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Sample records for eu jitters lead

  1. Jitter Controller Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Schlensinger, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Sinusoidal jitter is produced by simply modulating a clock frequency sinusoidally with a given frequency and amplitude. But this can be expressed as phase jitter, frequency jitter, or cycle-to-cycle jitter, rms or peak, absolute units, or normalized to the base clock frequency. Jitter using other waveforms requires calculating and downloading these waveforms to an arbitrary waveform generator, and helping the user manage relationships among phase jitter crest factor, frequency jitter crest factor, and cycle-to-cycle jitter (CCJ) crest factor. Software was developed for managing these relationships, automatically configuring the generator, and saving test results documentation. Tighter management of clock jitter and jitter sensitivity is required by new codes that further extend the already high performance of space communication links, completely correcting symbol error rates higher than 10 percent, and therefore typically requiring demodulation and symbol synchronization hardware to operating at signal-to-noise ratios of less than one. To accomplish this, greater demands are also made on transmitter performance, and measurement techniques are needed to confirm performance. It was discovered early that sinusoidal jitter can be stepped on a grid such that one can connect points by constant phase jitter, constant frequency jitter, or constant cycle-cycle jitter. The tool automates adherence to a grid while also allowing adjustments off-grid. Also, the jitter can be set by the user on any dimension and the others are calculated. The calculations are all recorded, allowing the data to be rapidly plotted or re-plotted against different interpretations just by changing pointers to columns. A key advantage is taking data on a carefully controlled grid, which allowed a single data set to be post-analyzed many different ways. Another innovation was building a software tool to provide very tight coupling between the generator and the recorded data product, and the operator

  2. Luminescence performance of Eu -doped lead-free zinc phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These glasses were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques at room temperature. All the glasses showed relatively broad fluorescence excitation and luminescence spectra. Luminescence spectra of these glasses exhibit characteristic emission of Eu3+ ion with an intense and most prominent red emission (614 ...

  3. Luminescence performance of Eu -doped lead-free zinc phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is owing to hydro- gen bonding [13]. Finally the band at 3744 cm. −1 is attributed to the presence of O-H stretching vibrations [14]. The pres- ence of bands at 1275 ... and PET (21505 cm. −1. ) gives the phonon energy (hω) of the host, which is obtained to be 1170 cm. −1 in 1.0 mol% Eu3+-doped glass matrix. It is in good ...

  4. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  5. Luminescence performance of Eu 3-doped lead-free zinc phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Events · Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Luminescence performance of Eu$^{3+}-doped lead-free zinc phosphate glasses for red emission.

  6. Risks to health and environment of the use of lead in products in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Buist, H.; Oers, L. van; Voet, E. van der

    2006-01-01

    The EU Commission's Services asked TNO and CML to perform a study into the risks of the present uses of lead over time, as an input to a discussion on the need of a further reduction of the use of this material. The study was set up as a substance flow analysis to analyse trends in uses and

  7. What is a Leading Case in EU law? An empirical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska; Panagis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    . Our analysis focuses on Les Verts, a case of considerable fame in EU law, closely scrutinising whether it contains inherent leading case material. We show how the legal relevance of a case can become “embedded” in a long process of reinterpretation by legal actors, and we demonstrate that the actual......Lawyers generally explain legal development by looking at explicit amendments to statutory law and modifications in judicial practice. As far as the latter are concerned, leading cases occupy a special place. This article empirically studies the process in which certain cases become leading cases...

  8. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    Den Europæiske Union har som et vigtigt mål at forbedre samarbejdet mellem medlemslandene. At få udvisket betydningen af de gamle statsgrænser. Åbne grænser og større fleksibilitet skal øge den økonomiske vækst i Europa - især i grænseregionerne, der ofte er yderområder i de enkelte lande. Det...... politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  9. Red light generation through the lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses activated by Eu3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Suriya Murthy, N.; Muralidharan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses containing 0.05 to 2.0 wt% of Eu3+ ions were prepared through melt quenching technique. Structural characteristics of title glasses were identified through XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. The optical properties of the prepared glasses were studied using UV-Vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectra. From the resultant spectra, we have obtained the bonding parameters (δ), nephelauxetic ratio (β), direct and indirect band gaps and Urbach energy (ΔE) values. A deep red luminescence due to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions could be observed for the title glasses. The local site symmetry around the Eu3+ ions and the degree of Eu3+-O2- covalence were assessed from the luminescence intensity ratio of 5D0 → 7F2/5D0 → 7F1 transitions. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, calculated from the luminescence spectra, were used to estimate the radiative parameters like transition probability (A), branching ratio (βexp, βcal) and stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) concerning the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions. The important laser parameters, gain bandwidth and optical gain are also estimated. The decay curves associated with the transition from 5D0 state was found to be single-exponential at all Eu3+ ion concentrations. CIE colour coordinates and colour purity of the prepared glasses were estimated from the CIE chromaticity diagram.

  10. What is a Leading Case in EU law? An empirical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska; Panagis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    . Our analysis focuses on Les Verts, a case of considerable fame in EU law, closely scrutinising whether it contains inherent leading case material. We show how the legal relevance of a case can become “embedded” in a long process of reinterpretation by legal actors, and we demonstrate that the actual...... legal impact of Les Verts on the acquis is most visible in the area that was sidelined in the academic commentary. This implies that a leading case is a symbolic category, which might not always correspond to the actual role that the case plays in the Court’s jurisprudence....

  11. EU ambition to build the world's leading bioeconomy-Uncertain times demand innovative and sustainable solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John; Paula, Lino; Dodd, Thomas; Németh, Szilvia; Nanou, Christina; Mega, Voula; Campos, Paula

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the current context and the development of the European Bioeconomy Strategy. It analyses the current situation, challenges and needs for EU action and concludes with the next steps that the European Commission will undertake to review and update the Bioeconomy Strategy. Bioeconomy offers great opportunities to realising a competitive, circular and sustainable economy with a sound industrial base that is less dependent on fossil carbon. A sustainable bioeconomy also contributes to climate change mitigation, with oceans, forests and soils being major carbon sinks and fostering negative CO 2 emissions. The EU has invested significantly in research and innovation in this field and the European Commission is committed to lead on European bioeconomy strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clock jitter generator with picoseconds resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Goran; Stojčev, Mile; Nikolić, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    The clock is one of the most critical signals in any synchronous system. As CMOS technology has scaled, supply voltages have dropped chip power consumption has increased and the effects of jitter due to clock frequency increase have become critical and jitter budget has become tighter. This article describes design and development of low-cost mixed-signal programmable jitter generator with high resolution. The digital technique is used for coarse-grain and an analogue technique for fine-grain clock phase shifting. Its structure allows injection of various random and deterministic jitter components in a controllable and programmable fashion. Each jitter component can be switched on or off. The jitter generator can be used in jitter tolerance test and jitter transfer function measurement of high-speed synchronous digital circuits. At operating system clock frequency of 220 MHz, a jitter with 4 ps resolution can be injected.

  13. Optical characterization of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions doped zinc lead borate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulasiramudu, A; Buddhudu, S

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on the spectral analysis of Eu3+ or Tb3+ ions (0.5 mol%) doped heavy metal oxide (HMO) based zinc lead borate glasses from the measurement of their absorption, emission spectra and also different physical properties. From the XRD, DSC profiles, the glass nature and glass thermal properties have been studied. The measured emission spectrum of Eu3+ glass has revealed five transitions (5D0-->7F0, 7F1, 7F2, 7F3 and 7F4) at 578, 591, 613, 654 and 702 nm, respectively, with lambdaexci=392 nm (7F0-->5L6). In the case of Tb3+:ZLB glass, four emission transitions such as (5D4-->7F6, 7F5, 7F4 and 7F3) that are located at 489, 542, 585 and 622 nm, respectively, have been measured with lambdaexci=374 nm. For all these emission bands decay curves have been plotted to evaluate their lifetimes and the emission processes that arise in the glasses have been explained in terms of energy level schemes.

  14. Will MyBank lead to more cross-border e-commerce in the EU?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The launch of MyBank – the EU wide online payment system that provides consumers the possibility to make payments for goods and services in other EU countries via their own online banking environment – may give a boost to cross-border e-commerce within the European Union.

  15. Beam jitter coupling in advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Guido

    2005-09-05

    Fluctuations in the position or propagation direction of the laser beam (beam jitter) is one of the most critical technical noise sources in an interferometric gravitational wave detector. These fluctuations couple to spurious misalignments of the mirrors forming the interferometer and potentially decrease the sensitivity. In this paper we calculate the transfer function of beam jitter into the gravitational wave channel for the Advanced LIGO detector and derive a first expression for the requirements on beam jitter for Advanced LIGO.

  16. Societal benefits from EU reduction measures to decrease lead levels in the environment; Combining results from the EU funded projects INTARESE and HEIMTSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens J. G. E. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper combines the results of two Sixth Framework Program EU research projects aimed at developing and testing methods for integrated assessment of health risks from environmental stressors, i.e. the INTARESE and the HEIMTSA project, both of which covered a case study on environmental lead. The INTARESE case study on lead in Europe was meant to illustrate the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. The HEIMTSA case study on the other hand involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR in response to current and future legislation. Analysing environmental data, significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 μg/m3 (P95: 0.94; n=98 prior to 1990 to 0.045 μg/m3 (P95:0.11; n=256 in 2007 (latest

  17. VOICE OF THE STUDENTS: HOW CAN THE EU TAKE THE GLOBAL LEAD ON TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costica MIHAI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU has always been at the forefront of tackling environmental issues. This paper responds to the EU‟s „call for action‟ towards addressing the issue of climate change – a key priority for the European Commission in the 2030 policy perspective. The topic is addressed through a focus group that seeks to identify and disseminate possible approaches through which the EU can leverage its international „actorness‟ in negotiating a straightforward and binding global agreement for action in climate change mitigation. The focus group involves a sample of students, beneficiaries of an environmentally focused Jean Monnet teaching module (TAG-EU. The diverse academic background of the students (coming from social, natural and exact sciences provides a unique point of view in tackling this ardent issue and can bring valuable and interdisciplinary contributions to the discussion on climate change action.

  18. Jitter reduction in Differentiated Services (Diffserv) networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Rexhepi, Vlora

    2005-01-01

    A method and a computer program for reducing jitter in IP packet transmission in a Diffserv network having ingress and egress Border Routers and using premium service, expedited forwarding and source route option, recognize incoming packets which have firm jitter requirements. The program verifies

  19. Jitter reduction in Differentiated Services (Diffserv) networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Rexhepi, Vlora

    2001-01-01

    A method and a computer program for reducing jitter in IP packet transmission in a Diffserv network having ingress and egress Border Routers and using premium service, expedited forwarding and source route option, recognize incoming packets which have firm jitter requirements. The program verifies

  20. Women, men and creativity in higher education sector – comparative studies of leading EU and ECE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zachorowska-Mazurkiewicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus in the article is on creativity in the higher education sector in terms of gender perspective. The question posed concerns the relation between women’s and men’s patent activities and R&D expenditures. The paper is based on the data from the European Patent Office, 1999-2013 concerning creative activities performed by women and men in the higher education sector. The paper looks into the dynamics of changes in terms of the number of women and men researchers, R&D personnel and inventors, and combines them with the changes in R&D expenditures in the higher education sector. The analysis is conducted for the two groups of leading EU countries in the light of their patent activities. The objective of this exercise is to present the correlation between R&D expenditures and women and men in the R&D sectors, comparing these two groups of the EU countries.

  1. Analytic Method for Computing Instrument Pointing Jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David

    2003-01-01

    A new method of calculating the root-mean-square (rms) pointing jitter of a scientific instrument (e.g., a camera, radar antenna, or telescope) is introduced based on a state-space concept. In comparison with the prior method of calculating the rms pointing jitter, the present method involves significantly less computation. The rms pointing jitter of an instrument (the square root of the jitter variance shown in the figure) is an important physical quantity which impacts the design of the instrument, its actuators, controls, sensory components, and sensor- output-sampling circuitry. Using the Sirlin, San Martin, and Lucke definition of pointing jitter, the prior method of computing the rms pointing jitter involves a frequency-domain integral of a rational polynomial multiplied by a transcendental weighting function, necessitating the use of numerical-integration techniques. In practice, numerical integration complicates the problem of calculating the rms pointing error. In contrast, the state-space method provides exact analytic expressions that can be evaluated without numerical integration.

  2. THE LEADING POSITION OF TURKEY IN ROMANIA'S TRADE WITH NON - EU COUNTRIES IN 2007-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it aims to put forward some economic and legal aspects with relevance in this scientific research from which results unequivocally that Turkey is the most important partner in Romania's trade with non-EU countries. In this regard, according to statistical data provided by National Institute of Statistics and used by the author in the field of this study it is highlighted that Turkey is the main destination for Romanian exports and imports in the trade with third countries (non-EU. At the same time, it is important to clarify that the legal framework of Romania's trade relations with Turkey is based on the provisions of the Customs Union Agreement between the European Union and Turkey. Further, should be added that this trade agreement represents the basic regulation of the legal framework in the matter of bilateral trade relations between our country and Turkey. Under these circumstances, it is noteworthy that the Customs Union Agreement which operates and generates effects of trade-related, implies free access of industrial products between the two signatory parties. In terms of food products, exempt from customs duties are processed agricultural products, and for the rest of the products in this category applies a level of customs duties between 0-2.25%. Against this background, it is worth to mention that Romania is currently benefiting from the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in the products mentioned above, such as it results from a custom union model. As a corollary of all these arguments previously expressed, it can be sustained that Turkey is a complex market in a constant change which requires adaptation and perseverance on the part of the Romanian foreign trade operators.

  3. Luminescent properties of solid solutions in the PbF2-Euf3 system and lead fluoroborate glass ceramics doped with Eu3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostjanova, T. S.; Khomyakov, A. V.; Mayakova, M. N.; Voronov, V. V.; Petrova, O. B.

    2017-11-01

    Lead fluoroborate glasses doped with Eu3+ are synthesized, studied, and used to produce glassceramics by heat treatment. The structure of glass-ceramics is determined by X-ray diffraction. The optical, mechanical, and luminescent properties of the glass-ceramics are studied. The structure and spectral-luminescent properties of solid solutions in the PbF2-EuF3 system obtained by both solid-phase reaction and coprecipitation from solutions are investigated.

  4. Low jitter and high power all-active mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2003-01-01

    A novel epitaxial design leading to low loss and low gain saturation improves the properties of 40 GHz mode-locked lasers. We obtain 2.8 ps nearly chirp free pulses with 228 fs jitter and -coupled power of 7 mW.......A novel epitaxial design leading to low loss and low gain saturation improves the properties of 40 GHz mode-locked lasers. We obtain 2.8 ps nearly chirp free pulses with 228 fs jitter and -coupled power of 7 mW....

  5. Low jitter and high power all-active mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2003-01-01

    A novel epitaxial design leading to low loss and low gain saturation improves the properties of 40 GHz mode-locked lasers. We obtain 2.8 ps nearly chirp free pulses with 228 fs jitter and fiber-coupled power of 7 mW.......A novel epitaxial design leading to low loss and low gain saturation improves the properties of 40 GHz mode-locked lasers. We obtain 2.8 ps nearly chirp free pulses with 228 fs jitter and fiber-coupled power of 7 mW....

  6. CORRECTING SPACECRAFT JITTER IN HIRISE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Sutton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical oscillations or vibrations on spacecraft, also called pointing jitter, cause geometric distortions and/or smear in high resolution digital images acquired from orbit. Geometric distortion is especially a problem with pushbroom type sensors, such as the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. Geometric distortions occur at a range of frequencies that may not be obvious in the image products, but can cause problems with stereo image correlation in the production of digital elevation models, and in measuring surface changes over time in orthorectified images. The HiRISE focal plane comprises a staggered array of fourteen charge-coupled devices (CCDs with pixel IFOV of 1 microradian. The high spatial resolution of HiRISE makes it both sensitive to, and an excellent recorder of jitter. We present an algorithm using Fourier analysis to resolve the jitter function for a HiRISE image that is then used to update instrument pointing information to remove geometric distortions from the image. Implementation of the jitter analysis and image correction is performed on selected HiRISE images. Resulting corrected images and updated pointing information are made available to the public. Results show marked reduction of geometric distortions. This work has applications to similar cameras operating now, and to the design of future instruments (such as the Europa Imaging System.

  7. Spectroscopy and energy transfer in lead borate glasses doubly doped with Dy(3)(+)-Tb(3+) and Tb(3)(+)-Eu(3+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Joanna; Kos, Agnieszka; Pisarski, Wojciech A

    2014-08-14

    Lead borate glasses doubly doped with Dy(3)(+)-Tb(3+) and Tb(3+)-Eu(3+) were investigated using optical spectroscopy. Luminescence spectra of rare earths were detected under various excitation wavelengths. The main green emission band due to (5)D4→(7)F5 transition of Tb(3+) is observed under excitation of Dy(3+), whereas the main red emission band related to (5)D0→(7)F2 transition of Eu(3+) is successfully observed under direct excitation of Tb(3+). In both cases, the energy transfer processes from Dy(3+) to Tb(3+) and from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) in lead borate glasses occur through a nonradiative processes with efficiencies up to 16% and 18%, respectively. The presence of energy transfer process was also confirmed by excitation spectra measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectrally Undiscerned Isomers Might Lead to Erroneous Determination of Water Exchange Rates of paraCEST Eu(III) Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakić, Nevenka; Tickner, Ben; Zaiss, Moritz; Esteban-Gómez, David; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Angelovski, Goran

    2017-07-17

    We report a detailed study of the solution structure and water exchange rate of a Eu(III) complex with the cyclen-based ligand L 1 , containing (S)-2-(2-acetamido)-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)propanoate pendant arms at positions 1 and 7 of the cyclen ring and acetylglycinate pendants at positions 4 and 10. The EuL 1 complex was characterized by a combination of NMR and luminescence spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) spectra obtained at different temperatures and saturation powers present a CEST signal attributed to the coordinated water molecule. However, the spectra recorded at low temperatures (10 °C) and low saturation powers revealed the presence of two different species with coordinated water molecules having very similar chemical shifts. Determination of the water exchange rates of the coordinated water molecules was carried out by using the Bloch four-pool model that accounts for the presence of these isomers, and this model was compared to conventional methods for CEST quantification, namely the Omega plot and QUESP (quantification of exchange rate as a function of saturation power), which assume the presence of a single CEST active species. The results indicated that only the four-pool Bloch equations provide reasonable water exchange rates and activation parameters. Solution NMR studies and DFT calculations indicated that the two isomers present in solution correspond to the SS-Δ(λλλλ) and SS-Λ(δδδδ) isomers, which present capped square-antiprismatic (SAP) coordination environments. Additional NMR studies on the EuL 2 and EuL 3 complexes, which present four (S)-2-(2-acetamido)-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)propanoate or acetylglycinate pendant arms, respectively, confirm the results obtained for EuL 1 .

  9. Timing Jitter Analysis for Clock recovery Circuits Based on an Optoelectronic Phase-Locked Loop (OPLL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    Timing jitter of an OPLL based clock recovery is investigated. We demonstrate how loop gain, input and VCO signal jitter, loop filter bandwidth and a loop time delay influence jitter of the extracted clock signal...

  10. Jitter-Power minimization of digital frequency synthesis architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Dutta, R.; Ru, Z.; Nauta, Bram; Gao, X.

    2011-01-01

    Digital intensive architectures allow for flexibly programmable frequency synthesis. Timing jitter and/or phase noise is an important quality criterion for synthesizers. This paper reviews fundamental limitations for jitter in digital frequency architectures, aiming at finding a basis to compare

  11. GBTX Temperature impact on Jitter Implementation on VLDB

    CERN Document Server

    Pecoraro, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    This report was written within the framework of the CERN Summer Student Program. It is focused on jitter measurement over the temperature of a GBTx ASIC populated on a VLDB board. A complete measurement setup was conceived around a climatic chamber and various configurations of this chip were tested for characterization of skew and cycle to cycle jitter.

  12. Jitter analysis utilizing a high speed FM tape recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazliel, B; Kuruoğlu, R

    2000-09-01

    Jitter analysis in single fiber EMG (SFEMG) is usually done on-line during recording. However, this technique frequently prolongs the study and makes re-analysis impossible. We attempted to measure jitter with a high speed FM tape recorder and compare the results with the previously published values. SFEMG data, acquired with voluntary activation on extensor digitorum communis muscle of 25 healthy relatives of children with myasthenia gravis were retrospectively analyzed. Fiber density (FD) was estimated on-line. Five to 18 single fiber action potential (SFAP) pairs were studied in each subject. The wow of the tape recorder was 6 microseconds. Mean (SD) (upper 95th percentile) FD, individual jitter, highest jitter, mean jitter and interspike interval were 1.60 (0.18) (1.90), 25.30 (11.20) (57.00) microseconds, 31.24 (6.87) (47.00) microseconds, 25.08 (5.04) (43.00) microseconds, and 0.67 (0.11) (0.91) ms respectively. Mean jitter in the pooled SFAP pairs and mean MCD were found to be lower than the published values of the Ad Hoc Committee of the AAEM Special Interest Group on Single Fiber EMG. A high speed FM tape recorder can be reliably used for the off-line analysis of jitter.

  13. Jitter Correction for the Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop an instrument jitter correction system In this study, we are only addressing the bore-sight changes due to internal...

  14. Subpixel jitter video restoration on board of micro-UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.; Buss, James R.; Garcia, Joseph P.; Breaux, Nancy A.; Kopriva, Ivica; Karangelen, Nicholas E.; Hsu, M.; Lee, Ting; Willey, Jeff; Shield, Gary; Brown, Steve; Robbins, R.; Hobday, John

    2004-04-01

    We review various image processing algorithms for micro-UAV EO/IR sub-pixel jitter restoration. Since the micro-UAV, Silver Fox, cannot afford isolation coupling mounting from the turbulent aerodynamics of the airframe, we explore smart real-time software to mitigate the sub-pixel jitter effect. We define jitter to be sub-pixel or small-amplitude vibrations up to one pixel, as opposed to motion blur over several pixels for which there already exists real time correction algorithms used on other platforms. We divide the set of jitter correction algorithms into several categories: They are real time, pseudo-real time, or non-real-time, but they are all standalone, i.e. without relying on a library storage or flight data basis on-board the UAV. The top of the list is demonstrated and reported here using real-world data and a truly unsupervised, real-time algorithm.

  15. Clock Jitter Effect on Switched-Capacitor Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    El Oualkadi, Ahmed; Paillot, Jean-Marie; Flandre, Denis

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes the study of clock jitter effect on high-Q switched-capacitor filter behavior. A command circuit made up by a ring voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) with XOR gates is used to generate the command signals. According to the correlation of these signals the jitter effect on the signal constellation has been studied. A good agreement between measured and simulation results has been achieved which validate our design methodology.

  16. Does EU ETS lead to emission reductions through trade? The case of the Swedish emissions trading sector participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoff, Anders; Schaad, Gabriela [Industrial and Financial Management, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    The first trading period of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has recently come to an end. The experiences of the actors in the trading sector will be of great importance in evaluating the aim and direction of this 'Grand Policy Experiment'. This paper gives an account of the attitudes and actions of the companies included in the Swedish emissions trading sector after about 15 months of experience with the system. The data are based on a study commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, and is a comprehensive survey that encompasses all companies operating installations included in the Swedish Emission Trading Registry. However, the results point in a somewhat disquieting direction. Although the Swedish companies have shown significant interest in reducing emissions, this survey indicates that this is done without close attention to the pricing mechanism of the market-based instruments. If this praxis is widespread within the European trading sector, it can have a serious negative effect on the efficiency of the system. (author)

  17. Jewellery: alloy composition and release of nickel, cobalt and lead assessed with the EU synthetic sweat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Curtis; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Maibach, Howard; Lundgren, Lennart; Lidén, Carola

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown nickel and cobalt release from jewellery by using spot tests, but the metal composition of jewellery is largely unknown. To evaluate the metal composition of a large worldwide sample of mainly inexpensive jewellery items, and investigate the release of nickel, cobalt and lead from a subsample by using EN 1811:1998-required methods. A total of 956 metallic jewellery components were examined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A subsample of 96 jewellery items purchased in the United States were investigated for nickel, cobalt and lead release by the use of artificial sweat immersion and plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Eighteen elements were detected. The 10 most frequently occurring were, in order of frequency, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, silver, chromium, tin, manganese, lead, and cobalt. Release of nickel was noted from 79 of the 96 US samples (0.01-98 µg/cm(2) /week), release of cobalt from 35 samples (0.02-0.5 µg/cm(2) /week), and release of lead from 37 samples (0.03-2718 µg/cm(2) /week). We present here a comprehensive list of the most frequently encountered metals in jewellery and fashion accessories. Different allergenic and non-allergenic metals are utilized. We also report the frequent release of nickel, cobalt and lead from these objects, despite legislative restrictions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. E-model MOS Estimate Improvement through Jitter Buffer Packet Loss Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed article analyses dependence of MOS as a voice call quality (QoS measure estimated through ITU-T E-model under real network conditions with jitter. In this paper, a method of jitter effect is proposed. Jitter as voice packet time uncertainty appears as increased packet loss caused by jitter memory buffer under- or overflow. Jitter buffer behaviour at receiver’s side is modelled as Pareto/D/1/K system with Pareto-distributed packet interarrival times and its performance is experimentally evaluated by using statistic tools. Jitter buffer stochastic model is then incorporated into E-model in an additive manner accounting for network jitter effects via excess packet loss complementing measured network packet loss. Proposed modification of E-model input parameter adds two degrees of freedom in modelling: network jitter and jitter buffer size.

  19. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  20. Robust real-time change detection in high jitter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, Katherine Mary; Ma, Tian J.

    2009-08-01

    A new method is introduced for real-time detection of transient change in scenes observed by staring sensors that are subject to platform jitter, pixel defects, variable focus, and other real-world challenges. The approach uses flexible statistical models for the scene background and its variability, which are continually updated to track gradual drift in the sensor's performance and the scene under observation. Two separate models represent temporal and spatial variations in pixel intensity. For the temporal model, each new frame is projected into a low-dimensional subspace designed to capture the behavior of the frame data over a recent observation window. Per-pixel temporal standard deviation estimates are based on projection residuals. The second approach employs a simple representation of jitter to generate pixelwise moment estimates from a single frame. These estimates rely on spatial characteristics of the scene, and are used gauge each pixel's susceptibility to jitter. The temporal model handles pixels that are naturally variable due to sensor noise or moving scene elements, along with jitter displacements comparable to those observed in the recent past. The spatial model captures jitter-induced changes that may not have been seen previously. Change is declared in pixels whose current values are inconsistent with both models.

  1. The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160 Gb/s demultiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Oxenlowe, L.K.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2006-01-01

    The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160Gb/s demultiplexer is investigated by using two pulse sources with different timing jitter properties. It is found that jitter in the range 20kHz-10MHz is essential to minimize. (C)2005 Optical Society of America.......The impact of gating timing jitter on a 160Gb/s demultiplexer is investigated by using two pulse sources with different timing jitter properties. It is found that jitter in the range 20kHz-10MHz is essential to minimize. (C)2005 Optical Society of America....

  2. A low jitter PLL clock used for phase change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Houpeng, Chen; Zhitang, Song; Daolin, Cai; Xi, Li

    2013-02-01

    A fully integrated low-jitter, precise frequency CMOS phase-locked loop (PLL) clock for the phase change memory (PCM) drive circuit is presented. The design consists of a dynamic dual-reset phase frequency detector (PFD) with high frequency acquisition, a novel low jitter charge pump, a CMOS ring oscillator based voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), a 2nd order passive loop filter, and a digital frequency divider. The design is fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology and consumes 20 mW from a supply voltage of 5 V. In terms of the PCM's program operation requirement, the output frequency range is from 1 to 140 MHz. For the 140 MHz output frequency, the circuit features a cycle-to-cycle jitter of 28 ps RMS and 250 ps peak-to-peak.

  3. Engineering high reliability, low-jitter Marx generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L. X.; Lockwood, G. J.

    Multimodule pulsed power accelerators typically require high module reliability and nanosecond simultaneity between modules. Energy storage using bipolar Marx generators can meet these requirements. Experience gained from computer simulations and the development of the DEMON II Marx generator led to a fundamental understanding of the operation of these multistage devices. As a result of this research, significant improvements in erection time jitter and reliability were realized in multistage, bipolar Marx generators. Erection time jitter was measured as low as 2.5 nanoseconds for the 3.2 MV, 16-stage PBFA I Marx and 3.5 nanoseconds for the 6.0 MV, 30-stage PBFA II (DEMON II) Marx, while maintaining exceptionally low prefire rates. Performance data are presented from the DEMON II Marx research program, as well as discussions on the use of computer simulations in designing low-jitter Marx generators.

  4. Diagnosing high-reliability, low-jitter Marx generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G. J.; Schneider, L. X.; Neyer, B. T.; Ruggles, L. E.

    1987-07-01

    We have made photonic measurements to assess the performance of a bipolar Marx generator. Measurements of the switch-closing sequence were made with a high-speed multichannel data recorder using fiber optics to monitor the light produced by each switch closure. Experience gained during this research coupled with computer simulations has led to a fundamental understanding of the operation of these multistage devices. As a result of this research, significant improvement in erection time jitter has been realized. Erection time jitter has been measured as low as 2.6 ns for a 3.2-MV, 16-stage PBFA-I Marx generator. Photonic data are presented from this research program, along with a discussion on the use of computer simulations and photonic measurements in designing low-jitter Marx generators.

  5. Localisation of beam offset jitter sources at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, J; Patecki, M; Schulte, D; Tomás, R

    2014-01-01

    For the commissioning and operation of modern particle accelerators, automated error detection and diagnostics methods are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we present two such methods, which are capable of localising sources of beam offset jitter with a combination of correlation studies and so called degree of freedom plots. The methods were applied to the ATF2 beam line at KEK, where one of the major goals is the reduction of the beam offset jitter. Results of this localisation are shown in this paper. A big advantage of the presented method is its high robustness especially to varying optics parameters. Therefore, we believe that the developed beam offset jitter localisation methods can be easily applied to other accelerators.

  6. Engineering high reliability, low-jitter Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.X.; Lockwood, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Multimodule pulsed power accelerators typically require high module reliability and nanosecond regime simultaneity between modules. Energy storage using bipolar Marx generators can meet these requirements. Experience gained from computer simulations and the development of the DEMON II Marx generator has led to a fundamental understanding of the operation of these multistage devices. As a result of this research, significant improvements in erection time jitter and reliability have been realized in multistage, bipolar Marx generators. Erection time jitter has been measured as low as 2.5 nanoseconds for the 3.2MV, 16-stage PBFA I Marx and 3.5 nanoseconds for the 6.0MV, 30-stage PBFA II (DEMON II) Marx, while maintaining exceptionally low prefire rates. Performance data are presented from the DEMON II Marx research program, as well as discussions on the use of computer simulations in designing low-jitter Marx generators

  7. Diagnosing high-reliability, low-jitter Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Schneider, L.X.; Neyer, B.T.; Ruggles, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    We have made photonic measurements to assess the performance of a bipolar Marx generator. Measurements of the switch-closing sequence were made with a high-speed multichannel data recorder using fiber optics to monitor the light produced by each switch closure. Experience gained during this research coupled with computer simulations has led to a fundamental understanding of the operation of these multistage devices. As a result of this research, significant improvement in erection time jitter has been realized. Erection time jitter has been measured as low as 2.6 ns for a 3.2-MV, 16-stage PBFA-I Marx generator. Photonic data are presented from this research program, along with a discussion on the use of computer simulations and photonic measurements in designing low-jitter Marx generators

  8. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the health effects of lead in drinking water The law mandates no-lead products for drinking water after ... Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement ...

  9. Correcting spacecraft jitter in HiRISE images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S. S.; Boyd, A.K.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Cook, Debbie; Backer, Jean; Fennema, A.; Heyd, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Mirchandani, S.D.; Wu, B.; Di, K.; Oberst, J.; Karachevtseva, I.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations or vibrations on spacecraft, also called pointing jitter, cause geometric distortions and/or smear in high resolution digital images acquired from orbit. Geometric distortion is especially a problem with pushbroom type sensors, such as the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Geometric distortions occur at a range of frequencies that may not be obvious in the image products, but can cause problems with stereo image correlation in the production of digital elevation models, and in measuring surface changes over time in orthorectified images. The HiRISE focal plane comprises a staggered array of fourteen charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with pixel IFOV of 1 microradian. The high spatial resolution of HiRISE makes it both sensitive to, and an excellent recorder of jitter. We present an algorithm using Fourier analysis to resolve the jitter function for a HiRISE image that is then used to update instrument pointing information to remove geometric distortions from the image. Implementation of the jitter analysis and image correction is performed on selected HiRISE images. Resulting corrected images and updated pointing information are made available to the public. Results show marked reduction of geometric distortions. This work has applications to similar cameras operating now, and to the design of future instruments (such as the Europa Imaging System).

  10. ADC Clock Jitter Requirements for Software Radio Receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    The effective number of bits of an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is limited not only by the quantisation step inaccuracy, but also by sampling time uncertainty. According to a commonly used model, timing jitter errors should not introduce a sampling error bigger than 1 quantisation level for

  11. Jitter requirements of the sampling clock in software radio receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    The effective number of bits of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is not only limited by the quantization step inaccuracy but also by sampling time uncertainty. According to a commonly used model, the error caused by timing jitter, integrated over the whole bandwidth, should not be bigger than

  12. On the jitter of mode-locked pulses introduced by an optical fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, R.F.X.A.M.; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.; Ernst, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements on the jitter of mode-locked pulses of a Nd:YLF laser after travelling through an optical fibre are presented. For low powers self phase modulation occurs which leaves the jitter unaltered. For powers higher than the threshold of stimulated Raman scattering the jitter increases due to

  13. Experimental investigation of relative timing jitter in passively synchronized Q-switched lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2011-01-01

    , but not exactly, matching. When the free-running repetition rates are matched, the jitter is significantly large. At the best operating point, the pulse-to-pulse period was 200 μs, while the relative jitter between the two lasers was 9 ns. If the effect of the master laser's pulse-to-pulse jitter is removed...

  14. Study jitter amplification of a passive channel and investigation of S21 magnitude extraction methodologies using a pattern generator and oscilloscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyun

    Recently the clock channel jitter amplification has been observed in several publications. Currently in many high-speed I/O systems, to avoid the cost and the complex clock recovery circuit design, people use traces forwarding clock signal from transmitting IC to receiving IC. When these clock traces are long enough, the amount of attenuation will induce not only inter-symbol-interference (ISI) but also modulate with the input jitter. Eventually it will lead some type of jitter been amplified after the channel. Similarly, the high speed communication channel (data channel) will also face this issue. Since there are no studies on the jitter amplification in a data channel, it will be studied in this section. This part of study includes verifying and confirming this phenomenon in a clock channel. In addition, a more generalized periodic jitter amplification equation has been developed. Then, it compared different types of jitter amplification after lossy channels using different data patterns as sources. A set of numerical algorithms for monitor jitter amplification has been developed using Matlab code. The second part of the thesis is to investigate S 21 magnitude extraction methods using an oscilloscope and pattern generator. S-parameter measurements of a digital link path are measured with VNAs or high-end TDRs. For multi-port in-situ measurements, these become inconvenient and time consuming. However, it can be handled more conveniently in the time domain (TD) by using a pattern generator and a multi-channel sampling oscilloscope, which are used for eye-diagram measurements. This part of work outlines and compares three methods to extract S21 magnitude from the time domain measurements using a pattern generator and a sampling oscilloscope for any channel. The setup differs in terms of the input waveform and the processing. The comparison provides insight into the advantages and limitations of each method.

  15. Restoring EU competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, M.; Muent, G.; Revoltella, D.; Bending, T.; Calthrop, E.; Dunnett, G.; Piovesan, L.; Scatasta, M.; Stölting, S.; Välila, T.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of the digital revolution in the 1990s, productivity growth in the EU began to slip behind that in the US and other leading trading partners. This trend has undermined the comparative ability of European firms to compete and to provide rewarding jobs and a high standard of living. Low comparative productivity and misallocation of investment, alongside many structural weaknesses, help explain why the global crisis hit Europe so hard, and why EU-wide recovery still presents such...

