Zapp QI® formulation as presenting the lowest risk to eucalypt culture, in relation to the undesirable herbicide drift effects.

  18. A new feather mite species of the genus Proterothrix Gaud, 1968 (Acarina, Proctophyllodidae from the Large Niltava, Niltava grandis (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae – an integrative description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Constantinescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the feather mite genus Proterothrix (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae is described from the Large Niltava Niltava grandis (Blyth (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae in northeast India (Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills, Shnongrim village. Proterothrix chachulae Constantinescu, sp. n. differs from all known species of the genus by having in males the aedeagus with bilobate tip. The morphological description is supplemented with molecular characterisation of a fragment f near the 5` terminus of the mitochondrial COI gene.

  19. Efeito do cobre na população de bactérias e fungos do solo, na associação micorrízica e no cultivo de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Pinus elliottii Engelm e Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Taubert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Inês Antoniolli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre é um metal pesado que pode exercer efeitos tóxicos para micro-organismos e plantas. Os fungos ectomicorrízicos são capazes de proteger a planta hospedeira da toxidez dos metais pesados, mas a presença de certas concentrações de metais pode inibir o crescimento destes, prejudicando a simbiose micorrízica e alterar o desenvolvimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de doses de cobre na população de bactérias e fungos do solo, bem como seus efeitos na associação ectomicorrízica e no desenvolvimento de mudas de eucalipto, pinus e canafístula. O levantamento da população de micro-organismos do solo foi realizado em casa de vegetação durante 60 dias e os tratamentos foram doses de sulfato de cobre aplicadas ao solo (0,7; 0,708; 0,716; 0,724 mg kg-1 de solo e mudas de eucalipto e pinus. No segundo experimento, mudas de eucalipto e canafístula inoculadas e não inoculadas com Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee Cunn (UFSC Pt 116 receberam doses de cobre de 0, 100, 200 e 300 mg kg-1 de solo. Aos 110 dias, avaliaram-se a massa fresca da parte aérea e radicular, massa seca da parte aérea, altura, diâmetro do colo e porcentagem de colonização ectomicorrízica. No primeiro experimento, a população total de bactérias e fungos do solo foi alterada pela presença do cobre, porém as mudas de eucalipto e pinus não mostraram efeitos da adição do cobre. No segundo experimento, a inoculação das mudas de eucalipto e canafístula com o isolado UFSC Pt 116 favoreceu o desenvolvimento da massa fresca da parte aérea e radicular e a altura das plantas. Conforme os resultados obtidos, a canafístula foi capaz de realizar associação ectomicorrízica com o isolado testado. O desenvolvimento das plântulas de eucalipto e canafístula foi inibido pelos níveis de cobre, mesmo inoculadas com o isolado UFSC Pt 116.

  20. Effect of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) and maize (Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Senegal, farmers often cultivate groundnut in association with eucalyptus plantations to increase their incomes. However eucalyptus plantations produce large amounts of litter, which impact on groundnut has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to investigate litter accumulation effect on growth, development, and ...

  1. Hardening of eucalyptus seedlings via salicylic acid application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Lima Mazzuchelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural and forest productivity suffer restrictions imposed by water stress, high temperature and high solar radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of stress attenuation and growth promotion of salicylic acid (SA application in eucalyptus (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrid seedlings under water stress. A completely randomized design, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (three water treatments: constant irrigation with daily replacement of 40% (CI40% or 100% (CI100% of evapotranspirated water, and temporary irrigation suspension with replacement of only 40% of evapotranspirated water (S40%; and four SA concentrations: 0 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1, 200 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1, was used. Plant photosynthetic parameters and biometric features were evaluated. The stomatal limitation was higher in plants under S40% irrigation, however, the SA application reverted this result, allowing the maintenance of the photosynthetic potential. There was interaction between irrigation regimes and SA doses for number of leaves, leaf area/number of leaves ratio and shoot and root dry mass. It was concluded that the application of 200 mg L -1 of SA positively affected the growth of eucalyptus seedlings under water stress, being considered an auxiliary management technique to their hardening process.

  2. Production and development of eucalyptus seedlings in function of doses of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Tertulino Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P on the survival in the nursery and early development in the field of clonal Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and five replicates of 30 plants per replicate. At the end of the cycle (90 days, 15 seedlings were used for determining the dry matter accumulation and nutrient concentration in the shoot. The rest was planted in the field to determine the percentage of survival and early development. The treatments consisted of four doses of P fertilization (0.0, 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 mg plant-1. To obtain high quality seedlings in conditions similar to this experiment it is required doses of P in the range from 3.6 to 3.8 mg plant-1. Doses greater than 4 mg plant-1 affect the development and quality of eucalyptus seedlings. An adequate phosphorus fertilization of eucalyptus seedlings increase, by about 30%, the percentage of surviving seedlings in the field.

  3. MIXED AND MONOSPECIFIC STANDS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACKWATTLE. II – FINE ROOT BIOMASS DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fine root biomass density (FRBD in mixed and monospecific stands of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla and Acacia mearnsii (black wattle in Bagé-RS (Southern Brazil. An experimental trial was installed with three treatments: 100% Eucalyptus (100E; 100% Acacia mearnsii (100A; 50% Eucalyptus + 50% Acacia mearnsii (50E:50A. The trial was carried using a randomized block design with three replicates. The fine root (≤ 2.0mm biomass density was determined 8 and 18 months after planting the trees. Soil samples were collected, with a cylindrical extractor auger (d = 7.0 cm, from four depths (0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 20 and 20 - 30 cm at each sampling point. After 8 months, the FRBD distribution was the same in both species and in all soil layers, reaching the maximum projection at 125 cm from the tree trunk. After 18 months, the root biomass density was higher in the monospecific black wattle stand than in the monospecific eucalyptus stand and the mixed stand. The fine root biomass density was highest in the 5 - 10 cm layer close to the trunk, for the planting row spacing, the planting line and the diagonals between two planting lines. Knowledge about fine root growth and distribution in soil at initial stages of stand development may help in decision-making for intensive forestry, thus ensuring more efficient use of soil resources.

  4. Liberación/mineralización de nitrógeno y fósforo en hojarasca de Eucalyptus grandis y leguminosas herbáceas en distintos suelos: relación con la calidad física y química del residuo, y efecto sobre el crecimiento de plantas jóvenes de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, María Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Las limitaciones nutricionales para el crecimiento de E. grandis, debido a la baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P) son comunes, y controlan la productividad de las plantaciones. El tipo de cosecha y el manejo de sus residuos son factores que inciden en el impacto de las plantaciones sobre la fertilidad del suelo. La fertilización química, si bien permite la incorporación de nutrientes, puede provocar distintos perjuicios, por lo que en el ámbito forestal la retención de los resi...

  5. Leaf blight of eucalyptus in nurseries. [Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin; Soni, K.K.; Dadwal, V.S.

    1985-12-01

    A large number of seedlings of Eucalyptus are raised in forest nurseries for afforestation, road side and avenue plantations. Usually the sowing is done during February and the seedlings are maintained in polythene bags for the plantation during July. During the course of study of nursery diseases a severe leaf blight of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis E. tereticornis and E. hybrid) caused by Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded. Even the big trees of 10 to 15 years were found to be infected by this fungus. Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded on E. globulus from Mysore. Researchers also noticed this disease in Eucalyptus from Kerala. The present report indicated that the disease is being reported for the first time from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Rajastan. 2 references, 1 table.

  6. Loess Hills of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage outlines the boundary of the Loess Hills in Iowa at 1:100,000 scale. Criteria applied to the delineation of the Loess Hills included drainage density,...

  7. New alkaloids from Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Hadi, A Hamid A; Litaudon, Marc; Latip, Jalifah; Abdullah, Noor Rain

    2006-05-20

    The alkaloidal extract of the leaves of Phoebe grandis (nees) merr. have provided two new minor alkaloids; phoebegrandine D (1), a proaporphine-tryptamine dimer, and phoebegrandine E (2), an indoloquinolizidine. This is the first report on the occurrence of an indoloquinolizidine in the Phoebe species. The crude extract also exhibited antiplasmodial activity (IC50<8 microg mL-1). The structures of the novel compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, notably 2D NMR and HRMS.

  8. Correspondence between performance of Eucalyptus spp trees selected from family and clonal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C A F; Gonçalves, F M A; Rosse, L N; Costa, R R G F; Ramalho, M A P

    2011-06-21

    We examined the correspondence in performance between trees selected from a family test and their respective clones from a clonal test of Eucalyptus. Full-sib families were obtained from controlled pollination among individuals of Eucalyptus grandis and between E. grandis and E. urophylla. The hybridizations did not follow a factorial scheme. The family tests were carried out at three locations in Eunápolis and Itabela counties, in Bahia, Brazil, in 2003. Four hundred and ninety-seven high-performance trees were selected, by the individual BLUP procedure, in the family tests at two years of age, based on wood volume. The clones from these trees and 14 checks were evaluated in clonal tests carried out in the same region in 2006. The wood volume of the clones was evaluated at two years of age. Trait correlation between the trees selected from the family and clonal tests was low. The estimate of the coincidence between the best trees and the best clones using an average of the different intensities of selection was only 27%. These results demonstrate that the selection of trees in the family test should not be too drastic; otherwise the chance plus clones may be overlooked.

  9. Main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha V Zanuncio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of Eucalyptus grandis in the Municipality of Bom Despacho, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1987 to February 1992. A total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. These four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. The number of species without defined importance to eucalyptus, and non-identified species, increased during the collecting period of five years while those of primary and secondary pests showed similar numbers in all years. The most collected primary pests Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll and Stenalcidia sp. (Geometridae showed higher frequencies during the driest and coldest periods of the year, whereas Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Notodontidae was most frequent during periods of higher rainfall. Species of groups III and IV increased in diversity with eucalyptus age. This area has a high probability of outbreaks of eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars, especially T. arnobia. For this reason, lepidopteran pests should be monitored in this plantation during the driest and coldest periods of the year, when they can reach population peaks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 553-560. Epub 2006 Jun 01.De marzo de 1987 a febrero de 1992 se realizó un monitoreo con trampas luminosas en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis en Bom Despacho, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se recolectaron 547 especies del orden Lepidoptera: plagas primarias: 13; plagas secundarias: 20; especies sin importancia definida para el cultivo de eucalipto: 79; y especies no identificadas: 435. Estos cuatro grupos tuvieron medias de 5231.29; 338,18; 438.16 y 2222.87 individuos por trampa respectivamente, para un total de 8229.87 lepidopteros recolectados por trampa. Durante los cinco años hubo un aumento del número de

  10. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  11. Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova E.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g. During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g, and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g. During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin, was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.

  12. Boron influence on concentration of polyols and other sugars in Eucalyptus Influência do boro na síntese de polióis e outros açúcares em Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Meire Maximino Leite

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the functions of the element Boron (B in plants have not been sufficiently clarified, several hypotheses have been raised. Some of the functions attributed to this element are synthesis and transport of carbohydrates. To evaluate the effect of B on the synthesis of some polyols and sugars in Eucalyptus grandis and hybrids "urograndis", these species were submitted to situations of supply and restriction of B. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, arranged in a randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with 5 replicates of each genotype. The B levels were provided in the form of nutrient solution. No significant difference was observed in the content of mannitol, sorbitol, myo-inositol and scyllo-inositol and sugars α-glucose and β-glucose between E. grandis and hybrids. Arabinose was the only one to present a higher content in E. grandis on restriction of B. The effect of the presence of B was very expressive, but regarding B supply, the plants showed significant increase in the synthesis of the compounds evaluated.Embora a função do elemento Boro (B nas plantas ainda não tenha sido bem esclarecida, várias hipóteses vêm sido levantadas. Uma das funções atribuídas a esse elemento é a síntese de carboidratos. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do B sobre a síntese de alguns polióis e açúcares em Eucalyptus grandis e híbridos "urograndis", estes foram submetidos à situação de suprimento e restrição de B. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação de acordo com o delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, e os elementos nutricionais, assim como o B, foram fornecidos na forma de solução nutritiva. Não se observou diferença significativa nos teores de manitol, sorbitol, myo-inositol e scyllo-inositol e dos açúcares α-glicose e β-glicose entre E. grandis e híbridos. Arabinose foi o único a apresentar maior teor em E. grandis em restrição de B. O efeito da presen

  13. Genome-wide discovery and validation of Eucalyptus small RNAs reveals variable patterns of conservation and diversity across species of Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marília de Castro Rodrigues; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-12-29

    Micro RNAs are a class of small non coding RNAs of 20-24 nucleotides transcribed as single stranded precursors from MIR gene loci. Initially described as post-transcriptional regulators involved in development, two decades ago, miRNAs have been proven to regulate a wide range of processes in plants such as germination, morphology and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite wide conservation in plants, a number of miRNAs are lineage specific. We describe the first genome wide survey of Eucalyptus miRNAs based on high throughput sequencing. In addition to discovering small RNA sequences, MIR loci were mapped onto the reference genome and interspecific variability investigated. Sequencing was carried out for the two most world widely planted species, E. grandis and E. globulus. To maximize discovery, E. grandis samples were from BRASUZ1, the same tree whose genome provided the reference sequence. Interspecific analysis reinforces the variability in small RNA repertoire even between closely related species. Characterization of Eucalyptus small RNA sequences showed 95 orthologous to conserved miRNAs and 193 novel miRNAs. In silico target prediction confirmed 163 novel miRNAs and degradome sequencing experimentally confirmed several hundred targets. Experimental evidence based on the exclusive expression of a set of small RNAs across 16 species within Myrtaceae further highlighted variable patterns of conservation and diversity of these regulatory elements. The description of miRNAs in Eucalyptus contributes to scientific knowledge of this vast genre, which is the most widely planted hardwood crop in the tropical and subtropical world, adding another important element to the annotation of Eucalyptus grandis reference genome.

