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Sample records for eu energy law

  1. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K. (eds.)

    2011-12-15

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  2. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K.

    2011-12-01

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  3. EU Energy Law. Volume 3. EU Environmental Law and Energy Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werring, L.; Bertoldi, P.; Bowie, R.; Hodson, P.; Lorentzen, J.; Vaggen Malvik, H.; Toth, A.; Yordi, B.; Hancher, L.

    2006-03-01

    In recent years an unprecedented range of legislation has been adopted by the Council and European Parliament giving effect to Euope's commitment to tackle climate change. This has resulted in important new obligations being placed on almost all levels of business as well as providing major new business opportunities and creating new markets. The volume is written for lawyers and specialist advisers as well as those involved in business responsible for implementing these new laws on a daily basis

  4. Problems of the Renewable Energy Law of 2014 with respect to constitutional and EU law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekardt, Felix; Rostock Univ.

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) which is currently in the process of enactment aims to limit the scope of what has been one of the most successful climate protection instruments in the history of German law. In essence this instrument has established an obligation of acceptance of and remuneration for electricity generated from renewable resources. The present article analyses the most important regulatory objects of the 2014 EEG for their compatibility with German constitutional law as well as primary and secondary EU law.

  5. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  6. EU Energy Law. Volume 2. EU Competition Law and Energy Markets. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabau, E.; Jones, C.; Hancher, L.; Kjoelbye, L.; Landes, V.; Van der Woude, M.

    2007-09-01

    This completely revised and reworked second edition: incorporates the conclusions and consequences of the Sectoral Energy Competition Enquiry; contains an entirely reworked section on anti-competitive agreements and practices; examines in detail the developments in individual cases concerning long-term capacity reservation and sales/purchase agreements; considers recent developments on cases concerning collusion on price and quantity restrictions; looks into detail at the consequences of the Sectoral enquiry on abuse of a dominant position, particularly regarding discrimination in network access; revises the section on merger control to take account of developments in the methodology in defining markets and defining dominance /significant impediment of competition from the Sectoral enquiry; includes major new merger cases: Endesa, GDF/Suez, E.ON/MOL, DONG; and finally updates the State Aid section to take account of new decisions on renewable support schemes, security of supply

  7. EU Energy Law. Volume 1. The Internal Energy Market. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Webster, W.

    2006-06-01

    European energy markets are undergoing rapid and fundamental change. In 2005 the European Council and European Parliament adopted the second energy liberalisation package, including the new electricity and Natural Gas Directives and the Electricity Regulation. In addition, the European Commission tabled new Directives on Security of Supply and a draft Natural Gas Regulation. This is affecting markets not only in the European Union, but throughout Europe, the Mediterranean, the Balkans and Russia. These changes have affected not only energy law. Community competition law in the energy sector has been evolving quickly, reacting to the restructuring of the markets, and the new commercial partnerships that result. EU Energy Law is a complete and essential reference work for all those advising on and implementing in practice the enormous changes in today's electricity and gas markets. It is written for both legal specialists and for those working in industry responsible for overseeing the move towards open and competitive markets

  8. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  9. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  10. An EU law perspective on the role of legal authorities in the field of renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas; Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This chapter maps and analyses the specific position of regional authorities in view of EU climate and energy law. It specifically focuses on the role taken by such authorities in the light of the transition towards a society increasingly employing renewable energy. Section 2 discusses the potential

  11. OpenLaws.eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wass, C.; Dini, P.; Eiser, T.; Heistracher, T.J.; Lampoltshammer, T.J.; Marcon, G.; Sageder, C.; Tsiavos, P.; Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E.; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The OPENLAWS.eu project aims to linking existing laws, cases and legal literature throughout the EU and member states and potentially worldwide and at adding new user-friendly functionality for a higher productivity. Furthermore, the project should make it possible to easily publish new legal

  12. EU Energy Law. Volume 4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.; Hartridge, O.; Lefevere, J.; Meadows, D.; Runge-Metzger, A.; Slingenberg, Y.; Vainio, M.; Vis, P.; Zapfel, P.

    2006-06-01

    Gives valuable insights in the why's, how's, trade-offs, and critical design choices of the Emission Trading System of the European Union (EU ETS). The chapters deal with (1) The EU ETS: the result of a decade of policy action on the economic dimension of EU environmental policy; (2) The international climate policy developments of the 1990s: UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Agreements and the EU's Kyoto ratification decision; (3) Emissions trading: What is it? Design options and misconceptions; (4) The EU ETS Directive 2003/87/EEC explained; (5) The EU ETS Linking Directive explained; (6) The economic efficiency benefits of the EU ETS; (7) The NAP I experience; (8) The key importance of the Registry Regulation and of solid monitoring and verification; and (9) The potential role of the EU ETS for the elaboration of the post-2012 international climate regime. Conclusions are in chapter 10

  13. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...... of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law framework...