  16. High reliability low jitter 80 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott

    2009-01-01

    Switching can be considered to be the essence of pulsed power. Time accurate switch/trigger systems with low inductance are useful in many applications. This article describes a unique switch geometry coupled with a low-inductance capacitive energy store. The system provides a fast-rising high voltage pulse into a low impedance load. It can be challenging to generate high voltage (more than 50 kilovolts) into impedances less than 10 (Omega), from a low voltage control signal with a fast rise time and high temporal accuracy. The required power amplification is large, and is usually accomplished with multiple stages. The multiple stages can adversely affect the temporal accuracy and the reliability of the system. In the present application, a highly reliable and low jitter trigger generator was required for the Z pulsed-power facility [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats,J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K.W. Struve, W.A. Stygar, L.K. Warne, and J. R. Woodworth, 2007 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2007), p. 979]. The large investment in each Z experiment demands low prefire probability and low jitter simultaneously. The system described here is based on a 100 kV DC-charged high-pressure spark gap, triggered with an ultraviolet laser. The system uses a single optical path for simultaneously triggering two parallel switches, allowing lower inductance and electrode erosion with a simple optical system. Performance of the system includes 6 ns output rise time into 5.6 (Omega), 550 ps one-sigma jitter measured from the 5 V trigger to the high voltage output, and misfire probability less than 10 -4 . The design of the system and some key measurements will be shown in the paper. We will discuss the design goals related to high reliability and low jitter. While

  17. Longitudinal Jitter Analysis of a Linear Accelerator Electron Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MingShan Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements and analysis of the longitudinal timing jitter of a Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII linear accelerator electron gun. We simulated the longitudinal jitter effect of the gun using PARMELA to evaluate beam performance, including: beam profile, average energy, energy spread, and XY emittances. The maximum percentage difference of the beam parameters is calculated to be 100%, 13.27%, 42.24% and 65.01%, 86.81%, respectively. Due to this, the bunching efficiency is reduced to 54%. However, the longitudinal phase difference of the reference particle was 9.89°. The simulation results are in agreement with tests and are helpful to optimize the beam parameters by tuning the trigger timing of the gun during the bunching process.

  18. REGULAR PATTERN MINING (WITH JITTER ON WEIGHTED-DIRECTED DYNAMIC GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GUPTA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Real world graphs are mostly dynamic in nature, exhibiting time-varying behaviour in structure of the graph, weight on the edges and direction of the edges. Mining regular patterns in the occurrence of edge parameters gives an insight into the consumer trends over time in ecommerce co-purchasing networks. But such patterns need not necessarily be precise as in the case when some product goes out of stock or a group of customers becomes unavailable for a short period of time. Ignoring them may lead to loss of useful information and thus taking jitter into account becomes vital. To the best of our knowledge, no work has been yet reported to extract regular patterns considering a jitter of length greater than unity. In this article, we propose a novel method to find quasi regular patterns on weight and direction sequences of such graphs. The method involves analysing the dynamic network considering the inconsistencies in the occurrence of edges. It utilizes the relation between the occurrence sequence and the corresponding weight and direction sequences to speed up this process. Further, these patterns are used to determine the most central nodes (such as the most profit yielding products. To accomplish this we introduce the concept of dynamic closeness centrality and dynamic betweenness centrality. Experiments on Enron e-mail dataset and a synthetic dynamic network show that the presented approach is efficient, so it can be used to find patterns in large scale networks consisting of many timestamps.

  19. Explaining the morphology of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A with the jittering jets explosion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    We find that the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A shares some morphological features with four supernova remnants (SNRs) that have signatures of shaping by jets, and from that we strengthen the claim that jets played a crucial role in the explosion of SN 1987A. Some of the morphological features appear also in planetary nebulae (PNe) where jets are observed. The clumpy ejecta bring us to support the claim that the jittering jets explosion mechanism can account for the structure of the remnant of SN 1987A, i.e., SNR 1987A. We conduct a preliminary attempt to quantify the fluctuations in the angular momentum of the mass that is accreted on to the newly born neutron star via an accretion disk or belt. The accretion disk/belt launches the jets that explode core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The relaxation time of the accretion disk/belt is comparable to the duration of a typical jet-launching episode in the jittering jets explosion mechanism, and hence the disk/belt has no time to relax. We suggest that this might explain two unequal opposite jets that later lead to unequal sides of the elongated structures in some SNRs of CCSNe. We reiterate our earlier call for a paradigm shift from neutrino-driven explosion to a jet-driven explosion of CCSNe.

  20. Environmental liability and nature protection areas Will the EU Environmental Liability Directive actually lead to the restoration of damaged natural resources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.M. van den

    2009-01-01

    The EU Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) requires remedial measures when environmental damage to protected species and natural habitats occurs. Thus, the ELD offers a minimum level of protection to natural resources in its Article 2. In order to finance the restoration of environmental damage

  1. Designing and commissioning of a setup for timing-jitter measurements using electro-optic temporal decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borissenko, Dennis

    2016-12-15

    Precise measurements of the arrival time jitter between the ionization laser, used to create the plasma, and the driver beam in the PWFA setup of the FLASHForward project are of high interest for the operation and optimization of the experiment. In this thesis, an electro-optic temporal decoding (EOTD) setup with near crossed polarizer detection scheme is presented, which can measure the timing-jitter to an accuracy of around 30 fs. This result was obtained during several measurements conducted at the coherent transition radiation beamline CTR141 at FLASH, using a 100 μm thick GaP crystal and coherent diffraction/transition radiation, generated from the FLASH1 electron bunches. Measurements were performed during long and short electron bunch operation at FLASH, showing that best results are obtained with CDR from long electron bunches. Utilizing CTR led to a higher EO signal and ''over-compensation'' of the SHG background level during the measurement, which resulted in a double-peak structure of the observed THz pulses. To resolve the single-cycle nature of these THz pulses, the SHG background had to be adjusted properly. Furthermore, EOTD measurements during a short bunch operation run at FLASH exhibited strong oscillations in the EO signal, which were suspected to come either from internal lattice resonances of the EO crystal or internal reflections, or excitation of water vapor in the humid air in the laboratory. The oscillations spoiled the observed EOTD trace leading to no sensible measurements of the arrival time jitter during this short bunch operation. To evaluate the capabilities of the setup for monitoring the timing jitter of short PWFA accelerated electron bunches or very short driver bunches at FLASHForward, further investigations on the observed oscillations in the EOTD traces have to be performed during short bunch operation at FLASH with different crystals and under vacuum conditions, to understand the oscillations of the EO

  2. Designing and commissioning of a setup for timing-jitter measurements using electro-optic temporal decoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borissenko, Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Precise measurements of the arrival time jitter between the ionization laser, used to create the plasma, and the driver beam in the PWFA setup of the FLASHForward project are of high interest for the operation and optimization of the experiment. In this thesis, an electro-optic temporal decoding (EOTD) setup with near crossed polarizer detection scheme is presented, which can measure the timing-jitter to an accuracy of around 30 fs. This result was obtained during several measurements conducted at the coherent transition radiation beamline CTR141 at FLASH, using a 100 μm thick GaP crystal and coherent diffraction/transition radiation, generated from the FLASH1 electron bunches. Measurements were performed during long and short electron bunch operation at FLASH, showing that best results are obtained with CDR from long electron bunches. Utilizing CTR led to a higher EO signal and ''over-compensation'' of the SHG background level during the measurement, which resulted in a double-peak structure of the observed THz pulses. To resolve the single-cycle nature of these THz pulses, the SHG background had to be adjusted properly. Furthermore, EOTD measurements during a short bunch operation run at FLASH exhibited strong oscillations in the EO signal, which were suspected to come either from internal lattice resonances of the EO crystal or internal reflections, or excitation of water vapor in the humid air in the laboratory. The oscillations spoiled the observed EOTD trace leading to no sensible measurements of the arrival time jitter during this short bunch operation. To evaluate the capabilities of the setup for monitoring the timing jitter of short PWFA accelerated electron bunches or very short driver bunches at FLASHForward, further investigations on the observed oscillations in the EOTD traces have to be performed during short bunch operation at FLASH with different crystals and under vacuum conditions, to understand the oscillations of the EO

  3. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  4. Suppression of Time-domain Jitter of Impulse Radio Ultra-wide Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Fu-lai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For Impulse Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR-UWB radar, the time jitter transforms the static clutters to dynamic clutters. Thus, strong residue exists and false alarms form after traditional direct current suppression. The effect of the time-domain jitter on the life detection capacity is analyzed, and then the phenomenon that the relative time delays between the coupling echoes can reflect the time jitter is pointed out. Based on the coupling echo, a method of time jitter suppression is proposed. Experimental data demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively suppress the residue of strong static clutter, and further improve the life-detection capacity.

  5. Essential Technology and Application of Jitter Detection and Compensation for High Resolution Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONG Xiaohua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite jitter is a common and complex phenomenon for the on-orbit high resolution satellites, which may affect the mapping accuracy and quality of imagery. A framework of jitter detection and compensation integrating data processing of multiple sensors is proposed in this paper. Jitter detection is performed based on multispectral imagery, three-line-array imagery, dense ground control and attitude measurement data, and jitter compensation is conducted both on image and on attitude with the sensor model. The platform jitter of ZY-3 satellite is processed and analyzed using the proposed technology, and the results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of jitter detection and compensation. The variation law analysis of jitter indicates that the frequencies of jitter of ZY-3 satellite hold in the range between 0.6 and 0.7 Hz, while the amplitudes of jitter of ZY-3 satellite drop from 1 pixel in the early stage to below 0.4 pixels and tend to remain stable in the following stage.

  6. A Truly Jitter-Free Real-Time Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae; Jiang, Peng

    2008-01-01

    Hardware-Software co-design is a powerful method nowadays for the embedded system development. Reducing time to the market, more accuracy and interactivity with the whole system by the co-design developments are available. The paper considers and investigates a co-design solution applied to a real-time...... kernel (RTK) named HARTEX. The objective was to even more improve the timing performances of the kernel in terms of minimized, constant overhead (jitter free), in an application transparent manner. The co-design solution partitions the kernel between a pure software part, with constant overhead...

  7. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...

  8. Okpara, EU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okpara, EU. Vol 31, No 1 (2014) - Articles Pregnancy Outcome in Cervical Incompetence: Comparison of Outcome Before and After Intervention Abstract. ISSN: 0189-5117. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  9. Output-jitter performance of second-order digital bang-bang phase-locked loops with nonaccumulative reference clock jitter

    OpenAIRE

    Tertinek, Stefan; Feely, Orla

    2011-01-01

    Bang-bang phase-locked loops (BBPLLs) are inherently nonlinear systems due to the binary phase detector (BPD). While they are typically used for clock and data recovery, the ongoing trend toward digital loop implementations has resulted in several digital BBPLLs (DBBPLLs) suitable for frequency synthesis. This brief investigates the effect of nonaccumulative reference clock jitter (due to white phase noise) in second-order DBBPLLs, comparing the output jitter with that of first-order DBBPLLs....

  10. Reduction of Timing Jitter by Clock Recovery based on an Optical Phase-Locked Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the phase noise requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators in a PLL-based clock recovery. Suggestions for reducing the timing jitter are given.......We numerically investigate the phase noise requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators in a PLL-based clock recovery. Suggestions for reducing the timing jitter are given....

  11. Simulations of chopper jitter at the LET neutron spectrometer at the ISIS TS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenø, Kaspar Hewitt; Lefmann, Kim; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2014-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty in chopper phasing (jitter) has been investigated for the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer LET at the ISIS second target station. The investigation is carried out using virtual experiments, with the neutron simulation package McStas, where the chopper jitter i...

  12. An adaptive jitter mechanism for reactive route discovery in sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Juan Antonio; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-08-08

    This paper analyses the impact of jitter when applied to route discovery in reactive (on-demand) routing protocols. In multi-hop non-synchronized wireless networks, jitter--a small, random variation in the timing of message emission--is commonly employed, as a means to avoid collisions of simultaneous transmissions by adjacent routers over the same channel. In a reactive routing protocol for sensor and ad hoc networks, jitter is recommended during the route discovery process, specifically, during the network-wide flooding of route request messages, in order to avoid collisions. Commonly, a simple uniform jitter is recommended. Alas, this is not without drawbacks: when applying uniform jitter to the route discovery process, an effect called delay inversion is observed. This paper, first, studies and quantifies this delay inversion effect. Second, this paper proposes an adaptive jitter mechanism, designed to alleviate the delay inversion effect and thereby to reduce the route discovery overhead and (ultimately) allow the routing protocol to find more optimal paths, as compared to uniform jitter. This paper presents both analytical and simulation studies, showing that the proposed adaptive jitter can effectively decrease the cost of route discovery and increase the path quality.

  13. Environmental liability and nature protection areas
    Will the EU Environmental Liability Directive actually lead to the restoration of damaged natural resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. van den Broek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU Environmental Liability Directive (ELD requires remedial measures when environmental damage to protected species and natural habitats occurs. Thus, the ELD offers a minimum level of protection to natural resources in its Article 2. In order to finance the restoration of environmental damage to natural resources it might be crucial to meet the threshold criteria which can be derived from Article 2 of the ELD. However, the definition of damage in Article 2 of the ELD imposes a high threshold that will not be exceeded in many instances of damage. Furthermore, the availability of measurable data to provide conclusive evidence of damage is an issue. The practical applicability of the ELD will largely depend on the quality and accuracy of the information gathered under the reporting requirements of the EU Habitats and Birds Directives. For the restoration of affected natural resources the application of Paragraphs 1.3.2 and 1.3.3 of Annex II appears to be crucial. The actual restoration of the affected natural resources may be reduced or slowed down enormously by attaching significant importance to the costs of the various remedial options.

  14. Practical security analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with jitter in clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cailang; Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-03-01

    How to narrow the gap of security between theory and practice has been a notoriously urgent problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we analyze and provide experimental evidence of the clock jitter effect on the practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. The clock jitter is a random noise which exists permanently in the clock synchronization in the practical CV-QKD system, it may compromise the system security because of its impact on data sampling and parameters estimation. In particular, the practical security of CV-QKD with different clock jitter against collective attack is analyzed theoretically based on different repetition frequencies, the numerical simulations indicate that the clock jitter has more impact on a high-speed scenario. Furthermore, a simplified experiment is designed to investigate the influence of the clock jitter.

  15. Passive energy jitter reduction in the cascaded third harmonic generation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, L; Du, Y; You, Y; Sun, X; Wang, D; Hua, J; Shi, J; Lu, W; Huang, W; Chen, H; Tang, C; Huang, Z

    2014-01-01

    In free electron laser (FEL) systems with ultraviolet (UV) laser driven injectors, a highly stable UV source generated through cascaded third harmonic generation (THG) from an infrared (IR) source is a key element in guaranteeing the acceptable current jitter at the undulator. In this letter, the negative slope of the THG efficiency for high intensity ultrashort IR pulses is revealed to be a passive stabilization mechanism for energy jitter reduction in UV. A reduction of 2.5 times the energy jitter in UV is demonstrated in the experiment and simulations show that the energy jitter in UV can be reduced by more than one order of magnitude if the energy jitter in IR is less than 3%, with proper design of the THG efficiency curve, fulfilling the challenging requirement for UV laser stability in a broad scope of applications such as the photoinjector of x-ray FELs. (letter)

  16. Moessbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu and 153Eu. Applications to structural chemistry and electronic properties of rare-earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Marc.

    1975-01-01

    The decrease of the 151 Eu isomer shift on hydrogenation of a dilute EuPd alloy (2.5at% Eu) is discussed in term of the volume effect on the charge density at the nucleus. It is shown from 153 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy in rare earth titanates that a vibrational anisotropy lead to the observation of a Goldanskii-Karyagin effect [fr

  17. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis...... of leading literature by Garský; an extensive comparative bibliometric survey building on Manners (2007); and the comparative assessments of EU studies by Jørgensen and Manners based on their professional experiences of EU studies across Europe. The chapter points out controversies on research perspectives......, and suggests new EU research questions that collaborative projects could address....

  18. E-Model MOS Estimate Precision Improvement and Modelling of Jitter Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kovac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ITU-T E-model, which is used for non-intrusive MOS VoIP call quality estimation on IP networks. The pros of E-model are computational simplicity and usability on real-time traffic. The cons, as shown in our previous work, are the inability of E-model to reflect effects of network jitter present on real traffic flows and jitter-buffer behavior on end user devices. These effects are visible mostly on traffic over WAN, internet and radio networks and cause the E-model MOS call quality estimate to be noticeably too optimistic. In this paper, we propose a modification to E-model using previously proposed Pplef (effective packet loss using jitter and jitter-buffer model based on Pareto/D/1/K system. We subsequently perform optimization of newly added parameters reflecting jitter effects into E-model by using PESQ intrusive measurement method as a reference for selected audio codecs. Function fitting and parameter optimization is performed under varying delay, packet loss, jitter and different jitter-buffer sizes for both, correlated and uncorrelated long-tailed network traffic.

  19. Jitter-Robust Orthogonal Hermite Pulses for Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Kohno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of a class of jitter-robust, Hermite polynomial-based, orthogonal pulses for ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR communications systems is presented. A unified and exact closed-form expression of the auto- and cross-correlation functions of Hermite pulses is provided. Under the assumption that jitter values are sufficiently smaller than pulse widths, this formula is used to decompose jitter-shifted pulses over an orthonormal basis of the Hermite space. For any given jitter probability density function (pdf, the decomposition yields an equivalent distribution of N-by-N matrices which simplifies the convolutional jitter channel model onto a multiplicative matrix model. The design of jitter-robust orthogonal pulses is then transformed into a generalized eigendecomposition problem whose solution is obtained with a Jacobi-like simultaneous diagonalization algorithm applied over a subset of samples of the channel matrix distribution. Examples of the waveforms obtained with the proposed design and their improved auto- and cross-correlation functions are given. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the superior performance of a pulse-shape modulated (PSM- UWB-IR system using the proposed pulses, over the same system using conventional orthogonal Hermite pulses, in jitter channels with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN.

  20. Detection of ZY-3 Satellite Platform Jitter Using Multi-spectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Ying

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite platform jitter is one of the factors that affect the quality of high resolution imagery, which can cause image blur and internal distortion. Taking ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 multi-spectral camera as a prototype, this paper proposes a satellite platform jitter detection method by utilizing multi-spectral imagery. First, imaging characteristics of multispectral camera and the main factors affecting band-to-band registration error are introduced. Then the regularity of registration error caused by platform jitter is analyzed by theoretical derivation and simulation. Meanwhile, the platform jitter detection method based on high accuracy dense points matching is presented. Finally, the experiments were conducted by using ZY-3 multi-spectral imagery captured in different time. The result indicates that ZY-3 has a periodic platform jitter about 0.6 Hz in the imaging period of test data, and the jitter amplitude across track is greater than that along track, which causes periodic band-to-band registration error with the same frequency. The result shows the possibility of the improvement in geometric processing accuracy for ZY-3 imagery products and provides an important reference for satellite platform jitter source analysis and satellite platform design optimization.

  1. Latency and Jitter Analysis for IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkwan Youm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis of latency and jitter for IEEE 802.11e wireless local area networks (WLANs in a saturation condition, by using a Markov model. We use this model to explicate how the enhanced distributed coordination function (EDCF differentiates classes of service and to characterize the probability distribution of the medium access control (MAC layer packet latency and jitter, on which the quality of the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP calls is dependent. From the proposed analytic model, we can estimate the available number of nodes determining the system performance, in order to satisfy user demands on the latency and jitter.

  2. Optimum FIR filter for sampled signals in presence of jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Paolo Walter

    1996-02-01

    The requirements of the integrated readout electronics for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders pose new challenges both to hardware design and to the performance of signal processing algorithms. Both aspects have been treated in detail by the FERMI(RD16) collaboration [C. Alippi et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 344 (1994) 180], from which this work has been motivated. The estimation of the amplitude of sampled signals is usually performed with a digital FIR filter, or with a more sophisticated non linear digital filter using FIR filters as building blocks [S.J. Inkinen and J. Niittylahti, Trainable FIR-order statistic hybrid filters, to be published in IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems; H. Alexanian et al., FERMI Collaboration, Optimized digital feature extraction in the FERMI microsystem Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 357 (1995)]. In presence of significant signal phase jitter with respect to the clock, the phase dependence of the filter output can be a major source of error. This is especially true for measurements of large amplitudes for which the effect of electronic noise becomes negligible. This paper reports on the determination of digital FIR filters that optimize the signal over noise ratio due to known jitter distributions for different filter lengths. As the presence of electronic noise is neglected, the results are mainly relevant for measurements of large signals. FERMI is a collaboration with the aim of designing integrated electronics for the read out of calorimeter detectors in particle physics experiments at hadron colliders. It includes: CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; Center for Industrial Microelectronics and Materials Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; LPNHE Universities Paris VI-VII, Paris, France; Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, Sezine INFN, Pavia, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell'Universitá e Sezione

  3. Measuring the jitter of ring oscillators by means of information theory quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; De Micco, L.; Larrondo, H. A.

    2017-02-01

    Ring oscillators (RO's) are elementary blocks widely used in digital design. Jitter is unavoidable in RO's, its presence is an undesired behavior in many applications, as clock generators. On the contrary, jitter may be used as the noise source in RO-based true-random numbers generators (TRNG). Consequently, jitter measure is a relevant issue to characterize a RO, and it is the subject of this paper. The main contribution is the use of Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) as measures of RO's jitter. It is shown that among several ITQ evaluated, two of them emerge as good measures because they are independent of parameters used for their statistical determination. They turned out to be robust and may be implemented experimentally. We encountered that a dual entropy plane allows a visual comparison of results.

  4. Timing and amplitude jitter in a gain-switched multimode semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kenji; Kitagawa, Naoaki; Matsukura, Satoru; Matsuyama, Tetsuya; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-04-01

    The differences in timing jitter between a gain-switched single-mode semiconductor laser and a gain-switched multimode semiconductor laser are examined using rate equations that include Langevin noise. The timing jitter in a gain-switched multimode semiconductor laser is found to be effectively suppressed by a decrease in the coherence time of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) based on a broad bandwidth of multimode oscillation. Instead, fluctuations in the ASE cause amplitude jitter in the pulse components of the respective modes. A pulse train of gain-switched pulses from a multimode semiconductor laser with timing jitter is equivalently simulated by assuming a high spontaneous emission factor and a short coherence time of the ASE in the single-mode semiconductor laser rate equations.

  5. Femtosecond precision measurement of laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Libing; Zhao, Lingrong; Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao, E-mail: dxiang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-03-21

    We report on the measurement of the laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun with femtosecond precision. In this experiment four laser pulses with equal separation are used to produce electron bunch trains; then the laser–rf phase jitter is obtained by measuring the variations of the electron bunch spacing with an rf deflector. Furthermore, we show that when the gun and the deflector are powered by the same rf source, it is possible to obtain the laser–rf phase jitter in the gun through measurement of the beam–rf phase jitter in the deflector. Based on these measurements, we propose an effective time-stamping method that may be applied in MeV ultrafast electron diffraction facilities to enhance the temporal resolution.

  6. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  7. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  8. Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics: G-Jitter Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final report on our NASA grant, Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics NAG3-2513: 12/14/2000 - 11/30/2003, extended through 11/30/2004. This grant was made to Stanford University and then transferred to the University of California at Santa Barbara when the PI relocated there in January 2001. Our main activity has been to conduct both experimental and theoretical studies of instabilities in fluids that are relevant to the microgravity environment, i.e. those that do not involve the action of buoyancy due to a steady gravitational field. Full details of the work accomplished under this grant are given below. Our work has focused on: (i) Theoretical and computational studies of the effect of g-jitter on instabilities of convective states where the convection is driven by forces other than buoyancy (ii) Experimental studies of instabilities during displacements of miscible fluid pairs in tubes, with a focus on the degree to which these mimic those found in immiscible fluids. (iii) Theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of time dependent electrohydrodynamic forces on chaotic advection in drops immersed in a second dielectric liquid. Our objectives are to acquire insight and understanding into microgravity fluid mechanics problems that bear on either fundamental issues or applications in fluid physics. We are interested in the response of fluids to either a fluctuating acceleration environment or to forces other than gravity that cause fluid mixing and convection. We have been active in several general areas.

  9. Og vinderen er ... EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    2012-01-01

    EU modtager i dag Nobels Fredspris. Prisen kan styrke den fortælling, som EU har forsøgt at skabe om sig selv: at Europa, takket være EU, rejste sig efter Anden Verdenskrig og Holocaust......EU modtager i dag Nobels Fredspris. Prisen kan styrke den fortælling, som EU har forsøgt at skabe om sig selv: at Europa, takket være EU, rejste sig efter Anden Verdenskrig og Holocaust...

  10. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  11. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  12. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  13. Two novel applications of bootstrap currents: Snakes and jitter stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagaraja, A.; Haas, F. A.

    1993-09-01

    Both neoclassical theory and certain turbulence theories of particle transport in tokamaks predict the existence of bootstrap (i.e., pressure-driven) currents. Two new applications of this form of noninductive current are considered in this work. In the first, an earlier model of the nonlinearly saturated m=1 tearing mode is extended to include the stabilizing effect of a bootstrap current inside the island. This is used to explain several observed features of the so-called ``snake'' reported in the Joint European Torus (JET) [R. D. Gill, A. W. Edwards, D. Pasini, and A. Weller, Nucl. Fusion 32, 723 (1992)]. The second application involves an alternating current (ac) form of bootstrap current, produced by pressure-gradient fluctuations. It is suggested that a time-dependent (in the plasma frame), radio-frequency (rf) power source can be used to produce localized pressure fluctuations of suitable frequency and amplitude to implement the dynamic stabilization method for suppressing gross modes in tokamaks suggested in a recent paper [A. Thyagaraja, R. D. Hazeltine, and A. Y. Aydemir, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2733 (1992)]. This method works by ``detuning'' the resonant layer by rapid current/shear fluctuations. Estimates made for the power source requirements both for small machines such as COMPASS and for larger machines like JET suggest that the method could be practically feasible. This ``jitter'' (i.e., dynamic) stabilization method could provide a useful form of active instability control to avoid both gross/disruptive and fine-scale/transportive instabilities, which may set severe operating/safety constraints in the reactor regime. The results are also capable, in principle, of throwing considerable light on the local properties of current generation and diffusion in tokamaks, which may be enhanced by turbulence, as has been suggested recently by several researchers.

  14. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  15. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure

  16. Leadership Revised: How Did the Ukraine Crisis and the Annexation of Crimea Affirm Germany’s Leading Role in EU Foreign Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeth Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent string of existential crises in Europe - the Euro crisis, Russia’s aggression in Ukraine and the refugee crisis of 2015 - have resulted in new dynamics within the European Union. In Brussels, Germany has emerged as the hardly contested nexus of decision making. It was in particular through the Ukraine crisis and the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014 that Germany found itself assuming a leadership role also in the EU’s foreign policy, a role it has shunned in the past. However, for Berlin this new role is far from obvious - it is only gradually that Germany grew comfortable with its enhanced role, which is due more to external circumstances than by its own design. Conscious of its own image abroad and, due to the still prevalent feeling of historical guilt, the fear of being perceived as a dominating power has so far prevented Germany from occupying the forefront of the stage, preferring to pulling strings from behind and presenting itself as the EU’s “Chief Facilitation Officer”. This article analyses how Germany, in particular through the Ukraine crisis starting in 2014, affirmed itself - albeit reluctantly - as a nexus of decision making in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and became the de facto leading nation for defining the EU’s response towards Russia. The article points out the internal and external consequences of this new role and, in particular, its impact on the Baltic States.

  17. Radial Velocities of Subgiant Stars and New Astrophysical Insights into RV Jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhn, Jacob; Bastien, Fabienne; Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, the California Planet Search (CPS) has simultaneously monitored precise radial velocities and chromospheric activity levels of stars from Keck observatory to search for exoplanets. This sample provides a useful set of stars to better determine the dependence of RV jitter on flicker (which traces surface gravity) first shown in Bastien et al. (2014). We expand upon this initial work by examining a much larger sample of stars covering a much wider range of stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and activity, among others). For more than 600 stars, there are enough RV measurements to distinguish this astrophysical jitter from accelerations due to orbital companions. To properly isolate RV jitter from these effects, we must first remove the RV signal due to these companions, including several previously unannounced giant planets around subgiant stars. We highlight some new results from our analysis of the CPS data. A more thorough understanding of the various sources of RV jitter and the underlying stellar phenomena that drive these intrinsic RV variations will enable more precise jitter estimates for RV follow-up targets such as those from K2 or the upcoming TESS mission.

  18. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This chapter sets out what role the European Union (EU) could and should play in changing world politics, with an emphasis on the concept of 'normative power'. To do this, the chapter addresses five interrelated questions regarding the normative power and external politics of the EU in any new...... global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...

  19. Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.

    2001-12-01

    General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS extensions add real-time scheduling capabilities to non-real-time OSes, and provide minimal services needed for the time-critical portions of an application. Examples include RTAI and RTL for Linux, and HyperKernel, OnTime and RTX for Windows NT. Timing jitter is an issue in these systems, due to hardware effects such as bus locking, caches and pipelines, and software effects from mutual exclusion resource locks, non-preemtible critical sections, disabled interrupts, and multiple code paths in the scheduler. Jitter is typically on the order of a microsecond to a few tens of microseconds for hard real-time operating systems, and ranges from milliseconds to seconds in the worst case for soft real-time operating systems. The question of its significance on the performance of a controller arises. Naturally, the smaller the scheduling period required for a control task, the more significant is the impact of timing jitter. Aside from this intuitive relationship is the greater significance of timing on open-loop control, such as for stepper motors, than for closed-loop control, such as for servo motors. Techniques for measuring timing jitter are discussed, and comparisons between various platforms are presented. Techniques to reduce jitter or mitigate its effects are presented. The impact of jitter on stepper motor control is analyzed.

  20. Pulse-to-pulse jitter measurement by photon correlation in high-β lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, Armand; Abram, Izo; Belabas, Nadia; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Beveratos, Alexios; Braive, Rémy; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Nam, Sae Woo; Gerrits, Thomas; Stevens, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The turn-on delay jitter in pulsed lasers in which a large fraction (β) of spontaneous emission is channeled into the lasing mode is measured by use of a photon correlation technique. This jitter is found to significantly increase with β, reaching values of the order of the pulse width at threshold. This is due to the increase in the relative value of the discretization noise when the number of photons at threshold becomes small, as is the case in high-β lasers

  1. Novel design of low-jitter 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared.......Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared....

  2. Removal of jitter noise in 3D shape recovery from image focus by using Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hoon-Seok; Muhammad, Mannan Saeed; Choi, Tae-Sun

    2018-02-01

    In regard to Shape from Focus, one critical factor impacting system application is mechanical vibration of the translational stage causing jitter noise along the optical axis. This noise is not detectable by simply observing the image. However, when focus measures are applied, inaccuracies in the depth occur. In this article, jitter noise and focus curves are modeled by Gaussian distribution and quadratic function, respectively. Then Kalman filter is designed and applied to eliminate this noise in the focus curves, as a post-processing step after the focus measure application. Experiments are implemented with simulated objects and real objects to show usefulness of proposed algorithm. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Jitter reduction by intracavity active phase modulation in a mode-locked semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozharar, Sarper; Ozdur, Ibrahim; Quinlan, Franklyn; Delfyett, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally verify the theory of Haus et al. [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 41 (2004)] on the effects of timing jitter using intracavity phase modulation on the pulse train of a mode-locked laser. The theory is based on the solution of the Heisenberg-Langevin equation in the presence of dispersion and intracavity phase modulation. Using active intracavity phase modulation, we have reduced the timing jitter on a 10.24 GHz mode-locked diode laser by 50% from 304 to 150 fs integrated from 1 Hz to the Nyquist frequency of 5.12 GHz.

  4. Lithuanians lead way to the EU

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedus toimunud euroreferendumil hääletas 91% osalenutest EL-iga liitumise poolt. Eesti ja Läti EL-i pooldajate hinnangul avaldab see positiivset mõju referendumi tulemustele ka teistes Balti riikides

  5. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  6. Impact of ionospheric scintillation on GNSS receiver tracking performance over Latin America: Introducing the concept of tracking jitter variance maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Elmas, Z. G.

    2011-10-01

    Scintillations are rapid fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of transionospheric radio signals caused by small-scale ionospheric plasma density irregularities. In the case of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, scintillations can cause cycle slips, degrade the positioning accuracy and when severe enough can even lead to complete loss of signal lock. This study presents for the first time an assessment of GNSS receiver signal tracking performance under scintillating conditions, by the analysis of receiver phase lock loop (PLL) jitter variance maps. These maps can potentially assist users when faced with such conditions; a potential application envisaged for these maps would be in the form of a tool to provide users with information about "current (or expected, if some sort of prediction can be developed in follow on research) tracking conditions" under scintillation; another possibility would be to use the technique described by Aquino et al. (2009) to mitigate against the effects of ionospheric scintillation. In this paper these maps were constructed for scintillation events that were observed in the field during 9-11 March 2011 over Presidente Prudente (22.1°S, 51.4°W, dip latitude ˜12.3°S) in Brazil, a location close to the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in Latin America. Results show that the jitter variances estimated for all the simultaneously observed satellite-to-receiver links during the premidnight hours on 9 and 11 March 2011 increase during the enhanced scintillation levels, indicating the likelihood for cycle slips, loss of signal lock, and degraded accuracy in the observations.

  7. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    In this article I study the long-term evolution of the main categories of expenditure of the European Union (EU) budget (1984-2011). The aim is to assess the extent to which the EU is affected by a structural form of policy inertia, and to investigate the general pattern of policy stability...... and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...

  8. A Low-jitter 2.5-to-10 GHz Clock Multiplier Unit in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, R.C.H.; Vaucher, C.S.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2003-01-01

    Abstract— This paper demonstrates a low-jitter clock multiplier unit [1] that generates a 10 GHz output clock from a 2.5 GHz reference clock. An integrated 10 GHz LCoscillator is locked to the input clock, using a simple and fast phase detector circuit. This phase detector overcomes the speed

  9. Low-jitter and high-power 40 GHz all-active mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2004-01-01

    A novel design strategy for the epitaxial structure of monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers is presented. Using an all-active design, we fabricate 40-GHz lasers generating 2.8-ps almost chirp-free pulses with record low high-frequency jitter and more than 7-mW fiber coupled output power....

  10. Comparing DLLs and Shift Registers for Low-Jitter Multi-phase Clock Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we compare a Shift Register (SR) to a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) for Multi Phase Clock Generation (MPCG), and motivate why a SR is often better. For a given power budget, we show that a SR generates less jitter than a DLL when both are realized with Current Mode Logic (CML) circuits and

  11. Optimized Stage Ratio of Tapered CMOS Inverters for Minimum Power and Mismatch Jitter Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, R.; Bhattacharyya, T.K.; Gao, X.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an optimum stage ratio (tapering factor) for a tapered CMOS inverter chain is derived to minimize the product of power dissipation and jitter variance due to device mismatch. Analysis shows that this optimum stage ratio (2.4) is lower than that of minimum delay (3.6) and minimum

  12. Low-Jitter Clock Multiplication: a Comparison between PLLs and DLLs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, R.C.H.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Vaucher, Cicero S.; Nauta, Bram

    This paper shows that, for a given power budget, a practical phase-locked loop (PLL)-based clock multiplier generates less jitter than a delay-locked loop (DLL) equivalent. This is due to the fact that the delay cells in a PLL ring-oscillator can consume more power per cell than their counterparts

  13. Developing Tools for Studying Musical Gestures within the Max/MSP/Jitter Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jensenius, Alexander Refsum; Godøy, Rolf Inge; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the Musical Gestures Toolbox, a collection of Max/MSP/Jitter modules to help in qualitative and quantitative analysis of musical gestures. Examples are shown of how the toolbox is used for studying musical mimicry, such as ''air piano'' performance, and expressive gestures of musicians.

  14. Low-Jitter Multi-phase Clock Generation: A Comparison between DLLs and Shift Registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—This paper shows that, for a given power budget, a shift register based multi-phase clock generator (MPCG) generates less jitter than a delay-locked loop (DLL) equivalent when both are realized with current mode logic (CML) circuits and white noise is assumed. This is due to the factor that

  15. A Phase-Locked Loop with 30% Jitter Reduction Using Separate Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Je Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A phase-locked loop (PLL using separate regulators to reject the supply noise is proposed in this paper. Two regulators, REG1 and REG2, are used to prevent the supply noise from the charge pump (CP and the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO, respectively. By using separate regulators, the area and the power consumption of the regulator can be reduced. Moreover, the jitter of the proposed PLL is proven on silicon to be less sensitive to the supply noise. The proposed PLL is fabricated using a typical 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. The peak-to-peak jitter (P2P jitter of the proposed PLL is measured to be 81.8 ps at 80 MHz when a 250 mVrms supply noise is added. By contrast, the P2P jitter is measured to be 118.2 ps without the two regulators when the same supply noise is coupled.