  14. The use of self-incompatibility in the production of hybrid eucalyptus seed by `Aracruz Celulose' in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Góes Junghans

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility found in a Eucalyptus grandis clone was used to promote interspecific hybridization between E. grandis and E. urophylla clones. The interspecific hybridization achieved in an open-pollinated commercial seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil was evaluated by the multi-locus outcrossing rate (tm of the seed producing clone, E. grandis. The percentage of outcrossed seeds reached 95.9%. The outcrossing rate of individual trees was quite variable, but was always above 70.0%. Wright's coefficient was negative (F = -0.30 revealing an excess of heterozygous genotypes in the progeny. Genetic parameters confirmed the high degree of hybridization expected in this orchard. The 800-m wide protection belt of native tropical forest that surrounds this orchard has significantly reduced pollen contamination, in comparison to a 400-m wide belt used in another local seed orchard.Verificamos a eficiência do uso da auto-incompatibilidade encontrada em um clone de Eucalyptus grandis para aumentar a hibridação interespecífica entre E. grandis e E. urophylla em um pomar clonal para produção de semente comercial, instalado no Espírito Santo, Brasil. O nível da hibridação interespecífica alcançada nesse pomar foi avaliado por meio da taxa de fecundação cruzada, tm, do clone de E. grandis produtor de semente. A taxa (tm foi estimada usando-se vários locos de isoenzimas simultaneamente. A percentagem de sementes híbridas alcançou 95,9%. A taxa de fecundação cruzada das árvores individuais foi variável, mas sempre superior a 70%. O coeficiente de Wright foi negativo (F = -0,30, indicando haver um excesso de genótipos heterozygotos na progênie. Os parâmetros genéticos estimados confirmaram o alto nível de hibridação esperado nesse pomar. A barreira de proteção, constituída por uma faixa de 800 metros de floresta nativa, reduziu significativamente a contaminação do pomar por pólen de outros povoamentos de

  15. Comparison of the compressive strength of impregnated and nonimpregnated eucalyptus subjected to two different pressures and impregnation times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemir Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The durability of wood is affected by several factors. For this reason, much research has been done on a variety of chemical compounds for impregnating wood, aimed at preserving it while simultaneously improving its properties. Recent studies of the properties of impregnated wood have demonstrated the possibility of substantially improving its mechanical characteristics. Thus, the purpose of this work was to compare the strength to parallel compression of wooden fibers (Eucalyptus grandis, both nonimpregnated and impregnated with a monocomponent resin, from the standpoint of pressure and impregnation time, aiming at its structural utilization. The results demonstrate that the compressive strength of impregnated test specimens is greater than that of nonimpregnated ones, indicating that monocomponent polyurethane resin can be considered suitable for impregnating wood, since it increases the compressive strength of eucalyptus.

  16. De novo assembled expressed gene catalog of a fast-growing Eucalyptus tree produced by Illumina mRNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Hefer, Charles A; Ranik, Martin; Joubert, Fourie; Myburg, Alexander A

    2010-12-01

    De novo assembly of transcript sequences produced by short-read DNA sequencing technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene catalogs for non-model organisms. A draft genome sequence will be produced in 2010 for a Eucalyptus tree species (E. grandis) representing the most important hardwood fibre crop in the world. Genome annotation of this valuable woody plant and genetic dissection of its superior growth and productivity will be greatly facilitated by the availability of a comprehensive collection of expressed gene sequences from multiple tissues and organs. We present an extensive expressed gene catalog for a commercially grown E. grandis × E. urophylla hybrid clone constructed using only Illumina mRNA-Seq technology and de novo assembly. A total of 18,894 transcript-derived contigs, a large proportion of which represent full-length protein coding genes were assembled and annotated. Analysis of assembly quality, length and diversity show that this dataset represent the most comprehensive expressed gene catalog for any Eucalyptus tree. mRNA-Seq analysis furthermore allowed digital expression profiling of all of the assembled transcripts across diverse xylogenic and non-xylogenic tissues, which is invaluable for ascribing putative gene functions. De novo assembly of Illumina mRNA-Seq reads is an efficient approach for transcriptome sequencing and profiling in Eucalyptus and other non-model organisms. The transcriptome resource (Eucspresso, http://eucspresso.bi.up.ac.za/) generated by this study will be of value for genomic analysis of woody biomass production in Eucalyptus and for comparative genomic analysis of growth and development in woody and herbaceous plants.

  17. The impact of the addition of Eucalyptus grandis wood chips on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of plantation residues, as a result of clearfelling, on nutrient availability in plantation systems, as well as the difficulties during subsequent planting and harvesting, should be considered in the development of plantation management strategies. The aim of this experiment was to determine if the addition of stump ...

  18. Fertilization with phosphorus increases soil nitrogen absorption in young plants of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina Graciano; Juan F. Goya; Jorge L. Frangi; Juan J. Guiamet

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the nutrients that most commonly limit tree growth. Interactions between fertilization and soil type are well known, and in soils with moderate or low N availability, N-fertilization is frequently recommended to improve tree nutrition. The aim of this paper was to analyze how different doses of P and N applied in three different...

  19. Ozone bleaching of South African Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulps containing high levels of hexenuronic acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone use in conjunction with chlorine dioxide during pulp bleaching offers several advantages over conventional bleaching sequences that make use of chlorine dioxide only. Despite this, in South Africa, only one mill uses ozone. The current study...

  20. Dominant clonal Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla trees use water more efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina Shinkai Gentil Otto; Robert M. Hubbard; Dan Binkley; Jose Luis Stape

    2014-01-01

    Wood growth in trees depends on the acquisition of resources, and can vary with tree size leading to a variety of stand dynamics. Typically, larger trees obtain more resources and grow faster than smaller trees, but while light has been addressed more often, few case studies have investigated the contributions of water use and water use efficiency (WUE) within stands...

  1. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation in Eucalyptus grandis developing xylem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G Hussey; Eshchar Mizrachi; Andrew Groover; Dave K Berger; Alexander A Myburg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Histone modifications play an integral role in plant development, but have been poorly studied inwoody plants. Investigating chromatin organization in wood-forming tissue and its role in regulating gene expression allows us to understand the mechanisms underlying cellular differentiation during xylogenesis (wood...

  2. The Eucalyptus Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP gene subfamily: genomic organization, structural features and expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Iara Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant aquaporins are water channels implicated in various physiological processes, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, the Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP gene subfamily of Eucalyptus, an economically important woody species, was investigated and characterized. A genome-wide survey of the Eucalyptus grandis genome revealed the presence of eleven putative TIP genes (referred as EgTIP, which were individually assigned by phylogeny to each of the classical TIP1–5 groups. Homology modelling confirmed the presence of the two highly conserved NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala motifs in the identified EgTIPs. Residue variations in the corresponding selectivity filters, that might reflect differences in EgTIP substrate specificity, were observed. All EgTIP genes, except EgTIP5.1, were transcribed and the majority of them showed organ/tissue-enriched expression. Inspection of the EgTIP promoters revealed the presence of common cis-regulatory elements implicated in abiotic stress and hormone responses pointing to an involvement of the identified genes in abiotic stress responses. In line with these observations, additional gene expression profiling demonstrated increased expression under polyethylene glycol-imposed osmotic stress. Overall, the results obtained suggest that these novel EgTIPs might be functionally implicated in eucalyptus adaptation to stress.

  3. Plants in energy field. Eucalyptus. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.

    1982-01-01

    In Japan eucalyptuses booms have occurred, the first boom from 1954 to 1959, the second boom from 1970 to 1976 and the third boom from 1979 to the present. At the first boom the fundamental studies on eucalyptuses were started by governmental funds. In Wakayama Prefecture eucalyptuses were planted over the area of 200 hectares by a private company. At the second boom Matusdo City made the plan in which the whole city would be planted with eucalyptuses, resulting in taking eucalyptus cultivation one step ahead. Both booms were closed by some failures. Third boom emerged from the necessity in energy. Eucalyptus oil contains cineol (C/sub 10/H/sub 18/O), one of monoterpenes. The practical test of eucalyptus oil and hypothesis of eucalyptus root are described. Water-hyacinth live on poor quality water.

  4. The Eucalyptus spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Barbuy, Beatriz; Campos, Rodrigo P.; Castilho, Bruno V.; Gneiding, Clemens; Kanaan, Antonio; Lee, David; Lepine, Jacques R. D.; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; de Oliveira, Ligia S.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Silva, J. M.; Strauss, C.; Taylor, Keith

    2003-03-01

    As part of the Brazilian contribution to the 4.2 m SOAR telescope project we are building the Integral Field Unit spectrograph, "SIFUS." With the aim of testing the performance of optical fibers with 50 microns core size on IFUs, we constructed a prototype of the IFU and a spectrograph that were installed at the 1.6 m telescope of the Observatório do Pico dos Dias (OPD), managed by Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA) in Brazil. The IFU has 512 fibers coupled to a LIMO microlens array (16 x 32) covering a 15" x 30" field on the sky. The spectrograph is a medium resolution instrument, operating in a quasi-Littrow mode. It was based on the design of the SPIRAL spectrograph built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The name Eucalyptus was given following the name of the native Australian tree that adapted very well in Brazil and it was given in recognition to the collaboration with the colleagues of the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The instrument first light occurred in the first semester of 2001. The results confirmed the possibility of using the adopted fibers and construction techniques for the SIFUS. We present the features of the instrument, some examples of the scientific data obtained, and the status of the commissioning, calibration and automation plans. The efficiency of this IFU was determined to be 53% during telescope commissioning tests.

  5. Morphology of immatures of Euschistus (Mitripus grandis (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Donida Biasotto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures are important sources of information about characters, thus potentially improving classification and phylogenies. Euschistus (Mitripus grandis Rolston, 1978 occurs in southern and southeastern Brazil. There are no references in the literature about this species other than the original description and distribution records. Our aim is to describe the egg and five nymphal instars of E. (M. grandis, addressing the ontogeny of the external scent efferent system. Specimens of E. (M. grandis were collected on Solanum pseudocapsicum Linnaeus (Solanaceae in São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and reared in the laboratory. The egg of E. (M. grandis is white and barrel-shaped, chorion translucent bearing spines connected by thin sheets forming polygons. Aero-mycropilar processes translucent and slightly clubbed. The nymphs bear anterior dorsal abdominal scent glands (DAG with slit-like ostiole continued by a short groove; from the second instar onward median and posterior DAGs with rounded ostiole bearing closing cuticular valve. Spout peritreme flat and curved anteriorly, evaporatorium network-shaped surrounding ostiole plus peritrema; alveoli surface with trabeculae. Nymphs of E. (M. grandis can be distinguished from other species of Euschistus by the color pattern and morphological features. The most striking morphological characteristic of 4th and 5th instar nymphs of E. (M. grandis is the broad, deflected projection of humeral angles.

  6. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gion, Jean-Marc; Carouché, Audrey; Deweer, Sylvie; Bedon, Franck; Pichavant, Frédérique; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Baillères, Henri; Rozenberg, Philippe; Carocha, Victor; Ognouabi, Nina; Verhaegen, Daniel; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Vigneron, Philippe; Plomion, Christophe

    2011-06-08

    Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

  7. Naval Hill Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Bosman

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a new digital planetarium owned by the University of the Free State and located on Naval Hill, Bloemfontein, in the building formerly occupied by the Lamont-Hussey Observatory of the University of Michigan.

  8. Red Hill Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  9. A novel genome-wide microsatellite resource for species of Eucalyptus with linkage-to-physical correspondence on the reference genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattapaglia, Dario; Mamani, Eva M C; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Faria, Danielle A

    2015-03-01

    Keystone species in their native ranges, eucalypts, are ecologically and genetically very diverse, growing naturally along extensive latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and variable environments. Besides their ecological importance, eucalypts are also the most widely planted trees for sustainable forestry in the world. We report the development of a novel collection of 535 microsatellites for species of Eucalyptus, 494 designed from ESTs and 41 from genomic libraries. A selected subset of 223 was evaluated for individual identification, parentage testing, and ancestral information content in the two most extensively studied species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus. Microsatellites showed high transferability and overlapping allele size range, suggesting they have arisen still in their common ancestor and confirming the extensive genome conservation between these two species. A consensus linkage map with 437 microsatellites, the most comprehensive microsatellite-only genetic map for Eucalyptus, was built by assembling segregation data from three mapping populations and anchored to the Eucalyptus genome. An overall colinearity between recombination-based and physical positioning of 84% of the mapped microsatellites was observed, with some ordering discrepancies and sporadic locus duplications, consistent with the recently described whole genome duplication events in Eucalyptus. The linkage map covered 95.2% of the 605.8-Mbp assembled genome sequence, placing one microsatellite every 1.55 Mbp on average, and an overall estimate of physical to recombination distance of 618 kbp/cM. The genetic parameters estimates together with linkage and physical position data for this large set of microsatellites should assist marker choice for genome-wide population genetics and comparative mapping in Eucalyptus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  11. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    SALLAM, Sobhy M. A.; BUENO, Ives C. S.; NASSER, Mohamed E. A.; ABDALLA, Adibe L.

    2010-01-01

    Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh leaves (FL) or residue leaves (RL), after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h in...

  12. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, I. C. P.; SANTIN, R. de C. M.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Rosa, O. P. P.; Dias, A. C. F.; QUECINE, M. C.; Azevedo,J.L. de; A.T.S. Matsumura

    2012-01-01

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus ...

  13. Chemical composition of essential oils and hydrosols of three Eucalyptus species from Senegal: Eucalyptus alba Renv, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus tereticornis Hook

    OpenAIRE

    Barka Ndiaye, El Hadji; Talla Gueye, Momar; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Diop, Serigne Mbacké; Diop, Michel Bakar; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    The leaves of three eucalyptus species Eucalyptus Alba, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and ucalyptus tereticornis were collected in Kaolack (Senegal) and were extracted by steam distillation after 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of drying. The volatile components of aqueous distillates (hydrosols) were obtained by liquid–liquid extraction using n-hexane. The different extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spe...