  14. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  15. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  16. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  17. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  18. Renewable energy law in the EU : Legal perspectives on bottom-up approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the role played by regional authorities in the EU in the transition towards renewable energy. Regional governments generally have important decision-making powers concerning energy transition, but they may encounter resistance to the establishment of renewable energy activities in

  19. Problems of the Renewable Energy Law of 2014 with respect to constitutional and EU law; Verfassungs- und unionsrechtliche Probleme des EEG 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekardt, Felix [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik, Leipzig (Germany); Rostock Univ. (Germany). Oeffentliches Recht und Rechtsphilosophie

    2014-08-15

    The 2014 amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) which is currently in the process of enactment aims to limit the scope of what has been one of the most successful climate protection instruments in the history of German law. In essence this instrument has established an obligation of acceptance of and remuneration for electricity generated from renewable resources. The present article analyses the most important regulatory objects of the 2014 EEG for their compatibility with German constitutional law as well as primary and secondary EU law.

  20. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  1. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  2. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  3. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  4. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  5. Optimal Rather than Mandatory EU Company Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertig, G.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant debate rages within the EU about whether to give firms the choice to opt in or out of corporate law provisions. Both sides agree that more flexibility and adaptability of legal rules to business needs is crucial. Nevertheless, and not surprisingly, many still view EU mandatory

  6. Double Taxation Agreements: Between EU Law and Public International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    After the first drafts of the Treaty of Lisbon were available outside of the small circle of cogniscenti, specialists of the various policies tried to establish whether the new Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contained anything relevant for their specific areas of law. People interested in tax law and those interested in the relation between EU law and public international law quickly established that one familiar yet not always well u...

  7. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  8. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  9. Energy law in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencar, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the new Slovenian Energy Law, which will strongly influence the functioning and development of the energy sector. This Law establishes the conditions for a safe and secure energy supply to customers, while introducing the electricity and gas markets on the basis of transparency and non-discrimination. It offers a legal basis for the support of qualified production of electricity, efficient use of energy and economical use of renewable sources. Market rules and form of access are correspondent with the EU directives and so are the mechanisms for limited protection of indigenous fuels and aid to stranded investments. An independent regulatory agency is instituted to control prices and access to networks. This all will have a significant impact on future investments in the sector and will shape its restructuring process. (author)

  10. EU laws and their impact with respect to ecology-minded energy policy and energy legislation - decentralization of energy supply in particular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.; Britz, G.; Schaub, A.

    1996-01-01

    The basic approach of this comprehensive analysis is to reveal incentives for and obstacles to an ecology-minded energy policy in the applicable regime of EC laws. In the first part, points of friction are detected and discussed in the relationship between an emerging EC-wide internal energy market and existing EC legislation for environmental protection. Conflict of goals at EC level and at national level are identified, as well as the real significance of ecologic and environmental interests under the framework conditions of the emerging internal market. In the second part, legal aspects are examined of a decentralised energy supply regime together with its specific implications for an ecology-minded legislation. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Multi-level governance in EU climate law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses the multi-level governance in EU climate law; it connects the international arena, with EU and national decision-making and relates climate change considerations to competitiveness concerns.

  12. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  13. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  14. European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances; Europaeischer Emissionshandel, Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz und das Recht der Umweltbeihilfen. Plaedoyer fuer einen ''more environmental approach'' im EU-Wettbewerbsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Max

    2016-07-01

    The book on European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances covers the following issues: The European emission trading system and the European law on competition, the European emission trading system and competitive concerns; The European renewable energy law and the European law on competition, The European renewable energy law and competitive concerns; environmental protection the European competition policy.

  15. Opportunities in EU case law for achieving Dutch sustainable energy targets: it's up to the Netherlands to seize them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on recent case law of the European Court of Justice to examine the opportunities available in European Union law to promote the generating of electricity from renewable sources within the Dutch system for managing congestion in the electricity grid (CMS) and for allocating the

  16. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    In the recently issued Opinion 2/13, the EU Court of Justice ruled that EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights on the basis of the current Draft Accession Agreement would be incompatible with the EU Treaties. This article examines the impact of Opinion 2/13 on European fundamental...... rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...

  17. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...