  16. Rethinking EU Citizenship: Towards the Postmodern Ethics of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja IVIC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of EU citizenship reflects EU politics of (fixed identity, which guarantees rights only to the homogenous groups (and individuals as representatives of these groups. Hence, it leaves room for marginalizing, othering, excluding and other forms of discrimination, by creating binary oppositions: we/they, citizen/alien, EU/non-EU and so forth. EU citizenship is based on the modernist ethics of priority of right over the good. It is created to promote European idea, so it has only instrumental value. On the other hand, the politics of affinity leads to the substantive EU citizenship founded on multiple identities. The politics of affinity requires a new ethics which will lead to transformation of the main concepts of EU legal discourse.

  17. Photodetection-induced relative timing jitter in synchronized time-lens source for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized time-lens source is a novel method to generate synchronized optical pulses to mode-locked lasers, and has found widespread applications in coherent Raman scattering microscopy. Relative timing jitter between the mode-locked laser and the synchronized time-lens source is a key parameter for evaluating the synchronization performance of such synchronized laser systems. However, the origins of the relative timing jitter in such systems are not fully determined, which in turn prevents the experimental efforts to optimize the synchronization performance. Here, we demonstrate, through theoretical modeling and numerical simulation, that the photodetection could be one physical origin of the relative timing jitter. Comparison with relative timing jitter due to the intrinsic timing jitter of the mode-locked laser is also demonstrated, revealing different qualitative and quantitative behaviors. Based on the nature of this photodetection-induced timing jitter, we further propose several strategies to reduce the relative timing jitter. Our theoretical results will provide guidelines for optimizing synchronization performance in experiments.

  18. Microphone triggering circuit for elimination of mechanically induced frequency-jitter in diode laser spectrometers: implications for quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, R L; Fried, A

    1987-09-01

    An electronic timing circuit using a microphone triggering device has been developed for elimination of mechanically induced frequency-jitter in diode laser spectrometers employing closed-cycle refrigerators. Mechanical compressor piston shocks are detected by the microphone and actuate an electronic circuit which ultimately interrupts data acquisition until the mechanical vibrations are completely quenched. In this way, laser sweeps contaminated by compressor frequency-jitter are not co-averaged. Employing this circuit, measured linewidths were in better agreement with that calculated. The importance of eliminating this mechanically induced frequency-jitter when carrying out quantitative diode laser measurements is further discussed.

  19. Byg EU om

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Der argumenteres for en række påstande vedrørende en mulig ombygning af EU med henblik på at håndtere den krise, som unionen står i. Grundlæggende for dem alle er, at enten ombygges EU på disse områder, eller også smuldrer samarbejdet. Et internationalt samarbejde som EU kollapser ikke; det mister...

  20. A low jitter supply regulated charge pump PLL with self-calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Min; Li Zhichao; Xiao Jingbo; Chen Jie; Liu Yuntao

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a ring oscillator based low jitter charge pump PLL with supply regulation and digital calibration. In order to combat power supply noise, a low drop output voltage regulator is implemented. The VCO gain is tunable by using the 4 bit control self-calibration technique. So that the optimal VCO gain is automatically selected and the process/temperature variation is compensated. Fabricated in the 0.13 μm CMOS process, the PLL achieves a frequency range of 100–400 MHz and occupies a 190 × 200 μm 2 area. The measured RMS jitter is 5.36 ps at a 400 MHz operating frequency. (paper)

  1. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    to food, the right heat, the right to have a job"; we still live with this division today. There have been a number of attempts over the last 10-15 years, who have tried to work around these problems. One of them is a movement within the UN are trying to reinterpret what it means to have 'development...... point for reaction against the liberalization of the global economy. It is extremely interesting. Again this demonstrates the complexity of EU policy. Some Member States were quite supportive of the WTO, while others expected the ILO to take the lead. See, for example, the declaration on "Core Labour...... is this contradiction "free and fair trade" in the same sentence becomes, in an attempt both economically and politically to get it to make sense within the EU. Ian Manners is a professor and works at Roskilde University, the Institute for society and globalization. His research is globalization and Europeanisation...

  2. EU focus on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Faced with the mounting evidence of the harmful effects of climate change, the European Union is convinced that the world must take urgent action to tackle the problem. That is why the EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to deal with climate change for well over a decade. The EU is convinced that the status quo is simply not an option. Without urgent, concerted action, the problem will continue to get worse with potentially disastrous consequences. That is why the European Union has consistently taken the lead in international moves to tackle climate change and why it will continue to develop this strategy for as long as it takes to guarantee a world for ourselves and our children where everyone can grow, breathe and live in safety

  3. Experiments on laser beam jitter control with applications to a shipboard free electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Brett E.

    2007-01-01

    A Free Electron Laser (FEL) shows potential as an effective defensive weapon for a naval ship against today's modern weapons such as supersonic anti-ship missiles. A laser can destroy these fast and highly maneuverable missiles at the speed of light. Several obstacles must be overcome to employ this weapon on a naval ship. This thesis discusses several methods for passive and active jitter control of a guided optical beam which might be employed in a FEL weapon system. Vibration experime...

  4. Pulse synchronization system for picosecond pulse-pumped OPCPA with femtosecond-level relative timing jitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batysta, František; Antipenkov, Roman; Green, Jonathan T; Naylon, Jack A; Novák, Jakub; Mazanec, Tomáš; Hříbek, Petr; Zervos, Charalampos; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2014-12-01

    A simple and compact scheme for synchronization of the pump and signal pulses for short-pulse OPCPA is demonstrated. Relative timing jitter of 17 fs RMS is achieved (1% of the pump pulse duration) and the system remains locked for hours. The scheme uses a balanced optical cross correlator to detect relative delays between the pump and signal pulses and can be operated with just 10's of μJ of pump energy and pJ-level signal energies.

  5. Influence of G-jitter on the characteristics of a non-premixed flame: Experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulain, Pierre; Cordeiro, Pierre; Rouvreau, Sébastien; Legros, Guillaume; Fuentes, Andres; Torero, José L.

    2005-03-01

    The combustion of a flat plate in a boundary layer under microgravity conditions, which was first described by Emmons, is studied using a gas burner. Magnitude of injection and blowing velocities are chosen to be characteristic of pyrolyzing velocity of solid fuels, and of ventilation systems in space stations. These velocities are about 0.1 m/s for oxidiser flow and 0.004m/s for fuel flow. In this configuration, flame layout results from a coupled interaction between oxidiser flow, fuel flow and thermal expansion. Influences of these parameters are studied experimentally by means of flame length and standoff distance measurements using CH* chemiluminescence's and visible emission of the flame. Flow was also studied with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Inert flows, with and without injection, and reacting flow in a microgravity environment were considered to distinguish aerodynamic from thermal effect. Thermal expansion effects have been shown by means of the acceleration of oxidiser flow. Three-dimensional effects, which are strongly marked for high injection velocities were studied. Three-dimensional tools adaptability to parabolic flights particular conditions were of concern. Flame sensitivity to g-jitters was investigated according to g-jitters frequency and range involved by parabolic flights. It appears that flame location (standoff distance), flame characteristics (length, thickness, brightness) and the aerodynamic field of the low velocity reacting flow are very much affected by the fluctuation of the gravity level or g-jitter. The lower the g-jitter frequency is, the higher the perturbation. Consequently it is difficult to perform relevant experiments for a main flow velocity lower than 0.05m/s. DNS calculations confirm the present observations, but most of the results are presented elsewhere.

  6. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  7. Improving SCTP Performance by Jitter-Based Congestion Control over Wired-Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jyh-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances of wireless communication technologies, wireless networks gradually become the most adopted communication networks in the new generation Internet. Computing devices and mobile devices may be equipped with multiple wired and/or wireless network interfaces. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP has been proposed for reliable data transport and its multihoming feature makes use of network interfaces effectively to improve performance and reliability. However, like TCP, SCTP suffers unnecessary performance degradation over wired-wireless heterogeneous networks. The main reason is that the original congestion control scheme of SCTP cannot differentiate loss events so that SCTP reduces the congestion window inappropriately. In order to solve this problem and improve performance, we propose a jitter-based congestion control scheme with end-to-end semantics over wired-wireless networks. Besides, we solved ineffective jitter ratio problem which may cause original jitter-based congestion control scheme to misjudge congestion loss as wireless loss. Available bandwidth estimation scheme will be integrated into our congestion control mechanism to make the bottleneck more stabilized. Simulation experiments reveal that our scheme (JSCTP gives prominence to improve performance effectively over wired-wireless networks.

  8. Influence of incident light wavelength on time jitter of fast photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszynski, M.; Vacher, J.

    1977-01-01

    The study of the single photoelectron time resolution as a function of the wavelength of the incident light was performed for a 56 CVP photomultiplier having an S-1 photocathode. The light flash from the XP22 light emitting diode generator was passed through passband filters and illuminated the 5 mm diameter central part of the photocathode. A significant increase of the time resolution above 30% was observed when the wavelength of the incident light was changed from 790 nm to 580 nm. This gives experimental evidence that the time jitter resulting from the spread of the initial velocity of photoelectrons is proportional to the square root of the maximal initial energy of photoelectrons. Based on this conclusion the measured time jitter of C31024, RCA8850 and XP2020 photomultipliers with the use of the XP22 light emitting diode at 560 nm light wavelength was recalculated to estimate the time jitter at 400 nm near the maximum of the photocathode sensitivity. It shows an almost twice larger time spread at 400 nm for the C31024 and RCA8850 with a high gain first dynode and an about 1.5 times larger time spread for the XP2020 photomultiplier, than those measured at 560 nm. (Auth.)

  9. Sub-nanosecond jitter, repetitive impulse generators for high reliability applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Sarjeant, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Low jitter, high reliability impulse generator development has recently become of ever increasing importance for developing nuclear physics and weapons applications. The research and development of very low jitter (< 30 ps), multikilovolt generators for high reliability, minimum maintenance trigger applications utilizing a new class of high-pressure tetrode thyratrons now commercially available are described. The overall system design philosophy is described followed by a detailed analysis of the subsystem component elements. A multi-variable experimental analysis of this new tetrode thyratron was undertaken, in a low-inductance configuration, as a function of externally available parameters. For specific thyratron trigger conditions, rise times of 18 ns into 6.0-Ω loads were achieved at jitters as low as 24 ps. Using this database, an integrated trigger generator system with solid-state front-end is described in some detail. The generator was developed to serve as the Master Trigger Generator for a large neutrino detector installation at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

  10. Dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock: theoretical anti-jitter network and controlled chaos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M Fathallah-Shaykh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electronic clocks exhibit undesirable jitter or time variations in periodic signals. The circadian clocks of humans, some animals, and plants consist of oscillating molecular networks with peak-to-peak time of approximately 24 hours. Clockwork orange (CWO is a transcriptional repressor of Drosophila direct target genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Theory and data from a model of the Drosophila circadian clock support the idea that CWO controls anti-jitter negative circuits that stabilize peak-to-peak time in light-dark cycles (LD. The orbit is confined to chaotic attractors in both LD and dark cycles and is almost periodic in LD; furthermore, CWO diminishes the Euclidean dimension of the chaotic attractor in LD. Light resets the clock each day by restricting each molecular peak to the proximity of a prescribed time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The theoretical results suggest that chaos plays a central role in the dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock and that a single molecule, CWO, may sense jitter and repress it by its negative loops.

  11. Dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock: theoretical anti-jitter network and controlled chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan M

    2010-10-13

    Electronic clocks exhibit undesirable jitter or time variations in periodic signals. The circadian clocks of humans, some animals, and plants consist of oscillating molecular networks with peak-to-peak time of approximately 24 hours. Clockwork orange (CWO) is a transcriptional repressor of Drosophila direct target genes. Theory and data from a model of the Drosophila circadian clock support the idea that CWO controls anti-jitter negative circuits that stabilize peak-to-peak time in light-dark cycles (LD). The orbit is confined to chaotic attractors in both LD and dark cycles and is almost periodic in LD; furthermore, CWO diminishes the Euclidean dimension of the chaotic attractor in LD. Light resets the clock each day by restricting each molecular peak to the proximity of a prescribed time. The theoretical results suggest that chaos plays a central role in the dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock and that a single molecule, CWO, may sense jitter and repress it by its negative loops.

  12. Note: A new method for directly reducing the sampling jitter noise of the digital phasemeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Rong

    2018-03-01

    The sampling jitter noise is one non-negligible noise source of the digital phasemeter used for space gravitational wave detection missions. This note provides a new method for directly reducing the sampling jitter noise of the digital phasemeter, by adding a dedicated signal of which the frequency, amplitude, and initial phase should be pre-set. In contrast to the phase correction using the pilot-tone in the work of Burnett, Gerberding et al., Liang et al., Ales et al., Gerberding et al., and Ware et al. [M.Sc. thesis, Luleå University of Technology, 2010; Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 235029 (2013); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 016106 (2015); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 084502 (2015); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 074501 (2015); and Proceedings of the Earth Science Technology Conference (NASA, USA, 2006)], the new method is intrinsically additive noise suppression. The experiment results validate that the new method directly reduces the sampling jitter noise without data post-processing and provides the same phase measurement noise level (10-6 rad/Hz1/2 at 0.1 Hz) as the pilot-tone correction.

  13. Transverse Beam Jitter Propagation in Multi-Bunch Operation at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Resta-Lopez, J; Burrows, P N; Christian, G B; Constance, B

    2011-01-01

    Pulse-to-pulse orbit jitter, if not controlled, can drastically degrade the luminosity in future linear colliders. The second goal of the ATF2 project at the KEK accelerator test facility is to stabilise the vertical beam position down to approximately 5% of the nominal rms vertical beam size at the virtual Interaction Point (IP). This will require control of the orbit to better than 1 micrometre at the entrance of the ATF2 nal focus system. In this paper, by means of computer simulations, we study the vertical jitter propagation along the ATF2 from the start of the extraction line to the IP. For this study pulse-to-pulse vertical jitter measurements using three stripline beam position monitors are used as initial inputs. This study is performed for the case of a bunch-train with three bunches, but could easily be extended for a larger number of bunches. The cases with and without intra-train orbit feedback correction in the extraction line of ATF2 are compared.

  14. The effect of jitter on the performance of space coherent optical communication system with Costas loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi

    2018-01-01

    Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.

  15. Generating a Square Switching Window for Timing Jitter Tolerant 160 Gb/s Demultiplexing by the Optical Fourier Transform Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, A. T:

    2006-01-01

    A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps.......A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps....

  16. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy....... It assesses current initiatives, policies and arrangements and proposes an overview of stakeholders' positions at EU and national levels in order to feed into the debate on how to improve competitiveness and growth in Europe....

  17. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    ” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  18. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  19. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  20. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  1. EU Nuclear vs. Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, Jean-Pol

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: • The Fukushima-Daiichi accident represents an opportunity for the nuclear industry to demonstrate its ability to learn from experience through “a continuous improvement strategy”; • Inside the EU: which legal framework for nuclear safety - harmonisation of licensing procedures - EU-level reactor design clearance?; • No way forward without public support: how to address, explain, convince?; • Greater cooperation between industry and international organizations: FORATOM available to contribute

  2. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  3. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts,......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  4. High reliability low jitter 80 kV pulse generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Savage

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Switching can be considered to be the essence of pulsed power. Time accurate switch/trigger systems with low inductance are useful in many applications. This article describes a unique switch geometry coupled with a low-inductance capacitive energy store. The system provides a fast-rising high voltage pulse into a low impedance load. It can be challenging to generate high voltage (more than 50 kilovolts into impedances less than 10  Ω, from a low voltage control signal with a fast rise time and high temporal accuracy. The required power amplification is large, and is usually accomplished with multiple stages. The multiple stages can adversely affect the temporal accuracy and the reliability of the system. In the present application, a highly reliable and low jitter trigger generator was required for the Z pulsed-power facility [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats,J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, and J. R. Woodworth, 2007 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2007, p. 979]. The large investment in each Z experiment demands low prefire probability and low jitter simultaneously. The system described here is based on a 100 kV DC-charged high-pressure spark gap, triggered with an ultraviolet laser. The system uses a single optical path for simultaneously triggering two parallel switches, allowing lower inductance and electrode erosion with a simple optical system. Performance of the system includes 6 ns output rise time into 5.6  Ω, 550 ps one-sigma jitter measured from the 5 V trigger to the high voltage output, and misfire probability less than 10^{-4}. The design of the system and some key measurements will be shown in the paper. We will discuss the

  5. How to Reform the EU Budget? A Multidisciplinary Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueira, F.

    The European Commission is currently drafting a proposal for a review of the EU budget, which could lead to its most significant reform to date. This paper proposes a method for restructuring the EU budget, based on a multidisciplinary approach. The insights of public sector economics, fiscal

  6. Achieving Economic Growth in the EU Through Lobbyism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2009-01-01

    EU budget. Here, the two main redistribution policies, (1) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and (2) the Structural Funds, consume more than four fifths of the total annual EU budget. Thus, if the EU is to achieve its strategic goal, a strong cure is needed to reduce redistribution and encourage more......At Lisbon in 2000, the European Union (EU) set itself a new strategic goal, namely to become the world's leading economy and to enhance social cohesion across the union, all within a decade. It is argued in this article that one fundamental barrier to the fulfilment of this dream is the fact...

  7. G-Jitter Effects in Protein Crystal Growth - A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Baugher, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of spacecraft acceleration environment on Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) is studied. A brief overview of the Space Shuttle acceleration environment is provided followed by a simple scaling procedure used to obtain estimates of the flow and concentration field characteristics in PCG. A detailed two-dimensional numerical model is then used to simulate the PCG system response to different disturbance scenarios; viz. residual g effects, impulse type disturbances and oscillatory inputs. The results show that PCG is susceptible to g-jitter and is a good candidate for vibration isolation.

  8. Low jitter spark gap switch for repetitively pulsed parallel capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A two-section air insulated spark gap has been developed for switching multi-kilojoule plus-minus charged parallel capacitor banks which operate continuously at pulse rates up to 20 pps. The switch operates with less than 2 ns jitter, recovers its dielectric strength within 2 to 5 ms and has not shown degraded performance in sequential test runs totaling over a million shots. Its estimated life with copper electrodes is > 10 7 shots. All preliminary tests indicate that the switch is suitable for continuous running multi-kilojoule systems operating to at least 20 pps

  9. Timing-jitter reduction in a dispersion-managed soliton system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, R.; Grigoryan, V.S.; Menyuk, C.R.; Golovchenko, E.A.; Pilipetskii, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    We found by using Monte Carlo simulations that the timing jitter in a dispersion-managed soliton system decreases as the strength of the dispersion management and hence the ratio of the pulse energy to the pulse bandwidth increases. The results are in qualitative but not quantitative agreement with earlier predictions that the decrease is inversely proportional to the square root of the pulse energy. Using an improved semi-analytical theory, we obtained quantitative agreement with the simulations. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  10. The identification of credit card encoders by hierarchical cluster analysis of the jitters of magnetic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S C; Fung, W K; Wong, K H

    1999-01-01

    The relative bit density variation graphs of 207 specimen credit cards processed by 12 encoding machines were examined first visually, and then classified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. Twenty-nine credit cards being treated as 'questioned' samples were tested by way of cluster analysis against 'controls' derived from known encoders. It was found that hierarchical cluster analysis provided a high accuracy of identification with all 29 'questioned' samples classified correctly. On the other hand, although visual comparison of jitter graphs was less discriminating, it was nevertheless capable of giving a reasonably accurate result.

  11. Noise Originating from Intra-pixel Structure and Satellite Attitude Jitter on COROT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Arentoft, Torben; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on noise in space-based photometry originating from sensitivity variations within individual pixels, known as intra-pixel variations, and satellite attitude jitter. We have measured the intra-pixel structure on an e2v 47-20 CCD and made simulations of the effects these structure...... will have on the photometry obtained with the COROT satellite. By analyzing these simulations we are able to develop tools for lowering these effects, not only on COROT but for other space missions as well, e.g. Kepler....

  12. A low-jitter pulse generator for a Van de Graaff electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, E.

    The design of a new pulse generator used to drive the electron gun of a Van de Graaff accelerator is described. It consists of a pulse amplifier and a remote control unit. Both units are interconnected by means of two fiber optic cables by which the beam pulse parameters, i.e. pulse start, duration and amplitude, are conveyed. The duration and the amplitude are continuously variable from 2 ns to 1 μs and from 0 to 1.5 A, respectively. The overall time jitter is about 1 ns.

  13. Secondary wavelength stabilization of unbalanced Michelson interferometers for the generation of low-jitter pulse trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalloo, R J; Corner, L

    2016-09-01

    We present a double unbalanced Michelson interferometer producing up to four output pulses from a single input pulse. The interferometer is stabilized with the Hänsch-Couillaud method using an auxiliary low power continuous wave laser injected into the interferometer, allowing the stabilization of the temporal jitter of the output pulses to 0.02 fs. Such stabilized pulse trains would be suitable for driving multi-pulse laser wakefield accelerators, and the technique could be extended to include amplification in the arms of the interferometer.

  14. Electric field induced short range to long range structural ordering and its influence on the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence in the lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaskar, Abhijeet; Rao, Badari Narayana; Ranjan, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bangalore 560012 (India); Thomas, Tiju, E-mail: tijuthomas@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-28

    Eu{sup +3} was incorporated into the lattice of a lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) as per the nominal formula Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5−x}Eu{sub x}TiO{sub 3}. This system was investigated with regard to the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence (PL) and structural behaviour as a function of composition and electric field. Electric field was found to irreversibly change the features in the PL spectra and also in the x-ray diffraction patterns below the critical composition x = 0.025. Detailed analysis revealed that below the critical composition, electric field irreversibly suppresses the structural heterogeneity inherent of the host matrix NBT and brings about a long range ferroelectric state with rhombohedral (R3c) distortion. It is shown that the structural disorder on the nano-scale opens a new channel for radiative transition which manifests as a new emission line branching off from the main {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 0} line along with a concomitant change in the relative intensity of the other crystal field induced Stark lines with different J values. The study suggests that Eu{sup +3} luminescence can be used to probe the relative degree of field induced structural ordering in relaxor ferroelectrics and also in high performance piezoelectric alloys where electric field couples very strongly with the lattice and structural degrees of freedom.

  15. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  16. Lobbyisme i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Lobbyisme i EU giver en generel teoretisk tilgang til lobbyisme og bruger EU som eksempel. Den europæiske drøm er at blive verdens stærkeste økonomi, men alligevel findes udbredt markedsbeskyttelse og statsstøtte. Det nye bidrag i denne bog er en tværfaglig tilgang, der fremhæver lobbyisme og...... institutioner og interessegruppers betydning for påvirkning af de politiske beslutningstagere i EU. Argumentet er, at markedsindgreb og manglende frihandel skyldes ureguleret lobbyisme. Der mangler simpelthen regler, der definerer, hvad lobbyister må og ikke må i EU. Uden lovgivning på området er der stor...... risiko for misbrug af systemet til skade for forbrugere, skatteydere og den økonomiske vækst. Hvis ikke EU sætter effektivt ind mod lobbyisme og økonomisk skadelig omfordeling, så vælges vejen mod planøkonomi og korruption, hvor pengene havner i de forkerte lommer. Da kan drømmen om at blive verdens...

  17. Development of a high-reliability low-jitter 6 MV/300 kJ Marx generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongtao; Xie, Weiping; Feng, Shuping; Deng, Jianjun; Ding, Bonan; Ryoo, Hongjie

    2008-02-01

    A 6 MV, 300 kJ Marx generator (MG) prototype is designed for modular use in IFP's Z-pinch primary test stand (PTS)—a 6 MV, 10 MA, 24 module Z-pinch physics research device. Because of the requirements on simultaneity of 24 modules operating in PTS, prefire rate and jitter are key parameters of a MG. Therefore, the research emphasis on the MG prototype is to maximize reliability while maintaining acceptable jitter. It is designed as a hybrid-triggered S-type MG which utilizes the field distortion annular rail gap as switch. The MG performance as a function of spark gap pressure, trigger pulse voltage and charge voltage is presented. As the working ratio is kept at 71%, the jitter of delay and erection time is less than 3 ns and 2 ns, respectively.

  18. Linear Polarization, Circular Polarization, and Depolarization of Gamma-ray Bursts: A Simple Case of Jitter Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng, E-mail: jirongmao@mail.ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province (China)

    2017-04-01

    Linear and circular polarizations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected recently. We adopt a simplified model to investigate GRB polarization characteristics in this paper. A compressed two-dimensional turbulent slab containing stochastic magnetic fields is considered, and jitter radiation can produce the linear polarization under this special magnetic field topology. Turbulent Faraday rotation measure (RM) of this slab makes strong wavelength-dependent depolarization. The jitter photons can also scatter with those magnetic clumps inside the turbulent slab, and a nonzero variance of the Stokes parameter V can be generated. Furthermore, the linearly and circularly polarized photons in the optical and radio bands may suffer heavy absorptions from the slab. Thus we consider the polarized jitter radiation transfer processes. Finally, we compare our model results with the optical detections of GRB 091018, GRB 121024A, and GRB 131030A. We suggest simultaneous observations of GRB multi-wavelength polarization in the future.

  19. A review on high-resolution CMOS delay lines: towards sub-picosecond jitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzaq, Bilal I; Abdul Halin, Izhal; Kawahito, Shoji; Sidek, Roslina M; Shafie, Suhaidi; Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md

    2016-01-01

    A review on CMOS delay lines with a focus on the most frequently used techniques for high-resolution delay step is presented. The primary types, specifications, delay circuits, and operating principles are presented. The delay circuits reported in this paper are used for delaying digital inputs and clock signals. The most common analog and digitally-controlled delay elements topologies are presented, focusing on the main delay-tuning strategies. IC variables, namely, process, supply voltage, temperature, and noise sources that affect delay resolution through timing jitter are discussed. The design specifications of these delay elements are also discussed and compared for the common delay line circuits. As a result, the main findings of this paper are highlighting and discussing the followings: the most efficient high-resolution delay line techniques, the trade-off challenge found between CMOS delay lines designed using either analog or digitally-controlled delay elements, the trade-off challenge between delay resolution and delay range and the proposed solutions for this challenge, and how CMOS technology scaling can affect the performance of CMOS delay lines. Moreover, the current trends and efforts used in order to generate output delayed signal with low jitter in the sub-picosecond range are presented.

  20. Agile Blocker and Clock Jitter Tolerant Low-Power Frequency Selective Receiver with Energy Harvesting Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abul; Helaoui, Mohamed; Ghannouchi, Fadhel M

    2017-08-29

    In this article, a novel tunable, blocker and clock jitter tolerant, low power, quadrature phase shift frequency selective (QPS-FS) receiver with energy harvesting capability is proposed. The receiver's design embraces and integrates (i) the baseband to radio frequency (RF) impedance translation concept to improve selectivity over that of conventional homodyne receiver topologies and (ii) broadband quadrature phase shift circuitry in the RF path to remove an active multi-phase clock generation circuit in passive mixer (PM) receivers. The use of a single local oscillator clock signal with a passive clock division network improves the receiver's robustness against clock jitter and reduces the source clock frequency by a factor of N, compared to PM receivers using N switches (N≥4). As a consequence, the frequency coverage of the QPS-FS receiver is improved by a factor of N, given a clock source of maximum frequency; and, the power consumption of the whole receiver system can eventually be reduced. The tunable QPS-FS receiver separates the wanted RF band signal from the unwanted blockers/interferers. The desired RF signal is frequency down-converted to baseband, while the undesired blocker/interferer signals are reflected by the receiver, collected and could be energy recycled using an auxiliary energy harvesting device.

  1. A compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, high voltage pulse generator with variable amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiubing; Wang, Xin; Tang, Dan; Lv, Huayi; Li, Chengxin; Shao, Yanhua; Qin, Lan

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a compact, low jitter, nanosecond rise time, command triggered, high peak power, gas-switch pulse generator system is developed for high energy physics experiment. The main components of the system are a high voltage capacitor, the spark gap switch and R = 50 Ω load resistance built into a structure to obtain a fast high power pulse. The pulse drive unit, comprised of a vacuum planar triode and a stack of avalanche transistors, is command triggered by a single or multiple TTL (transistor-transistor logic) level pulses generated by a trigger pulse control unit implemented using the 555 timer circuit. The control unit also accepts user input TTL trigger signal. The vacuum planar triode in the pulse driving unit that close the first stage switches is applied to drive the spark gap reducing jitter. By adjusting the charge voltage of a high voltage capacitor charging power supply, the pulse amplitude varies from 5 kV to 10 kV, with a rise time of capacitor recovery time.

  2. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  3. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  4. 640 Gb/s timing jitter-tolerant data processing using a long-period fiber-grating-based flat-top pulse shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of a novel all-fiber flat-top pulse shaping technique for improving performance and timing jitter tolerance of a switch made for 640–10 Gb/s signal demultiplexing. The jitter tolerance is increased to almost 30% of the one-bit time window, and an increase of the receiver sens...

  5. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  6. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  7. Competition in EU banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, Olivier; Diepstraten, Maaike; Schepens, Glenn; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent EU-wide movements in bank competition and concentration. We start with a concise overview of the most frequently used competition and concentration measures. Given that different measures may capture different aspects of bank competition, we focus on the differences and

  8. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  9. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi...

  10. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  11. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  12. Analysis of Optimal Jitter Buffer Size for VoIP QoS under WiMAX Power-Saving Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsuk; Kim, Taehyoun

    VoIP service is expected as one of the key applications of Mobile WiMAX, but the speech quality of VoIP service often suffers deterioration due to the fluctuating transmission delay called jitter. This is commonly ameliorated by a de-jitter buffer, and we aim to find the optimal size of de-jitter buffer to achieve speech quality comparable to PSTN. We developed a new model of the packet drops at the de-jitter buffer and the end-to-end packet delay which takes account of the additional delay introduced by the WiMAX power-saving mode. Using our model, we analyzed the optimal size of the de-jitter buffer for various network parameters, and showed that the results obtained by analysis accord with simulation results.

  13. Jitter Effect on the Performance of the Sound Localization Model of Medial Superior Olive Neural Circuit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šanda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 51-54 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) SVV-2011-262-514 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : medial superior olive (MSO), * stochastic model * timing jitter * interaural time difference (ITD) Subject RIV: IN - Informatics , Computer Science

  14. Alignment sensing for optical cavities using radio-frequency jitter modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, P; Voss, D; Mueller, C; Ortega, L F; Ciani, G; Mueller, G; Tanner, D B

    2017-05-01

    Alignment sensing is often required in precision interferometry applications such as Advanced LIGO in order to achieve the optimum performance. Currently favored sensing schemes rely on the use of two separate radio-frequency (RF) quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes to determine the alignment of a beam relative to an optical cavity axis. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative sensing scheme that has potential advantages over the current standard schemes. We show that by using electro-optic beam deflectors to impose RF jitter sidebands on a beam, it is possible to extract full alignment signals for two in-line optical cavities from just one single-element photodetector in reflection of each cavity.

  15. Low jitter metal vapor vacuum arc ion source for electron beam ion trap injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Glenn E.; Boyer, Craig N.; Seely, John F.; Tan, J.N.; Pomeroy, J.M.; Gillaspy, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) ion source containing eight different cathodes that are individually selectable via the control electronics which does not require moving components in vacuum. Inside the vacuum assembly, the arc plasma is produced by means of a 30 μs pulse (26 kV,125 A) delivering 2.4 mC of charge to the cathode sample material. The trigger jitter is minimized ( 9 ions/cm 2 , measured by an unbiased Faraday cup positioned 20 cm from the extractor grid, at discharge rates up to 5 Hz. The electronic triggering of the discharge is via a fiber optic interface. We present the design, fabrication details, and performance of this MeVVA, recently installed on the National Institute of Standards and Technology electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

  16. Injection Bucket Jitter Compensation Using Phase Lock System at Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiya, K. [Fermilab; Drennan, C. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Chaurize, S. [Fermilab

    2017-05-12

    The extraction bucket position in the Fermilab Booster is controlled with a cogging process that involves the comparison of the Booster rf count and the Recycler Ring revolution marker. A one rf bucket jitter in the ex-traction bucket position results from the variability of the process that phase matches the Booster to the Recycler. However, the new slow phase lock process used to lock the frequency and phase of the Booster rf to the Recycler rf has been made digital and programmable and has been modified to correct the extraction notch position. The beam loss at the Recycler injection has been reduced by 20%. Beam studies and the phase lock system will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Understanding stellar activity-induced radial velocity jitter using simultaneous K2 photometry and HARPS RV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.; Barros, S. C. C.; Donati, J.-F.; Adibekyan, V.; Faria, J. P.; Watson, C. A.; Cegla, H. M.; Dumusque, X.; Hébrard, E.; Demangeon, O.; Dreizler, S.; Boisse, I.; Deleuil, M.; Bonfils, X.; Pepe, F.; Udry, S.

    2017-10-01

    One of the best ways to improve our understanding of the stellar activity-induced signal in radial velocity (RV) measurements is through simultaneous high-precision photometric and RV observations. This is of prime importance to mitigate the RV signal induced by stellar activity and therefore unveil the presence of low-mass exoplanets. The K2 Campaign 7 and 8 fields of view were located in the southern hemisphere, and provided a unique opportunity to gather unprecedented simultaneous high-precision photometric observation with K2 and high-precision RV measurements with the HARPS spectrograph to study the relationship between photometric variability and RV jitter. We observed nine stars with different levels of activity, from quiet to very active. We first probed the presence of any meaningful relation between measured RV jitter and the simultaneous photometric variation, and also other activity indicators (such as BIS, FWHM, log R'HK, and F8) by evaluating the strength and significance of the monotonic correlation between RVs and each indicator. We found that for the case of very active stars, strong and significant correlations exist between almost all the observables and measured RVs; however, when we move towards lower activity levels the correlations become random, and we could not reach any conclusion regarding the tendency of correlations depending on the stellar activity level. Except for the F8 whose strong correlation with RV jitter persists over a wide range of stellar activity level, and thus our result suggests that F8 might be a powerful proxy for activity-induced RV jitter over a wide range of stellar activity. Moreover, we examine the capability of two state-of-the-art modeling techniques, namely the FF' method and SOAP2.0, to accurately predict the RV jitter amplitude using the simultaneous photometric observation. We found that for the very active stars both techniques can predict the amplitude of the RV jitter reasonably well; however, at lower

  18. Scientometry Leading us Astray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 82 (2010), s. 8-8 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : scientometry Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en82/european-scene/ scientometry -leading-us-astray

  19. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-07-06

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in

  20. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu 3 O 4 , Eu 2 O 3 ), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in this respect the

  1. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  2. EU og Latinamerika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2008-01-01

    I juni blev EU’s medlemslande enige om et direktiv angående hjemsendelse. Direktivet er en del af EU’s strategi om at udvikle en fælles ramme mod den såkaldte illegale immigration. Det tog ikke lang til, før reaktionen kom, og den kom rigtig stærkt fra Latinamerika, blandt andet gennem et åbent...... brev fra den bolivianske præsident, Evo Morales, stilet til EU. En måned før vedtagelsen af direktivet var de latinamerikanske lande blevet enige om at satse på en fælles politik med EU, der skulle bygge på et princip om fælles ansvar og en helhedstilgang til international migration med inddragelse af...

  3. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    2002-01-01

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  4. Influence of Europium Doping on Various Electrical Properties of Low-Temperature Sintered 0.5Ba0.90Ca0.10TiO3-0.5BaTi0.88Zr0.12O3-0.1%CuO- xEu Lead-Free Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongshang; Li, Shuiyun; Sun, Shulin; Gong, Yansheng; Li, Tiantian; Yu, Yongshang; Jing, Qiangshan

    2018-01-01

    0.5Ba0.90Ca0.10TiO3-0.5BaTi0.88Zr0.12O3-0.1%CuO- xEu (BCT-BZT-Cu- xEu; x = 0-0.90%) lead-free ceramics were sintered at 1220°C with as-synthesized nanoparticles by a modified Pechini method. The structural characteristics and electrical properties of the ceramics that were influenced by varying europium-doping were investigated. All the ceramics featured high densification (relative density: ˜ 96%). X-ray powder diffraction results indicated the samples possessed pure orthorhombic phase. The maximum relative permittivity ( ɛ r, 10869) was found at x around 0.30%. Europium ions could dope on different substitution sites in the ABO3 lattice, which evidently influenced electrical properties with various volumes of oxygen vacancy. Moreover, the formation mechanisms of oxygen vacancy and defect electron complexes were stated. The piezoelectric properties were impacted by defect electron complexes, internal stress, ionic electronegativity, etc. The optimal electrical properties, i.e., d 33 = 384 pC/N, Q m = 92, and k p = 0.36, were detected at x = 0.45%.