  14. AGROCLIMATIC ZONING FOR EUCALYPTUS IN THE STATE OF PARANÁ AND THE NEW SCENARIOS DEFINED BY GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silveira Wrege

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a country with one the largest areas of forest plantations in the world. The state of Paraná (PR is in the first of three places of designated plantations areas in the country. The main cultivated species are the genus Eucalyptus. In this work, the areas of better favorability for planting the main species of commercial value eucalyptus were defined. Additionally, changes may also occur in these zones in the coming decades, due to global climate change. For this purpose, future scenarios were elaborated, using stochastic tie series simulation software, verifying the possible changes of the climate and indicating potential consequences regarding the changes of eucalyptus plantation zones. The results show that there will be an increase in areas favorable to the commercial plantations of E. grandis and E. urograndis, species cultivated in Cfa climate (subtropical zones. For E. benthamii, a species cultivated mostly in the Cfb (temperate zones, there will be a reduction of area for use in commercial plantations in Paraná, with displacement to areas located to the south and at higher altitudes, where edaphic limitations may occur.

  15. Breeding Eucalyptus for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edival A.V. Zauza; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; João Flávio da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations cover about 1.5 percent of the agricultural area in Brazil, and contribute to 4 percent of GDP and 3 percent in exports of forest products. Technological and research advances in silviculture and genetic improvement have increased productivity up to 80 m³ of wood/ha/year, with an average of 35 to 45 m³/ha/year. The greatest...

  16. INTERFERENCE IN THE EUCALYPTUS PULP QUALITY AND YIELD DUE TO WOOD MULTIPLE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year plantation of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid established in the vicinity of Mogi-Guaçu/SP was evaluated, according to a simulation of multiple use of the wood. Part of the raw material produced was sent to sawn wood industry. The quality and yield of the cellulose produced in laboratory of three wood portions of the plantation was compared. In Treatment 1, the cellulose produced from the whole wood of the trees was evaluated; in Treatment 2 only the first portion of the tree was used, from wood of the soil base up to 4m height, wood that would be destined to sawnwood in a multiple use situation; finally, Treatment 3 evaluated the portion of the wood above 4 m of height. The possible interferences of multiple use of the wood in the yield and quality of the cellulose were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the retreat of the most vigorous logs of the trees didn't harm the quality and yield of the cellulose.

  17. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1922. Date of birth: 26 September 1886. Date of death: 3 June 1977. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the ...

  18. Análise cinética da cura de adesivos de taninos das cascas de três espécies de Eucalyptus por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Fábio Akira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a cinética de cura de adesivos à base de taninos de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus urophylla por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC, comparando-a com a cinética de cura de adesivos comerciais: fenol-formaldeído e de taninos de acácia-negra (Acacia mollissima D.Wild. Verificou-se que o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentou os parâmetros cinéticos (energia de ativação, entalpia, temperatura de pico e ordem de reação mais próximos aos do adesivo comercial de taninos de acácia-negra, que foram totalmente diferentes do adesivo à base de fenol-formaldeído. Com base nestes parâmetros constatou-se que, em relação aos outros dois, o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla é o mais adequado para colagem, uma vez que em condições industriais ele necessitará de uso mínimo de energia e de tempo de prensagem durante o processo de colagem.

  19. Parsimonious Crown Diameter Prediction Models for Tectona Grandis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parsimonious Crown Diameter Prediction Models for Tectona Grandis (Linn f Verbenaceae). FS Popo-ola, BA Oyebade,. Abstract. Tree crown is one complement of net primary production and its dimensions reflect general tree health. Crown diameter is often used as an important predictor variable for tree growth equation.

  20. Cafe Grandis kõlab lautomuusika / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Corelli Musicu salongiõhtutel festivali "Fiesta de la Guitarra" raames esineb trio koosseisus Stewart McCoy (lautomängija), Robert Staak (lautomängija) ja Maria Staak (laulja), esinejatest. Esitatakse renessansiaja autorite lautoduette ja -laule. Kontsert 8. nov. Pärnu hotellis sarjas "Café Grandi muusikasalong"

  1. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals.

  2. Effects of Tectona grandis (teak) plantation on soil microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Tectona grandis age series plantation on soil microorganisms were investigated. Using completely randomised block design (CRBD) soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere, non-rhizosphere and the natural forest for December, 2003, February, 2004, April, 2004, and June, 2004. The collected samples ...

  3. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  4. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibe L. Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

  5. Improving phosphorus availability from patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer Melhorando a disponibilidade de fósforo da rocha fosfórica de patos para Eucalipto: um estudo com radiotraçador 32P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carlos Alvarez Villanueva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla ´ E. grandis was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP, phosphate rock (PR and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR. The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla ´ E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla ´ E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer.Como geralmente os solos usados para plantações de eucalipto no Brasil são de baixa fertilidade, a adubação fosfórica é indispensável, incrementando o custo da plantação. Espécies mais eficientes no uso de fósforo (P de fontes pouco solúveis poderiam ser uma opção interessante. Porém, pouco se conhece ainda sobre o comportamento de eucalipto em relação à capacidade de usar fósforo de fontes com diferente solubilidade em água. O uso de P por eucalipto (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla ´ E. grandis, foi estudado em experimento de casa de vegetação usando solo da Região de Cerrado, Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo hypodistrófico, e o método isotópico com 32P. As fontes de P usadas

  6. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties of Coccinia grandis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sakharkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Little knowledge is available on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Coccina grandis fruits and no study has reported on its cell proliferative property. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative property of fruits of C. grandis. Material and Methods: Fruits of C. grandis were extracted using water; ethanol and acetone by cold and hot Soxhlet extraction. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the modified Kirby-Bauer diffusion method and compared against erythromycin. The antioxidant property was determined using Cayman's antioxidant assay; whereas cell proliferation/cytotoxic properties were evaluated using the Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell MTS assay with MDA-MB 321 breast cancer cells. Data were analyzed for correlation and differences using unpaired student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. A p value of Results: Both cold and hot ethanol and acetone extracts of C. grandis fruits showed some degree of bacterial growth inhibition. Acetone extracts exhibited higher antibacterial activity. Both ethanol extracts showed antioxidant property when compared with standard Trolox. In contrary to cytotoxicity, all four extracts showed cell proliferation compared to controls at different concentrations. However, acetone extracts exhibited greater cell proliferation compared to ethanol extracts and cold extracts performed better than the hot extracts. Conclusion: C. grandis fruits exhibited some degree of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties. Further investigation is warranted to isolate, confirm and characterize phytochemicals that are responsible for the medicinal properties observed.

  7. Dual RNA-sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi challenge reveals pathogen and host factors influencing compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febe Elizabeth Meyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction.

  8. Photosynthetic temperature responses of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; Loughead, S. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations of four year old Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Temperatures varied between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and were measured at approximately monthly intervals from early spring until midwinter. The photosynthetic temperature optimum was found to be linearly related to the average temperature of the preceding week during the entire nine month period. For E. globulus the optimum temperature for net photosynthesis increased from 17 degrees C to 23 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 degrees C to 16 degrees. The corresponding values for E. nitens were 14 to 20 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 to 19 degrees C. The photosynthetic performance of E. nitens was less sensitive to temperatures above and below the optimum than E. globulus. In a second experiment E. globulus clones were acclimated in temperature-controlled greenhouses, and in a shadehouse in four climatically different regions of Tasmania. A comparison of light response curves of the plants showed that the maximum rate of net photosynthesis was affected by the growth temperature, whereas apparent quantum efficiency remained unchanged. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Study for exploitation of Eucalyptus bark generated in the process of manufacturing of wood panels; Estudo para aproveitamento de cascas de Eucalyptus geradas no processo de fabricacao de paineis de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa; Rezende, Marcos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica], E-mail: jroberto@ibb.unesp.br; Santiago, Francisco Luiz Sanchez [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2009-07-01

    In the wood fibreboard sheet manufacturing industries the use of Eucalyptus grandis has been used both as a raw material as well as fuel (biomass) for generating thermal energy as steam, water and hot air. This paper presents the results of a study obtained in a production plant at one facility in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. The generated amount of solid residues and barks, and also their heat energy, have been measured such that these residues can be used as fuel in steam boilers. The annual volume of wood applied for combustion has been 153,125 m{sup 3}/year at the plant in study. By leveraging the volume of the bark with wood saved for this purpose is 20,707 m{sup 3} / year, representing an annual savings of 13.52% of the average annual volume of wood to generate heat energy demanded by the facility under study. (author)

  10. Fauna edáfica em plantio inicial de Eucalyptus sob diferentes alternativas de controle de plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi averiguar o efeito de diferentes alternativas de  controle químico de plantas daninhas na fauna de solo, em plantio de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos avaliados consistiram de controles parciais e total da vegetação infestante, e as coletas foram realizadas por meio  de armadilha de solo (pitfall. Foram coletados 26.136 espécimes, distribuídos em 13 grupos taxonômicos (Araneae, Blattodea, Chilopoda, Collembola, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Termitoidea, Orthoptera, Opilione e formas jovens. Os tratamentos onde houve permanência de vegetação infestante apresentaram valores mais elevados com relação aos índices avaliados.

  11. Análise do perfil de metabólitos polares em tecido foliar de Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Tamires Oliveira de

    2014-01-01

    A eucaliptocultura e sua propagação clonal têm sido empregadas no Brasil desde a década de 60, devido as características de produtividade, capacidade de adaptação e crescimento rápido, destacando-se as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis e seus híbridos, que apresentam bom rendimento para obtenção de pasta de celulose pelas indústrias do setor e, E. benthamii que possui resistência à temperaturas amenas seguidas de geadas. A análise do perfil metabólico para espécies de eucaliptos ainda não foi ex...

  12. Antigravity Hills are Visual Illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon ...

  13. Mycelial growth of two Lentinula edodes strains in culture media prepared with sawdust extracts from seven eucalyptus species and three eucalyptus clones = Crescimento micelial de duas linhagens de Lentinula edodes em meios de cultura à base de extrato de serragem de sete espécies e três clones de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro mycelial growth of Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01 and LE- 96/18 were evaluated in solid culture media prepared with sawdust extracts from seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. pellita, E. paniculata, E. citriodora, and E. camaldulensis and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis × E. urophylla hybrids. Evaluations were made every 48 hours by means of colony diameter measurements (mean of four transversely-oriented measurements, during ten days of incubation in the dark at 25ºC±1°C. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, and treatment means were compared by Tukey test. The culture medium prepared from E. citriodora sawdust extract was the most promising to grow L. edodes strains LE-96/18 and LE-95/01. L. edodes strainLE-96/18 presented the fastest mycelial growth after incubation for ten days, regardless of sawdust extract type used in the culture medium.Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens LE-95/01 e LE-96/18 de Lentinula edodes, em meios de cultura sólidos à base de extrato de serragem de sete espécies (Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. pellita, E. paniculata, E. citriodora e E. camaldulensis e três clones (híbridos de E. grandis x E. urophylla de eucalipto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições do diâmetro das colônias (média de quatro medidas diametralmenteopostas, a cada 48 horas, durante dez dias de incubação, no escuro a 25ºC ±1°C. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. O meio de cultura à base de extrato de serragem de E. citriodora foio mais promissor no crescimento das linhagens LE-96/18 e LE-95/01 de L. edodes. A linhagem LE-96/18 de L. edodes foi a que apresentou o crescimento micelial mais rápido após dez dias de incubação, independentemente do tipo de extrato de serragem utilizado nomeio de cultura.

  14. Effects of Planting Density on Transpiration, Stem Flow and Interception for Two Clones Differing in Drought Tolerance in a High Productivity Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, R. M.; Hakemada, R.; Ferraz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eucalypt plantations cover about 20 M hectares worldwide and expansion is expected to mainly occur in marginal growing areas where dry conditions may lead to water conflicts. One of the principal reasons for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations is rapid wood growth but these forests also transpire large amounts of water. Genotype selection and planting density, are key factors regulating carbon and water tradeoffs at a stand scale, but few studies have examined these simultaneously especially in highly productive clonal plantations. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of planting density on carbon and water interactions using a drought tolerant and drought sensitive eucalyptus clone. This work is part of a larger study (TECHS project - Tolerance of Eucalyptus Clones to Hydric and Thermal Stresses) and is located in a flat Oxisol in southeast of Brazil. A drought tolerant (E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (Grancam) and drought sensitive clone E. grandis x E. urophylla (Urograndis) were planted at four densities ranging from 600 to 3.000 stem ha-1. We measured transpiration using thermal heat dissipation probes, wood growth, canopy interception and stemflow during a full year (21 to 33 months old). Precipitation during the study period was 738 mm. Independently of genetics, growth increased with increasing density. Transpiration also increased with planting density and ranged from 515-595 mm at wider spacing to 735-978 mm at tighter spacing. Interception increased with planting density representing 18-22% of precipitation versus 13-14% in wider spacing while stem flow represented 2-5% in denser spacing and 1-2% at broader spacing. When density was higher than 1.250 and 1.750 stems ha-1 in Urograndis and Grancam clones, respectively, the water balance were negative. On a stand scale, results show both genetics and spacing can be used as silvicultural tools to better manage the tradeoff between wood growth and water consumption.

  15. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Avanzi,Junior Cesar; Norton,Lloyd Darrell; Silva,Marx Leandro Naves; Curi,Nilton; Oliveira,Anna Hoffmann; Silva,Mayesse Aparecida da

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the aggregate stability of tropical soils under eucalyptus plantation and native vegetation, and assess the relationships between aggregate stability and some soil chemical and physical properties. Argisols, Cambisol, Latosols and Plinthosol within three eucalyptus-cultivated regions, in the states of Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais, Brazil, were studied. For each region, soils under native vegetation were compared to those under m...