  18. European Energy Law. Report VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, U.; Roggenkamp, M.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The European Energy Law Report VII presents in four parts an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy and climate change law as discussed at the 2009 European Energy Law Seminar. The first part examines recent developments in EU climate change regulation. It includes an overview of the revision of the EU Directive governing CO2 emissions trading and a more detailed analysis of the new allocation regime, including the auctioning of emission rights. This is followed by an analysis of the competitiveness of the new EU emissions trading Directive and recent developments in the US regarding emissions trading. The second part focuses on the energy liberalisation process and the Third Energy Package. Following an overview of recent developments in EU competition law and the impact of the Sector Inquiry on the energy sector, this part concentrates particularly on the new Internal Energy Market Directives and most particularly on the legality of the unbundling provisions. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of the TSOs. After an analysis of the need for an increased cooperation of the German TSOs, another chapter discusses the need for more consolidation in the European gas transmission market and the role of regulation therein. Is there a new role for nuclear energy? In order to secure long term energy supply, the focus turns again to nuclear energy. The third part of this report discusses two elements of nuclear liability. First, it analyses the issue of the possible privatisation of the nuclear sector and its impact on long term liability. Although the focus is on the UK nuclear sector, a comparison is made with some other regulatory regimes. Next, the role of nuclear energy is discussed as an instrument to reduce CO2 emissions and, more particularly as a means to reach the 20-20-20 targets. The question is raised whether the international rules on civil liability provide sufficient protection to victims of nuclear

  19. Renewable energies in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

  20. Sharing Powers Within Exclusive Competences: Rethinking EU Antitrust Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Although the establishment of competition rules forms part of the EU’s exclusive competences, the application and enforcement of those rules has always been shared consistently between the EU and its Member States.The sharing of enforcement powers is conceptualised traditionally as a delegation of the exercise of exclusively conferred competences. The Court of Justice of the European Union’s case law in the context of EU antitrust law enforcement nevertheless raises profound questions as to t...

  1. Energy law novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Paula

    2004-01-01

    Energy Law no. 318/2003 has been worked out in compliance with the EU Electricity Directive based on the following principles and objectives: - clearly defining the positions and roles of various institutional entities and structures; - introducing the competitions in energy generation and supply; - creation and functioning of electricity competitive markets; - right of certain consumers to buy electricity directly from the producers; - direct, fair and regulated access to electrical network of all the participants in the electricity market; - generators, distributors and consumers; - achieving the activities in the field under reliable conditions and at the quality standards for optimally using the primary energy resources by observing the environmental protection norms in force; - promoting, in a balanced manner, the interests of the National Power System based on the European regulations and requirements on optimal and efficient resources use by observing the environmental criteria and norms; - ensuring the sustainable development of the national economy; - diversifying the primary energy resources basis; - transparency of electricity tariffs, prices and taxes; - creating the security stocks of needed fuels for electricity and heat co-generation; - ensuring the interconnected operation of the NPS with the energy systems in the neighboring countries and with the ones in the UCTE; - promoting the use of renewable energy sources. Among the novelties brought by this Law by the definitions given to the terms used it is worth mentioning: - Access to the public electricity network; - Energy capacity; - Passageway of the electric line; - Natural monopoly in the energy field; - Electricity market operator; - Distribution system operator; - Transmission system operator; -Merit order (i.e the order in which an electricity producer is taken into consideration according to the price offered to cover the NPS electricity demand); - Electricity market; - Rehabilitation

  2. NATIONAL MINORITIES IN THE LAW OF THE EC/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Šmihula

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the law of the EC/EU the protection of national minorities is still a marginal matter. The EU has relied on general international law and on a European regional system of international law and, in case of necessity, accepted their norms. But in the 1990s there began a process of “de-economisation of the European integration” and the importance of national minorities became higher. Protection of the national minorities has not become a generally accepted legally binding principle of the EU, although in several legal acts issues of national minorities are mentioned. On the other hand, the political relevance of national minorities´ protection is very high. The importance of protection of national minorities in future will probably grow. It is a result of the adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (2000 and of the discussions regarding the European constitution and the Treaty of Lisbon.

  3. Soft law in EU Competition Law and its judicial reception in member states : A theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Z.R.