  5. Luminescence properties of different Eu sites in LiMgPO4:Eu2+, Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A; Mahlik, S; Grinberg, M; Cai, P; Kim, S I; Seo, H J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the luminescence properties of LiMgPO 4 doped with Eu 3+ and Eu 2+ are presented. Depending on the excitation wavelength, luminescence spectra consist of two distinct broad emission bands peaking at 380 nm and 490 nm related to 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) luminescence of Eu 2+ and to europium-trapped exciton, respectively, and/or several sharp lines between the 580 nm and 710 nm region, ascribed to the 5 D 0  →  7 F J (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions in Eu 3+ . To explain all the features of the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ luminescence we discussed the existence of two different Eu sites substituting for Li + , with short and long distance compensation. The evident effect of increasing the intensity of the Eu 2+ luminescence with increasing temperature was observed. It was considered that the charge compensation mechanism for Eu 3+ and Li + as well as Eu 2+ replacing Li + in the LiMgPO 4 is a long distance compensation that allows for the existence of some of the europium ions either as Eu 3+ at low temperature or as Eu 2+ at high temperature. We concluded that Eu 2+ in the Li + site with long distance compensation yields only 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence, whereas Eu 2+ in the Li + site with short distance compensation yields 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence and europium-trapped exciton emission. (paper)

  6. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  7. The EU agencies’ role in policy diffusion beyond the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    The extensive literature on the EU agencies has mainly focused on their role in the harmonisation and expansion of regulatory standards within the EU. This paper joins this literature and investigates the role of EU agencies in policy diffusion beyond the EU borders. To operationalise this......, the paper identifies and compares the organisation structural characteristics in three decentralised agencies, namely the European Environmental Agency (EEA), the European Medicine Agency (EMA), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). These agencies share a common interest in the environment...

  8. On the use of iterative techniques for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    It is possible to use feedforward predictive control for transverse position and trajectory-angle jitter correction. The control procedure is straightforward, but creation of the predictive filter is not as obvious. The two processes tested were the least mean squares (LMS) and Kalman inter methods. The controller parameters calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. These techniques worked well for both interpulse (pulse-to-pulse) correction and intrapulse (within a pulse) correction with the Kalman filter method being the clear winner. A simulation based on interpulse data taken at the Stanford Linear Collider showed an improvement factor of almost three in the average rms jitter over standard feedback techniques for the Kalman filter. An improvement factor of over three was found for the Kalman filter on intrapulse data taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The feedforward systems also improved the correction bandwidth

  9. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pompili, Riccardo; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Cianchi, A; Croia, M; Di Giovenale, D; Ferrario, M; Filippi, F; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Li, W; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Di Pirro, G; Romeo, S; Scifo, J; Shpakov, V; Vaccarezza, C; Villa, F

    2017-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC_LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations.

  10. All fiber-coupled, long-term stable timing distribution for free-electron lasers with few-femtosecond jitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Şafak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report recent progress made in a complete fiber-optic, high-precision, long-term stable timing distribution system for synchronization of next generation X-ray free-electron lasers. Timing jitter characterization of the master laser shows less than 170-as RMS integrated jitter for frequencies above 10 kHz, limited by the detection noise floor. Timing stabilization of a 3.5-km polarization-maintaining fiber link is successfully achieved with an RMS drift of 3.3 fs over 200 h of operation using all fiber-coupled elements. This all fiber-optic implementation will greatly reduce the complexity of optical alignment in timing distribution systems and improve the overall mechanical and timing stability of the system.

  11. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar

  12. Method and apparatus for reducing spacecraft instrument induced jitter via multifrequency cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ketao (Inventor); Uetrecht, David S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method, apparatus, article of manufacture, and a memory structure for compensating for instrument induced spacecraft jitter is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a spacecraft control processor for producing an actuator command signal, a signal generator, for producing a cancellation signal having at least one harmonic having a frequency and an amplitude substantially equal to that of a disturbance harmonic interacting with a spacecraft structural resonance and a phase substantially out of phase with the disturbance harmonic interacting with the spacecraft structural resonance, and at least one spacecraft control actuator, communicatively coupled to the spacecraft control processor and the signal generator for inducing satellite motion according to the actuator command signal and the cancellation signal. The method comprises the steps of generating a cancellation signal having at least one harmonic having a frequency and an amplitude substantially equal to that of a disturbance harmonic interacting with a spacecraft structural resonance and a phase substantially out of phase with the disturbance harmonic interacting with the spacecraft structural resonance, and providing the cancellation signal to a spacecraft control actuator. The apparatus comprises a storage device tangibly embodying the method steps described above.

  13. G-jitter induced magnetohydrodynamics flow of nanofluid with constant convective thermal and solutal boundary conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J Uddin

    Full Text Available Taking into account the effect of constant convective thermal and mass boundary conditions, we present numerical solution of the 2-D laminar g-jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of water-based nanofluids. The governing transport equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically by an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization technique. The skin friction decreases with time, buoyancy ratio, and thermophoresis parameters while it increases with frequency, mixed convection and Brownian motion parameters. Heat transfer rate decreases with time, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and diffusion-convection parameters while it increases with the Reynolds number, frequency, mixed convection, buoyancy ratio and conduction-convection parameters. Mass transfer rate decreases with time, frequency, thermophoresis, conduction-convection parameters while it increases with mixed convection, buoyancy ratio, diffusion-convection and Brownian motion parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on this topic and hence the results are new. We believe that the results will be useful in designing and operating thermal fluids systems for space materials processing. Special cases of the results have been compared with published results and an excellent agreement is found.

  14. Simulating SOFIA's image jitter performance and how the results compare to in-flight measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Friederike; Reinacher, Andreas; Spohr, Daniel; Jakob, Holger; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2017-09-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy is an airborne telescope and in full operation since 2014. It has already successfully conducted over 400 flights and can be equipped with eight different science instruments which range from the visible to the far infrared wavelength regime. In order to reach SOFIA's scientific goals, the telescope has to provide a stable platform with the ambitous image jitter requirements of less than 0.4 "rms. Such a steady operating environment is especially important for slit spectrometers like EXES (Echelon - Cross - Echelle Spectrograph), that aim to keep the star in the area of a very thin slit for integration. Currently, image motion is mainly caused by deformation and excitation of the telescope structure in a wide range of frequencies. These disturbances are counteracted by the so-called Flexible Body Compensation system which uses a set of accelerometers to estimate the resulting image motion. To better study optimization possibilities of SOFIA's control system, a simulation tool has been developed which not only implements system identification data and analytically derived models, but also allows the implementation and verification with sensor data from in flight measurements. Results of the simulation as well as in flight measurements will be presented and improvement strategies will be discussed.

  15. Optical beam transport to a remote location for low jitter pump-probe experiments with a free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cinquegrana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a scheme that allows a strong reduction of the timing jitter between the pulses of a free electron laser (FEL and external laser pulses delivered simultaneously at the FEL experimental stations for pump-probe–type experiments. The technique, applicable to all seeding-based FEL schemes, relies on the free-space optical transport of a portion of the seed laser pulse from its optical table to the experimental stations. The results presented here demonstrate that a carefully designed laser beam transport, incorporating also a transverse beam position stabilization, allows one to keep the timing fluctuations, added by as much as 150 m of free space propagation and a number of beam folding mirrors, to less than 4 femtoseconds rms. By its nature our scheme removes the major common timing jitter sources, so the overall jitter in pump-probe measurements done in this way will be below 10 fs (with a margin to be lowered to below 5 fs, much better than the best results reported previously in the literature amounting to 33 fs rms.

  16. Bit error rate estimation for galvanic-type intra-body communication using experimental eye-diagram and jitter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia Wen; Chen, Xi Mei; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Gao, Yue Ming; Vai, Mang I; Du, Min

    2013-01-01

    Bit error rate (BER), which indicates the reliability of communicate channel, is one of the most important values in all kinds of communication system, including intra-body communication (IBC). In order to know more about IBC channel, this paper presents a new method of BER estimation for galvanic-type IBC using experimental eye-diagram and jitter characteristics. To lay the foundation for our methodology, the fundamental relationships between eye-diagram, jitter and BER are first reviewed. Then experiments based on human lower arm IBC are carried out using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation scheme and 500 KHz carries frequency. In our IBC experiments, the symbol rate is from 10 Ksps to 100 Ksps, with two transmitted power settings, 0 dBm and -5 dBm. Finally, the BER results were obtained after calculation by experimental data through the relationships among eye-diagram, jitter and BER. These results are then compared with theoretical values and they show good agreement, especially when SNR is between 6 dB to 11 dB. Additionally, these results demonstrate assuming the noise of galvanic-type IBC channel as Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) in previous study is applicable.

  17. Administrative sanctions in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor-van Vugt, A.

    2012-01-01

    EU law has broadened the scope of administrative sanctioning by adding a variety of sanctions to the palette of sanctions in national law. Since the coming into force of the Charter, EU procedural standards are modelled on the ‘criminal charge’ case law of the ECtHR. These standards are discussed

  18. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  19. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......This insightful and discerning book offers a fresh discourse on the functioning of national courts as decentralised EU courts and a new thematic for revising some older understandings of how national judges apply EU law. Organised into three key sections, the interdisciplinary chapters combine...... approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...

  20. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  1. EU POLITICAL DYNAMICS AND THE RUSSIAN-AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yakunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article describes key political, economic, demographic, social and foreign issues facing EU and challenging its further development prospects. The analysis of further broadening of the EU relations with Russia and EU-US-Russia triangular relations leads the author to conclude that double standards are applied towards Russia: «reset», minimal concessions and the containment policy. The possible versions of the EU-US-Russia configuration are dependent on the behavior of Russia, thus it is necessary for Russia to develop a more precise strategy of foreign policy. The civilizational analysis of US, Europe and Russia proves that while the US and Europe are two variants of one civilization, Russia is a separate civilization, and this has to be accounted for in formulating Russian foreign policy standpoint in the EC-US-Russia triangle.

  2. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  3. Luminescence properties of ZnS:Cu, Eu semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized by a hydrothermal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Mei; Hu, Li-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    ZnS:Cu, Eu nanocrystals with an average diameter of ~ 80 nm are synthesized using a hydrothermal approach at 200 °C. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the ZnS:Cu, Eu nanocrystals before and after annealing, as well as the doping form of Eu, are studied. The as-synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and the excitation and emission spectra (PL). The results show that both Cu and Eu are indeed incorporated into the ZnS matrix. Compared with the PL spectrum of the Cu mono-doped sample, the PL emission intensity of the Cu and Eu-codoped sample increases and a peak appears at 516 nm, indicating that Eu3+ ions, which act as an impurity compensator and activator, are incorporated into the ZnS matrix, forming a donor level. Compared with the unannealed sample, the annealed one has an increased PL emission intensity and the peak position has a blue shift of 56 nm from 516 nm to 460 nm, which means that Eu3+ ions reduce to Eu2+ ions, thereby leading to the appearance of Eu2+ characteristic emission and generating effective host-to-Eu2+ energy transfer. The results indicate the potential applications of ZnS:Cu, Eu nanoparticles in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Electronic transport through EuO spin-filter tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Jutong, Nuttachai

    2012-11-12

    Epitaxial spin-filter tunnel junctions based on the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, we focus on the spin transport properties of Cu(100)/EuO(100)/Cu(100) junctions. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and the current-voltage curves on the interface spacing and EuO thickness is explained in terms of the EuO density of states and the complex band structure. Furthermore, we also discuss the relation between the spin transport properties and the Cu-EuO interface geometry. The level alignment of the junction is sensitively affected by the interface spacing, since this determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu electrodes. Our calculations indicate that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with a spin polarization of the current close to 100%, and with both the Eu-5d conduction-band and the Eu-4f valence-band states contributing to the coherent transport. For epitaxial EuO on Cu, a symmetry filtering is observed, with the Δ1 states dominating the transmission. This leads to a transport gap larger than the fundamental EuO band gap. Importantly, the high spin polarization of the current is preserved up to large bias voltages.

  5. Critical view on the luminescence emission of ZnO, ZnO:Eu and ZnO: Eu/Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robindro Singh, L.; Prasad, Amresh I.; Gogoi, Manashjit

    2013-01-01

    Development of advanced display and lighting technology such as field emission displays and plasma display panels requires phosphor which has a high efficiency and low degradation. Particle sizes and the locations of dopants in the hosts take an important role in the luminescence emission properties of phosphors. ZnO is widely employed in plasma field emission display devices and widely investigated, still lanthanide (Ln 3+ ) ion doped ZnO need more investigations. In ZnO:Eu the lanthanide ions (Eu 3+ ) may occupy either Zn 2+ lattice site or on surface of ZnO crystal. The emissions of Eu 3+ ion on the surface are the characteristic of Eu 2 O 3 , leads to weak luminescence emission. To study such phenomena nanoparticles of ZnO, 2 at % Eu 3+ doped ZnO (ZnO:Eu) and ZnO:Eu covered with yttria matrix were prepared by wet chemical method at low temperature. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by XRD and TEM. XRD data reveals significant phase segregation of the annealed nanoparticles compared to lower heated samples. This phase segregation of Eu 3+ ion establishes responsible for the decrease luminescence intensity of annealed ZnO:Eu nanoparticles compared to the as-prepared ZnO:Eu nanoparticles. Improvement on luminescence emissions could be achieved only for the as-prepared ZnO:Eu nanoparticles while covered with yttria matrix. Annealing the phosphors crystallization of Y 2 O 3 starts, the Eu 3+ leave ZnO site and enter Y 3+ site in Y 2 O 3 hence contribute luminescence emission. Incorporation the ZnO:Eu nanoparticles in Y 2 O 3 , significantly prevent the phase segregation of europium oxide by allowing it diffuse into the amorphous environment of Y 2 O 3 and thereby enhanced the luminescence for such samples. (author)

  6. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  7. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Breslauer Strasse 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe (Germany) and Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)] e-mail: j.schleich@isi.fraunhofer.de; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hoppe, Christian [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Seifert, Stefan [University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Takon GmbH, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions.

  8. EuAuGe type indides RAgIn (R = Ca, Sr, La, Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Sebastian; Schmolke, Kai Heinz; Block, Theresa; Heletta, Lukas; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2017-08-03

    The equiatomic intermetallic phases CaAgIn [a = 482.75(7), b = 750.0(1), c = 835.5(1) pm], SrAgIn [a = 495.86(5), b = 794.71(9), c = 851.89(9) pm], LaAgIn [a = 489.99(5), b = 767.93(9), c = 837.53(9) pm], and EuAgIn [a = 493.02(7), b = 781.6(1), c = 844.2(1) pm] were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium containers. They crystallize with the EuAuGe type structure, space group Imm2. The four structures were refined from single-crystal X-ray data. The silver and indium atoms build up orthorhombically distorted, puckered Ag{sub 3}In{sub 3} hexagons, which are stacked in AA' sequence, leading to direct Ag-Ag and In-In interlayer bonding (e.g. 303 and 304 pm in CaAgIn). Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements show a magnetic moment of 7.40(1) μ{sub B} per europium atom. EuAgIn orders antiferromagnetically at 5.7(5) K. The divalent nature of europium is also evident from {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectra: δ = -10.50(1) mm.s{sup -1} at 78 K. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  10. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis......This book argues that theories of European foreign policy are performative: they create the objects they analyse. In this text, Larsen outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida and goes on to examine the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...

  11. Biosimilar regulation in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Pekka; Ekman, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    In the EU, the EMA has been working with biosimilars since 1998. This experience is crystallized in the extensive set of guidelines, which range from basic principles to details of clinical trials. While the guidance may appear complicated, it has enabled the development of biosimilars, of which 21 have managed to get marketing authorization. Currently marketed biosimilars in the EU have a good track record in safety and traceability. No biosimilars have been withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The most controversial issues with biosimilars are immunogenicity and extrapolation of therapeutic indications. The available data for these topics do not raise concerns among EU regulators. Interchangeability and substitution are regulated by individual EU member states.

  12. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  13. Enhanced Cooperation - the New Trend of the EU Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila O. Babynina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to implementation of the enhanced cooperation in the EU. Actually two such projects are шn progress (the law applicable to divorce and legal separation and unitary patent protection and other two are under discussionffmandai transaction tax and European Public Prosecutor's Office. Active use of the enhanced cooperation recently shows that such kind of the promoting integration is more and more required in the EU. However its implementation can jeopardize the principles of the EU functioning and undermine the status of the institutions in the integration process. This mechanism can also be used in order to exclude the discordant states from integration process instead of traditional search of compromises. This argument is based on analysis of the implementation conditions of the project on the unitary patent protection. At the same time the projects of the enhanced cooperation obviously make the interaction in different spheres more efficient. In addition they can be used for testing the new types of cooperation. That's why the search for an optimal balance between promotion integration through the mechanism of enhanced cooperation and preserving the unity of the EU should be considered as main goal by participants of the integration process. Otherwise the gradual separation on the vanguard group may lead to EU division. Nevertheless taking into consideration enlargement of the EU and its diversity, the enhanced cooperation Should be used onlyas "extreme measure".

  14. The concept of family in the EU free movement law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concepts of spouse, civil partner and partner in European Union (EU law, particularly in regulations referring to the free movement of persons, criticizing the unharmonized approach to defining family in this context. It argues that the narrow interpretation of the term spouse could lead to discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. Likewise, grounding free movement rights of civil partners on host state recognition of such partnerships could lead to the same result, which is not compatible with the equality principle in the EU law. The position of unmarried or unregistered partners is also considered; in particular, the paper analyses the requirement to duly attest durability of the relationship and its impact on the same-sex partners wishing to immigrate to a Member State. The author holds that it is necessary to reconsider the law in this area and adjust it to the EU's efforts to eliminate discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation.

  15. Renewable energies in the EU-Accession States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Danyel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources in the EU-Accession States and to compare them with the framework in the EU-15. Besides the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. Most of these countries have had a century-long tradition in the utilisation of RES, primarily in biomass and hydropower. However, the communist regimes were convinced of the superiority of large-scale systems and converted the energy sectors into centralised units. Due to this dominating belief system more decentralised applications such as installations using renewable energies had to close. One crucial driving force for future renewable energy development in the Accession States comes from the stipulations set by the EU. The EU-Directive on the promotion of electricity produced from RES gives the new EU-members targets for their RES-development until 2010. Due to the Directive many Accession States have already begun to pay more attention to the topic and to introduce more systematic policies. Six of the Accession States have introduced minimum tariffs which were one of the main success conditions (besides a stable and sound investment programme as well as favourable background conditions) in the leading wind energy countries Germany and Spain. Beside the external pressure by the EU and other international obligations other driving forces such as the path dependencies in the national energy policies (degree of coal, oil and gas exploitation, nuclear power use, import dependency), the political support schemes for renewable energies, possibilities of obtaining external financial support and the cognitive environment are discussed. Finally similarities and differences between EU-15 and Accession States are worked out

  16. Analysis of Salient Feature Jitter in the Cochlea for Objective Prediction of Temporally Localized Distortion in Synthesized Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporally localized distortions account for the highest variance in subjective evaluation of coded speech signals (Sen (2001 and Hall (2001. The ability to discern and decompose perceptually relevant temporally localized coding noise from other types of distortions is both of theoretical importance as well as a valuable tool for deploying and designing speech synthesis systems. The work described within uses a physiologically motivated cochlear model to provide a tractable analysis of salient feature trajectories as processed by the cochlea. Subsequent statistical analysis shows simple relationships between the jitter of these trajectories and temporal attributes of the Diagnostic Acceptability Measure (DAM.

  17. Impact of amplitude jitter and signal-to-noise ratio on the nonlinear spectral compression in optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, Sonia; Fatome, Julien; Finot, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    We numerically study the effects of amplitude fluctuations and signal-to-noise ratio degradation of the seed pulses on the spectral compression process arising from nonlinear propagation in an optical fibre. The unveiled quite good stability of the process against these pulse degradation factors is assessed in the context of optical regeneration of intensity-modulated signals, by combining nonlinear spectral compression with centered bandpass optical filtering. The results show that the proposed nonlinear processing scheme indeed achieves mitigation of the signal's amplitude noise. However, in the presence of a jitter of the temporal duration of the pulses, the performance of the device deteriorates. © 2016 Elsevier

  18. Reduction of timing jitter and intensity noise in normal-dispersion passively mode-locked fiber lasers by narrow band-pass filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peng; Song, Youjian; Kim, Hyoji; Shin, Junho; Kwon, Dohyeon; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-11-17

    Fiber lasers mode-locked with normal cavity dispersion have recently attracted great attention due to large output pulse energy and femtosecond pulse duration. Here we accurately characterized the timing jitter of normal-dispersion fiber lasers using a balanced cross-correlation method. The timing jitter characterization experiments show that the timing jitter of normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers can be significantly reduced by using narrow band-pass filtering (e.g., 7-nm bandwidth filtering in this work). We further identify that the timing jitter of the fiber laser is confined in a limited range, which is almost independent of cavity dispersion map due to the amplifier-similariton formation by insertion of the narrow bandpass filter. The lowest observed timing jitter reaches 0.57 fs (rms) integrated from 10 kHz to 10 MHz Fourier frequency. The rms relative intensity noise (RIN) is also reduced from 0.37% to 0.02% (integrated from 1 kHz to 5 MHz Fourier frequency) by the insertion of narrow band-pass filter.

  19. Análise da freqüência fundamental, jitter, shimmer e intensidade vocal em crianças com transtorno fonológico Analysis of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and vocal intensity in children with phonological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée F. Wertzner

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno fonológico é uma alteração de manifestação primária de causa indefinida que torna a fala ininteligível. A análise de parâmetros vocais torna-se importante no processo do diagnóstico deste transtorno, pois distúrbios de voz poderiam interferir na produção dos sons da fala. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as características vocais relacionadas à intensidade e freqüência fundamental - F0 - e seus índices de perturbação - jitter e shimmer - em crianças com transtorno fonológico. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico prospectivo com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram sujeitos 40 crianças distribuídas em dois grupos: 20 com transtorno fonológico e 20 sem alteração de fala e linguagem. Foram aplicadas provas de fonologia do Teste de Linguagem Infantil ABFW e de fala espontânea. Utilizou-se o Computer Speech Lab, para gravação e análise acústica das vogais /a/, /e/, /i/, por meio dos parâmetros vocais: freqüência fundamental, intensidade, jitter e shimmer. RESULTADOS: F0 - vogal /e/ é menor, em média, para o Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico (126Hz e 237Hz no Grupo Controle. Para o shimmer e jitter não há evidência de que as médias do Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico sejam diferentes das do Grupo Controle (p= 0,191, p=0,865 respectivamente. Quanto à intensidade, há evidência de que a média diferencia os dois grupos (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência da vogal /e/ é menor no Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico. Existe diferença entre grupos para as médias da intensidade das vogais /a/, /e/ e /i/, sendo estas menores no Grupo com Transtorno Fonológico. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre grupos para as médias do jitter e do shimmer.Phonological Disorder is a disturbance of primary manifestation of undefined causes that makes speech become unintelligible. The analysis of vocal parameters becomes important in the process of diagnosis of this disorder, since voice disorders

  20. Achieving Economic Growth in the EU Through Lobbyism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Tinggaard Svendsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available At Lisbon in 2000, the European Union (EU set itself a new strategic goal, namely to become the world’s leading economy and to enhance social cohesion across the union, all within a decade. It is argued in this article that one fundamental barrier to the fulfilment of this dream is the fact that power is centralised in the Commission rather than the Parliament. The basic idea upon which our theoretical model is predicated is that a political system that centralises power lowers the cost of rent-seeking and therefore leads to a more economically harmful redistribution, as reflected in the annual EU budget. Here, the two main redistribution policies, (1 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP and (2 the Structural Funds, consume more than four fifths of the total annual EU budget. Thus, if the EU is to achieve its strategic goal, a strong cure is needed to reduce redistribution and encourage more free trade. The simple cure for this ‘EU disease’ would be to strengthen the decision-making power of the Parliament at the expense of the Commission. In this way, power would be spread out between the democratically elected members of the Parliament rather than being concentrated with a few bureaucrats. Such constitutional change and decentralisation of power would increase the costs of lobbyism in particular and thereby reduce distortions of policy outcomes, clearing the road for free-trade policies and economic growth in the new millennium.

  1. The need and necessity of an EU-wide renewable energy target for 2030. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, R.; Winkel, T.; Klessmann, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In 2020, some leading EU energy and climate policies will expire. At present, the EU and its Member States are discussing the design of a post-2020 policy portfolio. In a discussion paper commissioned by the European Copper Institute, Ecofys shows that an EU-wide renewable energy target is a necessary part of a 2030 portfolio. The paper analyses, in detail, two realistic policy portfolio options for renewable energy, target-setting in particular: one 'decarbonisation-only' EU target with voluntary national targets for renewable energy, and one that includes an EU-wide renewable energy target, broken down into binding national targets. The analysis shows that the latter option, when supported by appropriate and improved EU and Member States' policies and measures, is most suitable in facilitating a European low-carbon economy.

  2. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  3. Gigahertz repetition rate, sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse train directly generated from a mode-locked Yb:KYW laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heewon; Kim, Hyoji; Shin, Junho; Kim, Chur; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Guang-Hoon; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-01-01

    We show that a 1.13 GHz repetition rate optical pulse train with 0.70 fs high-frequency timing jitter (integration bandwidth of 17.5 kHz-10 MHz, where the measurement instrument-limited noise floor contributes 0.41 fs in 10 MHz bandwidth) can be directly generated from a free-running, single-mode diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotube-coated mirrors. To our knowledge, this is the lowest-timing-jitter optical pulse train with gigahertz repetition rate ever measured. If this pulse train is used for direct sampling of 565 MHz signals (Nyquist frequency of the pulse train), the jitter level demonstrated would correspond to the projected effective-number-of-bit of 17.8, which is much higher than the thermal noise limit of 50 Ω load resistance (~14 bits).

  4. Low-jitter wide-range integrated time interval/delay generator based on combination of period counting and capacitor charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepacki, K; Pawłowski, M; Szplet, R

    2015-02-01

    We present the design, operation, and test results of a new time interval/delay generator that provides the resolution of 0.3 ps, jitter below 10 ps (rms), and wide delay range of 10 s. The wide range has been achieved by counting periods of a reference clock while the high resolution and low jitter have been obtained through the two-time use of inner interpolation. This interpolation, based on charging of a single capacitor, provides both the precise external trigger synchronization and accurate generation of residual time interval. A combination of both processes virtually eliminates triggering indeterminacy. The jitter between the trigger and output is below 1 ps, which ensures a high performance delay. The generator is integrated in a single application specific integrated circuit chip using a standard cost-effective 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  5. Practical application of cross correlation technique to measure jitter of master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Młyńczak, J. [Military University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Sawicz-Kryniger, K. [University of Technology, Cracow (Poland); Fry, A. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Glownia, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Leemans, S. [Univ. of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Linac coherent light source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) is the world’s first hard X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and is capable of producing high-energy, femtosecond duration X-ray pulses. A common technique to study fast timescale physical phenomena, various “pump/probe” techniques are used. In these techniques there are two lasers, one optical and one X-ray, that work as a pump and as a probe to study dynamic processes in atoms and molecules. In order to resolve phenomena that occur on femtosecond timescales, it is imperative to have very precise timing between the optical lasers and X-rays (on the order of ~ 20 fs or better). The lasers are synchronized to the same RF source that drives the accelerator and produces the X-ray laser. However, elements in the lasers cause some drift and time jitter, thereby de-synchronizing the system. This paper considers cross-correlation technique as a way to quantify the drift and jitter caused by the regenerative amplifier of the ultrafast optical laser.

  6. Masking of random-walk motion by flicker, and its role in the allocation of motion in the on-line jitter illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Adela S Y; Bedggood, Phillip A; Metha, Andrew B; Anderson, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    Typically, perceptual stabilization mechanisms make us unaware of the retinal image motion produced by the small, involuntary eye movements our eyes constantly make during fixation. The breakdown of perceptual stability is demonstrated by the on-line jitter illusion, in which a circular static pattern appears to jitter coherently when surrounded by a flickering annular pattern. Although both regions of the stimulus are subject to retinal motion from eye movements, the visual system attributes this motion to the central static region in the form of visual jitter, while the surrounding flickering region remains perceptually stable. We investigated factors influencing this allocation of motion and reference frame in the on-line jitter illusion. The flickering of the surround was found to impair the detection of simultaneous random-walk motion in this area, giving a detection reliability of around 80% for motion approximating that from fixational eye movements. Changes to spatial texture and location of flicker (centre vs. surrounding annulus) had little effect on the final percept. However, use of a nonconcentric stimulus resulted in a marked reduction in apparent jitter in all subjects. Our results suggest for the on-line jitter illusion, allocation of motion and reference frame is influenced by the general principle that, if one region surrounds another, the surrounding region tends to be allocated as the frame of reference. When this factor is controlled for, spatial textures, location of flicker, and the masking of motion by flicker have a smaller but measurable influence on the final percept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bonneau, M.

    2008-01-01

    . The European Unions self-sufficiency and leading position in the global market for pork and pork products is challenged by a number of non-European countries. Therefore, there is a need for developing innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer...... demands. A large EU-project (Q-PorkChains) funded by EU 6th framework programme was initiated in January 2007. The aim of Q-PorkChains is to improve the quality of pork and its products for the consumer and to develop innovative, integrated and sustainable food production chains with low environmental...

  8. GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Eu DOPED GaSe SINGLE CRYSTALS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru UNTILA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available GaSe single crystals doped with Eu (0.025, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 at% were grown by Bridgman method using Ga, Se and Eu elementary components. The crystalline structure and vibration modes of the GaSe: Eu crystals lattice were studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Eu atoms arranged in the van der Waals space of GaSe: Eu crystals form Eu-Se valence bonds and restructure hexagonal lattice of GaSe leading to EuGa2Se4 crystallites formation. Defects generated by EuGa2Se4 crystallites lead to broadening and shifting of single phonon peaks present in Raman spectra towards shorter wavenumbers, and at the same time, activate the longitudinal optical vibrations of EuSe sublattice.Keywords: GaSe, doping, Eu, XRD, Raman. CREȘTEREA ȘI CARACTERIZAREA MONOCRISTALELOR DE GaSe: Eu PRIN DIFRACȚIA RAZELOR X ȘI SPECTROSCOPIA RAMANMonocristalele de GaSe nedopate și dopate cu Eu în cantități de 0.025, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 și 3.0% at. au fost crescute prin metoda Bridgman din componente elementare Ga, Se și Eu. Structura cristalină și modelele de vibrație a rețelei crista­lelor de GaSe:Eu au fost studiate prin difracția razelor X și spectroscopia Raman. Atomii de Eu localizați în spaţiul van der Waals al cristalelor de GaSe:Eu creează legături de valență Eu-Se și restructurează rețeaua hexagonală a compusului GaSe, conducând la formarea cristalitelor de EuGa2Se4. Defectele generate de cristalitele de EuGa2Se4 duc la lărgirea și deplasarea benzilor monofononice de difuzie Raman spre numere de undă mici și, totodată, activează vibraţiile optice longitudinale ale subreţelei EuSe.Cuvinte-cheie: GaSe, dopare, Eu, XRD, Raman.

  9. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests and a sociolo......Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests...

  10. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  11. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Flaounas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF EU LAW IN MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-MAGDA VLAICU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available When the original Rome Treaty was drafted, it was envisaged by the authors that the procedure as set out in what is now article 258 T.F.E.U. (infringement procedure would be the primary means by which EU law is enforced - a “centralized” and “public” form of enforcement assured by the ECJ, the Commission and Member States, which was itself innovative, since most international treaties contained no such mechanism. It was a point of view shared by Member States, who could see no reason why provisions of EC Treaties should be treated any differently from those of other international treaties. Thus, on the one hand, the effect of international treaties was generally governed by the principle that they cannot by themselves create rights and obligations for individuals, but only for contracting states - therefore, states were considered the only ones entitled to claim respect of international norms in international courts (individuals and national courts were excluded; on the other hand, as the text of EC treaties made no specific reference to the effect their provisions were to have, the general rule governing international treaties should also apply to them. The European Court of Justice disagreed and engaged in a prolonged judicial activism, resulting in the creation of other legal mechanisms by which national courts and individuals (rather than ECJ, Commission and Member States were to take the leading role in the enforcement of EU law - a “decentralized” and “private” form of enforcement, governed by three interrelated principles developed jurisprudentially by the ECJ: direct effect, indirect effect and state liability. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of actual means of EU law enforcement, as presented above; to this end, there will be considered the legal/judicial basis, scope, limits and practical difficulties of the ”centralized” and “decentralized” form of enforcement.

  13. The Structure of the EU Mediasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-01-01

    Background A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed “data-driven inquiry” in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. Conclusions/Significance While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis. PMID

  14. The EU-Russia Energy Dialogue: Competition Versus Monopolies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Russia and the European Union have clearly entered a new stage in their energy relations, defined by a growing asymmetry between a strengthened national monopoly on the supply side and a gradual opening of markets in Europe. In this context, a multitude of new approaches to EU Russia energy relations have been voiced recently by a wide variety of experts. Unfortunately, many of them involve 'defensive' solutions, driven by lack of mutual trust on both sides. Is a positive approach nevertheless still possible? The paper argues that competition is a key universal value in the development of a new and sustainable energy relationship between Russia and Europe. It is clear that EU competition regulators should take the lead in setting up a new framework for EU-Russia energy relations in the future. The success of their endeavors will not only determine the security of energy supply for European consumers, but also that of the Russian and Eurasian energy markets. (author)

  15. Definition of an intramolecular Eu-to-Eu energy transfer within a discrete [Eu2L] complex in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonat, Aline; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2012-06-25

    Ligand L, based on two do3a moieties linked by the methylene groups of 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, was synthesized and characterized. The addition of Ln salts to an aqueous solution of L (0.01 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) led to the successive formation of [LnL] and [Ln(2)L] complexes, as evidenced by UV/Vis and fluorescence titration experiments. Homodinuclear [Ln(2)L] complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, and Lu) were prepared and characterized. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the Lu and Yb complexes in D(2)O solution (pD = 7.0) showed C(1) symmetry of these species in solution, pointing to two different chemical environments for the two lanthanide cations. The analysis of the chemical shifts of the Yb complex indicated that the two coordination sites present square antiprismatic (SAP) coordination environments around the metal ions. The spectroscopic properties of the [Tb(2)L] complex upon ligand excitation revealed conventional behavior with τ(H2O) = 2.05(1) ms and ϕ(H2O) = 51%, except for the calculation of the hydration number obtained from the luminescent lifetimes in H(2)O and D(2)O, which pointed to a non-integer value of 0.6 water molecules per Tb(III) ion. In contrast, the Eu complex revealed surprising features such as: 1) the presence of two and up to five components in the (5)D(0)→(7)F(0) and (5)D(0)→(7)F(1) emission bands, respectively; 2) marked differences between the normalized spectra obtained in H(2)O and D(2)O solutions; and 3) unconventional temporal evolution of the luminescence intensity at certain wavelengths, the intensity profile first displaying a rising step before the occurrence of the expected decay. Additional spectroscopic experiments performed on [Gd(2-x)Eu(x)L] complexes (x = 0.1 and 1.9) confirmed the presence of two distinct Eu sites with hydration numbers of 0 (site I) and 2 (site II), and showed that the unconventional temporal evolution of the emission intensity is the result of an unprecedented intramolecular Eu-to-Eu

  16. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar beet growing and processing more efficient. Besides, lower sugar price levels will make Europe a more attractive continent for investments by sugar-based industries.

  17. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    Analyses of European governance usually bring the member states into the fore placing the citizens in the background. By means of economic analysis, this paper brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method will be suggested that combines explanations based...

  18. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    and Denmark. It also examines how EU initiatives may influence these principles and practices. The article concludes that the steering of transposition processes by general transposition principles and objectives alone, and in particular those dominated by a ‘burden reducing’ agenda, has a limited focus...

  19. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  20. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests and a sociolo...

  1. Fundamentals of EU VAT law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesum, A.; van Kesteren, H.W.M.; van Norden, G.J.