  16. Actividad antianémica de la Cassia grandis L. The antianemic activity of Cassia grandis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Tillán Capó

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La población de la zona oriental de Cuba refiere los efectos beneficiosos del uso tradicional de la Cassia grandis L. en la anemia, con la utilización del polvo seco obtenido del fruto como un suplemento nutricional. El objetivo fue evaluar dicho efecto en un modelo experimental de anemia ferropénica en ratas, inducido por sucesivas extracciones de sangre y administración de una dieta carente de hierro. Todos los animales fueron sometidos durante 15 días a una dieta semisintética deficiente en hierro y a extracciones de sangre 3 veces por semana hasta lograr concentraciones de hemoglobina en sangre menores de 9 g/dL. Se formaron 3 grupos y se mantuvo la misma dieta: grupo I sin suplementar, grupo II suplementado con 15 mg de hierro/kg de dieta y grupo III la misma cantidad de hierro más 750 mg/kg de peso corporal de polvo seco de Cassia grandis L. durante otros 15 días. Al finalizar se determinaron las concentraciones de hierro, hemoglobina y hematócrito en sangre. Las concentraciones medias de hemoglobina al cabo de los 15 días de tratamiento fueron significativamente diferentes en los 3 grupos experimentales, con resultados mayores en el grupo suplementado con hierro y Cassia grandis L.; también en este grupo se observó un incremento significativo de los valores medios de hierro en plasma en relación con los valores obtenidos en los animales no suplementados y en los animales que recibieron solamente hierro en la dieta. El porcentaje de hematócrito no mostró diferencia significativa entre tratamiento. Los resultados corroboran el uso popular y tradicional de la Cassia grandis L. en los estados anémicos, al mejorar la utilización del hiero y la producción de hemoglobina.The population of the eastern zone of Cuba refers to the benefitial effects of the traditional use of Cassia grandis L. in anemia by using dry powder obtained from the fruit as a nutritional supplement. The objective was to evaluate this effect in an

  17. Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Eucalyptus Globulus, Citrus Sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus), Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange) and Musa sapientium (Banana) on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus was investigated in the laboratory. There were four treatments namely aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus, Orange, Banana, ...

  18. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) con manejo tumba y quema Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheila Uribe; Esperanza Huerta; Violette Geissen; Manuel Mendoza; Godoy Roberto; Aarón Jarquín

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó...

  19. Evaluation of a New Temporary Immersion Bioreactor System for Micropropagation of Cultivars of Eucalyptus, Birch and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Businge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of liquid instead of solid culture medium for the micropropagation of plants offers advantages such as better access to medium components and scalability through possible automation of the processes. The objective of this work was to compare a new temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB to solid medium culture for the micropropagation of a selection of tree species micropropagated for commercial use: Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven Spach, Eucalyptus (E. grandis x E. urophylla, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh, and Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica. Cultivation of explants in the TIB resulted in a significant increase of multiplication rate and fresh weight of Eucalyptus and B. pendula, but not Betula pubescens. In addition, the fresh weight of embryogenic tissue and the maturation frequency of somatic embryos increased significantly when an embryogenic cell line of A. nordmanniana was cultivated in the TIB compared to solid culture medium. These results demonstrate the potential for scaling up and automating micropropagation by shoot multiplication and somatic embryogenesis in commercial tree species using a temporary immersion bioreactor.

  20. Cambios anatómicos y morfológicos en plántulas de Eucalyptus sp. en respuesta a diferentes niveles de luz Anatomical and morphological changes in Eucalyptus sp. seedlings in response to different levels of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Guarnaschelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron respuestas en la anatomía y morfología de plántulas de Eucalyptus globulus subesp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis y Eucalyptus camaldulensis creciendo bajo diferentes niveles de luz. Las plantas fueron expuestas a tres regímenes de iluminación: pleno sol (C, 50 % (S50 y 75% de restricción lumínica (S75 y regadas diariamente. Se midieron características morfológicas y anatómicas del follaje, se calcularon coeficientes foliares e índices de plasticidad. Al disminuir la disponibilidad lumínica, las plantas mostraron cambios asociados a la aclimatación a la sombra. Se observaron aumentos en el área foliar y en los coeficientes foliares. Paralelamente se detectaron disminuciones en el espesor de las hojas, de la epidermis, del parénquima en empalizada y en la densidad de estomas. La biomasa foliar y la biomasa total diminuyeron significativamente bajo el nivel S75. El aumento en el nivel de restricción lumínica produjo cambios proporcionales en el espesor de hojas y en el coeficiente de área foliar. Independientemente del nivel de sombra, se detectaron diferencias entre especies, que podrían asociarse a las condiciones ambientales de sus áreas de origen. Si bien se observaron algunas diferencias en los índices de plasticidad, los valores promedio de las tres especies fueron similares. Esto sugiere que, para los caracteres considerados en este estudio, el grado de aclimatación a la sombra fue similar.Responses in the anatomy and morphology of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings, growing under different levels of light were evaluated. Seedlings were submitted to three levels of irradiance: full sun (C, 50% (S50 and 75% of light restriction (S75 and irrigated daily. Morphological and anatomical characteristics were measured; foliar coefficients and indexes of plasticity were calculated. As light availability diminished, plants showed changes associated with shade

  1. Densidade básica da madeira de sete espécies e três clones de eucalipto antes e durante o cultivo de shiitake = Basic density of wood from seven species and three clones of eucalyptus before and during shiitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a densidade básica da madeira e casca de sete espécies (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. paniculata e E. pellita e três clones de eucalipto (híbridos de E. grandis x E. urophylla antes e durante o cultivo das linhagens LE-95/01 e LE-96/18 de shiitake (Lentinula edodes em toras. Cada linhagem de shiitake foi inoculada em nove toras de cada tipo de eucalipto com 1 m de comprimento e 9 a 14 cm de diâmetro. Assim, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 20tratamentos e 9 repetições, sendo cada repetição correspondente a uma tora. As toras foram mantidas em estufa climatizada, com temperatura de 25 ± 5ºC e umidade relativa do ar entre 60-80% durante 12 meses. Para a determinação da densidade básica, analisaram-secunhas de discos e cascas de eucalipto recém-cortadas (sem inoculação das linhagens de L. edodes e em cunhas de discos retirados de toras já inoculadas com as linhagens de L. edodes após 8 e 12 meses de incubação. Verificou-se que a densidade básica da madeira, aolongo do ciclo de cultivo, foi reduzida em todos os tipos de eucalipto.Basic density of the wood and bark of seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E.paniculata and E. pellita and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids were evaluated before and during the cultivation of shiitake (Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01and LE-96/18 in logs. Each shiitake strain was inoculated into 9 logs of each type of eucalyptus with length of 1 m and diameter of 9 to 14 cm. Thus, the experimental design was totally randomized, with 20 treatments and 9 repetitions, with each repetition corresponding to one log. The logs were kept in a greenhouse, under the temperature of25 ± 5ºC and relative air humidity between 60-80 %, during 12 months. To determine basic density, newly cut disks and barks wedges of eucalyptus (without the

  2. Indo-malayan and Papuan Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) : 6. The genus Eujacobsonia grandi (Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1967-01-01

    The genus Eujacobsonia, with its type species E. mirabilis, was described by Grandi (1923, 1924) from three female specimens caught at light in Sumatra. Many more examples from the same locality, Fort de Kock ("Bukittinggi", ca. 100 km north of Padang), were recorded by Grandi in 1928. Eujacobsonia

  3. Effects of Allelochemicals of Some Eucalyptus Species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effects of allelochemicals of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globules on germination and root elongation using leguminous crop ground nut (Arachis hypogea) as bioassay material. The experiments were conducted in sterilized ...

  4. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta C-13 in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E-grandis x camaldulensis and E-grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, D

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available . Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 33:317--345. Farquhar, G.D. and R.A. Richards. 1984. Isotopic composition of plant carbon correlates with water-use efficiency of wheat geno- types. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 11:539--552. Farquhar, G.D., M.H. O?Leary and J.A... (A) and transpiration (E) (Farquhar and Sharkey 1982), and the degree of discrimination against delta13C with changing ratio of leaf intercellular to ambient CO2 concentrations (ci/ca) (Farquhar et al. 1982, Farquhar and Richards 1984). Genetic...

  5. In silico characterization of microsatellites in Eucalyptus spp.: abundance, length variation and transposon associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Rabello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the abundance of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSR, in 19 Eucalyptus EST libraries from FORESTs, containing cDNA sequences from five species: E. grandis, E. globulus, E. saligna, E. urophylla and E. camaldulensis. Overall, a total of 11,534 SSRs and 8,447 SSR-containing sequences (25.5% of total ESTs were identified, with an average of 1 SSR/2.5 kb when considering all motifs and 1 SSR/3.1 kb when mononucleotides were not included. Dimeric repeats were the most abundant (41.03%, followed by trimerics (36.11% and monomerics (19.59%. The most frequent motifs were A/T (87.24% for monomerics, AG/CT (94.44% for dimerics, CCG/CGG (37.87% for trimerics, AAGG/CCTT (18.75% for tetramerics, AGAGG/CCTCT (14.04% for pentamerics and ACGGCG/CGCCGT (6.30% for hexamerics. According to sequence length, Class II or potentially variable markers were the most commonly found, followed by Class III. Two sequences presented high similarity to previously published Eucalyptus sequences from the NCBI database, EMBRA_72 and EMBRA_122. Local blastn search for transposons did not reveal the presence of any transposable elements with a cut-off value of 10-50. The large number of microsatellites identified will contribute to the refinement of marker-assisted mapping and to the discovery of novel markers for virtually all genes of economic interest.

  6. High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability across species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lima Bruno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT. This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs across species, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera. Results We have successfully developed the first set of 768 SNPs assayed by the GGGT for the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus from a mixed Sanger/454 database with 1,164,695 ESTs and the preliminary 4.5X draft genome sequence for E. grandis. A systematic assessment of in silico SNP filtering requirements showed that stringent constraints on the SNP surrounding sequences have a significant impact on SNP genotyping performance and polymorphism. SNP assay success was high for the 288 SNPs selected with more rigorous in silico constraints; 93% of them provided high quality genotype calls and 71% of them were polymorphic in a diverse panel of 96 individuals of five different species. SNP reliability was high across nine Eucalyptus species belonging to three sections within subgenus Symphomyrtus and still satisfactory across species of two additional subgenera, although polymorphism declined as phylogenetic distance increased. Conclusions This study indicates that the GGGT performs well both within and across species of Eucalyptus notwithstanding its nucleotide diversity ≥2%. The development of a much larger

  7. Comparison of deterministically predicted genetic gains with those realised in a South African Eucalyptus grandis breeding program

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree breeders attempt to predict the genetic gains that are likely to be achieved through selection and breeding of new generations, using stochastic or deterministic modelling. There are many factors that may cause a discrepancy between...

  8. Evaluating variations of physiology-based hyperspectral features along a soil water gradient in Eucalyptus grandis plantation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available a raised platform. Foliar macronutrient concentrations for N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg and Na and their corresponding spectral features were also evaluated. The spectral signals for leaf water-normalized difference water index (NDWI), water band index (WBI...

  9. Dissolved organic carbon in water fluxes of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in northeastern Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Tesón; Víctor H Conzonno; Marcelo F Arturi; Jorge L Frangi

    2014-01-01

    Water fluxes in tree plantations and other ecosystems carry dissolved organic carbon (DOC) provided by atmospheric inputs, autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms and from the lysis of dead material. These compounds may be colorless or provide a yellow-to-brown color to water and may also absorb visible light due to the presence of chromophores in the chemical...

  10. Streamflow responses to afforestation with Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula and to felling in the Mokobulaan experimental catchments, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1997-12-10

    Full Text Available season (April-September) periods. Regression models were fitted using the SAS statistical package (SAS Institute, 1985). Predictor variables were monthly streamflow in the control catchment and an index of catchment antecedent... wetness. The antecedent wetness index for any month I(AWi) was calculated from monthly rainfall as A Wi = 0.80 (A W&l) + P where P is the monthly rainfall for the catchment, and A Wi_1 is the wetness index for the previous month...

  11. Efeito da fertilização em propriedades mecânicas da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-01-01

    estática. A resistência à compressão e o módulo de elasticidade foram influenciados pelos fatores: adubo e posição da tora. Todas as propriedades mecânicas aumentaram no sentido da medula para a casca. Foi observada uma relação positiva entre resistência à compressão paralela às fibras, cisalhamento, módulo de resistência à flexão estática e módulo de elasticidade na flexão estática com a posição radial.

  12. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  13. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Eucalyptus microtheca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants have now attracted more attention due to their antibacterial activity and also increasing antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Native plants of each region are potential resources for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the antibacterial effect of Eucalyptus microtheca (Myrtaceae family which is currently used as an antibacterial fumigation medicine. Materials and Methods: Using standard disk diffusion method, the antibacterial activity, MIC, and MBC indexes of alcoholic extracts from this plant were tested on some pathogenic bacteria. The structural changes following the exposure to these extracts were also investigated in test bacteria. Results: Significant antibacterial activity was found against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which among them, Escherichia. coli and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa showed the most sensitivity and Staphylococcus. aureus the least. The value of MIC and MBC for both extracts was 8 mg/mL for E. coli, while they were 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL for Bacillus cereus, respectively. Both MIC and MBC values of methanolic and ethanolic extracts against P. aeruginosa were 8 and 16 mg/mL respectively. SEM revealed structural changes in the affected bacteria that suggest the cell wall was the main target site of active constituents. Conclusions: It can be concluded that this plant has potential application in infection control, especially against E. coli and P. aeruginosa and regarding their recent reported epidemic, this plant can be a good choice for antibiotic discovery.