    Fundamentals of EU VAT Law aims at providing a deep insight into the systematics, the functioning and the principles of the European Value Added Tax (VAT) system. VAT is responsible for generating approximately EUR 903 billion per year in tax revenues across the European Union – revenues that play a

  2. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  3. THE EU ASPECT AT THE UKRAINIAN MAIDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana DOBRZHANSKA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An alarming decision “to pause” the process of Ukrainian Eurointegration taken by the previous government of Ukraine, turned out to be highly disturbing, both to the Ukrainian people and the EU in terms of planned partnership. Following the country’s course change a series of dramatic events unraveled triggering a mass protest movement called Euromaidan across major part of Ukraine, indicating the position of Ukrainian society towards the events. The further unfolding of the events in the Ukraine starting from November 22, 2013 diminished the “euro” direction making it solemnly “MAIDAN”. The direction of Eurointegration in Ukraine’s foreign policy was no longer the priority of the rebel movement, shifting the focus of those protesting to the internal issues. During the Maidan the EU’s representatives initiated and participated in the negotiation process between the government and the opposition, thus demonstrating support to Ukraine on its way to democracy. In the meantime, Maidan expected stricter sanctions towards representatives of the state at that time: freezing of the accounts of those associated with corruption as well as their visa bans and restrictions for travel and business conduction in the EU, etc.. The EU’s lasting conservative behavior was regarded negatively by protesters and lead to disappointment.

  4. Zelfvoorzieningslandbouw op de EU-agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Kerkhoffs, S.

    2005-01-01

    Het is onwaarschijnlijk dat de zelfvoorzieningslandbouw in de nieuwe lidstaten door de toetreding tot de EU snel zal verdwijnen. De duale sectorstructuur van de landbouw zadelt de EU met een nieuw probleem op. Dit vraagt om een meer gedifferentieerd landbouwbeleid.

  5. A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, T. H.

    A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

  6. Femtosecond resolution timing jitter correction on a TW scale Ti:sapphire laser system for FEL pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatari Divall, Marta; Mutter, Patrick; Divall, Edwin J; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-11-16

    Intense ultrashort pulse lasers are used for fs resolution pump-probe experiments more and more at large scale facilities, such as free electron lasers (FEL). Measurement of the arrival time of the laser pulses and stabilization to the machine or other sub-systems on the target, is crucial for high time-resolution measurements. In this work we report on a single shot, spectrally resolved, non-collinear cross-correlator with sub-fs resolution. With a feedback applied we keep the output of the TW class Ti:sapphire amplifier chain in time with the seed oscillator to ~3 fs RMS level for several hours. This is well below the typical pulse duration used at FELs and supports fs resolution pump-probe experiments. Short term jitter and long term timing drift measurements are presented. Applicability to other wavelengths and integration into the timing infrastructure of the FEL are also covered to show the full potential of the device.

  7. Concentric needle single fiber electromyography: normative jitter values on voluntary activated Extensor Digitorum Communis Eletromiografia de fibra única com agulha concêntrica: valores normativos do jitter no estudo por contração voluntária do músculo Extensor Digitorum Communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG is the most sensitive clinical neurophysiological test for neuromuscular junction disorders, particularly myasthenia gravis. Normal values for jitter obtained with SFEMG electrode have been published, but there are few publications for concentric needle electrode (CNE. The aim of this study was to discuss the possibilities to analyse the jitter in CNE recordings and to get normal values of jitter for voluntary activated Extensor Digitorum Communis using disposable CNE. Fifty normal subjects were studied, 16 male and 34 female with a mean age of 37.1±10.3 years (19-55. The jitter values of action potentials pairs of isolated muscular fibers were expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD after 20 analysed potential pairs. The mean MCD (n=50 obtained was 24.2±2.8 µs (range of mean values in each subject was 18-31. Upper 95% confidence limit is 29.8 µs. The mean jitter of all potential pairs (n=1000 obtained was 24.07±7.30 µs (range 9-57. A practical upper limit for individual data is set to 46 µs. The mean interpotential interval (MIPI was 779±177 µs (range of individual mean values was 530-1412; there were no potentials with impulse blocking. The present study confirms that CNE is suitable for jitter analysis although certain precautions must be mentioned. Our findings of jitter values with CNE were similar to some other few reports in literature.Eletromiografia de fibra única (SFEMG é o método eletrofisiológico mais sensível para diagnóstico das desordens de junção neuromuscular, particularmente miastenia gravis. Jitter obtido por meio de eletrodo de SFEMG já foi padronizado, porém há poucas publicações com uso de eletrodo de agulha concêntrica (CNE. O objetivo deste estudo é discutir as possibilidades de analisar o jitter por registro com CNE e obter valores normativos para o músculo Extensor Digitorum Communis por ativação muscular mínima. Foram estudados 50 indiv

  8. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  9. Brexit, the EU and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Following the Brexit referendum the UK is leaving the EU and this means that the UK no longer stands together with the EU on the international scene. The British Prime Minister Theresa May has recently invoked the EU Treaty Article 50 initiating the Brexit process and obviously the UK leaders know...

  10. Danish Foreign Policy and the Balance between the EU and the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In the international debate it is often argued that Denmark in its major foreign policy priorities has sided with the USA since the Cold War rather than with the EU or its European partners. The article examines whether this is correct, and if it is, why this is so, since 2001. The paper also asks...... whether a different theoretical approach - namely, discourse analysis will lead to different findings than those of the dominant approaches. The article first presents different ways of explaining why a country chooses the balance that it does between the EU and the US. One particular approach......, poststructuralist discourse analysis, is applied. The balance between the EU and the US in the dominant Danish discourse is analysed. The article then outlines the policy level and attempts to map where Danish policies are conducted with the EU and the US respectively. It is shown that the EU is the most important...

  11. The impact of EU-accession on farming and agricultural employment in Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga KEREKES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals some consequences of Romania’s accession to the EU on farming and agricultural employment in Cluj County. EU15 countries have a different farm structure and a higher agricultural labour productivity than Romania and the Common Agricultural Policy in its present form responds primarily to their needs. Based on the interviews carried out in 2005 and in 2009 with farmers and experts from Cluj County, the paper presents the expectations towards EU accession as well as its short-term effects. Results of the interviews suggest that, in Cluj County, EU-accession leads to the disappearance of semi-subsistence farms and to the decrease of the number of agricultural workers. Farmers are still not sufficiently informed about CAP and the complexity of the administrative procedures, and the lack of professionalism of agency staff and the delays of payments caused many disappointments in the first two years after EU accession.

  12. Bright Eu2+-activated polycrystalline ceramic neutron scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. L.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Riedel, R. A.; Hodges, J. P.; Karlic, J. J.; Veatch, R. A.; Li, L.; Bridges, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    Scintillation properties of Eu2+-doped CaF2-AlF3-6LiF (Eu:CALF) polycrystalline ceramic thermal-neutron scintillators as a function of AlF3 concentration have been studied. The emission band peaked at a wavelength of 425-431 nm is due to the presence of Eu:CaF2 micro-crystallites. The highest light output from these samples is approximately 20,000 photons per thermal neutron, which is 3 times that of a GS20 6Li-glass scintillator. The pulse-decay lifetime and light output vs. AlF3 concentration may be understood using a radiation trapping model and the formation of a Li3AlF6 phase. At lower AlF3 concentration, Al3+ ions in Eu:CaF2 passivate the hole-trapping defects and enhance the light output; whereas at higher AlF3 concentration, Al3+ ions lead to the formation of electron trapping centers in Eu:CaF2 and the Li3AlF6 phase is formed, which reduces the light output. A neutron-gamma-discrimination (NGD) ratio of 9 × 108 was obtained from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of digital waveforms, while Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) can completely separate the thermal neutrons from 60Co gamma rays within the limit of gamma event statistics used in this work. Our results suggest that Eu:CALF scintillators can potentially replace the GS20 scintillator used for thermal and cold neutron detection systems.

  13. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  14. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used with a...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc).......In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...

  15. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  16. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  17. Macroeconomic Imbalances in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Ederer; Peter Reschenhofer

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to identify different growth patterns in the EU which led to the emergence of macroeconomic imbalances. It provides a detailed statistical picture of the evolution of various macroeconomic variables on the demand as well as on the supply side, before, in and after the financial and economic crisis of 2008/09. It investigates the causes and discusses various ’channels’ which led to macroeconomic imbalances by means of a descriptive analysis of the key determinants of macroecono...

  18. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  19. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  20. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  1. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other parts ... 800-424-5323) • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Lead Awareness Program http: / / www. epa. gov/ lead • EPA publication “ ...

  2. The failure of intergovernmentalism in tackling the EU crisis and the European Parliament’s initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaldi Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is facing a multi-faceted, existential, crisis; it is an economic and social crisis in some countries, a political and cultural crisis all over the EU and a geopolitical crisis at the international level. National governments have taken the lead in the crisis management of the EU: the European Council has become the dominant institution and the intergovernmental method has come back into fashion. But intergovernmentalism has failed: since 2008 the crisis keeps getting worse. Intergovernmentalism is leading towards the EU’s disintegration. Among many voices to save the EU, it is interesting that the supranational institutions, and particularly the Parliament, are taking on themselves the responsibility to take the initiative and indicate a possible way forward for the Union.

  3. The EU/JA Broader Approach Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinzaburo Matsuda

    2006-01-01

    At the time of ITER site decision in Moscow on 28 June 2005, representatives of EU and Japan jointly declared their intention to implement Broader Approach Activities in support of ITER on a time frame compatible with its construction phase. On the basis of this declaration, working groups from the Parties were established to identify possible key areas of joint activities. As a result of intense discussions, agreement has been reached by both Parties as follows. The Broader Approach Activities comprise the following three projects: 1) Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF/EVEDA) 2) the International Fusion Energy Research Center (IFERC), comprising: a) A DEMO Design, R (and) D coordination Center aiming at establishing a common basis for a DEMO design, b) A Computational Simulation Center composed of super-computer facilities for large scale simulation activities, and c) An ITER Remote Experimentation Center to facilitate broad participation of scientists into ITER experiments. 3) the Satellite Tokamak Programme including participation in the upgrade of JT-60 Tokamak to an advanced superconducting tokamak and participation in its exploitation, to support ITER and research towards DEMO. The Parties shall establish a Steering Committee responsible for the overall direction and supervision of the activities. Each project is lead by the respective Project Leader supported by the Project Team. A Project Committee is established for each project to make recommendations to the Steering Committee and monitor the progress of the project. Each Party shall nominate an agency to discharge its obligations for the implementation of these projects. Resources for the Broader Approach Activities shall be equally shared by EU and Japan, contributed mostly in-kind, and allocation of procurements, tasks and responsibilities have been identified. The IFMIF/EVEDA and IFERC projects will be implemented

  4. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  5. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    Lobbying in the EU is difficult to measure. It varies in intensity and modes of expression across different policy areas and EU countries. By looking at a specific EU policy area this paper suggests to measure differences in the lobbying activity across EU countries by the combination...... of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...

  6. Agents of Institutional Change in EU Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Natali, David

    2018-01-01

    The contribution addresses – through actor-centred historical institutionalism – why and how social investment (SI) emerged at the European Union (EU) level. SI policies built on the institutional basis of the policy co-ordination processes in employment and social inclusion, which originated...... in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The pre-existent processes represented the necessary but not sufficient condition for the EU SIP to materialise. The decisive factor was the activity of three types of entrepreneurs – intellectual, bureaucratic and political – that enabled the crystallization of the EU......, the Commission’s political priorities changed and the key entrepreneurs that had been active for the materialisation of the SIP were no longer centre stage. The continued presence of former influential entrepreneurs in the EU policy arena, although in different roles, may enable integration of EU SI into new EU...

  7. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Member States and many citizens of the EU like to keep healthcare a foremost national competence and the EU treaties state that Member States remain primarily responsible for the organization and delivery of health care services, the European Union (EU) has expanded its...... involvement in healthcare policy over the last twenty years. Based on interviews and document and literature analysis we show that the scope of EU involvement has widened from public health and access to care, to quality of care. In this paper we concentrate on the latter. Focusing on the recent EU...... initiatives regarding the quality systems of the Member States and the quality of services, this paper shows how the depth of EU interference has increased from sharing information to standardization and even to the first signs of enforcement. We argue that at this stage, reflection on the feasibility...

  8. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  9. ANDREEA NICOLĂESCU, The Work-Life Balance in Current EU Labour Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.

  10. A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating ultra low noise 15-ps-wide pulses at 10 GHz. It is based on a hybrid optoelectronic oscillator comprising a fiber extended cavity mode-locked diode laser which injection locks a self-oscillating heterojunction bipolar...... phototransistor. Average jitter levels of 40-43 fs and an amplitude noise of 0.1-0.15% over a frequency range of 500 Hz-15 kHz or 500 Hz-1 MHz were obtained, respectively. The noise is slightly larger, a 57- fs jitter and 0.2% amplitude noise, for a frequency range of 100 Hz-1 MHz. A 10-GHz electrical signal...... with a low phase noise (-108 dBc/Hz at 10-kHz offset from the carrier) is also generated....

  11. Design of a Sub-Picosecond Jitter with Adjustable-Range CMOS Delay-Locked Loop for High-Speed and Low-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal I. Abdulrazzaq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Delay-Locked Loop (DLL with a modified charge pump circuit is proposed for generating high-resolution linear delay steps with sub-picosecond jitter performance and adjustable delay range. The small-signal model of the modified charge pump circuit is analyzed to bring forth the relationship between the DLL’s internal control voltage and output time delay. Circuit post-layout simulation shows that a 0.97 ps delay step within a 69 ps delay range with 0.26 ps Root-Mean Square (RMS jitter performance is achievable using a standard 0.13 µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process. The post-layout simulation results show that the power consumption of the proposed DLL architecture’s circuit is 0.1 mW when the DLL is operated at 2 GHz.

  12. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. This report examines how lowering import levies impacts the competitiveness of the EU poultry industry. The results show that the offer price of broiler breast fillet in 2011 of so...

  13. The Influence of Migration Crisis in Europe on EU-Turkey Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P. Timofeyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of the migration crisis in the EU on the European Union's relations with Turkey. It is shown that for a number of reasons, including a result of EU actions taken from 2011 to 2015, EU has experienced an influx of migrants on a number of routes from the Western to the Eastern Mediterranean. The largest of them fell on Turkey, which has tried to use this factor to exert pressure on the EU in order to obtain economic and political preferences. The author examines the development of the EU migration policy in the context of the crisis, its trying to bring Turkey to cooperate and difficult negotiations, which took place at the summits of the EU-Turkey at the end of 2015. There have been disagreements among the EU countries, and the time factor, which Turkey took advantage of, advancing conditions for the closure of borders to Europe for migrants. Facing the influx of migrants the EU had to agree with a number of conditions, though not with all. The author shows that the agreement reached by the country in March 2016 is not universal, and a number of issues important to the resolution of the crisis, are waiting to be decided upon. However, according to the author, the development of the current crisis can lead both to the reform of the migration and border policy within the EU, and to restarting relations with Turkey. Though guessing on possibilities on Turkey's entry to the EU in the near future is still premature.

  14. Connecting Territorial Knowledge Arenas – the Interrelationship between CEMAT and EU Activities in Spatial Development Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Fritsch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the increasing importance of evidence, knowledge and learning in both domestic and transnational policy development processes, this paper analyses how non-EU and intra-European Union knowledge arenas in spatial development policy and planning are connected by focussing specifically on the interrelationship between CEMAT and European Union activities and arenas of co-operation. The Council of Europe Conference of Ministers Responsible for Spatial/Regional Planning (CEMAT has long served as a platform for pan-European (including both EU members and non-members co-operation in spatial development, but has recently been sidelined by EU initiatives in this field of activity and even faced the possibility of discontinuation. Analysing potential areas of competition and complementarities/synergies and reviewing the recent Russian CEMAT Presidency, the paper argues that CEMAT retains an important role in connecting EU debates, practices and research with actors outside the European Union. However, institutionalised collaborative mechanisms and the systematic exchange of information between CEMAT and the EU in this field should be strengthened, particularly in a direction from EU to CEMAT and in the domain of research and evidence. Continuing with a sub-optimal level of co-operation between CEMAT and the EU in this field or even discontinuation of CEMAT would undoubtedly hamper the involvement and integration of non-EU members in the debate on European spatial development policy and would probably rather quickly lead to the significant disruption of the territorial knowledge channel linking the EU and Russia as well as that with the EU neighbourhood more broadly, while also significantly inhibiting the processes of learning on a pan-European level and stalling the development of a trajectory towards the emergence of something that would resemble a pan-European ‘epistemic community’ in spatial development policy and planning.

  15. Combined effect of loop delay and reference clock jitter in first-order digital bang-bang phase-locked loops

    OpenAIRE

    Tertinek, Stefan; Feely, Orla

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several digital phase-locked loops (DPLLs) have been demonstrated to achieve the jitter performance of traditional charge-pump-based analog PLLs. This paper is concerned with a class of DPLLs employing a binary-quantized phase detector, referred to as bangbang PLLs (BBPLLs). They are widely used in clock and data recovery circuits and have recently been implemented as digital BBPLLs for high-bandwidth synthesis. Given that a DPLL implementation typically suffers from (excess) ...

  16. Sub-fs electron bunch generation with sub-10-fs bunch arrival-time jitter via bunch slicing in a magnetic chicane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The generation of ultrashort electron bunches with ultrasmall bunch arrival-time jitter is of vital importance for laser-plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection. We study the production of 100-MeV electron bunches with bunch durations of subfemtosecond (fs and bunch arrival-time jitters of less than 10 fs, in an S-band photoinjector by using a weak magnetic chicane with a slit collimator. The beam dynamics inside the chicane is simulated by using two codes with different self-force models. The first code separates the self-force into a three-dimensional (3D quasistatic space-charge model and a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR model, while the other one starts from the first principle with a so-called 3D sub-bunch method. The simulations indicate that the CSR effect dominates the horizontal emittance growth and the 1D CSR model underestimates the final bunch duration and emittance because of the very large transverse-to-longitudinal aspect ratio of the sub-fs bunch. Particularly, the CSR effect is also strongly affected by the vertical bunch size. Due to the coupling between the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, the bunch duration at the entrance of the last dipole magnet of the chicane is still significantly longer than that at the exit of the chicane, which considerably mitigates the impact of space charge and CSR effects on the beam quality. Exploiting this effect, a bunch charge of up to 4.8 pC in a sub-fs bunch could be simulated. In addition, we analytically and numerically investigate the impact of different jitter sources on the bunch arrival-time jitter downstream of the chicane, and define the tolerance budgets assuming realistic values of the stability of the linac for different bunch charges and compression schemes.

  17. Automated jitter correction for IR image processing to assess the quality of W7-X high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H; De Marne, P; Herrmann, A; Boeswirth, B; Schindler, T; Smirnow, M

    2009-01-01

    An automated IR image processing method was developed to evaluate the surface temperature distribution of cyclically loaded high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing components. IPP Garching will perform the HHF testing of a high percentage of the series production of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor targets to minimize the number of undiscovered uncertainties in the finally installed components. The HHF tests will be performed as quality assurance (QA) complementary to the non-destructive examination (NDE) methods used during the manufacturing. The IR analysis of an HHF-loaded component detects growing debonding of the plasma facing material, made of carbon fibre composite (CFC), after a few thermal cycles. In the case of the prototype testing, the IR data was processed manually. However, a QA method requires a reliable, reproducible and efficient automated procedure. Using the example of the HHF testing of W7-X pre-series target elements, the paper describes the developed automated IR image processing method. The algorithm is based on an iterative two-step correlation analysis with an individually defined reference pattern for the determination of the jitter.

  18. Implementing BosonSampling with time-bin encoding: Analysis of loss, mode mismatch, and time jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Keith R.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Rohde, Peter P.

    2015-11-01

    It was recently shown by Motes, Gilchrist, Dowling, and Rohde [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.120501] that a time-bin encoded fiber-loop architecture can implement an arbitrary passive linear optics transformation. This was shown in the case of an ideal scheme whereby the architecture has no sources of error. In any realistic implementation, however, physical errors are present, which corrupt the output of the transformation. We investigate the dominant sources of error in this architecture—loss and mode mismatch—and consider how it affects the BosonSampling protocol, a key application for passive linear optics. For our loss analysis we consider two major components that contribute to loss—fiber and switches—and calculate how this affects the success probability and fidelity of the device. Interestingly, we find that errors due to loss are not uniform (unique to time-bin encoding), which asymmetrically biases the implemented unitary. Thus loss necessarily limits the class of unitaries that may be implemented, and therefore future implementations must prioritize minimizing loss rates if arbitrary unitaries are to be implemented. Our formalism for mode mismatch is generalized to account for various phenomenon that may cause mode mismatch, but we focus on two—errors in fiber-loop lengths and time jitter of the photon source. These results provide a guideline for how well future experimental implementations might perform in light of these error mechanisms.

  19. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  20. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major economic reasons for the creation of the European Union (EU) and of the Euro-zone (EZ) was an expected bonus of economic growth for member countries. Whilst several studies exist on the growth bonus of EU membership, there are none for the EZ, the latest and deepest step of econo......One of the major economic reasons for the creation of the European Union (EU) and of the Euro-zone (EZ) was an expected bonus of economic growth for member countries. Whilst several studies exist on the growth bonus of EU membership, there are none for the EZ, the latest and deepest step...

  1. EU Energy Law. Volume 4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.; Hartridge, O.; Lefevere, J.; Meadows, D.; Runge-Metzger, A.; Slingenberg, Y.; Vainio, M.; Vis, P.; Zapfel, P.

    2006-06-01

    Gives valuable insights in the why's, how's, trade-offs, and critical design choices of the Emission Trading System of the European Union (EU ETS). The chapters deal with (1) The EU ETS: the result of a decade of policy action on the economic dimension of EU environmental policy; (2) The international climate policy developments of the 1990s: UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Agreements and the EU's Kyoto ratification decision; (3) Emissions trading: What is it? Design options and misconceptions; (4) The EU ETS Directive 2003/87/EEC explained; (5) The EU ETS Linking Directive explained; (6) The economic efficiency benefits of the EU ETS; (7) The NAP I experience; (8) The key importance of the Registry Regulation and of solid monitoring and verification; and (9) The potential role of the EU ETS for the elaboration of the post-2012 international climate regime. Conclusions are in chapter 10

  2. Low-timing-jitter, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser with tunable repetition rate and high operation stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuanshan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guofu; Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We design a low-timing-jitter, repetition-rate-tunable, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser by using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM), a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and a tunable optical delay line in the laser configuration. Low-timing-jitter optical pulses are stably produced when a SESAM and a 0.16 m dispersion compensation fiber are employed in the laser cavity. By inserting a tunable optical delay line between NALM and SESAM, the variable repetition-rate operation of a self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber laser is successfully demonstrated over a range from 49.65 to 50.47 MHz. The experimental results show that the newly designed fiber laser can maintain the mode locking at the pumping power of 160 mW to stably generate periodic optical pulses with width less than 170 fs and timing jitter lower than 75 fs in the 1.55 µm wavelength region, when the fundamental repetition rate of the laser is continuously tuned between 49.65 and 50.47 MHz. Moreover, this fiber laser has a feature of turn-key operation with high repeatability of its fundamental repetition rate in practice

  3. Eu and Sr2CeO4 : Eu phosphors suitable for near ultraviolet excitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    et al 2009). It absorbs ultraviolet radiation and emits white light, when activated by Eu2+ ions. It is anticipated that the dual behaviour of Sr2CeO4 : Eu3+ and Sr2CeO4 : Eu2+ phosphors ... in stoichiometric proportions (Sr : Ce is 2 : 1) and Eu2O3. (National ..... Zhang C X, Jiang W J and Yang X J 2009 J. Alloys Compd. 474.

  4. Policy options for carbon taxation in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' are probably out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place. First, the EU is not as 'virtuous' as it may seem, and shows signs of a 'fatigue' in mitigating climate change; this is explained by the weak incentive structure of current climate institutions, due to both narrow coverage and insufficient stringency of the European 'Emission Trading Scheme' (ETS) - the European 'carbon market'-, and to excessive reliance on emission standards combined with weak energy taxation. Fears of losing competitiveness are a major argument against imposing a higher carbon price on industries, feeding tax competition both within the EU and vis-a-vis the rest of the world. Though not fully satisfactory, the Commission's recent proposal (a revision of the 2003 energy taxation directive introducing floors on national excises based on carbon content) would help solving the intra-EU conundrum. Alternatively, an extension of the EU ETS to households and the transport sector via the 'upstream' inclusion of fossil fuel dealers would also be a feasible solution. In order to answer the 'carbon leakage' argument and to send appropriate price signals to European consumers on extra-EU imports, a border adjustment mechanism - carbon levy or inclusion of importers into the EU ETS - is also necessary. Ultimately though, in order to make sure that economic agents face a uniform carbon price, a generalized carbon tax, in the form of a European 'Carbon Added Tax' (ECAT), would be the most effective instrument in the fight against climate change, as well as the pillar of a thorough tax

  5. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  6. Gender differences in health of EU10 and EU15 populations: the double burden of EU10 men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); H. van Oyen (Herman); J-M. Robine (Jean-Marie); C. Jagger (Carol)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study compares gender differences in Healthy Life Years (HLY) and unhealthy life years (ULY) between the original (EU15) and new member states (EU10). Based on the number of deaths, population and prevalence of activity limitations from the Statistics of Living and Income Conditions

  7. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  8. EU SDS. Ingredients for the 2006 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ridder, W.; Wesselink, L.G.

    2006-01-01

    The current EU strategy for sustainable development comprises three separate components. Collectively, these comprise a broad spectrum of sustainable development goals, ranging from economic growth and more jobs to halting biodiversity loss and attaining millennium development goals such as poverty reduction. On paper, the entire EU Sustainable Development Strategy (EU SDS) reflects the different views on sustainable development. In reality, however, it is the so-called Lisbon strategy, whose goal it is to transform Europe into the most competitive area of the world by 2010, that dominates policy development in the EU. This focus on the Lisbon strategy is motivated by the assumption that competitiveness is a precondition for sustainable development. However, historical trends show that more growth has thus far not contributed to attaining the sustainable development goals for protection of the world's climate and biodiversity. The current EU SDS is not clear about the extent to which such trade-offs are accepted or about how further trade-offs will be avoided. There are also indications that large groups of EU citizens do not necessarily desire the EU to focus on the Lisbon strategy in favour to the other components of the EU SDS. Revising the EU SDS provides an opportunity to explicitly subordinate the Lisbon strategy to the EU SDS by creating one single document, endorsed and monitored by the EU Council, in which all goals for sustainable development are presented integrally. This document should then describe how the focus on Lisbon will contribute to sustainable development and how tradeoffs are dealt with. Trade-offs should ideally be scientifically underpinned and choices based on broad societal consultation

  9. EU policy options for climate and energy beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.; Notenboom, J.; Boot, P. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Groenenberg, H.; Winkel, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, the EU climate and energy package with targets for 2020 (the so-called 20-20-20 targets) were formulated. For the period after 2020, however, there are no legally binding targets at the EU level, except for a decreasing ETS cap which will not be sufficient in light of the ambition for 2050. This leads to uncertainty for market players, as project lead times are long and high upfront investments need to deliver returns well beyond 2020. In its Green Paper on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, the European Commission recognised the need for clarity regarding the post-2020 policy framework. Currently under discussion is whether the approach for 2020 should be continued towards 2030 in the form of three more stringent targets or that other approaches would be more appropriate. Within this context, the Dutch Government asked PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Ecofys for advice. PBL and Ecofys have subsequently analysed possible options for an EU policy framework for 2030 that will steer towards a low-carbon economy by 2050 in a cost-effective way.

  10. The text and context of EU directives: implications for translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Yankova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive studies of statutory legislation are very scarce world-wide. Research in legal language has mainly concentrated on adjectival law leading to linguistic insights regarding powerful versus powerless speech, fragmented versus narrative testimony, the effect on jurors of simultaneous and overlapping speech, the use of leading, suggestive or improper questions in the courtroom, etc. Language of the substantive law has so far received considerably less attention from linguists, although there is a general tendency in academic endeavours towards interdisciplinary studies. Linguistic analyses of substantive law have elucidated issues such as how to make existing or future statutes clearer, without loss of content (i.e. document design or how law students can be taught to process legislation. The present article analyses the specific functional, linguistic and communicative characteristics of the legal genre from an applied linguist’s perspective in the context of European legal texts, as representing a unique set of features and conditions. It looks at the linguistic situation in Europe and the language policy in the EU with special emphasis on the translation regime of EU institutions. The participants in the communication and the special role of the translator in the law making process in the EU are discussed.

  11. A single gene (Eu4) encodes the tissue-ubiquitous urease of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisky, R S; Griffin, J D; Yenofsky, R L; Polacco, J C

    1994-02-01

    We sought to determine the genetic basis of expression of the ubiquitous (metabolic) urease of soybean. This isozyme is termed the metabolic urease because its loss, in eu4/eu4 mutants, leads to accumulation of urea, whereas loss of the embryo-specific urease isozyme does not. The eu4 lesion eliminated the expression of the ubiquitous urease in vegetative and embryonic tissues. RFLP analysis placed urease clone LC4 near, or within, the Eu4 locus. Sequence comparison of urease proteins (ubiquitous and embryo-specific) and clones (LC4 and LS1) indicated that LC4 and LS1 encode ubiquitous and embryo-specific ureases, respectively. That LC4 is transcribed into poly(A)+ RNA in all tissues was indicated by the amplification of its transcript by an LC4-specific PCR primer. (The LS1-specific primer, on the other hand, amplified poly(A)+ RNA only from developing embryos expressing the embryo-specific urease.) These observations are consistent with Eu4 being the ubiquitous urease structural gene contained in the LC4 clone. In agreement with this notion, the mutant phenotype of eu4/eu4 callus was partially corrected by the LC4 urease gene introduced by particle bombardment.

  12. EU Soft Power and the Capability-Expectations Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.

    2013-01-01

    does little to address the weakness of the EU as a foreign policy actor. This article elaborates on the soft power concept and on the interplay between hard and soft power as seen in the EU’s foreign policy. It argues that in few of the roles the EU seeks to fulfil does soft power in itself bridge...... the gap between the expectations and the capabilities. Rather, soft power, when it is present, widens that gap even further by adding to expectations, thus leading to even greater eventual disillusionment when the EU’s hard power capabilities do not match.......The European Union has in the past ten years frequently emphasised its soft power as its primary currency in international affairs. Yet a systematic analysis of the EU’s foreign policy performance, through the prism of the classic ‘capability-expectations gap’, suggests that soft power in itself...

  13. EU ETS monitoring and compliance in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijknecht, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The success of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as a whole depends on proper national monitoring and compliance mechanisms in each of the 31 participating States. This article will focus on the legal and practical realization of an EU ETS monitoring and compliance system in

  14. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  15. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella

    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  16. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  17. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  18. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  19. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...

  20. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    the potential of a practice turn in EU studies for both theory (overcoming dualism, replacing substantialism with processualism and rethinking power) and methods (including unstructured interviews, fieldwork and participant observation). A practice turn will force us to rethink core assumptions about the EU...

  1. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in

  2. Regionale Meeresschutzkooperation und die EU-Gratwanderung der Helsinki-Kommission imOsterweiterungsprozess der EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Heike

    1999-12-01

    which comply with existing EC legislation. In addition, the EC Commission, which is a Party to the Helsinki Convention, strictly monitors compliance with the limits set by their exclusive resoonsibility and the responsibility of the Helsinki Commission. This demeanour of the EC Commission regularly creates problems in cases where EC rules do not take into account the regional characteristics of the Baltic Sea area and in particular when they do not adequately honour the position of the Russian Federation as a member state with equal rights. What is the special role of the Helsinki Commission compared to the Barcelona cooperation (Mediterranean Sea protection) and to the OSPAR cooperation (protection of the North East Atlantic)? It is particularly important that those OSPAR member states which are not also EU members enforce a comparatively high level of environmental protection anyway. This does not automatically apply to states like Poland or the Baltic Republics, most of which, however, will join the EU in the foreseeable future, but whose environmental standards partly still require significant adjustment to the EC level. In addition, the Russian Federation, which will not become an EU member even in the foreseeable future, plays, a special role. At this point the significant general political role of the Helsinki Commission must be mentioned. According to the unanimity principle it only adopts recommendations which receive the support of all member states, i.e. also by the mentioned eastern riparian states. Sometimes criticism is voiced that the different forms of regional cooperation would lead to duplication of work in the case of issues which are regulated by EC directives anyway and that they should therefore be rejected. It is said that the candidate countries should rather give priority to the adjustment to the EC protection level and that there was no need for an intermediate stage at the regional level. This attitude completely ignores the necessity of

  3. Humanitarian Issues: the EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Navarro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO and the 15 membercountries of the EU provide more than 50% of the humanitarian aid worldwide: ECHO assigns more than 90% of its budget (only 0.9% of the Community’s total to victims of man-made conflicts. For the author, the experience of ECHO shows the "limits of what is humanitarian": that is, the lack of security for humanitarian workers, the still-to-beoperational Permanent Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity, the difficult access to refugees, and the fact that humanitarian efforts are not a substitute for policy and, therefore, that humanitarian efforts can not resolve a crisis that has a political origin and solution. The challenges to be faced in the coming years include denouncing the violations of humanitarian values, transferring these values into a future CFSP, organizing humanitarian aid efficiently, combating “donor fatigue” and supporting conflict prevention.

  4. The Danish Folketing and EU Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskjær Christensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    European integration has been and still is a contested issue in Danish politics. Denmark is often thought of as a sceptical member of the European Union (EU), due in particular to the Danes’ rejection of two EU referendums (on the Maastricht Treaty and the euro) and Denmark’s opt-outs from...... political aspects of EU cooperation that have evolved since the 1970s. This became particularly clear with Danish voters’ rejection of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, where the establishment of a more political union was on the agenda. The Danish rejection of the Treaty threw the EU into its first major......: (1) from the third phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), that is, the euro; (2) from supranational cooperation on Justice and Home Affairs (JHA); (3) from defence cooperation within the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and (4) from EU citizenship, which no longer has any practical...

  5. Basic Indicators of Systemic Risk in the EU Banking Sector. Implications for Banking Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sum Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of systemic risk regulation and management has gained substantial attention following the latest financial crisis. In the case of the EU it became crucial to deal with the systemic risk problem on a supranational level since the banking sectors of the member countries are highly integrated. While substantial measures have been undertaken to mitigate systemic risk in the EU, the discussion of further reforms continues. This study’s goal is to assess basic indicators of systemic risk in the EU banking sector by using three complementary methods: a forward-looking stock market data analysis, an EU-stress test analysis for systemically important banks, and an empirical investigation of the relation between banking regulation and systemic risk as measured by bank balance sheet indicators. The results lead to a recommendation of further necessary regulatory reforms, which appear in the conclusion.

  6. The paradox of EU enlargement and member states' policies: Dilemmas and challenges: The case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Santos Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of EU enlargement with its dual nature: of an intra-EU process, related to the consolidation of a democratic-peace based on collective security, and an external process, involving EU foreign policy and impact on relations with other major global players. Although enlargement is a multidimensional process that combines different perspectives - candidate countries' enlargement politics, member states' politics/policy, EU enlargement politics and external global impact - the paper focuses on Member States policies towards enlargement by looking at the case of Portugal, in particular in relation with the Big Bang Eastern enlargement, and aims at explaining the paradox of Portugal's strong political support to enlargement while it was one of the main potential losers in terms of economic interests. A 'foreign policy analysis' framework is adopted in order to understand the process of decision-making and the interaction between the domestic and the EU levels. The argument put forward is that an exclusive constructivist approach does not provide a satisfactory explanation, as there was also rationalist-interest logic at play. The Portuguese policy towards enlargement was determined not only by the 'solidaritysimilarity' logic, dominant in the formal political discourse but also by the consideration of long-term interests in the EU related to the preservation of the strategic alliance with Germany. The overall systemic impact of enlargement tends to weaken the EU as it presents a major paradox functioning as a double-edged sword. While it has a positive impact by contributing to the enhancement of the EU international profile as it grows in size raising expectations about its potential global role, it also leads to greater heterogeneity, undermining the EU cohesion and its ability to act together with a single voice becoming a robust global player, thus frustrating the expectations raised in the first place.

  7. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  8. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  9. Normative power Europe? EU relations with Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa de Wekker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the extent to which the European Union (EU constitutes a normative power in its relations with Moldova. ‘Normative power Europe’ is examined along three dimensions: (i normative intent; (ii normative process; and (iii normative impact. Our empirical analysis focuses on two norms: democracy and good governance. In addition, we ask how ‘normatively’ the EU has acted regarding a solution to the Transnistrian conflict. On the basis of our three-dimensional framework, we find that EU normative power can be judged as only moderate in EU-Moldovan relations. As for intent, while norms of democracy and good governance seem to play a central role in EU-Moldovan relations, the Union tends to apply double standards in terms of what it expects from (EU Member States and what it asks of Moldova, and also seems to be inconsistent in its policies towards Moldova and Ukraine. In terms of process, the degree of inclusiveness on the part of the Union has not been satisfactory. Neither has the extent of reflexivity, but more recently the Commission seems to have developed a more reflexive behaviour. In regards to impact, while norm changes in Moldova have been modest/moderate, it seems that the EU has substantially contributed to these changes.

  10. Enlarging the EU's internal energy market. Why would third countries accept EU rule export?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange-Gstoehl, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Why would countries without a membership perspective seek integration into the EU's internal energy market? One major element of the EU's external energy policy is the export of EU energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond. A core legal instrument the EU uses in this context is the Energy Community Treaty (ECT). The ECT goes both geographically and regarding its depth significantly beyond neighbourhood or association policies, addressing potentially also countries in the 'far neighbourhood' and aiming at the creation of a Single Market for energy with these countries. While, however, EU candidate countries are obliged to adopt the 'acquis' before accessing the EU and therefore comply to EU rules already before they enter the Club, I argue that countries with no or only a vague membership perspective - i.e. countries where the EU cannot apply the 'conditionality' - approach (e.g., ENP countries) - aim at deeper integration with the EU because they are either eager to demonstrate their capability and potential to become part of the Club, they seek greater independence from a regional hegemony or they envisage significant economic gains as common norms, rules and standards are likely to increase economic exchange with the EU. (author)

  11. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S., E-mail: mvsrezende@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário, 49100-000 Itabaiana-SE (Brazil); Valerio, Mário E.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário, 49100-000 São Cristovão-SE (Brazil); Jackson, Robert A. [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  12. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  13. Challenges of public procurement in EU funded projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Šostar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membership in the European Union implies adjustment of EU projects to the rules of Structural Funds, but also adoption of legal regulations, thus influencing the process of implementation of the public procurement in EU funded projects. Each successful applicant who expressed the need for procurement of goods, services and works of a certain value, must respect the principles of public procurement. Irregularities in the procurement process can lead to the failure of returning the EU funds even several years after the end of the project. Therefore, the knowledge and proper implementation of public procurement is the main precondition for the correct implementation of each project. In order to obtain information about the current absorption capacity of the public procurement liable parties, and to identify key obstacles that stakeholders face in procurement procedures, the research was conducted by surveying 30 entities that are subject of public procurement in Croatia. Research results imply the poor quality of public procurement in the implemented projects, which often results in financial corrections, disapproving project reports, etc.

  14. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...... actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks...

  15. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...

  16. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...... agreements. They gained strong influence over their surroundings, and ,albeit they had to give up substantil parts of de-facto sovereingty, they are much better off than before, in particular in terms of security. EU's "new politics" are a successful alternative model to the "old politics", represented e...

  17. Regulating investment funds: Serbia vs. EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiljo-Mihajlović Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Investment Funds ('Official Gazette of the RS', no. 46/06, 51/09, and 31/11 regulates the field of investment funds operating in Serbia. Bearing in mind that Serbia has been in the process of joining the EU, and that it faces the pending obligation of gradual acquisition of the EU solutions and harmonization of local regulations with the relevant EU directives, in this paper we analyze the room for amendments to the concerned Law, with a view to further harmonization of domestic regulations related to investment funds, and facilitation of the local fund industry's development.

  18. The EU model evaluation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The model evaluation group (MEG) was launched in 1992 growing out of the Major Technological Hazards Programme with EU/DG XII. The goal of MEG was to improve the culture in which models were developed, particularly by encouraging voluntary model evaluation procedures based on a formalised and consensus protocol. The evaluation intended to assess the fitness-for-purpose of the models being used as a measure of the quality. The approach adopted was focused on developing a generic model evaluation protocol and subsequent targeting this onto specific areas of application. Five such developments have been initiated, on heavy gas dispersion, liquid pool fires, gas explosions, human factors and momentum fires. The quality of models is an important element when complying with the 'Seveso Directive' requiring that the safety reports submitted to the authorities comprise an assessment of the extent and severity of the consequences of identified major accidents. Further, the quality of models become important in the land use planning process, where the proximity of industrial sites to vulnerable areas may be critical. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina PANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent geographic area, etc.

  20. Facile Fabrication and Properties of Gd2O3:Eu3+, Y2O3:Eu3+ Nanophosphors and Gd2O3:Eu3+/Silica, Y2O3:Eu3+/Silica Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Tran Kim; Chau, Pham Thi Minh; Hai, Nguyen Thi Quy; Ha, Vu Thi Thai; Van Tuyen, Ho; Bounyavong, Sengthong; Thanh, Nguyen Trong; Minh, Le Quoc

    2018-01-01

    Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors have been successfully fabricated by a combustion method at low temperature (350°C) in a short time (5 min) using natriethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-Na2) as fuel. The structure, morphology and size of Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors have been determined by x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Photoluminescence spectra indicated that the optimum Eu3+ ion concentrations with the strongest luminescence emission intensities are 5 mol.% for Y2O3:Eu3+ and 7 mol.% for Gd2O3:Eu3+. The nanocomposites of Gd2O3:Eu3+/silica and Y2O3:Eu3+/silica were fabricated by a sol-gel process with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as matrix material, and the nanocomposite compositions were analyzed by energy dispersion spectra. The strongest luminescence peaks from the 5D0-7F2 transition of the Eu3+ ion in Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors are between 613 nm and 615 nm. The Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors and their silica nanocomposites were studied to elucidate the influences of the Eu3+ concentration, host materials, annealing temperature, and weight ratio of TEOS and Gd2O3:Eu3+ or Y2O3:Eu3+.

  1. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  2. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  3. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  4. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  5. Modeling convergence of Ukraine towards the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Popko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the pre-accession experience of new European Union member states of Central and Eastern Europe and accordingly examines the prospects for a convergence of Ukraine’s economic performance with that of the EU countries. The authors develop econometric models to evaluate the trade and foreign direct investment (FDI effects of EU-accession for Ukraine. The trade potential between Ukraine and the EU is assessed based on the gravity model of international trade using economic distance indexes. The FDI effects are analyzed according to an econometric data panel model. The article also examines the benchmarks of Ukraine’s convergence with the EU in terms of trade volume and FDI potential values.

  6. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  7. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  8. Gas and coal competition in the EU power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    According to a new report by CEDIGAZ, the International Centre for Natural Gas Information, gas has lost its attractiveness against coal in the EU power sector. Its demand by the sector decreased by one third during the past three years and its prospects are very weak in this decade. The Association warns that un-profitability of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) and the retirement of old coal plants due to stringent air regulation may lead to the closure of one third of the current fleet and poses a serious security of supply issue that has to be addressed urgently

  9. Spain and EU foreign policy after Lisbon ; still calling the tune in EU Latin America policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Saura, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgave offentlig politikk og ledelse- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Ever since its accession to the EU in 1986 Spain has been considered to be the main driver of the EU Latin America policy, regardless of government. This particular domain of EU foreign policy has for a long time been of relatively little interest among the other member states, which in other words left Spain as its undisputed leader, with permission from Portugal. Spain has therefore been quite successful...

  10. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  11. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  12. Synthesis and tunable luminescent properties of Eu-doped Ca2NaSiO4F – Coexistence of the Eu2+ and Eu3+ centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiao Xie

    Full Text Available Novel phosphors Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu were synthesized successfully by the conventional solid-state method in CO atmosphere, and their spectroscopic properties in UV−vis region were investigated. The photoluminescence properties show that Eu3+ ions were partially reduced to Eu2+ in Ca2NaSiO4F. As a result of radiation and re-absorption energy transfer from Eu2+ to Eu3+, both Eu2+ bluish-green emission at around 520 nm and Eu3+ red emission are observed in the emission spectra under the n-UV light excitation. Furthermore, the ratio between Eu2+ and Eu3+ emissions varies with increasing content of overall Eu. Because relative intensity of the red component from Eu3+ became systematically stronger, white light emission can be realized by combining the emission of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in a single host lattice under n-UV light excitation. These results indicate that the Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu phosphors have potential applications as a n-UV convertible phosphor for light-emitting diodes. Keywords: Phosphors, Luminescence, White LED, Optical materials

  13. INSTITUTIONS IN TRANSITION: IS THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS RELEVANT FOR INWARD FDI IN TRANSITION EUROPEAN ECONOMIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Delevic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research challenges the contemporary view of economic policy makers in transition European economies that the EU integration process will lead to a greater inflow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI, thereby increasing living standards. With the Brexit referendum, the integration of the EU has been threatened by a distressing existential question: is EU membership valuable for transition countries if even developed countries (like the UK vote to leave or decided not to align like Switzerland and Norway in the past? Our analysis considers the success of several countries in Eastern Europe in attracting and benefiting from FDI on their way to EU membership. Analyzing a 13-year panel data of 16 transition countries, we found no statistically significant positive association between FDI inflow and EU accession. We argue, that it is also important to consider the welfare for domestic economies that can emerge from those investments. We illustrate this through the case study of a successful combination of institutional development and local content policies implementation accompanied by sufficient FDI inflows in a non-EU country - Kazakhstan.

  14. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...... developments in the field of mobile media....

  15. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  16. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    ’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...... is to outline the mission’s most significant strategic shortcomings and lessons identified, which are important in improving the effectiveness of the capabilities in EU conflict prevention....

  17. Critical neutron scattering from the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1972-01-01

    The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T......The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T...

  18. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF2:Eu nanophosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L.; O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E.; Coetsee, E.

    2014-01-01

    SrF 2 :Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF 2 nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ . At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu 2+ centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu 3+ emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ valance states. The presence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu 3+ under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu 2+ rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu 2+ doped SrF 2 samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF 2 : Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu 3+ UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Eu 3+ is dominant

  19. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  20. EU health stakeholders and patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Tiddens-Engwirda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The Standing Committee of European Doctors (CPME has been actively promoting patient safety for a long time, well before the issue was given a firm place on the European and international agendas. Among its efforts to help raise the profile of patient safety, CPME organised a conference on the 4th and 5th April 2005 together with a group of EU health stakeholders that covered the whole spectrum of healthcare delivery.

    The European Conference ‘Patient Safety – Making it happen!’ took place in Luxembourg under the auspices of the Luxembourg EU presidency and EU Commissioner Kyprianou and resulted in the “Luxembourg Declaration on Patient Safety”.

    This Declaration contains recommendations to the EU, national authorities and healthcare organizations. It underlines the added value of the EU and recommends joining forces with the WHO Alliance for Patient Safety.

    A culture of transparency, trust and safety is being sought for through the suggested use of e-health, flows of health information, patient involvement and reporting systems. CPME saw perseverance and commitment pay off as patient safety is now seen as a priority by all health stakeholders and EU institutional bodies (European Commission, presidencies and Council. However all parties realise full well that the Luxembourg Declaration on Patient Safety is only the first step. All efforts are now focussed on follow up and implementation.

  1. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  2. X-ray enhancement of CsI:Eu{sup 2+} radioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblans, P., E-mail: paul.leblans@agfa.com [Agfa-HealthCare NV, Septestraat 27, B-2640 Mortsel (Belgium); Struye, L.; Elen, S.; Mans, I. [Agfa-HealthCare NV, Septestraat 27, B-2640 Mortsel (Belgium); Vrielinck, H.; Callens, F. [Electron Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    CsI:Eu{sup 2+} needle crystal layers were produced by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). The luminescence properties were studied before and after thermal anneal. It was shown by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) that annealing produces Eu{sup 2+} monomer centres, probably starting from Eu clusters in the needle crystalline layers. These centres seem structurally very similar to the Eu{sup 2+} monomer centres in annealed CsBr:Eu{sup 2+} needle layers. They give rise to a narrow luminescence band peaking at about 450 nm (2.76 eV) at room temperature, both under X-ray and UV excitation. The luminescence intensity of as-deposited layers is low. Annealing enhances photo- and radioluminescence on average by a factor of 1.5–3. Surprisingly, further sensitization of radioluminescence with a factor of up to 7 is possible by exposing the annealed needle layers to X-rays or UV, while in contrast, UV excited luminescence is slightly reduced. X-ray enhancement thus leads to a structured scintillator with a conversion efficiency of about 42,000 photons/MeV upon X-ray excitation. A similar radioluminescence enhancement is observed for annealed CsI:Eu{sup 2+} fine powder, but not for large single crystals or conglomerated polycrystals. The measurements and observations are consistent with Eu{sup 2+} monomer centres stabilized by water molecules. These molecules are incorporated via annealing, and that this happens when the morphology is such that water can diffuse throughout the volume of the crystals. The presence of stabilized Eu{sup 2+} monomers is necessary to enhance radioluminescence by X-ray exposure. A mechanism is proposed for the phenomenon.

  3. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interests and global climate negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    Why has the EU been so eager to continue the climate negotiations? Can it be solely attributed to the EU feeling morally obliged to be the main initiator of continued progress on the climate change negotiations, or can industrial interests in the EU, at least partly, explain the behaviour of the EU...

  4. Om afstanden mellem EU-systemet og dets borgere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Heyn

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen.......Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen....

  5. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing

  6. Composition dependence of luminescence of Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses for LED applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Chaussedent, S.; Liu, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses are good candidates for light emitting diode (LED) applications. But the optical performance of these glasses is sensitive to variations in chemical composition. In this paper we report our recent findings about the effect of addition of minor components...

  7. Overview of Progress on the EU DEMO Reactor Magnet System Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zani, L.; Bayer, C.; biancolini, M.E.; Bonifetto, R.; Nijhuis, Arend; Yagotintsev, K.

    2016-01-01

    The DEMO reactor is expected to be the first application of fusion for electricity generation in the near future. To this aim, conceptual design activities are progressing in Europe (EU) under the lead of the EUROfusion Consortium in order to drive on the development of the major tokamak systems. In

  8. Components development in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the Euratom Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) an integrated project IP-EUROTRANS (transmutation) is ongoing. One of this project’s objectives is to develop and assess structural materials and heavy liquid metal (HLM) lead–lead-bismuth technologies for transmutation systems, where the HLM is both the spallation material and the core coolant. This involves specification and fabrication of reference materials, their characterisation in HLM and in representative conditions (with and without irradiation environment) in order to provide the data base needed for design purposes (e.g. fuel cladding, in-vessel components, primary vessel, instrumentation, target container, beam window), thermalhydraulics, measurement techniques, large scale integral tests and PTA studies for the MEGAPIE spallation target of FP5. In particular the ongoing R&D for the subcritical reactors XT-ADS, cooled by LBE, and EFIT, cooled by pure lead are: – To provide necessary information for designers, as concerns both T91 and 316L steels in contact with LBE and lead. This R&D is aimed to: • Determine the creep, low cycle fatigue, relaxation (fatigue and creep) fatigue behaviour of T91 and 316L in contact with lead and LBE, both qualitatively and quantitatively; • Characterize their fracture resistance, once again both qualitatively and quantitatively; • Constitute reliable data base over a wide temperature range, attaining 550°C; • Determine the fracture mechanisms of both ferritic–martensitic and austenitic materials in contact with HLMs

  9. The transformative power of EU: An Assessment of EU impact in the judicial system of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrie Besimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of EU integration, the aspiring and potential candidate countries have undergone a major process of reforms. The question that is aroused in this sense is to what extent the EU has had transformative power and impacted the internal judicial structures of Kosovo and under which conditions the EU is more effective. This article analyzes the findings of the Progress reports for a ten-year period (2005 – 2015 and the extent of the EU impact. It uses the conceptual and rational framework of external incentives model and argues that the EU impact in the judiciary system of Kosovo is crucial considering the starting low phase of reforms in Kosovo.

  10. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’, it argues that its ‘policy core’ has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices. PMID:26924934

  11. Quadrupole splitting and Eu partial lattice dynamics in europium orthophosphate EuPO {sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobes, B., E-mail: b.klobes@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Arinicheva, Y., E-mail: y.arinicheva@fz-juelich.de; Neumeier, S., E-mail: s.neumeier@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Simon, R. E., E-mail: r.simon@fz-juelich.de; Jafari, A., E-mail: a.jafari@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Bosbach, D., E-mail: d.bosbach@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Hermann, R. P., E-mail: hermannrp@ornl.gov [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Hyperfine interactions in europium orthophosphate EuPO{sub 4} were investigated using {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K. The value of the quadrupole splitting and the asymmetry parameter were refined and further substantiated by nuclear forward scattering data obtained at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative absorption was modeled with an Eu specific Debye temperature of 221(1) K. Eu partial lattice dynamics were probed by means of nuclear inelastic scattering and the mean force constant, the Lamb-Mössbauer factor, the internal energy, the vibrational entropy, the average phonon group velocity were calculated using the extracted density of phonon states. In general, Eu specific vibrations are characterized by rather small phonon energies and contribute strongly to the total entropy of the system. Although there is no classical Debye like behavior at low vibrational energies, the average phonon group velocity can be reasonably approximated using a linear fit.

  12. Europe, the EU and its 2050 Energy Storylines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Weeda, E.

    2007-12-01

    This paper seeks to explore some of the conditions under which energy policy could be formulated in and by the European Union (EU) over the next 40 years. The development of energy policy at the EU level is addressed from a wider historical perspective, taking into account a number of factors that influence both the EU project and its energy supply security. These factors include the EU's international orientation and cooperation; the EU 'economic community of law' paradigm; the EU's (failing?) external leadership role; the impact of the fall of the Berlin Wall; and Europe's talents for creativity and improvisation. These factors are discussed in somewhat greater depth in the context of the formulation of an all-EU energy policy. The global energy policy environment is briefly discussed, indicating that energy resources for the world are less at stake than their access. On this basis, a closer look is taken at the theoretical and practical aspects of using scenarios as a tool for energy policy-making. A few examples are presented, and it is argued that scenarios should basically be addressed on the basis of storylines. Storylines do require a set of specific parameters, and in this case the choice was made to use the various roles played by stakeholders for intervening in markets and in the world order. This choice is argued on the basis of the global interrelations that are currently influencing resource policies in general and energy in particular. Market efficiency, climate change, poverty issues, geopolitics and global coordination mechanisms are considered, leading to the two policy dimensions of 'nationalism' versus 'globalism' and 'heavy' versus 'light' government as the axes for the scenarios and storylines. This paper develops four storylines that are conceivable and inherently consistent. They are labelled with names that refer not only to their content, but also to the political and societal climate prevailing in the region. The first, 'l'Europe des

  13. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of RCu5-xPdx (R=Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.V.; Bonville, P.; Manfrinetti, P.; Provino, A.; Dhar, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    We report the effect of replacing Cu by Pd in RCu 5 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu). The parent RCu 5 compounds crystallize in the hexagonal CaCu 5 -type structure. The hexagonal symmetry is retained in PrCu 4 Pd and EuCu 5-x Pd x (x=1 and 2) but the crystal structure changes to cubic AuBe 5 -type in PrCu 3 Pd 2 , NdCu 5-x Pd x (x=1 and 2) and SmCu 4 Pd. Substitution with Pd leads to lattice expansion and modifies the magnetic behavior. While PrCu 5 is known to be a van-Vleck paramagnet with a singlet ground state, PrCu 4 Pd and PrCu 3 Pd 2 show ferromagnetic-like behavior at low temperatures. SmCu 4 Pd orders ferromagnetically near 28 K in contrast to the antiferromagnetic nature of the parent SmCu 5 . The divalent nature of the Eu ions in EuCu 5 is retained in the ternary alloys, but the Curie temperature is reduced from 57 to 24.5 and 14.5 K in EuCu 4 Pd and EuCu 3 Pd 2 , respectively, inferred from the location of peak in the heat capacity of these two compounds. The magnetic hyperfine field at the Eu nucleus measured with 151 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy in the ternary Eu-alloys is comparable to that in EuCu 5 . The magnetic behavior of NdCu 4 Pd is similar to that reported in NdCu 5 . The zero-field-cooled, low-field magnetization of NdCu 3 Pd 2 shows a region of diamagnetic behavior roughly between 21 and 4 K, but the field-cooled response is positive.

  14. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State.

  15. INTEGRATION OF ROMANIAN INSURANCES MARKET IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROŞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.

  16. A research on EU trade policy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sitong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest trade group, occupying an important position in the world trade in goods and services, especially in the field of service trade. The EU trade in services exports and imports are higher than the United States and Japan, and the EU is the world’s largest capital output and input group, and the world’s largest foreign aid providers. With the deepening of the European integration process, Europe’s position in the world economy and trade is on the rise. Therefore, the EU’s trade policy has increasingly become the focus of attention. From the vertical point of view, research directions can be divided into trade in goods policy, trade in services policy, international direct investment policy, trade-related intellectual property policy four field. In this paper, the four vertical areas are illustrated as the focus of the study.

  17. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    During the past four years more than 52.500 Eastern European EU citizens have worked and lived in Denmark. Migrant workers from the new EU countries are characterized by a high degree of mobility, flexibility and eagerness in terms of working and adapting to working conditions. Poorer socioeconomic...... and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...... investigates the potentials, limitations and conflicts of interests that are connected with temporary employment of Eastern European migrant workers within the unskilled labour sectors seen from the perspective of Danish labour market actors; politicians, labour marked unions, Danish employers, Danish...

  18. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  19. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations....... It is concluded that while policies specifically targeting tourism have been limited in reach and profile, the touristic side effects of other economic and social policies central at the European level have clearly been considerable, primarily by facilitating the emergence of new multinational tour operators...

  20. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Drenthe; Case study in a leading rural region in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Drenthe since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Drenthe increased by 24,500 jobs or with over 20% in the

  1. Tunisia : economic indicators and trade with EU

    OpenAIRE

    BARTOLINI, Laura; APAP, Joanna; SABBATI, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    How fast is Tunisia's economy growing? How was its economy affected by the 'Arab Spring' events? How many women in Tunisia have a job? What is the unemployment rate? Which country is Tunisia's biggest trading partner? What kind of products does the EU import from Tunisia? How does Tunisia benefit from remittances sent by the Tunisian diaspora? What is the EU's disbursement of external aid to Tunisia? You can find the answers to these and other questions in our EPRS publication on Tunisia: Eco...

  2. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin......To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive...

  3. Arbejdsmigration fra de nye EU-lande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise M.; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2011-01-01

    danske arbejdsmarked. Migrantarbejderne fra de nye EU-lande er karakteriseret ved høj grad af fleksibilitet, mobilitet og villighed til at arbejde, dårligere socioøkonomiske forhold og arbejdsmæssige vilkår i deres hjemlande samt en anden kulturel baggrund end deres danske kolleger. Denne artikel giver...... et indblik i nogle af konsekvenserne ved arbejdsmigration fra de nye EU-lande på det (u)faglærte danske arbejdsmarked belyst ud fra en analyse af henholdsvis et politisk, et fagforenings-, et brancheorganisations, et virksomhedsejer-, et arbejdsleder- og et medarbejderperspektiv....

  4. THE EU „ RIGHT TO BE FORGOTTEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Seucan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific paper aims at presenting the relevant legal aspects related to data protection in the EU (Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data in view of the ruling of the Court of justice of the European Union (C131/12, the content of the judgement of the court, how it has been enforced so far by Google and its impact on EU citizen and future legislation.

  5. EU-kaupankäynti rakennusalalla Lapissa

    OpenAIRE

    Torvinen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Kansainvälinen kaupankäynti on jatkuvasti kasvava hankinnan osa-alue, joka vaatii hankkijoilta laajaa tietämystä ja kaupankäyntiin liittyvien asioiden hallintaa. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin EU-kaupankäyntiä rakennusalalla Lapissa. EU-kaupankäynnin hyötyjä ja haasteita pohdittiin lappilaisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kehittää ja parantaa hankintatoimea vastaamaan paremmin tämän päivän kansainvälisiin kaupankäyntivaatimuksiin. Tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa kansainvälisen k...

  6. Personal Data Protection in EU, Where to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Bocaniala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The protection of individuals regarding the processing of personal data and free movement of such data represents a growing concern of the States, but also of the EU bodies. At the level of EU Member States, the issue of protecting the individuals regarding the processing of personal data and free movement of such data poses no particular problems. Internationally and especially between the member states of the European Union, the existing regulatory framework no longer responds to theses needs such as: online activities, digital economy, internet banking, etc., being increasingly obvious the tendency of fragmentation of the movement of personal data.

  7. Economic integration in NAFTA and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Sven

    This te×t critically analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established in both Europe and America are seen as deficient in several...... of the market economies institutions upon the integration process itself depends. This te×t analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established...

  8. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  9. Structure, Ferroelectric and Photoluminescence Properties of Eu-Doped CaBi4Ti4O15 Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Ping; Guo, Yongquan; Zheng, Qiaoji; Lin, Dunmin

    2015-10-01

    Lead-free multifunctional ceramics of CaBi4- x Eu x Ti4O15 were prepared by a traditional solid state method, and the effects of Eu doping on structure, ferroelectric, piezoelectric and photoluminescence properties of the ceramics were investigated. All the ceramics possessed typical bismuth layer structure with m = 4, belonging to orthorhombic symmetry, and no secondary phase was detected. The plate-like grains were observed in all the ceramics, and the grain growth was slightly inhibited after the addition of Eu. Saturated polarization hysteresis loops were observed for all the ceramics, and the remanent polarization P r decreased with Eu doping. The Eu-doped ceramics had a sharp excitation band centered at 465 nm due to the f-f transition from the 7F0 ground state to the 5D2 excited state of Eu3+. Under the excitation by 465 nm light, the main emission peaks located at 595 nm and 616 nm were obtained, which corresponds to the transition of 5D0-7F1, 5D0-7F2 levels in Eu3+, respectively. Our study shows that CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics may be a promising multifunctional material for potential applications in optical-electro integration devices.

  10. Recent Trends of the EU – 27 Foreign Trade Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa - Aurelia Chiţiba,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the world economy trend, the collapse in world trade in goods and services observed in the last quarter of 2008 intensified inthe first quarter of 2009, but the trough in growth rates has likely been reached; positive quarterly growth rates are expected by the end of 2009. UE-27 registered the slowest export growth of any region last year, with an expansion of just 0.0per cent, down from 3.5 per cent in 2007. Import growthturned negative in 2008, falling by 1 per cent (+3.5 per cent in 2007. If the 27 members of the European Union are considered collectively(excluding internal EU trade, the five leading exporters were the European Union (15.9 per cent of world exports, China (8.9%, the United States(8.1%, Japan (4.9% and Netherlands (3.9 per cent. Exports from the EU were worth US$ 1.93 trillion in 2008. Signs of recovery are not yet soclearly visible in the EU-27 like in USA, in the last part of 2009. Each country has its own specific combination of weaknesses such as burstinghousing bubbles, declining exports and damaged financial sectors. The eventual recovery is likely to be slow as rising unemployment will hitconsumer spending. In the above mentioned conditions, GDP in the euro area is expected to contract 4.8% in 2009 and to show 0% growth in 2010.The previous projections were for a 4.1% fall in 2009 and a 0.3% fall in 2010. The main factors with a positive influence, taken into consideration forrevising up the projections for 2010 in euro area are: the strengthening growth in world trade which will help support a turnaround in exports, thegovernmental policy support and an easing of financial conditions adopted in some countries.

  11. Green growth opportunities in the EU shipbuilding sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Trends towards green shipping and green shipbuilding provide new market opportunities for the European shipbuilding and marine equipment sectors. The maritime transport sector is being incentivised to improve its environmental performance as a result of both market driven and regulatory greening trends. Examples of these trends are global regulation on NOx and SO2 emissions of ships, increased energy efficiency of new ships, ballast water management and an increased demand for offshore renewable energy generation. The European shipbuilding and marine equipment sectors have a leading position in high value, high complexity segments. It has a good starting position to contribute to the greening trends. This study identifies market opportunities for the EU shipbuilding industry that follow from greening trends in shipping and other areas. Taking the greening together, the global market potential for the period until 2020 is estimated to be minimally euro 12.5-15.5 bn per year. The study recommends that the EU enhances its cluster support provision, continues the promotion of the shipbuilding and marine equipment sectors as attractive work places, continues promoting the use of market based instruments at IMO level and consider adopting schemes at EU level. This report is built on an extensive market consultation process through in-depth interviews with over 35 stakeholders, complemented with a review of the state of the art literature and a stakeholder workshop. As such it is not a statistical analysis, or an academic or political analysis, but it represents an in-depth insight based on key market actors and industry players.

  12. Taxing of financial sector as possible own resource of EU budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about the possible taxation of the financial sector has started in the European Union as a result of the financial crisis which has spread to the Europe from the United States in 2008. European Commission concluded that EU should lead the efforts to introduce system of levies or taxies on financial institutions. EU member states individually committed to support the financial sector for a total about EUR 4.6 trillion (i.e. 39% of EU-27 GDP in 2009. Those public interventions have significant budgetary consequences (strongly felt in Greece, Spain or Italy and imposes a heavy burden on the present and future generations. Therefore there is a strong consensus not only on the level of the European Union but also internationally, that financial sector should contribute to the public finance more fairly. As a reaction on costs of the financial crisis which was paid out from the public money, some of the countries immediately introduced temporary measures in order to collect back paid out money. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of financial sector taxation, to discuss the proposal of the European Union on the introduction of financial transaction tax on EU level and through the multi-criteria analysis to research, whether this type of the tax is suitable as an own resource of EU budget.

  13. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-05-01

    TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO2(Eu). In investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  14. New legal requirements for submission of product information to poisons centres in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Ronald; Brekelmans, Pieter; Desel, Herbert; de Vries, Irma

    2018-01-01

    In the past eight years, the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has been intensively involved in a European Commission led process to develop EU legislation on the information of hazardous products that companies have to notify to EU Poisons Centres (or equivalent "appointed bodies"). As a result of this process, the Commission adopted Regulation (EU) No 2017/542, amending the CLP Regulation by adding an Annex on harmonised product submission requirements. Harmonised mixture information requirements: Detailed and consistent information on the composition of the hazardous product will become available to EU Poisons Centres (PC). The information will be submitted by companies to PCs (or equivalent "appointed bodies") using a web-based software application or in-house software. Two new important features are introduced. Firstly, to be able to rapidly identify the product formula, a Unique Formula Identifier (UFI) on the product label links to the submitted information. Secondly, for better comparability of reports on poisonings between EU member states, a harmonised Product Categorisation System will specify the intended use of a product. Rapid product identification and availability of detailed composition information will lead to timely and adequate medical intervention. This may lead to considerable reduction in healthcare costs. Additionally, for companies trading across the EU, costs of submission of this information will be reduced significantly. Next steps: From 2017, an implementation period has started, consisting of a three-year period for stakeholders to implement the new requirements, followed by a gradual applicability for consumer products (2020), professional products (2021) and industrial use-only products (2024). Technical tools to generate the electronic format and the UFI together with guidance documents are expected to be made available by the end of 2017 by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Guidance on

  15. Hybrid run length limited code and pre-emphasis technique to reduce wander and jitter on on-off keying nonreturn-to-zero visible light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Huang, Zhitong; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-11-01

    On bandwidth-limited visible light communication (VLC) transmission systems, direct current (DC) component loss, DC-unbalance of code, and severe high-frequency attenuation cause baseline wander (BLW) and data-dependent jitter (DDJ) phenomena, which deteriorate signal quality and result in a higher bit error rate (BER). We present a scheme based on hybrid run length limited codes and pre-emphasis techniques to decrease the intersymbol interference caused by BLW and DDJ phenomena. We experimentally demonstrate, utilizing 1-binary-digit-into-2-binary-digits (1B2B) codes and postcursor pre-emphasis techniques, that the impacts of BLW and DDJ on on-off keying nonreturn-to-zero VLC systems are alleviated and a 130 Mb/s data transmission rate with a BER performance of <10-4 can be achieved.

  16. Ultralow-jitter passive timing stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by injection of an optical pulse train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Dai; Kobayashi, Yohei; Kakehata, Masayuki; Takada, Hideyuki; Torizuka, Kenji; Onuma, Taketo; Yokoi, Hideki; Sekiguchi, Takuro; Nakamura, Shinki

    2006-11-15

    The pulse timing of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser was stabilized to a reference pulse train from a Cr:forsterite mode-locked laser by all-optical passive synchronization scheme. The reference pulses were injected into a ring cavity of the fiber laser by using a 1.3-1.5 mum wavelength-division multiplexer. The spectral shift induced by cross-phase modulation between copropagating two-color pulses realizes self-synchronization due to intracavity group-delay dispersion. The rms integration of timing jitter between the fiber laser pulse and the reference pulse was 3.7 fs in a Fourier frequency range from 1 Hz to 100 kHz.

  17. The EU internal market - a stake or a tool in European-Russian gas relations. The case of new member states gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskot-Stachota, Agata; Ramsay, William C.

    2011-06-01

    Since 2010 we have observed a new quality in EU energy policy. It is related to the European Commission's more or less direct engagement in the bilateral gas relations of a part of the new member states - Poland, Bulgaria and Lithuania - with Russia. Although the long term outcome of this activity of the EC is as yet unclear it seems to be important for several reasons. Firstly it might increase the possibilities of the enforcement of the EU's directives liberalising the internal gas market and specifically their implementation in individual gas agreements with suppliers from third countries (Gazprom). The consistency and determination of the EC in this field may be decisive for the future direction and depth of the liberalization of the EU gas market. Furthermore, present developments may lead to an increase in EU and specifically EC competence in the field of energy policy, especially its external dimension. So what lessons can we draw from recent Commission activities on the following issues: - Implementing EU gas market 2. and 3. liberalization packages and their main provisions - EU energy policy and its external dimension - recent developments and the EU's role - EU-Russia gas relations - where Russian and EU interests diverge. (authors)

  18. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the

  19. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What...

  20. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  1. Mainstreaming ecosystem services into EU policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.; Hauck, J.; Paracchini, M.L.; Ratamäki, O.; Hutchins, M.; Termansen, M.; Furman, E.; Perez-Soba, M.; Braat, L.C.; Bidoglio, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the PRESS initiative (PEER7 Research on Ecosystem Services). In support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, this initiative demonstrated a multi-scale mapping and assessment approach of ecosystem services using three case studies. The water purification case

  2. Risk-sharing agreements in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Holm-Larsen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our objectives were to explore the changes in the level of interest in risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) in the EU during the last 15 years and the underlying reasons for these changes. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science...

  3. Liminality in EU-Hamas relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    , Eurocentric categories that dominate International Relations (IR). By analysing Hamas and the EU as liminals this article demonstrates how far certain collective discourses and non-state identities can go in challenging pre-existing categories on which the social order of international relations relies. Hamas...

  4. Nyt Aktionærdirektiv fra EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Aktionærdirektiv. Efter et par år i defensiven er EU Kommisionen igen parat til at regulere Europas erhvervsliv, hvilket blandt andet fremgår af det forslag til nyt aktionærdirektiv, der cirkulerer i øjeblikket. Her vil man regulere de institutionelle investorer til at stemme med deres aktier...

  5. Developing Multilateral Surveillance Tools in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the infrastructure of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) is an unaddressed topic in scholarly debates. On the basis of secondary literature on the European Employment Strategy, it is hypothesised that a conflict between an incentive and reluctance to act on the EU level on the

  6. EU Economic Freedoms and Social Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Bernaciak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    In the book, 'Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe', edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS and Tilburg University) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic

  7. EU economic freedoms and social dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Bernaciak, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the book, Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe, edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively

  8. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  9. Creating Coherence in EU Internet Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The internet presents regulators with an amorphous web of technical and legal issues with no simple solution. Andrej Savin, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, says that the EU needs to develop a fluidity of process in order to tackle the big issues and cultivate the right legal...

  10. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  11. Alternatieve instrumenten voor het EU-landbouwbeleid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Het EU-landbouwbeleid staat met de parallel lopende onderhandelingen over de uitbreiding en een nieuw WTO-akkoord voor verdere hervormingen. Dit rapport behandelt de vraag of er voor de instrumenten van dit beleid alternatieven kunnen worden aangereikt. Daarbij wordt de aandacht gericht op

  12. EU Presidencies between Politics and Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    This book offers the first comprehensive analysis since the Lisbon Treaty came into force of the EU Presidency on national administrations in the member states of Poland, Denmark and Cyprus before, during and after the so- called ‘Trio Presidency’. Placing the practical issues facing officials...