  15. Martha N. Hill: transformational leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, V J

    1998-01-01

    Martha N. Hill, PhD, RN, FAAN, is a world-renowned researcher, educator, and nursing leader. Her election as president of the American Heart Association, effective June 1997, places her in one of the highest regarded positions in the field of cardiology. Despite her success on a national and international level, Dr. Hill has managed to continue to mentor and conduct clinical research with her nursing colleagues and students at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

  16. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  17. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

  19. Effects of Treatment Materials on the Physical Properties of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Bardak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine effects on retention and shrink levels of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. which treated with some commercial preservative types, borates, polyethylene glycol, and water repellents. In this study, four type impregnation chemicals were chosen: 1. Commercial preservative types, [Ammonium sulphate, Vacsol-WR WR and Immersol-WR (WR], 2. Borates chemicals, [Boric acid, Borax, Boric acid+ Borax] 3. Polyethylene glycol such as Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 4. Water repellents [Styrene, Methylmetacrylate.]. As a result, retention % and shrink levels of Eucalyptus wood was lower treated with commercial preservative types and borates preservatives compare to other treatment chemicals. However, retention % levels of Eucalyptus wood treated with WR chemicals were highly significant levels. According to their leachability period although PEG 400 showed antishrink effectiveness other treatments didnt showed antishrink efficiency.

  20. [Analysis of historical origin and standardization system construction of Citri Grandis Exocarpium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Zhao-Juan; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Ning-Ning; Dai, Ying; Yu, Pin-Hao

    2017-06-01

    To understand the history development and changes of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and initially establish its standard system after exploring the historical origins and modern development of Citri Grandis Exocarpium. In CNKI, Wanfang database and other academic search platforms were searched for literature on Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Chinese medicine standard system; the books related to its modern cultivation techniques and processing technology were also accessed, and after combining with the actual situation analysis, the prospective design of the standard system of Citri Grandis Exocarpium was finally established with research conclusion. The earliest records of the Citri Grandis Exocarpium were documented in the Northern and Southern Dynasties, but its medicinal value was discovered in the Song Dynasty. Its drug use was developed on the basis of Jupi(orange peel) and Citri Exocarpium Rubrum. In 21st century, a number of large-scale, intensive Citri Grandis Exocarpium bases have been formed due to high price, good planting efficiency, and rapid growth of cultivation areas. The standard system includes the technical specifications of seed selection and seedling cultivation of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, technical norms of cultivation, technical specifications of fertilizing and weeding, technical specifications of irrigation and drainage, technical standard of pest and disease control, standard of medicinal materials grade, standard of processing technology of sliced pieces and the quality standard of slices, etc. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Wood energy in Eucalyptus forest; A energia da madeira em floresta de eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Maziero, Felipe Luiz [Faculdadede Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), Borucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to address the energy productivity of forest density. In an area of dystrophic, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dose is equivalent to 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn, the doses were the two three double and four times the dose 1. The spacings were 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8 x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, sample trees were harvested to analyze the gross calorific value of wood with bark. An evaluation of economic viability was based on the sale of briquettes. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8x1.0 m with level 2. The average values of calorific value were between 4717 and 4862 kcal/kg. The greatest potential energy was 109,845 kcal/tree obtained at spacing 2.8x2.5 m, with 3 doses of fertilization, but was similar to two doses. The highest yield was 316 Gcal/ha, in treating 2.8x0.5 m with higher fertilizer application. (author)

  2. Eucalyptus and Populus short rotation woody crops for phosphate mined lands in Florida USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Carter, D.R.; Langholtz, M.H. [The School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611 0410 (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Our short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) research in central and southern Florida is (1) developing superior Eucalyptus grandis (EG), E. amplifolia (EA), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides, PD) genotypes, (2) determining appropriate management practices for and associated productivities of these genotypes, and (3) assessing their economics and markets. Reclaimed clay settling areas (CSA) and overburden sites in phosphate mined areas in central Florida are a potential land base of over 80,000ha for SRWC production. On CSAs, PD grows well in the absence of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) but is not as productive as the non-invasive EG and EA. SRWC establishment on CSAs requires strict implementation of the following cultural practices: thorough site preparation through herbiciding/disking and bedding, superior trees, watering/packing seedlings, fertilization with ammonium nitrate at planting and annually thereafter as feasible, high planting density possibly including double row planting, and winter harvesting so that coppice regeneration suppresses weeds. PD cultural requirements, that may require post-planting weed control to suppress herbaceous competition, exceed those of the eucalypts. EG SRWCs on CSAs are at risk of blowdown 3-4 years after planting or coppicing; younger PD, EG, and EA SRWCs appear much less susceptible to wind damage. Genetic improvement must continue if EG, EA, and PD are to increase in commercial feasibility. SRWC cost competitiveness will depend on establishment success, yield improvements, harvesting costs, and identifying/using incentives. Strong collaboration among public and private partners is necessary for commercializing SRWCs in Florida. (author)

  3. Ethanol technical potential in Hawaii based on sugarcane, banagrass, Eucalyptus, and Leucaena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keffer, V.I.; Turn, S.Q.; Evans, D.E. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, 1680 East-West Road, POST 109, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kinoshita, C.M. [College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 211, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    An assessment of ethanol production potential from dedicated energy crops was conducted for the State of Hawaii considering lands, crop species, and conversion technologies. Evaluation of the spatial distributions of soil types, zoning, and annual rainfall was conducted using geographic information system data. Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane), Pennisetum purpureum (banagrass), Leucaena leucocephala, and Eucalyptus grandis were selected as potential feedstocks for sugar-based and lignocellulosic ethanol production. The analysis shows that only one cropping scenario applied to all available agriculturally zoned lands in the state would be capable of producing enough ethanol to meet the state's current motor gasoline consumption on an energy equivalent basis. State goals of displacing 20% (volume) of highway fuels by 2020 could be met by 14 of the 16 cropping and land use combinations. This indicates that the State of Hawaii could promote energy diversification through its choice of land leases. Distribution of suitable lands among islands is not consistent with motor fuel demand, suggesting that provisions must be made to support development of adequate storage and harbor facilities to enable movement of fuel between points of production and use. Comparison of possible production volumes with economic plant sizes indicates that sufficient feedstocks could be available on Maui, Hawaii, Oahu, and Kauai to realize economies of scale in production facilities. This study should be refined in the future to adequately address issues of environmental preservation, water consumption, and land use to provide additional guidance for policy and economic decision making. (author)

  4. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, I. R.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Prasanna, K. T.; Parameswarappa, S.

    Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i) whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii) farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to penetrate raises the

  5. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Calder

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to

  6. Seedling production of Tectona grandis on substrates formulated with biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André Trazzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The industrial and urban waste can be used as a source of nutrients to contribute not only to reduce the cost of seedling production but also to reduce or solve environmental problems. This study aimed to evaluate the use of sewage sludge as substrate on the production of seedlings of Tectona grandis. Seedlings were grown in tubes with a volumetric capacity of 280 cm³, on substrates formulated with biosolids (BIO associated with rice hulls (CAC or shredded coconut fiber (FC in proportions 80:20, 60:40, 40 60, 20:80 (v:v, and also with 100% of BIO, a total of nine treatment submitted to the comparison of control treatment (commercial substrate. The formed substrates were subjected to chemical and physical analysis. Ninety days after the sub culturing, the following biometrics characteristics were analyzed: shoot height, stem diameter, dry weight of shoot and root and Dickson quality index. The results indicated that the seedlings grown on substrates formulated with BIO and CAC showed the highest average height and shoot dry mass, while those produced with BIO and FC showed the highest average collar diameter. For the production of seedlings of Tectona grandis it is advised to use a substrate with proportions of 60 or 80% of biosolids when associated with coconut fiber, and 80% of biosolids when associated with rice hulls.

  7. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  8. Eucalyptus-wheat interaction on Ethiopian Nitosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidanu, S.; Mamo, T.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few years a single row of Eucalyptus globulus trees planted along the borders of cropland has come to dominate central highland agroforestry practices. Although evidence is scanty, there is a perception that this practice adversely affects crop productivity. An on-farm trial was

  9. Micropropagation of frost-resistant Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Boulay

    1983-01-01

    A method for the in vitro propagation of frost resistant eucalyptus is presented. It was used for the propagation of 2-30 years old trees. This method is presently used for the fast production of mother trees from selected trees.

  10. Allelopathic Effects of Eucalyptus Tereticornis on Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed germination and primary root and shoot development of Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. There was no significant difference in the germination percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of ...

  11. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  12. Determinação do tempo ótimo do enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus spp. Determination of the optimum time for rooting of mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus spp. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraclides Maria Ferreira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita uma análise temporal da curva de enraizamento de dois clones híbridos de eucalipto (C1 - E. grandis x E. urophylla; C2 - E. grandis x E. saligna, visando determinar o tempo ótimo de permanência dos propágulos vegetativos na casa de enraizamento, sob o ponto de vista técnico e do risco de incidência de doenças. Constatou-se que o tempo ótimo necessário para induzir a rizogênese depende do clone de eucalipto e que o conhecimento do modelo temporal pode fornecer subsídios ao gerenciamento de viveiros florestais. Além disso, foram estabelecidos dois critérios úteis para determinar o tempo ótimo de indução do enraizamento, sendo estes o intercepto da curva de incremento corrente diário (ICD e incremento médio diário (IMD e o tempo em que ocorre o máximo valor da velocidade de enraizamento. Para os clones 1 e 2, pelo critério do intercepto das curvas de ICD e IMD, 20 e 30 dias foram definidos como tempo ótimo, enquanto pelo critério de máxima velocidade de enraizamento os valores foram de 15 e 22 dias, respectivamente, sendo este último critério o mais indicado, levando-se em consideração o custo das instalações e o risco de incidência de doenças na propagação clonal do eucalipto.A temporal analysis of the rooting curve of two hybrid clones of eucalypt (C1 - E. grandis x E. urophylla; C2 - E. grandis x E. saligna was carried out to determine the optimum time for permanence of the vegetative propagules in the rooting house, considered under the technical viewpoint and risk of disease incidence. It was found out that the optimum time needed to induce rhyzogenesis depended on the Eucalyptus clone and that a knowledge of temporal model may provide a basis for the management of forest nurseries. Besides, two useful criteria were established to determine the optimum time to induce rooting, i.e., the intercept of the daily current increase curve (DCI and daily average increase (DAI and the time during which the

  13. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis LF) in central India and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and its relationship with rainfall and moisture index. Somaru Ram H P Borgaonkar A B Sikder. Volume 117 Issue 5 October 2008 pp 637-645 ...

  14. Screening of rapd primer for teak (Tectona grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Cintamulya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of DNA polymorphisms in teak is important. It is a first step to determine the presence of genetic varia-tion in teak. The information of genetic variation is needed for teak breeding development. RAPD is one of method which can be used for identification of DNA polymorphism. This study aim to get the RAPD primer which can detect the DNA polymorphism in teak. Benefits of this study are provide information about primer which can detect the DNA polymorphism in teak, DNA polymorphism data can be used for genetic variation analysis which needed for teak breeding development. The primers which used in this study shown the DNA polymorphism in teak. The primer are OPF6 (5'-GGGAATTCGG-3 ', OPF8 (5'-GGGATATCGC-3', and OPF11 (5'-TTGGTACCCC-3 '. The highest DNA poly-morphism is shown in DNA which amplified with OPF-8 primer. Keywords: RAPD, Primer, Polymorphism, DNA, Tectona grandis

  15. Hill-climbing Higgs inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Kaneta, Kunio; Oda, Kin-ya

    2018-01-01

    We propose a realization of cosmic inflation with the Higgs field when the Higgs potential has degenerate vacua by employing the recently proposed idea of hill-climbing inflation. The resultant inflationary predictions exhibit a sizable deviation from those of the ordinary Higgs inflation.

  16. In silico evaluation of the Eucalyptus transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vicentini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The expressed sequence tags (ESTs produced in the Forests project provide an invaluable opportunity to assess the Eucalyptus transcriptome. Besides providing information on the different proteins produced by this plant, it is possible to infer gene expression profiles because non-normalized cDNA libraries were used. The EST frequency from any gene is correlated to the transcript levels in the tissues from which the cDNA libraries were constructed. The goal of this work was to identify Eucalyptus genes that showed either differential expression pattern or were ubiquitously expressed in the tissues sampled in the Forests project. Six robust statistical tests and very restrictive rules were applied to gain confidence in the in silico data aiming to avoid false positives. Several genes with interesting expression profiles were identified and some of them were validated by RT-PCR.

  17. Exploitation des fleurs de Entada africana, Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats montrent que les ouvrières de A. m. adansonii fréquentaient Trichillia emetica pour le nectar exclusivement. Entada africana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Psidium guajava et S. longepedonculata étaient visitées pour le nectar et le pollen. Le plus grand nombre de butineuses simultanément en activité sur les ...

  18. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  19. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  20. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed ... percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of water extracts of leaves and bark of Eucalyptus, also affected the ... chemicals from its leaves or litter which inhibits the germination or growth ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, other antiinflammatory phenolic compounds were detected in Pitascia lentiscus extract including syringic acid and p-coumaric acid, while chlorogenic acid was detected in Eucalyptus spp. leaf extract. Conclusion: Reduction in the levels of Il-6 and TNF-α upon the effect of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia ...

  2. A diverse assemblage of Botryosphaeriaceae infect Eucalyptus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Botryosphaeriaceae cause endophytic infections of leaves and bark of various trees, including Eucalyptus, and they apparently persist in this state for extended periods of time. Under conditions of stress, these fungi cause many different disease symptoms on Eucalyptus, of which stem and branch cankers and die-back ...

  3. Diseases on Eucalyptus species in Zimbabwean plantations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe embarked on planting Eucalyptus species in the early 1900s. Based on a robust breeding programme, it has become a major source of seed for other countries in and outside Africa. Tree health surveys conducted on Eucalyptus in some east and southern African countries over the past two decades have ...

  4. Energy, chemicals and carbon: future options for the Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current Eucalyptus value chain and the possible drivers that may impact upon it. The potential consequences of climate change on the growth and yield of Eucalyptus are discussed and the impact of the security of oil reserves and increased costs of fossil-fuel-derived energy and raw materials upon ...

  5. Understanding and adding value to Eucalyptus fibre | Clarke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus wood has become one of the most important hardwood resources for pulp mills worldwide. Furthermore, bleached Eucalyptus pulp is used extensively both in paper-making globally where it is included in such diverse products as tissue, packaging, as well as printing papers and in chemical cellulose products ...

  6. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worthiness of investments in eucalyptus growing has been determined using the net present value (NPV) criterion. It has been proved that investments in eucalyptus growing in perpetuity (forever) and being harvested on a four (4) year rotation period can earn a present value of a perpetual periodic annuity of Ug. shs ...

  7. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  8. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  9. USO DA TÉCNICA DE RESISTOGRAFIA E DE VARIÁVEIS DENDROMÉTRICAS NA MODELAGEM DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DE POVOAMENTOS CLONAIS DE Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete da Costa Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic density is a key property of wood quality for pulp production, but its determination is very time consuming and costly. The development of non-destructive sampling tools, efficient and low cost is important so the Resistograph can be an alternative. This study aimed to use drilling resistance amplitude data collected by the Resistograph, associated to dendrometrical variables, to develop models to estimate basic density in Eucalyptus clonal stands. It was used four hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla distributed in commercial plantations in Paraíba valley, with aging from 2 to 7 years. These materials were sampled by the Resistograph at 1.30 m above ground (DBH and the removal of a disk at the same height to determine the density in the laboratory. Single and multiple linear equations were selected starting with data usage by the Resistograph (amplitude as a predictor variable, and then dendrometric variables such as DBH, age, height, average height of dominant trees and quadratic mean diameter. The inclusion of these variables increased the accuracy of estimates. The best equation selected for all four clones, adjusted using the average amplitude (the Resistograph, associated with the average height of dominant trees, the tree age and quadratic mean diameter, presented R 2 aj equal to 68.80%, with error residual standard 0.0201 g/cm 3 or 4.31%. For each clone alone, the more accurate equations also were those involving the Resistograph variables of the individual and the population. Equations adjusted for only dendrometric variables showed precision measurements higher than the ones adjusted for only the Resistograph, in the case of all four clones, and superior to the Resistograph associated with the individual variables in the case of each clone alone. The Resistograph proved to be an efficient tool for the prediction of density. However, equally or more accurate estimates can be obtained without use of the

  10. Consequências da deriva de clomazone e sulfentrazone em clones de E. grandis x E. urophylla Consequences of clomazone and sulfentrazone drift on clones of E. grandis x E. urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Norio Takahashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos de deriva simulada dos herbicidas clomazone e sulfentrazone em dois clones comerciais de E. grandis x E. urophylla, da Votorantim Celulose e Papel (VCP1 e VCP2. Na simulação, as doses do herbicida clomazone variaram de 0 a 2.000 mL ha-1 e no sulfentrazone, de 0 a 1.500 mL ha-1. As mudas dos dois clones, previamente selecionadas, foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 5,0 L. O solo utilizado foi o Neossolo Quartzarênico, sendo a aplicação dos herbicidas realizada 80 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado em cada herbicida foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, com três repetições. O efeito do clomazone resultou em folhas novas rosadas, amareladas e, em alguns casos, esbranquiçadas, como um todo ou em parte dela, enquanto as nervuras se mantiveram verdes. Observou-se, também, que as folhas velhas se tornaram mais verdes e grossas. Ocorreu redução nas características de crescimento, variando de 13 a 57%, e as doses consideradas críticas do herbicida clomazone foram de 800 e 1.200 ml ha-1 nos clones VCP1 e VCP2, respectivamente. Com o sulfentrazone, os sintomas da deriva foram necroses generalizadas nas folhas novas e velhas; ao redor da necrose, formaram-se região arroxeada e deformação intensa nas folhas novas e regular nas folhas velhas, bem como houve perda de dominância apical. As características de crescimento indicaram redução de 9 a 66%. A dose crítica desse herbicida foi de 75 ml ha-1 no clone VCP1 e 1.200 ml ha-1 no VCP2. Conclui-se que uma possível deriva dos herbicidas estudados e utilizados em cana-de-açúcar poderá causar prejuízos ao crescimento dos clones avaliados.This research aimed to develop accurate information about the effects of two simulated herbicide drift (clomazone and sulfentrazone on the growth of Votorantim Celulose e Papel Eucalyptus grandis x E. urohylla comercial

  11. Efficient and new method for Tectona grandis in vitro regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro V. Tambarussi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a shoot regeneration protocol for Tectona grandis by examining the effects of pretreatments, regeneration culture medium, adventitious rooting, and acclimatization. The best organogenic potential was achieved when hypocotyls and cotyledonary segments from seedlings germinated on a medium containing TDZ, were cultured for four weeks on MS medium supplemented with BAP/GA3. With TDZ pretreatment during seed germination, up to 70% of the cotyledonary segments (0.5 TDZ pretreatment and 1.0 BAP + 0.5 GA3 during regeneration, mg L-1 and 60% of the hypocotyl explants (0.1 TDZ pretreatment and 1.0 BAP + 0.5 GA3 during regeneration, mg L-1 resulted in shoot regeneration. Finally, 65% of the regenerated shoots rooted, of which 60% were successfully acclimatized ex vitro. Our protocol increases regeneration efficiency for teak and it can serve as a platform for genetic transformation to improve this important tree species.

  12. Model Lengkung Bentuk Batang (Taper Curve Pohon Jati (Tectona Grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronggo Sadono

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Model of Taper Curve of Teak Stem (Tectona grandis Detailed information on tree volume for fancy wood, such as teak, is important to estimate its financial value. Therefore, a method of estimating stem volume in portion wise is developed. The objective of this study was to apply a parabolic taper curve in various tree strata. Data of stem diameter at any relative height were collected from selected felled-tree samples according to stem quality both in the state and community forests by section wise measurement. Regression analysis was applied to estimate parameter and to test the suitability level of the parabolic taper model. The results showed that parabolic taper model could be used to describe the stem curve of clear bole stem in state forest and the stem curve up to tree height with minimum diameter of ca. 10 cm. In the state forest, the parabolic taper model was fit to medium and large diameter classes or in the intermediate and dominant strata. For small diameter class or in suppressed stratum, the model was not sufficiently fit. On the other hand, the parabolic taper model was fit to all samples from community forests because the samples comprised the stem of best quality from the stand. The parabolic taper model was suitable to apply on high quality stems which were characterized with healthy, cylindrical, and straight stem, high clear bole, and straight grain.

  13. Sewage sludge as substrate for Tectona grandis L. seedlings production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge is a waste from sewage treatment plants, which can be used in formulations of substrates for seedling production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different proportions of sewage sludge, soil and commercial substrate on the growth characteristics of Tectona grandis seedlings in tubes of 120 cm³ volume capacity. The sewage sludge used came from the STP's Cachoeiro de Itapemirim / ES. The seedlings were grown in the forest nursery / CCA / UFES. The statistical design used in the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments and five replications. The treatments constituted of sewage sludge : commercial substrate: soil (v: v: v, which corresponded to 20:70:10 (T1, 40:50:10 (T2, 60:30:10 (T3, 80 : 10:10 (T4, 90:0:10 (T5 and the control treatment with 0:90:10 (T6. All variables assessed were significant at the 5% level of probability. The control (T6 showed results statistically equal to or lower than the treatments T3 with 60% of sewage sludge concentration (T3. It follows then that the use of sewage sludge in seedling production is feasible and promising, however, used in a proper proportion.

  14. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux ( J s,n) or transpiration ( E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux ( J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47 %, while J s,n decreased by 12.03 % in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant ( P photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn ( ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance ( g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ13C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ15N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control ( P oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  15. Medium term water deficit elicits distinct transcriptome responses in Eucalyptus species of contrasting environmental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokevicius, Antanas V; Tibbits, Josquin; Rigault, Philippe; Nolin, Marc-Alexandre; Müller, Caroline; Merchant, Andrew

    2017-04-07

    Climatic and edaphic conditions over geological timescales have generated enormous diversity of adaptive traits and high speciation within the genus Eucalyptus (L. Hér.). Eucalypt species occur from high rainfall to semi-arid zones and from the tropics to latitudes as high as 43°S. Despite several morphological and metabolomic characterizations, little is known regarding gene expression differences that underpin differences in tolerance to environmental change. Using species of contrasting taxonomy, morphology and physiology (E. globulus and E. cladocalyx), this study combines physiological characterizations with 'second-generation' sequencing to identify key genes involved in eucalypt responses to medium-term water limitation. One hundred twenty Million high-quality HiSeq reads were created from 14 tissue samples in plants that had been successfully subjected to a water deficit treatment or a well-watered control. Alignment to the E. grandis genome saw 23,623 genes of which 468 exhibited differential expression (FDR < 0.01) in one or both ecotypes in response to the treatment. Further analysis identified 80 genes that demonstrated a significant species-specific response of which 74 were linked to the 'dry' species E. cladocalyx where 23 of these genes were uncharacterised. The majority (approximately 80%) of these differentially expressed genes, were expressed in stem tissue. Key genes that differentiated species responses were linked to photoprotection/redox balance, phytohormone/signalling, primary photosynthesis/cellular metabolism and secondary metabolism based on plant metabolic pathway network analysis. These results highlight a more definitive response to water deficit by a 'dry' climate eucalypt, particularly in stem tissue, identifying key pathways and associated genes that are responsible for the differences between 'wet' and 'dry' climate eucalypts. This knowledge provides the opportunity to further investigate and understand the mechanisms and

  16. New Distribution Record of Begonia grandis (Begoniaceae, section Diploclinium from Taiwan, with subspecies assignment based on morphology and molecular phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Nakamura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Begonia grandis Dry. (Begoniaceae, previously recognized as endemic to continental China, was recently discovered from southern Taiwan. Close morphological observations and molecular phylogenetic analysis elucidated that the species in Taiwan belongs to subspecies grandis. Begonia grandis has a long history in cultivation especially in China and Japan but not in Taiwan. The collection locality in Taiwan had no trace of human activity. Therefore, B. grandis is considered to be native to Taiwan. The new finding in Taiwan marks the southernmost distribution record of the species. Unfortunately, the discovered population was destroyed by a landslide due to a typhoon in 2009. Further field survey in neighboring areas is needed to elucidate the current status of B. grandis in Taiwan.

  17. Empirical modeling of eucalyptus wood processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajo, J.C.; Alonso, J.L.; Lage, M.A.; Vazquez, D. (Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with NaOH solutions in order to obtain substrates highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The experiments performed in the extraction and hydrolysis stages followed an incomplete factorial design. Temperature, NaOH concentration and extraction time were considered as independent variables. Their influence on five dependent variables (defined to measure the extraction yield, the chemical composition of processed samples and the enzymatic conversion) was assessed using second order, empirical models. In addition to the experimental results, other aspects related to the extraction selectivity are discussed. (orig.).

  18. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-05-25

    Saprospira grandis Gross 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  19. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  20. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations....... A characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...... that seems to be well-suited for this type of system and provide some experimental results....

  1. Mineral nutrients, biomass and litter deposition on Eucalyptus plantation under different residue management Nutrientes minerais, biomassa e deposição de serapilheira em plantio de Eucalyptus com diferentes sistemas de manejo de resíduos florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of different residue management systems in the plant nutrition status, nutrient contents in the litter and litter biomass yield, on Eucalyptus grandis plantation. Samples were taken on four residue management systems: (i removal of all residues from previous harvesting and NPK fertilization; (ii maintenance of all residues on soil surface and NPK fertilization; (iii removal all at bark  and commercial-size crop stems over 3 cm diameter and NPK fertilization; (iv removal of all residues from previous harvesting, NPK fertilization and addition of industrial waste (15 t.ha-1 of pulp and paper sludge, C:N ratio 25:1 and 4 t.ha-1 of wood ash, C:N ratio 30:1. Results showed that the maintenance of the forest residues on site improved the nutritional status of trees and increased productivity. Addition of industrial waste allowed expressive increase of Eucalyptus sp growth. Possible excesses of Ca from the industrial waste used  should be corrected, to avoid nutritional unbalance in the trees; independent of the treatment used, the amounts of K added to the soil are not enough to maintain appropriate tree nutritional status. Greater amounts of K should be added to correct soil nutritional deficiencies on this element. Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito de diferentes manejos de resíduos florestais no estado nutricional
    das árvores, no conteúdo de nutrientes na serapilheira e a biomassa de serapilheira produzida pelo Eucalyptus
    grandis. Foram avaliados quatro sistemas diferentes de manejo de resíduo: (i remoção de todo resíduo do sítio
    proveniente da colheita florestal e adubação NPK; (ii manutenção no sítio de todos os resíduos da colheita
    florestal e adubação NPK; (iii remoção do sítio de todo o resíduo da colheita com diâmetro superior a 3 cm e
    adubação NPK; (iv remoção de todos os resíduos da colheita, adubação NPK e adição de 15 t.ha-1 de resíduo
    celul

  2. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  3. Management Decisions and the "Dred" Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    An area of public land called the Red Hills was being so abused by the public that it was often called the "Dred" Hills. Some staff work had been accomplished to protect sensitive areas within the 7,200-acre site, but depreciative behavior continued. Primary destructive activities included off-road vehicle use and indiscriminate shooting and dumping. This...

  4. Leslie Pickney Hill's "Toussaint L'Ouverture."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Edward O.

    1987-01-01

    In his 1928 play, the Harlem Renaissance writer Leslie Pickney Hill portrays Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian slave rebellion, with historical accuracy. Hill's presentation was aimed at rehabilitating black pride, "A worthy literature reared upon authentic records of achievement is the present spiritual need of the race."…

  5. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeancarlos Moreno; Gabriel López; Raúl Siche

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, t...