  13. Dynamics of Producing Renewable Energy in Poland and EU-28 Countries within the Period of 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuła Karol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the estimation of trends describing the level of renewable energy resources in Poland and in EU-28 countries within the years 2004–2012. The process of the increase of the percentage of renewable energy in total production of energy was also presented. Comparative statistical analysis was carried out within the dynamics of the phenomena discussed in the paper with respect both to Poland and EU countries. It follows from the investigation that both in Poland and in the EU countries the increase in renewable energy resources has been observed. However, the rate of the increase of the level of renewable energy in Poland is not enough to catch up with the leading EU countries in near future.

  14. Severe Accident Management Strategy for EU-APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Kim, Yong Soo; Yoon, Sun Hong

    2013-01-01

    In EU-APR1400, the dedicated instrumentation and mitigation features for SAM are being developed to keep the integrity of containment and to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products. In this paper, SAM strategy for EU-APR1400 was introduced in stages. It is still under development and finally the Severe Accident Management Guidance will be completed based on this SAM Strategy. Severe accidents in a nuclear power plant are defined as certain unlikely event sequences involving significant core damage with the potential to lead to significant releases according to EUR 2.1.4.4. Even though the probability of severe accidents is extremely low, the radiation release may cause serious effect on people as well as environment. Severe Accident Management (SAM) encompasses those actions which could be considered in recovering from a severe accident and preventing or mitigating the release of fission products to the environment. Whether those actions are successful or not, depending on a progression status of a severe accident to mitigate the consequences of severe accident phenomena to limit the release of radioactive materials keeping the leak tightness of the Primary Containment, and finally to restore transient severe accident progression into a controlled and safe states

  15. Certification of Corporate Social Responsibility in EU and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is reflected in environmental, social, economic, stakeholder and voluntariness dimensions. It had become an important topic for European agenda where CSR is considered as a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and interact with stakeholders on a voluntary basis. In general, it is the responsibility of enterprises for their impact on society. CSR and its certification is important not only for EU but also for out-European business partners such as China. This paper is focused on EU agenda related to CSR, certification, SA8000 standard and the case study of China in relation to SA8000. The results show that the interest in obtaining of SA8000 certificate has risen up to 3231 companies in 2013. European certified companies are represented by 1583 in 2013. The most developing regions in terms of SA8000 certification are Europe and Central Asia, resp. Europe, South Asia and East Asia and the Pacific. In Europe, the most SA8000 certified country is Italy with one third of certifications from the whole world. From out- European countries leading role is taken by India and China. China is the world biggest exporter in the apparel branch which has also the highest number of SA8000 certified companies.

  16. Reduction emissions from transport sector - EU action against climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores and discusses the initiation and development of the EU's policies and strategies against climate change and the share experiences in the EU transport sector to reduce CO2 emission.

  17. Assessment of EU member states' positions in Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines KERSAN-SKABIĆ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The participation of countries in GVCs can be measured in different ways; most commonly by using the GVC participation index and the GVC position index. The research is focused on the analysis of GVC participation of EU member states applying different indicators and comparing the characteristics of three groups of EU member states (EU core members, EU Southern members and EU new member states. We have applied statistical analysis on the TiVA database. The results indicate a high level of participation of EU member states in GVCs with a predominance of backward linkages. Luxembourg, Slovakia and Hungary have the highest levels of participation while Croatia has the lowest participation. EU member states are very integrated and intra-regional, so about 80% of value added in their gross export or final demand originates from the EU (domestic value added or value added from other member states.

  18. Energy policy and trend in European Union (EU); Europe rengo (EU) no energy seisaku, doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezawa, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the legal and system framework of energy policy in EU. It also summarizes the previous progress for the establishment of a single energy market. Organization, which deals with energy policy within EU, consists of Commission, Council of Ministers and European Parliament. The policy decision method in EU is classified into six ways due to the proposal and decision of the Commission and Council of Ministers. The establishment of a single market for energy products and services is included in a concept of so-called common market. Coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear energy are included in the energy market. The purpose of establishment of a single energy market is to promote a free and fair competition. The target of Competition Policy Commission in the energy division is to establish the enhanced competition, stable supply and maintenance of public services, compatibly. Furthermore, the current status of private management and reconstruction in EU is described.

  19. Pressure-induced phase transition and stability of EuO and EuS with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rare-earth chalcogenides have been extensively done by high-pressure X-ray diffrac- tion technique. EuO shows an electronic transition at 30 GPa and then it shows a structural transition (B1 → B2) at 40 GPa. Also, EuS exhibits B1 → B2 structural phase transition around 20 GPa [2]. Looking at the interesting properties of ...

  20. Mapping the Landscape of EU Environmental Policy: Coherence and Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Volkery, Axel; Withana, Sirini; Coolsaet, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    EU environmental policy is at a critical crossroads with a number of important policy processes and strategic discussions currently underway. They include the adoption of new strategic plans (e.g. on future EU biodiversity policy) and roadmaps (e.g. on resource efficiency); as well as a number of comprehensive reviews of existing legislation such as EU policies on water, chemicals and air quality. Substantial discussions on priorities for spending under the next long-term EU budget are curren...

  1. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  2. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  3. Trade in Value Added (TiVA in EU New Member States (EU NMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trade analysis indicates the necessity of calculating trade in value added (TiVA which is created through global value chains (GVCs. This paper aims to determine the characteristics and importance of GVC trade in the EU new member states (EU NMS with special emphasis placed on the industry level. The results demonstrate different levels of GVC participation of the EU NMS, where Hungary is the most integrated country and Croatia the least integrated. Regional GVCs exist because a huge part of value added (VA comes from EU member states, as in gross export as well as in final demand (Europe as a hub. The most important source countries are Germany and Italy and there is also evidence of geographical and historical relations between the countries. The domination of backward participation has been found in the analysis made on the industrial level, i.e. the EU NMS are highly dependent on the import of intermediates for the production and export of final products. Strong interconnections between imports of intermediate products and exports of final products have been found in the manufacture of computers, electronics and optical products; manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction. This research has contributed to the scarce literature concerning GVC (TiVA in EU NMS and has opened up new possibilities for further research and analysis.

  4. Removing EU milk quotas, soft landing versus hard landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.; Réquillart, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses EU dairy policy reforms and mainly focus on EU milk quota removal scenarios. The model used to evaluate the scenario is a spatial equilibrium model of the dairy sector. It integrates the main competitor of the EU on world markets, Oceania, as well as the main importing regions in

  5. EU-UN partnership in military conflict management: Whither the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EU-UN partnership in military conflict management. 'framework nations'. This type of socialisation in terms of language, including the institutionalisation of such discourses through the EU-UN relationship, allow for the political legitimisation of the EU as a security actor outside its immediate perimeters. The extension of such ...

  6. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, Sander R W

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good

  7. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  8. EU Climate Policy Tracker 2011. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Geurts, F.; Teckenburg, E.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Limiting the rise in the average global temperature to 2C has been the EU goal since 1996, and in December 2010 the UN recognised the need to consider a 1.5C limit. Avoiding overshooting these levels will require massive emissions reductions - in the order of 80-95% for industrialised countries, like those in the EU. The next ten years are crucial in establishing whether society will be able to make this transition, or whether temperature increase limits will be irreversibly missed. Last year, the European Union Climate Policy Tracker (EU CPT) investigated each member state's implementation of policy and legislation, and rated their progress towards a 2050 vision of deep decarbonisation using renewable energy. The uniquely developed rating scheme, modelled on appliance efficiency labels (A-G), gave an indication of how member states were doing compared to a 'low-carbon policy package'. The average score was an 'E', indicating that the level of effort needed to treble, to be on a pace to reach the 2050 vision. However, aggregating best practices across sectors and countries doubled the score - meaning that the tools are already at hand for major improvements across Europe. This report builds on last year's EU CPT by giving an update on action in member states, and an indicative trend in the rating, as well as adding a new section on EU policy. The addition of an EU section is appropriate, with the Commission having produced a roadmap on a low-carbon economy by 2050, a transport white paper, and with another roadmap for 2050 focused on energy anticipated by the end of 2011. This report seeks to answer the question of whether these and other related initiatives are sufficient to help Europe reach its low-carbon goals. When interpreting the results of this report, it is important to understand that the goal underlying the vision here is not the same as the one in the European Commission's 'low-carbon economy' roadmap

  9. Development of the EU Ecolabel Criteria and Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Cleaning Services

    OpenAIRE

    DE ALMEIDA FERREIRA NETO BELMIRA; WOLF Oliver; FIELD Bethany; JENKIN Nicola; TAM Max; BENJAMIN Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new EU Ecolabel and revise the existing EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria for professional cleaning services (hereafter referred to as cleaning services). This preliminary report investigates the market, operational and sustainability aspects of cleaning services, with a goal to develop a robust evidence base and prioritise key environmental and social issues to support the development of EU Ecolabel criteria and the revision of the EU GP...

  10. Setting priorities for EU healthcare workforce IT skills competence improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sisi; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Traver, Vicente; Car, Josip; Zary, Nabil

    2017-04-01

    A major challenge for healthcare quality improvement is the lack of IT skills and knowledge of healthcare workforce, as well as their ambivalent attitudes toward IT. This article identifies and prioritizes actions needed to improve the IT skills of healthcare workforce across the EU. A total of 46 experts, representing different fields of expertise in healthcare and geolocations, systematically listed and scored actions that would improve IT skills among healthcare workforce. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology was used for research priority-setting. The participants evaluated the actions using the following criteria: feasibility, effectiveness, deliverability, and maximum impact on IT skills improvement. The leading priority actions were related to appropriate training, integrating eHealth in curricula, involving healthcare workforce in the eHealth solution development, improving awareness of eHealth, and learning arrangement. As the different professionals' needs are prioritized, healthcare workforce should be actively and continuously included in the development of eHealth solutions.

  11. Countering Radicalisation of Muslim Community Opinions on the EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores selected factors influencing the process of radicalisation leading to the use of political violence and terror by the Muslim minorities living in the European Union member states. Internal and external catalysts conditioning this process and methods of their analysis have been presented. The second section examines various counter-radicalisation and de-radicalisation efforts of the EU. The authors analysed the multidimensional European Union policy in the area of counteracting radicalisation for empowering the population and member states in preventing the radicalisation and recruitment to terrorism and emphasising the role of social partners and local authorities. Also, the promotion of good practices for combating radicalisation, developed under the auspices of the multidisciplinary Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN is presented.

  12. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  13. Multifunctional EuYVO4 nanoparticles coated with mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justino, Larissa G.; Nigoghossian, Karina; Capote, Ticiana S.O.; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Caiut, José Maurício A.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous structures are interesting materials for the incorporation of dyes, drugs, and luminescent systems, leading to materials with important multifunctionalities. In a very unique way, these guest/host materials combine the high stability of inorganic systems, new guest-structuring features, and adsorption mechanisms in their well-defined pores. This work evaluates the luminescent properties of rare earth-doped YVO 4 nanoparticles coated with a mesoporous silica shell. The use of two different synthesis methodologies allowed for particle size control. The crystalline phase emerged without further heat treatment. The mesoporous shell decreased undesirable quenching effects on YVO 4 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles and rendered them biocompatible. The materials prepared herein could have interesting applications as luminescent markers or drug release systems.

  14. The EU's cybercrime and cyber-security rulemaking: mapping the internal and external dimensions of EU security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    By taking the EU Cyber Strategy as a case in point, this contribution examines how the distinction between external and internal security in contemporary EU law manifests itself in large-scale risk regulation and in particular, how the EU relies upon external norms to regulate risk. This article

  15. Key challenges in the combat of human trafficking : Evaluating the EU trafficking strategy and EU trafficking directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    The problem of trafficking in human beings (THB) is still omnipresent in Europe, despite the numerous preventive and retributive actions taken. This article evaluates the two most important EU-instruments to combat trafficking: the EU Directive and the EU Strategy. Based on secondary analysis of

  16. Intra-EU agricultural trade, virtual water flows and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Tamea, S; Yang, H

    2017-06-01

    The development of approaches to tackle the European Union (EU) water-related challenges and shift towards sustainable water management and use is one of the main objectives of Horizon 2020, the EU strategy to lead a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The EU is an increasingly water challenged area and is a major agricultural trader. As agricultural trade entails an exchange of water embodied in goods as a factor of production, this study investigates the region's water-food-trade nexus by analysing intra-regional virtual water trade (VWT) in agricultural products. The analysed period (1993-2011) comprises the enactment of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Aspects of the VWT that are relevant for the WFD are explored. The EU is a net importer of virtual water (VW) from the rest of the world, but intra-regional VWT represents 46% of total imports and 75% of total exports. Five countries account for 60% of total VW imports (Germany, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium) and 65% of total VW exports (The Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium and Spain). Intra-EU VWT more than doubled over the period considered, while trade with extra-EU countries did not show such a marked trend. In the same period, blue VWT increased significantly within the region and net import from the rest of the world slightly decreased. Water scarce countries, such as Spain and Italy, are major exporters of blue water in the region. The traded volumes of VW have been increasing almost monotonically over the years, and with a substantial increase after 2000. The overall trend in changes in VWT does not seem to be in accordance with the WFD goals. This study demonstrated that VWT analyses can help evaluate intertwining effects of water, agriculture and trade policies which are often made separately in respective sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of the EU emissions trading scheme on the price of electricity in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper a specific aspect of the proposed EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is discussed, namely the potential impact of the EU ETS on the price of electricity in the Netherlands and, hence, the potential implications for Dutch power producers and consumers. It shows that the EU ETS may lead to a significant increase in the price of electricity in the Netherlands (and other EU Member States), depending on the marginal costs of emissions trading (i.e. the price of an emission allowance), the emission factor of the marginal production technology to generate electricity, and the extent to which the costs of emissions trading will be passed on to the end-users of electricity. If, for one reason or another, these costs will not be passed on to power consumers, it will have an adverse impact on overall efficiency from both an energy and economic point of view. On the other hand, if - as expected - these costs are indeed passed on to end-users of electricity, it will benefit power producers (mainly owing to the economic rent of allocating emission allowances for free), while it will harm those energy-intensive industries that, in turn, are not able to pass the higher electricity costs to their customers (resulting in a loss of economic production and income). To some degree, these effects can be best avoided by auctioning emission allowances mandatory throughout the EU ETS and using the auction revenues to reduce the overall level of taxation and social premiums in order to improve the overall competitiveness of domestic industries and to (partly) compensate power consumers for the ET-induced increase in the price of electricity

  18. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites composed of Eu-doped anatase grafted with CuO. • Increase in photocatalytic hydrogen production due to CuO acting as electrons sink. • CuO in composites decreasing the photoinduced total mineralization of phenol. • Selective photoinduced antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus species. - Abstract: TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO 2 (Eu). In investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  19. Who wants full membership? Characteristics of Turkish public support for EU membership

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Ali; Carkoglu, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Examines the basis of support and resistance to European Union (EU) membership among voters in Turkey. Issues concerning Turkey's candidacy for EU membership; Description of EU support across different constituencies of public opinion; Implications of EU membership support for EU-Turkey relations; Factors that influenced the expressed support for EU membership.

  20. New EU project supports LHC theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    LHCPhenonet, a new EU-funded research network aimed at improving the theoretical predictions that guide the LHC experiments, has begun its 4-year run as a Marie Curie Initial Training Network. CERN joins the network as an associate partner, along with almost 30 multinational institutions and computing companies.   Theorists from around the world gathered in Valencia to attend LHCPhenonet's kick-off meeting. LHCPhenonet will create research opportunities for young, talented European theorists, providing funding for both doctoral and post-doctoral positions across the various participating institutions – including the University of Durham, DESY, and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). LHCPhenoNet aims to improve the Quantum Field Theory calculations that set the parameters of the LHC experiments, focusing on the LHC phenomenology that gave it its name. The 4.5 million euro project is funded by the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme and will be coordinated through the Span...

  1. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  2. The EU and its trickster practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    If one looks at the European Union (EU)’s southern neighbourhood and considers its response to the Israeli Palestinian conflict, one can only wonder how the EU can have any apologists left at all. While the tortured history of the conflict dates back more than a century, its roots lie in decades...... of clashes over religion, borders, and territory. The dispute between Israelis and Palestinians has engulfed politicians, diplomats, academics, NGO officials and others in a peace process in which the ultimate goal has been tantalizingly close on numerous occasions only to be pulled apart at the 11th hour....... Few international disputes have generated as much emotion, passion, anguish, and diplomatic gridlock as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict....

  3. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interest and global climate negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner Brand, U.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2003-01-01

    Why has the EU been so eager to continue the climate negotiations? Can it be solely attributed to the EU feeling morally obliged to be the main initiator of continued progress on the climate change negotiations, or can industrial interests in the EU, at least partly, explain the behaviour of the EU? We suggest that the EU has a rational economic interest in forcing the technological development of renewable energy sources to get a fast-mover advantage, which will only pay if a sufficient number of countries implement sufficiently stringent GHG reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, which imposes binding reductions on 38 OECD countries, implies that, as a first-mover, the EU will be to sell the necessary new renewable technologies, most prominently wind mills, to other countries, when they ratify and implement the Kyoto target levels. In the latest EU proposal made in Johannesburg, the EU pushed for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement to save the import costs of buying the EU's renewable systems. (au)

  4. Polen, Deutschland, die EU und Russland

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Besonders seit dem EU-Beitritt Polens ist es um die deutsch-polnischen Beziehungen nicht besonders gut bestellt. In den vergangenen Jahren hat man sich in erster Linie an bilateralen Konflikten abgearbeitet und keine gemeinsame Europapolitik betrieben. Im Beitrag wird diese Entwicklung rekonstruiert und danach gefragt, ob es angesichts einer solchen Entwicklung Aussichten auf die Wiederherstellung der deutsch-polnischen Interessengemeinschaft gibt oder die Interessen beider Staaten so stark d...

  5. EU Cooperation in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumas, T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union with 15 Member States at the end of the century and with 6 more countries in the accession phase has set up certain instruments which enhance energy cooperation among them and with third countries. The major dimensions of EU energy policy presented in the White Paper are the external dimension - globalization of markets, the increasing environmental concern, the technology developments and the EU institutional responsibilities. To contribute to these, certain EU initiatives and supporting actions are undertaken through the energy and the broader co-operation programmes like THERMIE, SYNERGY, SAVE, ALTENER, PHARE, etc. The THERMIE programme supports the demonstration application and dissemination of innovative and successful energy technologies. SYNERGY is a programme for energy co-operation with third countries in energy policy and strategy implementation issues. SAVE and ALTENER concentrate on the promotion and enhancement of energy efficiency practices and use of renewable respectively. PHARE is a technical assistance programme addressed to Eastern European Countries which are in the phase of transition to market economy. There are also other initiatives like the Transeuropean Energy Network (TEN) and the activities managed by the financial institutions namely the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). All this context of programmes and initiatives is modified from period to period in order to serve the EU energy policies and the developments in the energy markets. The recent agreement which came up from the Kyoto conference has actually influenced the direction of actions towards more intensive amelioration of environmental pollution. (author)

  6. EU - Fuel and vehicle tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, Malcolm

    2000-07-01

    This report addresses fiscal instruments, including taxes on fuels, vehicles and infrastructure use, which could contribute to an environmentally-sustainable transport policy for the EU. It analyses the various interests and processes underlying the development of such policy at the European level, explaining the existing state of play, the problems which are caused by current arrangements, and the various obstacles to further greening of the motor taxation system

  7. EU Presidencies between Politics and Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Nedergaard, Peter

    and policy- makers into a ‘governmentality’ framework, it analyses the impact on the daily activities of bureaucrats and ministers. The book utilises comprehensive and novel empirical materials, including around 100 interviews with key officials, documentary sources and academic literature. It uncovers...... the kind of negotiations, management and coordination triggered by the immense challenge of presiding over the EU – including being a part of a Trio....

  8. Labour Market Models in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, F.; McQuinn, J.; Siedschlag, I.; Vliet, van, O.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the European Union, the most important labour market models that have been proposed for labour market reform are flexicurity and the transitional labour market. In this position paper, we conceptualise the models of flexicurity and the transitional labour market, and we outline potentially relevant research questions. These research questions focus on explaining the variations in labour market policies across EU countries and the impact of labour market institutions on labour market outcom...

  9. Spin fluctuations in EuS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, A.

    1996-02-01

    Demagnetization effects break the isotropy of spin waves. During spring 1995, Peter Boeni et al. performed polarized neutron measurements on EuS using the triple axis spectrometer IN14 at the ILL in Grenoble, in order to investigate the influence of dipolar interactions on the spin waves. In the following work the analysis of the experimental data is described. (author) 25 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  10. DEINDUSTRIALIZATION AS A PROCESS IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Kandžija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deindustrialization is a natural process in the developed countries, which takes place under the influence of external and internal factors and occurs as a result of economic growth. It is marked by the decline in the share of industry in GDP and employment with a simultaneous increased importance of the service sector. Considering the complexity of the concept, there are many theoretical approaches of deindustrialisation. In this paper the analysis of deindustrialization in the EU was conducted. The research results indicate the existence of relative deindustrialization in the EU, which is characterized by reduced share of agriculture and industry and increased share of the service sector in GDP. Also, it was found that the decrease in employment in the industry was not created as a result of a decrease in industrial production. The EU economy, including the industrial sector, is heavily influenced by the globalization process, while the process of deindustrialization is significantly impacted by the increased volume of foreign direct investment. In key strategic documents European industry is recognized as the main "engine" of the recovery of the European economy. Therefore, the highest  priority is the creation of conditions for the process of reindustrialization, i.e. the development of industry in the variable circumstances, with an emphasis on strengthening and improving the industrial foundation and implementation of new solutions based on innovation, research and new technologies.

  11. EU attitudes in Catalonia and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Mark Friis

    2016-01-01

    The generally pro-European stance of minority nationalist parties is well-established in the literature. It is clear that the framework of the European Union confers certain benefits both structurally and ideologically to these parties, the majority of which sit in the EFA-Greens group in the Eur......The generally pro-European stance of minority nationalist parties is well-established in the literature. It is clear that the framework of the European Union confers certain benefits both structurally and ideologically to these parties, the majority of which sit in the EFA-Greens group...... in the European Parliament. What is less clear and strikingly understudied is the nature of this eurofriendly stance; what is it exactly these parties support about the EU – and what purpose does European integration serve them politically? Through qualitative fieldwork in Barcelona and Edinburgh among members...... of the Republican Left of Catalonia and the Scottish National Party respectively, I examine the nature of minority nationalist parties’ supposed Europhilia. I argue that there are two principal, ideal ways in which these two parties relate to the EU. 1) Instrumentally, where the focus is on how the EU benefits...

  12. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  13. EU POLICY REGARDING THE COMPETITIVENESS ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bârsan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with one of the most important, but also challenging economic issues nowadays, which is economic competitiveness. The literature is not unanimous in recognizing the importance of competitiveness, especially where it concerns the state level. However, the relevance of international competitiveness is increasingly brought into light by theory, specific policy measures and by periodical evaluations made by international organizations. Against this background, the EU is one of the main players whose position is still lagging behind the USA, and, according to recent evaluations, behind the other OECD countries. The European Council in March 2000, held in Lisbon, had launched a very inciting challenge – that of transforming the EU economy into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, by 2010. Such an ambitious target requires an evaluation of the competitiveness level and also new measures to be taken in order to accomplish this objective.The article presents opinions on the EU competitiveness issue, and on the main weak and strong points, concluding that even the target and especially the schedule seem to be unrealistic, the new direction of action, i.e. towards better business conditions for enterprises being correct.

  14. CERN-EU relationship provides various opportunities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony-Kittelsen

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the EU and CERN continues to grow stronger, as the Director-General and the President of Council recently visited Brussels to discuss the progress made since the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in July 2009. With financial cuts and budget reductions plaguing research programmes across the world, the MoU is a solid basis for enhancing existing or developing new synergies between the two parties.    Rolf Heuer, Michel Spiro and other members of the CERN delegation photographed with Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, EU Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, during the 2010 Annual CERN-EC meeting. Credits: © European Union, 2010 In recent times, due to the global economic downturn and reductions in national research budgets, the competition for funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7, 2007-2013) has become extremely tough. However, given the large number of CERN proposals accepted by the EC since the start of FP7...

  15. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  16. Green entrepreneurship: EU experience and Ukraine perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena CHYGRYN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available These days the environmental challenges begin to play crucial role in sustainable development of the countries and regions. European environmental policy aims in the creation of a favorable framework for the development of green entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the analysis of EU experience in supporting and promoting the green entrepreneurship. The author analyzed and systematized the EU trends in GHG emission. The main features and parts of the green economy are described. The author emphasizes that EU has the huge experience in the sphere of developing and providing relevant green activities, which can be used by Ukraine for implementation green entrepreneurship projects on the different levels of the economy. Thus, the green positive practices in Austria, Hungary, Ireland and Spain were described. The author underlines that green entrepreneurship for Ukraine is one of the necessary conditions for improving the environmental status, solving the problems with the rational use of natural resources, increasing the welfare of the citizen, integration into the European Union and to ensure the green of innovative development. The activities which are necessary for mainstreaming for Ukraine’s integrating to the European sustainable entrepreneurship space were considered.

  17. Differences and similarities between the EU and non-EU citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dhamo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the European Union had a purely economic connotation, as his intent was the free movement of factors of production, in order to create a competitive internal market and achieving a rational distribution of resources. For this reason, the individual was seen simply as a worker and for this purpose the first aspects that are disciplined within the EU are those contained in this sphere. In the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (EEC, the freedom of free movement was reserved for only a few special categories of workers, who were active subjects economically, since what resulted essential at the time was the creation of an internal market. Later the Maastricht Treaty, on one side marks the transition from the EEC to the EU, on the other presents for the first time the "European citizenship", making the free movement an autonomous right of every citizen belonging to a Member State. In this way the free movement is exercised not only for the economic purposes of the Treaties. In December 2000 the Charter of Fundamental Rights or the Charter of Nice was compiled and signed, which defines that the EU seeks to promote a balanced development and ensures free movement of persons, goods, services and capital, and also the freedom of residence. Main objective of this manuscript is an analysis of the differences and similarities between the EU and non-EU citizens.

  18. Adsorption behaviour and kinetics of exchange of Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibria and kinetics of exchange of both Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion-exchanger, cobalt hexacyanocobaltate (III) (CoHCC) incorporated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN), has been studied. The apparent capacity of CoHCC-PAN for Zn2+ and Eu3+ was determined and found to be 0.353 and 0.69 meq/g, respectively. The higher capacity for Eu3+ ions than that for Zn2+ ions is due to the higher electrostatic interaction strength of the higher charge ion with the surface. Freundlich and Langmiur adsorption isotherms were used to investigate solute (Zn2+ or Eu3+) exchange phenomenon at the liquid/solid interface. The results indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fit well for both Zn2+ and Eu3+. Sorption data have been also treated with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. The kinetics of Zn2+ or Eu3+ sorption on the composite seems to show that the reaction was proceed via two steps. The first one was fast and probably due to adsorption followed by a slow exchange reaction. In view of the data obtained on the effect of particle size and metal ion concentrations on the rate of exchange reaction, it is concluded that the mechanism for both ions was chemical control. Generally, it seems that there are two exchange sites chemically equivalent but present in pores of different sizes which lead to different degrees of dehydration of the ions sorbed on the two sites

  19. Sharing Lessons Learned Between Industries in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehleisen, A.; Strucic, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent events in nuclear industry remind us on importance of continuous sharing of the knowledge and experience gained through evaluations of incidents and accidents. We frequently use experience from our daily life activities to improve our performance and avoid some mistakes or unwanted events. In the similar way we can use other industries experience. These experiences can be applied to improve nuclear safety. For example, Safety Culture, which has a great influence on the level of nuclear power plants safety, is similarly presented in other industries. Mechanisms which led to accidents from weak safety culture in one branch of other industry could be comparable to those in nuclear industry. Some other industries have many more cumulative years of experience than nuclear industry. Aviation and Oil industries are typical representatives. Part of their experience can be used in nuclear industry too. Number of reports from nuclear power plants showed us that not only specific equipment related causes lay behind accidents; there are also other causes and contributors which are more common for all industries. Hence lessons learned in other industry should be assessed and used in nuclear industry too. In the European Union, a regional initiative has been set up in 2008 in support of EU Member State nuclear safety authorities, but also EU technical support organizations, international organizations and the broader nuclear community, to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from operational experience of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The initiative, called ''the EU Clearinghouse on Operational Experience Feedback for NPP'', is organized as a network operated by a centralized office located at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The reduction of occurrence and significance of events in NPPs and their safe operation is its ultimate goal. Among others EU Clearinghouse provides services such as technical and scientific

  20. Gas and coal competition in the EU Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-06-01

    Despite its many assets, a confluence of factors - including flat electricity demand, rising use of renewable energy sources, falling wholesale electricity market prices, high gas prices relative to coal and low CO 2 prices - has eroded the competitiveness of natural gas in the EU power sector. The share of natural gas in the EU electricity mix has decreased from 23% in 2010 to 20.5% in 2012. By contrast, coal-fired power stations have been operating at high loads, increasing coal demand by the sector. This thorough analysis by CEDIGAZ of gas, coal and CO 2 dynamics in the context of rising renewables is indispensable to understand what is at stake in the EU power sector and how it will affect future European gas demand. Main findings of the report: - Coal is likely to retain its cost advantage into the coming decade: The relationship between coal, gas and CO 2 prices is a key determinant of the competition between gas and coal in the power sector and will remain the main driver of fuel switching. A supply glut on the international coal market (partly because of an inflow of US coal displaced by shale gas) has led to a sharp decline in coal prices while gas prices, still linked to oil prices to a significant degree, have increased by 42% since 2010. At the same time, CO 2 prices have collapsed, reinforcing coal competitiveness. Our analysis of future trends in coal, gas and CO 2 prices suggests that coal competitive advantage may well persist into the coming decade. - But coal renaissance may still be short-lived: Regulations on emissions of local pollutants, i.e. the Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) and the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) that will succeed it in 2016, will lead to the retirement of old, inefficient coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the rapid development of renewables, which so far had only impacted gas-fired power plants is starting to take its toll on hard coal plants' profitability. This trend is reinforced by regulation at EU or

  1. EU Think Tank Fora as Transaction Cost Reducers: A Study of Informal Interest Intermediation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By examining the organisational structure of EU think tank fora (seminars, workshops and conferences, this article proposes that fora can play the role of transaction cost reducers in EU policymaking. I argue that certain aspects of EU policymaking, including i controlled processes of consultation, ii diminishing costs of management, and iii the risk of state capture, incentivise EU institutions to outsource part of the consultation activity to policy actors that can help EU institutions fulfil their informational and legitimacy needs. I argue that think tanks are able to play this role because they i reduce information asymmetries by connecting a wide variety of policy actors and ii act as intermediaries that mitigate opportunistic behaviour. The empirical assessment reveals that the dimensions characterising transactions are present in EU think tank fora. It shows that policy actors that do not usually participate in formal consultation processes frequently attend fora where they meet representatives of EU institutions, particularly Parliament and Commission representatives.

  2. The Normality of EU Sport Policy Studies: Disciplinary Locus in Political Science, Sport Science or Elsewhere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Kornbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Normality of EU Sport Policy Studies: Disciplinary Locus in Political Science, Sport Science or Elsewhere? Mainstream European integration research has shown that research on the EU tends to follow the conjunctures of European integration itself. This realisation has led to some debate on which branch of political science – international relations or government – or indeed other academic disciplines is/are the most appropriate locus for such research. The paper takes these debates one step further by looking at the occurrence of ‘EU & sport’ studies within the wider field of EU studies. The main material used comes from the ECLAS database. Findings lead to a discussion of whether ‘EU & sport’ studies should rather be for EU specialists or for sport specialists and a plea for disciplinary normalisation whereby sport science would need to get more directly involved (without necessarily overwriting political science. Some ideas are added regarding the need for a mapping of Central & Eastern European scholarship. Normalita politických studií EU v oblasti sportu: místo v oborech politologie, sportovních vědách či jinde? Hlavní integrační proudy v evropském výzkumu dokumentují, že výzkum v EU má tendenci zkoumat evropskou integraci jako takovou. Toto poznání vedlo k diskusi, v kterém oboru politologie – mezinárodní vztahy či vláda – nebo i v jiných akademických disciplínách je nejvhodnější místo pro takový výzkum. Stať se pokouší posunout tyto diskuse o krok dále tím, že studie o „EU a sportu“ se posuzují v širším záběru EU studií. Hlavní informační zdroje pocházejí z databáze ECLAS. Naše zjištění vedou k diskusi o problematice „EU a sportu“ v tom smyslu, zda by tyto studie měly být spíše určeny odborníkům EU, nebo sportovním specialistům. Důležitá je otázka disciplinární začlenění této problematiky, s širším zapojením sportovních věd (aniž by

  3. Europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12) and Eu3GaO6: Synthesis and material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kenji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were synthesized from a mixture of cubic (c-) Eu2O3 and monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) raw powders using the solid-state reaction method by calcination at Tc = 1200 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. Stoichiometric compounds such as cubic Eu3Ga5O12 (EGG) and orthorhombic Eu3GaO6 were synthesized using molar ratios of x = 0.375 and 0.75 [x≡Eu2O3/(Eu2O3 + Ga2O3)], respectively, together with the end-point binary compounds β-Ga2O3 (x = 0) and monoclinic (m-) Eu2O3 (x = 1.0). The structural change from "cubic" to "monoclinic" in Eu2O3 is due to the structural phase transition occurring at Tc ≥ 1050 °C. In principle, the perovskite-type EuGaO3 and monoclinic Eu4Ga2O9 can also be synthesized at x = 0.5 and 0.667, respectively; however, such stoichiometric compounds could not be synthesized in this study. The PL and PLE properties of EGG and Eu3GaO6 were studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PL spectra was observed through measurements carried out between T = 20 and 300 K and explained using a newly developed model. Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the Eu-Ga-O ternary systems over the entire composition range from x = 0 (β-Ga2O3) to 1.0 (m-Eu2O3).

  4. Carbon pricing in the EU: Evaluation of different EU ETS reform options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, Edwin van der

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows for allowance banking and for a detailed cost-effectiveness analysis at the EU Member State level. We find that tightening the cap provides an ad hoc solution to the fundamental issue of the robustness of the effective carbon price, while introducing a price component to the ETS brings structural carbon price support in times of negative demand shocks for emission allowances. These price-based policies still benefit from the intertemporal flexibility through the banking provision in the EU ETS by re-allocating emissions over time with stronger emission reductions in early years and emission increases in later years. A higher emission price has a larger negative impact on the new Member States' economies than on other Member States. Furthermore, introducing a carbon tax in addition to the EU ETS decreases the price of allowances, resulting in welfare gains for net buyers of allowances while net sellers are worse off. - Highlights: • We analyse reform options for European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) with a CGE model. • Variable carbon tax and auction reserve price support carbon price at least cost. • Price-based reforms decrease early emissions but increase later emissions through banking. • New Member States' economies are affected more than others by higher CO 2 prices. • Lower allowance prices due to a carbon tax are unfavourable to net sellers of allowances.

  5. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.

  7. Luminescent properties and energy transfer of Gd{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped cubic CaCO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yidi; Zou, Haifeng; Zhang, Bowen; Zhou, Xiuqing; Song, Yanhua; Zheng, Keyan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Shi, Zhan [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sheng, Ye, E-mail: shengye@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Gd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions co-doped CaCO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized via carbonization method. The emission spectra of co-doped CaCO{sub 3} phosphors in the range of VUV–vis spectral were studied. The results reveal that the co-doped CaCO{sub 3} phosphors show intense red emission in the VUV range because of the Gd{sup 3+} ions as sensitizers. The energy transfer process from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in CaCO{sub 3}:Gd{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} phosphors was investigated and discussed in terms of the luminescence spectra and the decay curves, which demonstrated that the energy transfer of Gd{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} is efficient. The mechanism of energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} is a resonant transfer, in which electric dipole–dipole interaction plays a leading role. Furthermore, the effect of doping concentration of Eu{sup 3+} ions on the energy transfer efficiency was also investigated. From the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, it was also found that the incorporation of Na{sup +} ions into CaCO{sub 3}:Gd{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} could lead to a remarkable increase of luminescent intensity due to the charge compensation.

  8. EU Action against Climate Change. EU emissions trading. An open scheme promoting global innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The European Union is committed to global efforts to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from human activities that threaten to cause serious disruption to the world's climate. Building on the innovative mechanisms set up under the Kyoto Protocol to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - joint implementation, the clean development mechanism and international emissions trading - the EU has developed the largest company-level scheme for trading in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), making it the world leader in this emerging market. The emissions trading scheme started in the 25 EU Member States on 1 January 2005

  9. Material Deprivation in Selected EU Countries According to EU-SILC Income Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stávková Jana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues of households at risk of poverty in relative conception. Income poverty means a situation when the threshold of 0.6 of median income is not achieved. The analysis of a broader definition of poverty is based on identification and assessment of material deprivation factors, including: financial stress, housing conditions, availability of consumer durables and basic needs. Data sources are based EU-SILC dataset. Presented analysis is focused on selected EU countries, namely Czech Republic, Finland, France, Spain and United Kingdom. The result identifies the problem areas that cause deprivation symptoms.

  10. Coevolution of policy, market and technical price risks in the EU ETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bunn, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU, there have been calls for governments to provide greater certainty over carbon prices, even though it is evident that their price risk is not entirely due to policy uncertainty. We develop a stochastic simulation model of price formation in the EU ETS to analyse the coevolution of policy, market and technology risks under different initiatives. The current situation of a weak (20%) overall abatement target motivates various technology-support interventions, elevating policy uncertainty as the major source of carbon price risk. In contrast, taking a firm decision to move to a more stringent 30% cap would leave the EU-ETS price formation driven much more by market forces than by policy risks. This leads to considerations of how much risk mitigation by governments would be appropriate, and how much should be taken as business risk by the market participants. - Highlights: → Methodology is developed to track EU-ETS risk factors and their interactions. → Policy risks are found to be the most significant when carbon prices are low. → Robust carbon signals in a cap-and-trade require stringent targets. → Multiple policies create downward price pressure, increasing policy risk exposure. → Fuel prices also are important, whilst technology risk plays a small part until later.

  11. Economic, environmental and international trade effects of the EU Directive on energy tax harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Schumacher, Katja; Diekmann, Jochen; Schumacher, Dieter [German Inst. for Economic Research (DIW), Berlin (Germany); Carmes, Martin [Oeko-Institut e. V. (Institute for Applied Ecology), Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In October 2003, the European Union introduced a Directive, which widens the scope of the EU's minimum taxation system from mineral oils to all energy products including coal, natural gas and electricity. It aims at reducing distortions that currently exist between Member States as well as between energy products. In addition, it increases previous minimum tax rates and thus the incentive to use energy more efficiently. The Directive will lead to changes in the energy tax schemes in a number of countries, in particular some southern Member Countries (Greece, Spain, Portugal) and most of the new Member States. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the EU energy tax harmonization with GTAP-E, a computable general equilibrium model. Particular focus is placed on the Eastern European countries, which became new members of the EU in May 2004. We investigate the effects of the tax harmonization on overall economic growth and sectoral development. Special attention is paid to international trade in order to analyze if competitiveness concerns, which have been forwarded in the context of energy taxation are valid. Furthermore, the effect on energy consumption and emissions and thus the contribution to the EU's climate change targets is analyzed.

  12. Near UV excitable Eu-doped alumina nanophosphors synthesized by the microwave assisted solvothermal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Rosales, I.; Cabañas-Moreno, J. G.; Jiménez, G. L.; Aguilar-Frutis, M. A.; Alarcón-Flores, G.; Falcony, C.

    2017-12-01

    Europium doped alumina nanophosphors have been synthesized by the microwave assisted solvothermal technique. The dependence of the photoluminescence response and structural features of these nanophosphors on the europium content and annealing temperature has been characterized for a wide range of compositions and thermal treatments. The nanophosphors are composed of a mixture of nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 and EuAlO3, in addition to an amorphous alumina phase. The relative quantities of each phase depend on both the europium content and the annealing temperature. High europium content and/or annealing temperature lead to larger fractions of EuAlO3 nanocrystals having with poor luminescence characteristics, while lower temperatures and europium contents result in the predominance of γ-Al2O3 nanocrystals and amorphous alumina, showing much more efficient luminescent emission. The luminescence spectra from all samples show the characteristic red emission peaks from the Eu3+ ion associated with inter-electronic energy level transitions. However, the excitation spectra in these nanophosphors are dominated, by the 7F0–5L6 transition (395 nm), as opposed to the dominant charge-transfer related band at ~260 nm commonly reported for this material. The highest luminescence intensity was obtained for nanophosphors doped with 7.5 at.% of Eu, annealed at 900 °C, which exhibits a quantum yield of 45% when excited with 395 nm light.

  13. g-Jitter mixed convective slip flow of nanofluid past a permeable stretching sheet embedded in a Darcian porous media with variable viscosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J Uddin

    Full Text Available The unsteady two-dimensional laminar g-Jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of Cu-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids past a permeable stretching sheet in a Darcian porous is studied by using an implicit finite difference numerical method with quasi-linearization technique. It is assumed that the plate is subjected to velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. We have considered temperature dependent viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically. The transport equations have been shown to be controlled by a number of parameters including viscosity parameter, Darcy number, nanoparticle volume fraction, Prandtl number, velocity slip, thermal slip, suction/injection and mixed convection parameters. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles as well as friction factor and heat transfer rates are presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the velocity reduces with velocity slip parameter for both nanofluids for fluid with both constant and variable properties. It is further found that the skin friction decreases with both Darcy number and momentum slip parameter while it increases with viscosity variation parameter. The surface temperature increases as the dimensionless time increases for both nanofluids. Nusselt numbers increase with mixed convection parameter and Darcy numbers and decreases with the momentum slip. Excellent agreement is found between the numerical results of the present paper with published results.

  14. An analysis of carrier phase jitter in an MPSK receiver utilizing map estimation. Ph.D. Thesis Semiannual Status Report, Jul. 1993 - Jan. 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, William P.

    1994-01-01

    The use of 8 and 16 PSK TCM to support satellite communications in an effort to achieve more bandwidth efficiency in a power-limited channel has been proposed. This project addresses the problem of carrier phase jitter in an M-PSK receiver utilizing the high SNR approximation to the maximum aposteriori estimation of carrier phase. In particular, numerical solutions to the 8 and 16 PSK self-noise and phase detector gain in the carrier tracking loop are presented. The effect of changing SNR on the loop noise bandwidth is also discussed. These data are then used to compute variance of phase error as a function of SNR. Simulation and hardware data are used to verify these calculations. The results show that there is a threshold in the variance of phase error versus SNR curves that is a strong function of SNR and a weak function of loop bandwidth. The M-PSK variance thresholds occur at SNR's in the range of practical interest for the use of 8 and 16-PSK TCM. This suggests that phase error variance is an important consideration in the design of these systems.

  15. Controlled synthesis of Eu2+ and Eu3+ doped ZnS quantum dots and their photovoltaic and magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Horoz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eu-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs have been synthesized by wet-chemical method and found to form in zinc blende (cubic structure. Both Eu2+ and Eu3+ doped ZnS can be controllably synthesized. The Eu2+ doped ZnS QDs show broad photoluminescence emission peak around 512 nm, which is from the Eu2+ intra-ion transition of 4f6d1 – 4f7, while the Eu3+ doped samples exhibit narrow emission lines characteristic of transitions between the 4f levels. The investigation of the magnetic properties shows that the Eu3+ doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, Eu2+ doped samples are paramagnetic of Curie-Weiss type. The incident photon to electron conversion efficiency is increased with the Eu doping, which suggests the QD solar cell efficiency can be enhanced by Eu doping due to widened absorption windows. This is an attractive approach to utilize benign and environmentally friendly wide band gap ZnS QDs in solar cell technology.

  16. ‘In Search of the Law’: Governing Homeless EU Citizens in a State of Legal Ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.

    2017-01-01

    This research paper studies the government of Union citizens leading a homeless life in a different Member State than their own. Homeless organisations and scholars have pointed at the ambiguous and complex nature of EU free movement law as a factor aiding homelessness amongst Union citizens and a

  17. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    31 March 2004 the EU adopted two new public procurement directives: one for the public sector (2004/18/EC) and one for utilities (2004/17/EC). The new directives aim at simplification and modernisation of the previously existing directives including adaptation to electronic purchasing techniques......, transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the conference....

  18. The Social Dimension of EU Trade Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Organisation (ILO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as the United States and China, for example. The rest of the article will provide refl ections on the ideas raised in the special issue from a normative power perspective in six sections. First, it will elaborate on the role of labour rights...... will ask how the EU initiatives in this area could increase the legitimacy of the ‘trade and social linkage' in international politics and economics from a normative power perspective. Finally, the article concludes by suggesting a more holistic approach to the promotion of the social dimension...

  19. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . On 4-5 November 2004 the Copenhagen Business School organised a European research conference on the new directives. The conference focused on a number of topics which are of particular interest within the field of procurement law in EU these years, including ECJ case law, utilities, electronic auctions......, transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the conference....

  20. Personalising your health: an EU imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Denis

    2017-01-01

    In the fast-moving world of personalised medicine there are many issues and barriers-not least when it comes to getting novel drugs and treatments swiftly to where they are really needed. Slow bench-to-bedside rates do not help the 500 million potential patients across the EU's current 28 Member States, and the timings are affected by several elements during the development and licensing phases. As we all know, personalised medicine starts with the patient. It holds huge potential for improving the health of many patients and ensuring better outcomes for health systems' efficiency and transparency.

  1. EU Energy Policies Targeting the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL CALANTER

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Activities in the energy sector provide the greatest contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG, which are assigned primary responsibility for producing climate change. The European Union puts great emphasis on the mitigation of the environmental impact of the energy sector, in particular concerning the combat against climate change, this fact being demonstrated by the implementation of policies by the EU in this field. This paper aims to analyse the most important Community energy policies with environmental effects, such as setting of climate and energy targets for 2030, policies on nuclear and renewable energy or measures to increase energy efficiency.

  2. Relocating a Company within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration...... for the merger is shares in the subsidiary, which can be effected by giving the parent company's shares in the subsidiary to the parent company's shareholders, but after the shares have taken a brief respite in the subsidiary as own shares...

  3. Prospects for EU biofuel production and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bamiere, Laure; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Guinde, Loic; Guyomard, Herve; Jacquet, Florence; Treguer, David; European Union

    2007-01-01

    Les relations entre les marchés agricoles et énergétiques sont de plus en plus étroites. La politique européenne de soutien aux biocarburants a eu un impact significatif sur certains marchés agricoles, notamment les oléagineux. Les objectifs futurs vont probablement affecter aussi les marchés des céréales et du sucre. Cet article revient sur la politique de l'Union européenne en faveur des biocarburants. L’objectif est d'évaluer si cette politique va entraîner une utilisation croissante de pr...

  4. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    surprising development in the region. This article analyses how strategic relations between the EU and Egypt are being challenged by constitutional changes in Egypt following the political development since early 2011. Initially the article describes European-Egyptian relations prior to the fall of President...... of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...

  5. Harmonisation of Slovenian nuclear legislation with EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, M.

    1999-01-01

    Slovenia as a member of the first group of candidates countries which started the accession negotiations with the European Union. The extensive work started in 1998 to align the domestic legislation with the legislation of the European Union. The activities related to the accession of Slovenia to EU in the area of nuclear legislation are carried out in different national working groups. The main part of activities is in working groups: energy and environment, but there are some topics, which are covered in other groups, like control of dual-use materials in the group of External Relations, research in reactor physics, nuclear engineering and fusion in the group Science and Technology

  6. Jurisdiction Over Cybertorts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses EU jurisdiction rules for civil and commercial tort cases involving the use of the Internet (cybertorts). Since cybertorts have multiplied globally, determination of the appropriate forum in which to recover damages is of paramount importance. Brussels I Regulation (Recast......) contains rules on general jurisdiction, which have largely been unproblematic and rules on special jurisdiction, which have been subject to intense interpretation in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The CJEU case law on special jurisdiction in cybertorts is divided into two groups: cases...

  7. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    In the recently issued Opinion 2/13, the EU Court of Justice ruled that EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights on the basis of the current Draft Accession Agreement would be incompatible with the EU Treaties. This article examines the impact of Opinion 2/13 on European fundamental...... rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...... argues that the Opinion, in both form and substance, is in line with the pattern of the Court opting for a more autonomous EU approach to fundamental adjudication following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and that this development gives rise to serious concerns about the effectiveness...

  8. Family reunification regulations in Norway and the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Jan-Paul; Grønningsæter, Andrea Gustafsson

    2017-01-01

    Today, family immigration constitutes more than one-third of the immigrants coming from outside Europe (EEA) to Norway and the EU countries. It is the explicit goal of the Norwegian Government to adapt its immigration policies to European standards. But, EU countries also differ in how they regulate family migration. This report compares family reunification regulations in Norway to those in the EU member states. The report is based on the EMN’s 2017 focused study, named Family Reunification ...

  9. The JRC-EU-TIMES model. Bioenergy potentials for EU and neighbouring countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Pablo; Sgobbi, Alessandra; Nijs, Wouter; Thiel, Christian; Longa, Dalla Francesco; Kober, Tom; Elbersen, Berien; Hengeveld, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The JRC-EU-TIMES is a partial equilibrium energy system model maintained by the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to analyse the role of energy technologies development and their potential contribution to decarbonisation pathways of the energy system. The

  10. Transnational executive bodies: EU Policy Implementation between the EU and Member State level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Rik; Brandsma, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Existing typologies of the European administrative space locate decision-making powers with the European Commission, member state governments, and EU and national agencies, sometimes aided through regulatory networks. This article argues that those typologies are incomplete because they do not take

  11. The Impact of EU Financial Crisis and the EU Member States Measures taken to Leave Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Moagăr-Poladian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on the financial packages and fiscal stimuli measures taken by EU as a group and by each EU country for supporting hard-hit sectors like automotive industry, tourism and construction. The economic crisis from 2008-2009 has led to a sharp decrease of investment climate and a massive contraction of economic activity. This means a sharp decrease of capacity utilisation that had led in time to an excessive unemployment especially in the most hit sectors. The financial rescue measures of EU are comprised in European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP. Measures approved are different from country to country, depending by the political support and the strategy chosen by the government. The EU's response to support the real economy during the economic crisis has been taken very fast and well-organized in certain countries and industries. By contrary, some Member States' recovery measures has been approved late and the rescue strategy wasn’t enough achieved. This has led to a deepening of financial instability and unemployment.

  12. Economic Impacts of the 1997 EU Energy Tax: Simulations with Three EU-Wide Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.; Klaassen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In March 1997 the European Commission adopted a proposal that increases existing minimum levels of taxation on mineral oils by around 10 to 25% and introduces excises for other energy products. This paper analyses the macroeconomic impacts of the proposal. It employs three models: HERMES, GEM-E3, and E3ME. All models confirm that the proposal will have positive macroeconomic impacts when the tax revenues are used to reduce social security contributions paid by employers. For the EU as a whole, both GDP and employment are expected to be higher and CO2 emissions are 0.9 to 1.6 percent lower. The positive EU-wide effects can be observed in practically all member states. The sector impacts are modest, with the energy sector expected to face the most negative impacts. Differences between model results are due to the model type (general equilibrium or macro-econometric), the EU countries covered and the way tax exemptions were handled. Crucial assumptions to obtain the 'double dividend' are the modelling of the labour market and the impacts on EU external trade. The sensitivity of the results for the use of tax revenues, tax exemptions and tax rate increases is assessed. 21 refs

  13. Costs of compliance with EU regulations and competitiveness of the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Jongeneel, R.; Brouwer, F.M.; Dillen, K.; Meister, A.; Winsten, J.; Roest, de K.; Demont, M.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of cross-compliance mechanism in the European Union with its 2003 CAPreform might affect the costs of production and thus competitiveness of the EU. Little evidence is available to asses the costs of compliance with regulations and it implication for trade. In this study a farm

  14. EU is Speeding Up Its Offensive Trade Policy. The New EU-Japan Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2013, the EU and Japan launched negotiations for a comprehensive free trade agreement (FTA. The EU also announced starting of similar negotiations with the United States. Japan decided to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership under negotiation among 11 developed and developing nations in Asia-Pacific. FTAs are not new for the multilateral trading system. Striking is, however, the outstanding pace of the new trade deals among traditional trading powers. Our paper addresses the significance of the EU-Japan FTA. It first discusses the new FTA from a broader perspective, focusing on the difficulties and ongoing structural changes in the world economy. Second, it explores its importance through the lens of EU-Japan bilateral trade relations. It concludes that the recent push for FTAs by the big trading powers is a rapid means of mutual market opening in the context of reforming the very fundamentals of their economic and trade policies, as a response to the financial crisis and the shift in economic power from developed to developing countries.

  15. High enhancement of Eu3+ luminescence in SrAl4O7 phosphor by means of charge compensation with Na+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalska, M.

    2017-10-01

    A comparative study of the luminescent properties of SrAl4O7:Eu3+(x%) and SrAl4O7:Eu3+(x%),Na+(x%) (x = 0.002-0.1) phosphor powders as a function of activator concentration is reported. Upon UV excitation both series of compounds exhibit strong characteristic red Eu3+ photoluminescence with a maximum around 611.5 nm, which intensity increases with an increase of activator content. It was found that the luminescence spectra of singly Eu3+ doped strontium aluminate are much more concentration dependent. As the dopant content increases, the spectra of SrAl4O7:Eu3+ show an increased line broadening and the emergence of new emission components. The observed changes in the studied concentration range are due to an increased disorder of Eu3+ local symmetry induced by the increase in the number of defects in host lattice and by the presence of a new crystalline phase that occurs at the higher dopant content. Charge compensation through Na+ co-doping facilitates an incorporation of Eu3+ into the SrAl4O7 lattice and leads to a smaller symmetry disorder of activator surroundings as well as a significantly enhanced Eu3+ luminescence intensity. The largest increase in emission intensity (∼6.5 times) was observed for 7%-doped sample. Concentration dependences of the luminescence kinetics of both types of materials are clearly different. It was found that for singly Eu3+ doped SrAl4O7 the 5D0 lifetime shortens with the increase of activator content from 1.8 to 1.4 ms while for Na+ co-doped SrAl4O7 this value does not vary over a range of concentrations and is approximately 1.8 ms. SrAl4O7:Eu3+,Na+ powders are potential candidates to be used as luminescent materials.

  16. Mobility of health professionals pre and post 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements: evidence from the EU project PROMeTHEUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognyanova, Diana; Maier, Claudia B; Wismar, Matthias; Girasek, Edmond; Busse, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    EU enlargement has facilitated the mobility of EU citizens, including health professionals, from the 2004 and 2007 EU accession states. Fears have been raised about a mass exodus of health professionals and the consequences for the operation of health systems. However, to date a systematic analysis of the EU enlargement's effects on the mobility of health professionals has been lacking. The aim of this article is to shed light on the changes in the scale of movement, trends and directions of flows pre and post 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements. The study follows a pan-European secondary data analysis to (i) quantitatively and (ii) qualitatively analyse mobility before and after the EU enlargement. (i) The secondary data analysis covers 34 countries (including all EU Member States). (ii) Data were triangulated with the findings of 17 country case studies to qualitatively assess the effects of enlargement on health workforce mobility. The stock of health professionals from the new (EU-12) into the old EU Member States (EU-15) have increased following EU accession. The stock of medical doctors from the EU-12 in the EU-15 countries has more than doubled between 2003 and 2007. The available data suggest the same trend for dentists. The extremely limited data for nurses show that the stock of nurses has, in contrast, only slightly increased. However, while no reliable data is available evidence suggests that the number of undocumented or self-employed migrant nurses in the home-care sector has significantly increased. Health professionals trained in the EU-12 are becoming increasingly important in providing sufficient health care in some destination countries and regions facing staff shortages. A mass exodus of health professionals has not taken place after the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements. The estimated annual outflows from the EU-12 countries have rarely exceeded 3% of the domestic workforce. This is partly due to labour market restrictions in the destination countries

  17. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  18. Ukraine, Russia and the EU: linked by gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The Ukrainian crisis serves as a reminder just how much Ukraine plays a determining role for the European Union in energy matters, being the funnel through which most of Russian gas has to pass to reach Western Europe. One inevitable conclusion is already obvious: Russia and the EU are intimately linked and Moscow is as dependent on the EU for foreign exchange as is the EU on Russia for its gas. Nevertheless, the absence of stability in Ukraine constitutes a permanent threat to supplies to member states of the EU, especially Germany. (author)

  19. Measuring and Explaining Regulatory Reform in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, European Union regulation of the internal market has become highly pervasive, affecting practically all domains of European citizens' lives. Many studies have focused on understanding the process and causes of regulatory change, but with limited attempts to analyse...... in the EU are analysed. Using time-series analysis of count data, evidence is found that the number of winning coalitions in the Council and the size of EU membership have a significant impact on regulatory reform in the EU. By contrast, the ideological composition of the EU's legislative bodies...

  20. Measuring and Explaining regulatory Reform in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    Over the last three decades, EU regulation of the internal market has become highly pervasive, affecting practically all the domains of European citizens’ lives. Many studies have focused on understanding the process and causes of regulatory reform. However, these have typically been small...... different sectors, and analyse the dynamics of regulatory reform in the EU. Using time series analysis of count data, we find evidence that the number of winning coalitions in the Council and the size of EU membership have a significant impact on regulatory reform in the EU. However, the political (left...

  1. The EU-Turkey March 2016 Agreement As a Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    Taking as its point of departure the EU-Turkey agreement of March 2016 regarding refugees and migrants, this paper analyses the main elements of the agreement and discusses whether the deal (or parts thereof) could applied to other contexts. It discusses the relevance of the EU-Turkey agreement...... migration negotiations between the EU and the Arab Mediterranean. - See more at: http://www.iai.it/en/pubblicazioni/eu-turkey-march-2016-agreement-model#sthash.s4VO5SGu.dpuf...

  2. CO{sub 2}MPARE. CO2 Model for Operational Programme Assessment in EU Regions. Improved carbon management with EU Regional Policy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schram, J. [Energies Demain, Montreuil Sous Bois (France); Amerighi, O. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Keppo, I. [University College London UCL, London (United Kingdom); Papagianni, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Ten Donkelaar, M. [ENVIROS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    The CO2MPARE model supports national and regional authorities in making balanced decisions for their investment portfolio under their regional development programmes, in particular under their Operational Programmes of EU Regional Policy. The EU's climate objectives require that investments across the EU are channeled towards low-carbon development. The carbon impacts of investments should therefore be seriously considered in the decision making process of regional development programmes. The CO2MPARE model informs national and regional authorities on the impacts that the investments under various Operational Programmes can have in terms of CO2 emissions. Knowing which investments lead either to additional emissions or rather to emission reductions, and what the overall impact of a programme is, represents the first step towards investment decisions that have decarbonisation co-benefits. CO2MPARE estimates the combined carbon impact of all activities that take place under a programme, and provides insights into the relative contributions of the different themes. Through its high aggregation level, it allows comparison of investment scenarios rather than individual projects. As such, it aims to support informed decisions on investment strategies rather than project investment decisions. In doing so, it also helps to build and develop a 'carbon culture' within the authorities directly or indirectly in charge of managing Regional Policy Operational Programmes. The model is primarily aimed at Operational Programmes co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

  3. Technology Transfer in the EU: Exporting Strategically Important ICT Solutions to Other EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Säär Anni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of ICTs pose new challenges to the European Union and its Member States. Every EU country has its own policies regarding technology transfer, ownership of state e-services, and the possibilities how the state-owned or licensed e-service could be exported. Taking into account the free movement of goods, the EU has created a platform to cooperate and export IT solutions. However, the lack of preparedness of infrastructures, legislation and stakeholders for cross-border exchanges poses a threat to IT transfer and should be taken into consideration in the EU as well. In the coming decades the number of outsourced ICT solutions, strategically important ICT solutions, public services and critically important information exchange platforms developed on behalf of the states, will grow exponentially. Still, digital development is uneven across the EU, they grow at different speeds and the performance is quite splintered. There are legal provisions which are outdated and therefore impede technological cooperation and export of IT solutions. A Member State may restrict the ICT licensing based on national security and policy reasons and the ownership of intellectual property might pose a threat to technology transfer or further development of the IT solution. There are examples of strategically important export of ICT solutions, the experience at which can be expanded to cover other EU Member States. Strong collaboration would enable mutual learning from past experiences along with the opportunities for better use of technology. Parallels can be drawn with military technology transfers, as the policies and legal framework was first developed and mostly used with them.

  4. New opportunities for EU projects at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In July 2009 the European Commission (EC) finalised how it will spend research funding for 2010, within its Framework Programme 7 (FP7). On 31 July the EC is expected to publish new calls for European project proposals, many of which are relevant to CERN. In the first two and a half years of Framework Programme 7 (2007-2013), CERN has been very successful – the Organization is participating in around 30 EU projects, with total EC contribution of nearly 35 million Euros. The now finalised 2010 Work Programmes for FP7 outline how the EC will allocate budgets within each research field. From these Work Programmes, a series of calls for proposals are published so researchers can apply for targeted funding within given deadlines. The first calls are expected to be launched on 31 July and closed later in the year. The web-site of the CERN EU Projects Office contains a list of all new calls of potential interest to CERN, as well as the relevant Work Programmes and Guide for A...

  5. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  6. Diabetes device reimbursement in the EU-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Bobáková, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    The reimbursement landscape for new and innovative diabetes devices in Europe is very heterogeneous and nontransparent, with each country employing different mechanisms, pathways, and requirements. This article provides an overview of how diabetes device reimbursement works in the outpatient setting in the five major European Union markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom; the EU-5). It will be of particular interest to manufacturers of innovative devices. Markets are first categorized as either a centralized or a regionalized reimbursement decision-making system, and implications for device reimbursement are explored. In the second part, specific requirements and success factors for wide reimbursement in the EU-5 are analyzed in detail. Gaining early acceptance by the main influencers (key opinion leaders and payers) is the first step. Equally important is the provision of convincing evidence, be this clinical, health-economic (cost-effectiveness), or a demonstration of cost savings (budget impact). In some countries, local usage data may be a requirement as well. Lastly, as payers' willingness to pay stems directly from their perceived value of a device, a key success factor and a necessary precondition for manufacturers is to set the right price. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Transfer pricing rules in EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important area of international taxes is transfer pricing. Transfer price is a price set by a taxpayer when selling to, buying from, or sharing resources with a related (associated person. The tran­sac­tions between these persons should be assessed at their arm’s length price in according the arm’s length principle – international accepted standard – as the price which would have been agreed between unrelated parties in free market conditions. This paper is focused on the tranfer pricing rules used in particular EU Member States so as if EU Member States apply the arm’s length principle, define the related persons, apply recommendations of the OECD Guidelines, use the transfer pricing methods, require TP Documentation, exercise specific transfer pricing audit or impose specific penalties and apply APAs. Transfer pricing rules should prevent taxpayers from shifting income to related person organized in tax havens or in countries where they enjoy some special tax benefit.

  8. INTERSTATE EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF EU AND CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Краснова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to interstate educational space EU, CIS: describe the mechanisms for their establishment and highlighted their main characteristics. Russia has become a party at different times of all of that interstate educational spaces. Given the fact that the humanitarian cooperation in the field of education has economic consequences, measured in concrete terms, the article analyzed the capacity of pro-labor market of highly qualified personnel (labor mobility and the educational market (academic mobility countries participating in intergovernmental alliances. The authors concluded that the trend of the growth of regionalization of education, as evidenced, in particular, the growing regional academic and labor mobility. Moreover, if the foundations for the EU-governmental regional centers of education were Germany and France, for the CIS - Russia.For Russia, for the first time facing the challenge of working on the reduction-settlement, participation in international educational alliances can bring additional dividends if the solution to this problem will go the way of increasing labor migration and training of the participating countries of the CIS. In this case, Existing-exists the need for correction of the state policy in the field of attracting highly qualified you are, foreign experts and training issues for foreign countries.

  9. Dependence of photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity on Eu3+ and ZnO concentrations in Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor powders with different concentrations of Eu3+ ions were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their luminescence properties were investigated. The red photoluminescence (PL) from Eu3+ ions with the main...

  10. Analysis of national allocation plans for the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Nilsson, Kristina; Aahman, Markus; Kumlin, Anna-Sofia; Birgersdotter, Lena

    2004-08-01

    The EU ETS is a Community-wide scheme established by Directive 2003/87/EC for trading allowances to cover the emissions of greenhouse gases from permitted installations. The first phase of the EU ETS runs from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. Each Member State must develop a National Allocation Plan for the first phase stating: the total quantity of allowances that the Member State intends to issue during that phase; and how it proposes to distribute those allowances among the installations which are subject to the scheme In this paper twelve of the national allocation plans have been analysed and compared to the criteria stated in the EU Directive. The twelve allocation plans analysed are: the Austrian, the Danish, the Finnish, the German, the Irish, the Lithuanian, the Luxembourg, the Dutch, the Swedish, the British and the draft Flemish (Belgium) and Portuguese. Generally most countries have allocated generously to the trading sector. The allocation has often been based on future needs. For most sectors the allocation is higher than current emissions. Many countries will have to make large reductions in the non-trading sector and/or buy credits through JI- and CDM-projects in order to fulfil their commitment according to the EU burden sharing agreement of the Kyoto Protocol. In many of the allocation plans the emission reducing measures in the non-trading sector is poorly described and the credibility of the measures are hard to determine. Two sectors have been analysed in more detail, the energy and the mineral oil refining sectors. Figures presenting allocation vs. current emissions for those sectors are given for those countries where data was available in the allocation plan. The energy sector has been considered to have the best possibilities to pass on costs for the allowances to the consumers and hence the allocation to this sector is often more restricted than the allocation to other sectors. The mineral oil refining sector is more exposed to

  11. Administrative Aspects of Alternative Consumer Dispute Resolution in the European Union (EU, Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeretina Urša

    2016-06-01

    would lead us closer towards a common European Administrative Space. However, so far such EU initiatives have left many questions unanswered regarding the supervision and financing of CADR schemes, as well as the administrative issues about the purely internal harmonization of “administrative” CADR practices in Member States. An example of the substantial administrative dilemmas in CADR practices, mostly in the field of universal services, can be recognized in existing CADR systems in selected EU countries, e.g. Slovenia and Croatia.

  12. Redox potentials of the Sm3+/Sm2+ and Eu3+/Eu2+ in molten potassium and cesium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, A.V.; Shishkin, V.Yu.; Khokhlov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Redox potentials of Sm 3+ /Sm 2+ and Eu 3+ /Eu 2+ in KCl and CsCl melts, containing 4.5 mol.% of samarium and europium chlorides at most, towards chlorine reference electrode in the temperature ranges of 1073-1223 and 973-1173 R respectively were measured by direct potentiometric method. It is shown that the shift of Sm 3+ /Sm 2+ and Eu 3+ /Eu 2+ redox potentials towards their more negative values with increase in the solvent salt cation radius and temperature decrease stems from strengthening of interparticle bonds in the complex groupings [ru

  13. Recent Trends in the EU Trade in Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to gauge the main trends in the evolution and structure of the EU trade in goods, mainly after 2004, starting from a quantitative analysis and comparing trends in the trade in goods with trends in the trade in services, where necessary. We focus on the trade of the EU-27 as a group, but we stress the differences and similarities between the old member states (EU- 15 and the new member states (NMS as well. Structured in seven parts, the paper reveals several noteworthy conclusions. Firstly, the EU remains the world trade leader; nevertheless, its market shares have been diminishing in the recent years, both in the export and import flows, due to a complex of factors. Secondly, the NMS shares in the EU trade flows have been growing; yet, the NMS shares in the exports and imports of the EU-27 remain at a very low level. Besides, the normalized trade balance of the NSM, compared with that of the EU-15 underlines the different competitive advantages of the two groups. Thirdly, the trade deficit of the EU-27 continues to deepen (the extra-EU trade deficit tripled in 2004-2008; however, there are significant differences between the manufactures trade balance (with large surpluses and the commodities trade balance (with a deficit that doubled between 2004 and 2008. Fourth, the paper points out that the extra-EU exports and the imports are dominated by the manufactures; however the share of manufactures in the import flows is much smaller than that in the export flows. Finally, the present analysis traces evidence of the major impact of the global financial and economic crisis on the EU trade flows and the first signs of recovery.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of pyrochlore-type Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}(O,N){sub 7+δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anke, Bjoern; Hund, Sophie; Lorent, Christian; Lerch, Martin [Institut fuer Chemie, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Janka, Oliver; Block, Theresa; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2017-12-13

    Pyrochlore-type Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}(O,N){sub 7+δ} phases were prepared by reaction of ammonia with an amorphous europium tantalum oxide precursor. {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer and EPR spectroscopy as well as magnetic susceptibility measurements point to the presence of exclusively Eu{sup 3+}. For phase-pure samples (X-ray powder diffraction), the nitrogen content varies between 1.0 and 1.8 wt %, leading to compositions in the range Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7.1}N{sub 0.6} - Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6.5}N{sub 1.0}. Pyrochlore-type phases are structurally derived from the fluorite type with 1/8 of the anions missing, resulting in an ideal composition A{sub 2}B{sub 2}X{sub 7}. In Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}(O,N){sub 7+δ} the excess anions partly occupy these vacancies. The prepared phases are colorless with a direct optical bandgap of 4.3 eV and they show the typical Van Vleck paramagnetic behavior known for trivalent Eu atoms. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Resonant TMR inversion in LiF/EuS based spin-filter tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resonant tunneling can lead to inverse tunnel magnetoresistance when impurity levels rather than direct tunneling dominate the transport process. We fabricated hybrid magnetic tunnel junctions of CoFe/LiF/EuS/Ti, with an epitaxial LiF energy barrier joined with a polycrystalline EuS spin-filter barrier. Due to the water solubility of LiF, the devices were fully packaged in situ. The devices showed sizeable positive TMR up to 16% at low bias voltages but clearly inverted TMR at higher bias voltages. The TMR inversion depends sensitively on the thickness of LiF, and the tendency of inversion disappears when LiF gets thick enough and recovers its intrinsic properties.

  16. The Single Market and EU Competition Law - Two Pillars of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA IORDACHE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between a deeper, broader, well-functioning Single Market and an active and efficient enforcement of EU competition law is at the core of higher productivity and sustainable growth across Europe. This paper focuses on the domains in which competition policy can help to create and consolidate a genuine Single Market and capitalize on the full potential for Europe’s competitiveness in a globalised world. In competition matters, the European Commission has more power than in any other policy areas, with its combined roles as initiator of European legislation and as competition enforcer. The modernisation of the competition policy and law enforcement has been the result of the EU political, economic and social agenda. The European Commission is leading this process, which is the main lever the Union has to respond to the multiple challenges ahead – the globalisation of business and the evolution of the financial and economic crisis.

  17. Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU-project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bonneau, M.

    . The European Unions self-sufficiency and leading position in the global market for pork and pork products is challenged by a number of non-European countries. Therefore, there is a need for developing innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer...... demands. A large EU-project (Q-PorkChains) funded by EU 6th framework programme was initiated in January 2007. The aim of Q-PorkChains is to improve the quality of pork and its products for the consumer and to develop innovative, integrated and sustainable food production chains with low environmental...... impact. Q-PorkChains is composed of six research modules (consumer and citizen demands, pig production, product development, pork chain management, molecular quality control and knowledge synthesis) and two horizontal modules focusing on implementation of obtained knowledge in pilot and demonstration...

  18. Institutional complexity and sustainable development in the EU electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciulli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades the European Union (EU) electricity sector has undergone numerous radical changes, which have been engendered largely by two key factors. On the one hand, EU countries have increasingly adopted deregulation and privatization policies. On the other hand, societal concerns about

  19. Normative Power and the Future of EU Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Whitman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis in this chapter is on the future of EU public diplomacy in a more globalised, mulitipolar, multilateral world. The chapter does not seek to explore the role of EU member states within this future shift but clearly, as Mai’a Davis Cross discusses in her chapter, if the EU and its member...... states are to have a future role at all, they must develop synergies not antergies in external actions and public diplomacy. As the next five sections set out, this fundamental shift in the role of the EU in global politics requires a recognition of how the EU has ‘“gone global’” (section II); how EU...... diplomacy is ‘“going public’” (section III); and how EU public diplomacy needs to consider ‘“sharing minds’” (section IV); how the normative power of public diplomacy can ensure the EU is ‘“remaining distinctive’” in global politics (section V); and before concluding on the normative power approach...

  20. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and