  6. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis roots and soils in Thailand plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Chaiyasen

    Full Text Available Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts.

  7. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  8. Nutrient fluxes in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -canopy-closure (mature) Eucalyptus stands in the northern Dukuduku and southern KwaMbonambi commercial plantation forestry areas of Zululand, South Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and relevance of nutrient ...

  9. Effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis stand Conversion into Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term site effect. In view of this, a study was conducted in Koga watershed, northwestern Ethiopia, to investigate whether croplands afforested with Eucalyptus camaldulensis can be reused for annual crop production after its removal. In this study ...

  10. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  11. Activités antimicrobiennes des huiles essentielles de Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les huiles essentielles de Eucalyptus citriodora et Eucalyptus houseana récoltées à N'Débougou (Mali) ont été testées sur les bactéries Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus et le champignon Candida albicans. Nous avons utilisé la méthode de diffusion en Agar pour de la détermination des activités antibactériennes.

  12. Dynamic base-age invariant site index models for Tectona grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from 27 remeasured sample plots were used to evaluate dynamic base-age invariant site index models for teak (Tectona grandis) forests in Karnataka, India. The data were obtained in observational field studies covering a wide range of sites in Karnataka and provided up to three interval measurements per plot.

  13. In vitro antioxidant activities of the fractions of Coccinia grandis l. leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the various fractions of the hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis L. Voigt. (Cucurbitaceae). The antioxidant activities of the fractions have been evaluated by using nine in vitro assays and were compared to standard antioxidants ...

  14. Tectona grandis L. f (the teak tree; Hindi: Sagallll or Segllll) (~r ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tectona grandis L. f (the teak tree; Hindi: Sagallll or Segllll) (~r Verhell({Ceae is a large deciduous tree cllitivatedfor its timber. Leaves are large; flmvers are small, white, svveet-scented and borne on highly branched inflorescences. Fruit is hard and enveloped by bladder-like cal.vx. The timber is one of the best for all wood ...

  15. Secondary resin production increases with vigor of Abies grandis inoculated with Trichosporium symbioticum in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Erik Christiansen; Catherine A. Parks

    1989-01-01

    Thirty grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) trees were artificially inoculated with the fungal symbiont, Trichosporium symbioticum Wright, to simulate attack by the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis LeConte. Fifteen months after treatment, secondary resin production, necrotic lesion...

  16. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sholeh Saeb; Mansour Amin; Reza Seyfi Gooybari; Nasrin Aghel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extract of Lemon (Citrus limon), Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Pummelo (Citrus grandis) again...

  17. Long-Term Effects of Exotic Tree Species ( Tectona grandis Linn. F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to combat the declining forestry resources through the establishment of exotic tree species like Tectona grandis, this have lead to processes associated with soils underneath these trees that have not been properly elucidated, particularly the distributions of extractable micronutrients. Results from the study ...

  18. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tree-ring-width index chronologies of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) from three sites in central India have been studied for their ... that the teak tree-ring chronologies can be used as high resolution proxy for past precipitation and moisture level in the ..... 1870–2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming ...

  19. A Multivariate Study on Genetic Variation in Teak (Tectona grandis (L.))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Suangtho, V.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between populations of teak (Tectona grandis (L.)) was examined in 9 quantitative characters and 10 allozyme loci. Large differences between populations were revealed in the quantitative traits. Regional patterns were revealed by multivariate analysis of the data, but ther...

  20. WEED CONTROL AND BORON NUTRITION ON Eucalyptus IN SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of weeds in the rows of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis with herbicides applied singly or combined with boron (B, as well as, the response of Eucalyptus plants to this micronutrient. The experiments were carried out in a split-plot with randomized complete block design, with three replicates. Six treatments were applied to the plots: (i weeded control, (ii control without weeding, (iii glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (10 g ai ha-1 + 0.05% v / v mineral oil, (iv glyphosate (1080 g ae  ha-1 + isoxaflutole (112.5 g ai ha-1,  (v glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 and  (vi oxyfluorfen (480 g ai ha-1. The sub-plots consisted of the absence or presence of 4 kg of boric acid (H3BO3 - 17% B in 100 L of water. The addition of boric acid in the solution containing the herbicides did not affect the weed control. There was an increase in boron content in the soil and consequently an increase in the boron levels in the eucalyptus leaves. The combined application of herbicides plus boric acid is perfectly suitable for preventing dry of the pointer on eucalyptus plants. Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; chemical control; herbicides; micronutrients; Urochloa decumbens.

  1. Governo del territorio e grandi trasformazioni nella regione urbana milanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  Lo studio analizza le grandi trasformazioni in atto nella “regione urbana” milanese, esaminando gli strumenti, le strategie e le politiche seguite. Per “regione urbana” si intende un territorio che non fa riferimento a relazioni gerarchiche di tipo centro-periferico, bensì determina relazioni multi direzionali, a differenza dell’area metropolitana che viene definita in base a relazioni di dipendenza (economica, sociale, funzionale, ecc. di agglomerati esterni rispetto ad un capoluogo. La regione urbana milanese è uno dei poli economici e produttivi più attivi a livello nazionale ed europeo, tuttavia tale territorio è caratterizzato da una ridotta qualità urbana e ambientale e da fenomeni di polarizzazione e di frammentazione sociale in aumento, che hanno ripercussioni negative sulle prospettive di sviluppo dell'area. I più recenti strumenti di pianificazione dell’area milanese fanno riferimento alla coesione territoriale, cercando di disegnare una nuova struttura per il territorio frammentato e diffuso, consolidando il policentrismo della regione urbana, favorendo il riconoscimento di aggregazioni intermedie, al cui interno ricercare integrazione del sistema dei servizi, identità e appartenenze di area. Per attivare una politica di riqualificazione a livello urbano e territoriale, risulta fondamentale seguire forme di coordinamento tra i vari livelli di pianificazione. Particolare attenzione viene posta al problema della mobilità che richiede strategie particolari non solo del traffico quale effetto indotto, ma anche delle cause che lo producono, con riferimento specifico alla distribuzione sul territorio delle diverse attività, ad un corretto equilibrio tra insediamenti residenziali, produttivi e terziari. È necessario, dunque, individuare strumenti e procedure, capaci di perseguire un equilibrio dinamico tra i flussi attratti dalle attività insediate e i flussi “sostenibili” dalle infrastrutture di trasporto

  2. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  3. Growth and nutrition of eucalyptus clones seedlings inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco deSousa Lima; Carla daSilva Sousa

    2014-01-01

    ... (five fungal species and five eucalyptus clones), with five replications. In general, the mycorrhizal symbiosis significantly increased the growth and nutrition of eucalyptus seedlings, when compared to the non-inoculated seedlings...

  4. Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Paulo Henrique Müller da; Brito,José Otávio; Silva Junior,Francides Gomes da

    2006-01-01

    Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aimi...

  5. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red Hills...

  6. Sullys Hill herd resembles original plains bison

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article is on recent findings on Sullys Hill National Game Preserve that show bison brought there nearly a century ago have remained closer to genetically pure...

  7. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  8. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  9. Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese eucalyptus forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

    2001-07-01

    Emission to the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Eucalyptus globulus was studied in the laboratory with young specimen, and in the field with adult trees. Eucalyptus emits both monoterpenes and isoprene. The leaves of young trees emit at higher rates than the leaves of adult trees. The emission of isoprene is highly predominant during the day. The emission of isoprene is dependent on temperature and solar radiation. The emission rate follows the Guenther algorithm if a based emission factor of 32 {mu}gg{sub dw} {sup -1}h{sup -1} is used, increasing with temperature, to a maximum at 40{sup o}C. At higher temperatures there is a decrease in the emission rate. The main C{sub 10} emitted is 1,8-cineol. Cineol emissions increase exponentially with temperature, and are also seasonally dependent. Application of the emission algorithm to the Portuguese eucalyptus forests shows that during summer isoprene and monoterpene emissions by eucalyptus are of the same order of anthropogenic VOC production. Furthermore, in certain regions, in the center-north of Portugal, where eucalyptus forests are predominant, isoprene emissions can reach an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic production of VOCs during daytime periods in July and August. (Author)

  10. Preliminary studies on chemical weed control in eucalyptus (hybrid) nursery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.; Desappa; Singh, C.D.

    1985-12-01

    Weeds adversely affect the germination and growth of seedlings in the Eucalyptus hybrid nursery beds. Manual weeding which is generally followed is time consuming, difficult and less effective. In order to overcome this problem a study was undertaken for effective control of weeds in Eucalyptus hybrid nursery by means of preemergence weedicides viz. Baseline (profluralin), Pendimethaline (Stemp 30 EC), Ronster (Oxadiazen) and Simazine. They were applied to nursery beds as pre-emergence spray, at 1.5, 1.5, 0.5 and 1 kg/ha respectively. Basalin was most effective in controlling both dicot and monocot weeks followed by pendimethaline and Ronster. Simazine was lethal to both Eucalyptus and weed seed germination. Seedling of Eucalyptus in Basalin treated plots were more in number (153/sq ft.), taller (24 cm) and healthier compared to other weedicide treatments. Maximum number of dicot and monocot weeds were found in control plot, consequently, seedling growth was very much suppressed. The studies indicated that preemergence chemical weedicides could be effectively used to control nursery weeds and that Basalin weedicide is more effective in controlling both dicot and monocot weeds and appear to be a suitable chemical weedicide for Eucalyptus hybrid nurseries. 8 references, 3 tables.

  11. Estimativa de volume de madeira em plantios de Eucalyptus spp. utilizando dados hiperespectrais e dados topográficos Stand volumes estimate Eucalyptus spp. plantations in forests using hyperspectral and topographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Canavesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de dados hiperespectrais trouxe expectativas nos meios acadêmicos e empresariais quanto à potencialidade de sua aplicação no setor florestal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial da aplicação de dados hiperespectrais do sensor Hyperion EO-1 na quantificação da variável biofísica volume de madeira em plantios de Eucalyptus spp. e o impacto do sombreamento do relevo nessa quantificação. Para isso, estabeleceram-se correlações entre os dados espectrais e o volume de madeira, seguidos da definição de modelos de regressão linear múltipla como descritores das relações estabelecidas. O efeito do relevo sobre a reflectância dos dosséis de Eucalyptus spp. foi levado em consideração. Os dados Hyperion EO-1 foram convertidos para valores de FRB de superfície, os quais passaram a constituir os dados fundamentais de todo o trabalho. A área de estudo contemplou os plantios do gênero Eucalyptus spp. pertencentes à empresa Votorantim Celulose e Papel (VCP, localizados no Município de Capão Bonito, SP. Foram coletados dados espectrais de amostras localizadas em diferentes condições do relevo. No estabelecimento das relações com volume de madeira, o cálculo de índices de vegetação mediante o emprego de dados hiperespectrais resultou em modelos com maiores valores de R² quando compensados os efeitos topográficos de iluminação, comprovando maior potencial de aplicação desses dados.The availability of orbital hyperspectral data has brought new perspectives to both academic and corporative sectors solving demands in forestry science. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of Hyperion EO-1 hyperspectral data to quantify the biophysical timber volume in Eucalyptus spp stands and the effect of hill shading in that quantification. For this, the correlations between spectral data and timber volume were performed following the use of Multiple Linear regression models as the

  12. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  13. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  14. Antidyslipidemic activity of polyprenol from Coccinia grandis in high-fat diet-fed hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Geetu; Gupta, Prasoon; Rawat, Preeti; Puri, Anju; Bhatia, Gitika; Maurya, Rakesh

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt showed significant triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol-lowering effects in dyslipidemic hamster model. Ethanolic extract was fractionated into chloroform, n-butanol and water-soluble fractions and were evaluated. Activity was proved to be concentrated in chloroform-soluble fraction. Chloroform-soluble fraction containing active component was subjected to repeated column chromatography, furnished a polyprenol characterized as C(60)-polyprenol (1) isolated for the first time from this plant. It significantly decreased serum TG by 42%, total cholesterol (TC) 25% and glycerol (Gly) 12%, accompanied HDL-C/TC ratio 26% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed dyslipidemic hamsters at the dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Results are comparable to standard drug fenofibrate at the dose of 108 mg/kg. Based on these investigations, it was concluded that the compound polyprenol (1) isolated from leaves of C. grandis possess marked antidyslipidemic activity.

  15. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  16. INDIRECT ORGANOGENESIS FROM LEAF EXPLANTS AND IN VITRO SHOOTS MULTIPLICATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii X Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana de Oliveira-Cauduro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814572The aims of this research were to evaluate different culture media for indirect organogenesis and shoot multiplication of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. For organogenesis, leaf explants were used to test the following treatments: two culture media (MS N/2 and JADS supplemented with 0.1 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and thidiazuron (TDZ (0.1 or 0.5 μM, with or without PVP- 40 (250 mg L-1. The percentage of oxidized explants, callus forming explants, explants with anthocyanin, buds, shoots and the shoot number per explant were evaluated. In the multiplication experiment, isolated shoots were cultivated in MS, JADS and WPM media, all supplemented with 1.11 μM BAP. Four subcultures were carried out every 28 days. In every subculture the explant oxidation, partial or total leaf chlorosis, fresh mass and mean number of shoot per explant were evaluated. The MS N/2 medium supplemented with 0.1 μM NAA and 0.5 μM TDZ promoted the highest rate of organogenesis (8.3% and the culture media MS supplemented with 1.11 μM BAP the multiplication rate was higher than in the other media, in the first and the second subcultures (9.28 and 9.24, respectively, without differences between the three media in the following subcultures. 

  17. Evaluating the accuracy of genomic prediction of growth and wood traits in two Eucalyptus species and their F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Biyue; Grattapaglia, Dario; Martins, Gustavo Salgado; Ferreira, Karina Zamprogno; Sundberg, Björn; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2017-06-29

    Genomic prediction is a genomics assisted breeding methodology that can increase genetic gains by accelerating the breeding cycle and potentially improving the accuracy of breeding values. In this study, we use 41,304 informative SNPs genotyped in a Eucalyptus breeding population involving 90 E.grandis and 78 E.urophylla parents and their 949 F1 hybrids to develop genomic prediction models for eight phenotypic traits - basic density and pulp yield, circumference at breast height and height and tree volume scored at age three and six years. We assessed the impact of different genomic prediction methods, the composition and size of the training and validation set and the number and genomic location of SNPs on the predictive ability (PA). Heritabilities estimated using the realized genomic relationship matrix (GRM) were considerably higher than estimates based on the expected pedigree, mainly due to inconsistencies in the expected pedigree that were readily corrected by the GRM. Moreover, the GRM more precisely capture Mendelian sampling among related individuals, such that the genetic covariance was based on the true proportion of the genome shared between individuals. PA improved considerably when increasing the size of the training set and by enhancing relatedness to the validation set. Prediction models trained on pure species parents could not predict well in F1 hybrids, indicating that model training has to be carried out in hybrid populations if one is to predict in hybrid selection candidates. The different genomic prediction methods provided similar results for all traits, therefore either GBLUP or rrBLUP represents better compromises between computational time and prediction efficiency. Only slight improvement was observed in PA when more than 5000 SNPs were used for all traits. Using SNPs in intergenic regions provided slightly better PA than using SNPs sampled exclusively in genic regions. The size and composition of the training set and number of SNPs

  18. Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-06-01

    The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  20. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  1. Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

  2. A new species of Notiphilides from Amazonia, with a redescription of N. grandis (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha, Oryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvanese, Victor C; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2017-02-15

    Notiphilides grandis Brölemann, 1905 is here redescribed based on the female holotype and specimens recently collected in the type locality, Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil, and the male is described for the first time. Notiphilides amazonica sp. n. is described based only on female specimens from Peru and Brazil. We provide a key and distribution map for the known species of Notiphilides.

  3. Grandine A, a new proaporphine alkaloid from the bark of Phoebe grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Thomas, Noel F; Hadi, A Hamid A; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2009-03-23

    The stem bark of Phoebe grandis afforded one new oxoproaporphine; (-)-grandine A (1), along with six known isoquinoline alkaloids: (-)-8,9-dihydrolinearisine (2), boldine, norboldine, lauformine, scortechiniine A and scortechiniine B. In addition to that of the new compound, complete 1H- and 13C-NMR data of the tetrahydroproaporphine (-)-8,9-dihydrolinearisine (2) is also reported. The alkaloids' structures were elucidated primarily by means of high field 1D- and 2D-NMR and HRMS spectral data.

  4. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lintner

    Full Text Available The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  5. Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Lima Pace Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

  6. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  7. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  8. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  9. Extraction of hemicellulose from South African eucalyptus grandis using weak white liquor activation technology and its impact on kraft pulping efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available white liquor in terms of wood loss, pH and concentration of the hemicellulose in the resulting extract, kraft pulping efficiency, and critical pulp and paper properties. It appears that in order to minimise wood loss and to maintain the pH of the extract...

  10. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis using annual measurements of diameter at breast height and gamma ray densitometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ) was calculated for each year from the bark end towards the pith (i.e. the final PSP measurement till the first measurement) and expressed as a percentage of the radius at the end of the increment for year (%RI). ? Mean radial increment (%MRI) was calculated... measured) (using 10 trees that were not included when calculating the %MRI for the compartment) (Fig. 1). ? Predicted RI corresponded well with latewood peaks and were used as separation points which served as a reliable guide to divide the density...

  11. Testing the utility of the 3-PG model for growth of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla with natural and manipulated supplies of water and nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Michael G. Ryan; Dan Binkley

    2004-01-01

    The productivity of fast-growing tropical plantations depends, in part, on the ability of trees to obtain and utilize site resources, and the allocation of fixed carbon (C) to wood production. Simulation models can represent these processes and interactions, but the value of these models depends on their ability to improve predictions of stand growth relative to...

  12. Integrating remote sensing and ancillary data for regional ecosystem assessment: eucalyptus grandis agro-system in kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available - rogers@mondigroup.com, Marius.duPlessis@mondigroup.com, ABSTRACT The ability of various ecosystems to perform vital functions such as biodiversity production, and water, energy and nutrient cycling depends on the ecosystem state, i.e. health... production, and water, energy and nutrient cycling are essential to human civilisation[1]. The ability of various ecosystems to perform the above functions depends on the ecosystem state, i.e. health[2]. Therefore, effective monitoring of ecosystem state...

  13. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) con manejo tumba y quema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uribe, S.; Huerta, E.; Geissen, V.; Mendoza, M.I.; Godoy, R.; Jarquin, A.

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó la comunidad de oligoquetos bajo sitios con diferentes periodos de establecimiento

  14. Comparison between sensors with different spectral resolutions, relative to the sumbandila satellite, for assessing site quality differences, in eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Main, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available interpolation red-edge technique (Four Point REP) (Guyot and Baret 1988), as well as the linear extrapolation red edge technique (Extrap. REP) (Cho and Skidmore 2006), were both able to detect significant differences (p<0.05) between site qualities for each... indices R750 / R700 0.01* 0.01* 0.01* 0.04* DI 0.01* 0.01* 0.01* 0.01* 0.01* DI2 0.01* 0.01* 0.01* 0.01* 0.01* Four Point REP 0.00* 0.00* 0.00* 0.00* Extrap. REP 0.01* 0.05* 0.04* 0.02* *= p is significant at <0.05 Good Medium Poor Site...

  15. EFFECTS OF XYLAN IN EUCALYPTUS PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Moreira Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a better use of wood in the pulp industry has fuelled interest in a more rational use of its components, particularly xylans. The impact of xylans removal and of xylans redeposition on pulp properties for tissue and P&W paper grades are discussed in this paper. Kraft pulp (15.6% xylans treatment with 10-70 g.L-1 NaOH resulted in pulps of 14.5-5.9% xylans. The treatments decreased pulp lignin and HexA contents and caused significant positive impact on subsequent oxygen delignification and ECF bleaching. Xylan removal decreased pulp beatability, water retention value and tensile index but increased drainability, water absorption capacity, capillarity Klemm and bulk. Overall, xylan depleted pulps showed almost ideal properties for tissue paper grade pulps. In a second step of the research, xylans extracted from unbleached (BXL and bleached eucalyptus pulps (WXL by cold caustic extraction (CCE were added to a commercial brown pulp in the oxygen delignification (O-stage and further bleached. Xylans deposition occurred at variable degree (up to 7% on pulp weight depending upon the O-stage reaction pH. Pulp bleachability was not impaired by WXL xylan deposition but slightly negatively affected by BXL xylans. Pulp beatability was improved by xylan deposition. The deposited xylans were quite stable across bleaching and beating, with the WXL xylans being more stable than the BXL ones. At low energy consumption, the deposited xylans improved pulp physical and mechanical properties. Xylans extraction by CCE with subsequent deposition onto pulp in the O-stage proved attractive for manufacturing high xylan P&W paper grades.

  16. MODIFICACIÓN AL PROCESO DE PRODUCCIÓN MASIVA DE LOS PARASITOIDES Catolaccus grandis Y Catolaccus hunteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Reyes-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de modificar la tecnología de producción masiva de Catolaccus grandis y Catolaccus hunteri, himenópteros parasitoides de Anthonomus grandis el picudo del algodonero en Tamaulipas, México en el 2002. Se determinó la eficiencia del papel toalla para el secado de manos, en el sellamiento de cápsulas moldeadas en cera de hidrocarburos y poliolefina (LCHP, donde se confina al huésped, y evaluar la efectividad del gorgojo del garbanzo Callosobruchus maculatus como hospedante facticio para la cría de ambos parasitoides. Hubo producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri utilizando C. maculatus como huésped y el papel toalla fue efectivo para sellar los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP. La producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri mediante C. maculatus, contribuyó a incrementar la seguridad y facilidad del proceso, además de una significativa reducción de costos. El papel toalla en el sellado de los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP, redujo en un 50% por m2 los costos del proceso, sin afectar la eficiencia del parasitismo y emergencia de C. grandis.

  17. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  18. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  19. [Biomass- and energy allocation in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at different stand ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-Ying; Chen, Shao-Xiong; Han, Fei-Yang; Chen, Wen-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made on the biomass- and energy allocation in 1-4-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at Beipo Forest Farm of Suixi County in Guangdong Province. Stand age had significant effects on the retained biomass of the plantations (P biomass was in the range of 10.61-147.28 t x hm(-2). Both the total biomass and the biomass of above- and belowground components increased with increasing stand age. The proportions of leaf-, branch- and bark biomass to total biomass decreased with year, while that of stem biomass was in reverse. The biomass allocation of the components in 1- and 2-year-old plantations decreased in order of stem > branch > bark > root > leaf, and that in 3- and 4 -year-old plantations was in order of stem > root > branch > bark > leaf. The mean ash content (AC) of the five components at different stand ages ranged from 0.47% to 5.91%, being the highest in bark and the lowest in stem. The mean gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) of different components ranged from 17.33 to 20. 60 kJ x g(-1) and from 18.42 to 21.59 kJ x g(-1) respectively. Of all the components, leaf had the highest GVC and AFCV, while bark had the lowest ones. Stand age had significant effects on the GVC of branch, stem, and bark, and on the AFCV of leaf, stem, and bark (P 0.05). The retained energy of 1-4-year-old plantations ranged from 199.98 to 2837.20 GJ x hm(-2), with significant differences among the stand ages (P energy of various components and plantations increased with stand age, and the energy allocation of various components had the same trend as biomass allocation.

  20. Clonal propagation on Eucalyptus by cuttings in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Chaperon

    1983-01-01

    A.FO.CEL has developed a technique for mass propagation by cuttings of Eucalyptus in France. This technique is described from the selection of the ortet to the mass propagation of the clone for afforestation: the first stage is the mobilization of the ortet, the second stage is called pre-propagation which includes rejuvenating and rooting conditioning, the third stage...

  1. Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication

  2. The annual pattern of sap flow in two Eucalyptus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual pattern of sap flow in two Eucalyptus species established in the vicinity of gold-mine tailings dams in central South Africa. ... Despite prolonged water deficits, both species survived well and maintained sufficient vigour to permit the quick recovery of high transpiration rates in the following summer. This resilience ...

  3. Cut-to-length harvesting of short-rotation Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; David J. Cooper

    1999-01-01

    Traditional whole-tree harvesting systems work well in short-rotation hardwood plantations, but other methods are needed where it is desirable to leave the residues on the site. We tested a system consisting of a cut-to-length harvester, forwarder, mobile chipper, and chip screen to clearcut a 7-year-old plantation of Eucalyptus viminalis. Three...

  4. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  5. The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were studied for in vitro microbial activities by agar dilution method. ... Accelerated gradient chromatography (AGC) gave fractions of the extract of T. catappa that were more active on Candida albicans and Escherichia coli than the crude ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  7. Performance of Eucalyptus dunnii as influenced by vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997, a trial was initiated to determine the impact of eight vegetation control treatments on the growth of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden at a warm-temperate site in the ... Tree growth was monitored throughout the rotation and this, together with the cost of the various weeding operations during re-establishment, was used to ...

  8. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  9. Ongoing molecular studies of Eucalyptus powdery mildew in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. R. Fonseca; L. M. S. Guimaraes; R. P. Pires; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; A. C. Alfenas

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew diseases are caused by biotrophic fungi in the Erysiphales. These fungal pathogens are easily observed by the whitish powdery appearance caused by their colonization of the aerial surfaces on living plants (Stadnik & Rivera, 2001) (Figure 1). In Brazil, powdery mildew of Eucalyptus spp is increasing under the current nursery production...

  10. Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is routinely used to improve tree nutrition, providing profitable returns on large investments. Growth responses to fertilisation differ ... We used this approach with 131 blocks of twin-plots to represent an area of 34 540 ha in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Clonal plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla were ...

  11. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. Recently, many genomic programmes are underway leading to the accumulation of voluminous genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences in public databases. These sequences can be utilized for analysis of simple sequence ...

  12. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  13. Responses of Eucalyptus species to fertilizer applications made at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early research trials in South Africa have shown that Eucalyptus species generally respond positively to the addition of nutrients at planting. However, as most of these research trials were located in KwaZulu-Natal, it was important to investigate the nature of the response in other afforested regions of the country where this ...

  14. Assessment of acidity levels in Eucalyptus Camaldulensis barks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  15. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  16. Quality assessment of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the course of this study, essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and three Boswellia rivae species were analyzed using GC-MS. Comparison of the chemical compositions of 1,8-cineole and α-pinene in the assessment of these oils' quality will help in the production of high value essential oils that will enhance the economic ...

  17. Genetic characterisation of a Eucalyptus nitens base breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The measurement and statistical analysis of data from eight Eucalyptus nitens trials, established in the summer rainfall forestry region of South Africa during the 1980s and 1990s, have enabled the characterisation of the Institute for Commercial Forestry Research's breeding population. Provenance testing showed that the ...

  18. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  19. Growth potential of Eucalyptus cypellocarpa as an alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genotype environment interaction was present between two sites, as indicated by low Type B correlations of 0.47 and 0.53 for basal area and volume, respectively. This indicated that different populations of E. cypellocarpa should be developed for the cold and warm sites. Keywords: Eucalyptus cypellocarpa, genotype ...

  20. Optimization of Steam Distillation of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with optimization of yield of Eucalyptus tereticornis oil in steam distillation using response surface methodology (RSM). The factors considered were mass of solute/solvent ratio (A), extraction time. (B) and steam rate (C). These parameters were varied at two levels. Conditions of optimum oil ...