    2015-01-01

    This work draws from accounts on the nature and legal effects of soft law instruments in EU and international law with the ultimate aim to construct a theoretical framework for recognition of EU competition soft law—guidelines, communications, notices, and the like—in the judicial discourse of

  4. Competition Law and the Nuclear Sector: An EU Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Ferro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Competition law essentially aims at preventing harmful distortions of competition in the market which may be caused by agreements between companies, by the abusive behaviour of dominant companies, by structural changes in the market due to mergers or by state aid.1 However, often such practices and measures are actually necessary to render certain services viable, to obtain new or better products, to pursue other policies for the greater benefit of the collective, etc. Occasionally, this raises interesting issues in the nuclear sector. This paper aims to provide European competition law practitioners with a summary of the leading legal issues and precedents in this domain, alerting them to relevant specifics. It also aims to introduce nuclear lawyers to the reality and potential of antitrust enforcement in this sector. For the purposes of this paper, the 'nuclear sector' shall be broadly defined so as to include any activity which, given its link to nuclear energy or to ionizing radiation, is (at least partially) subject to special regulation under nuclear law. While many nuclear-related activities will not, in principle, require a special analysis beyond the usual parameters of competition law enforcement, others present distinct challenges to practitioners. Some of these challenges are specific to the European legal order and justify the restriction of the scope of this analysis to the European Union. That being said, the extensive harmonization of the national competition law of member states, as well as the fact that national competition authorities are required to enforce EU competition law, makes it advisable to look simultaneously at European-wide and national antitrust enforcement. The relationship between EU competition law and the nuclear sector remains somewhat shrouded in mystery - perhaps excessively so. The issue has been tackled to some extent in general works on competition law and energy law. As one would expect, research developed in the framework

  5. EU external relations law : text, cases and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vooren, Bart; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2014-01-01

    This major new textbook for students in European law uses a text, cases and materials approach to explore the law, politics, policy and practice of EU external relations, and navigates the complex questions at the interface of these areas. The subject is explored by explaining major constitutional

  6. Danish Taxation of Pensions in the Perspective of EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønfeldt, Thomas; Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses Danish law on pension taxation, as implemented after the ECJ convicted Denmark in the case C-150/04, Commission v. Denmark, and the article concludes that Danish legislation still is in conflict with EU law, as it favours Danish pension and insurance companies to the detrimen...

  7. The Vat Exemption for Health Care: Eu Law and its Impact on Swedish law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Påhlsson Robert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general rule in EU law is that value-added tax (VAT is to be levied on all goods and services. There are a number of exceptions, however, one of which applies to certain medical services. This paper examines the legal basis for tax exemptions in EU VAT law and in Swedish law, with particular attention to the extent to which the rapidly growing private health-care sector is covered by these tax exemptions.

  8. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  9. The concept of family in the EU free movement law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concepts of spouse, civil partner and partner in European Union (EU law, particularly in regulations referring to the free movement of persons, criticizing the unharmonized approach to defining family in this context. It argues that the narrow interpretation of the term spouse could lead to discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. Likewise, grounding free movement rights of civil partners on host state recognition of such partnerships could lead to the same result, which is not compatible with the equality principle in the EU law. The position of unmarried or unregistered partners is also considered; in particular, the paper analyses the requirement to duly attest durability of the relationship and its impact on the same-sex partners wishing to immigrate to a Member State. The author holds that it is necessary to reconsider the law in this area and adjust it to the EU's efforts to eliminate discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation.

  10. EU competences in European energy policy; EU-Kompetenzen einer europaeischen Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Almut Madlen

    2010-07-01

    The author intends to analyze the possible consequences of legal acts in energy policy and to check whether they may serve as competence for an EU energy policy according to the EG or Euratom treaties. She starts by outlining energy-political acts of the EU on the basis first of the former EC treaty and then of the Euratom treaty. These acts cover the issues of nuclear safety and nuclear waste, 'nuclear package' and safeguards monitoring. The next chapter presents the fundamentals of the competence distribution between the EU and its member states. On this basis, the energy-political competences for action of the former EG and Euratom treaties are discussed. This includes operative competences, harmonization competences, material restrictions of national energy policy, and structural instruments for making restrictions on national energy policies. The next chapter presents a critical assessment of the extent of the competence of Article 95 EG (now: Article 114 AEUV) and discusses the role of European law on grants and competition for the functioning of the European energy markets. The 'nuclear package' is reassessed from the view of competence law. Finally, the central new contents of the Lisbon treaty and their consequences for energy law are gone into. The importance of an energy competence title for the energy sector is questioned, and the interdependences between the Lisbon treaty and the Euratom treaty are analyzed. (orig.)

  11. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  12. The Role of Ethics and Morality in EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Rowlandson, Malene

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the role of ethics and morality in EU law. Two specific biolegal fields of study constitute the primary object in this regard; funding of research into human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and the patentability hereof. The reason why the choice has fallen upon...... these aspects in particular is that they are both pivotal to the pursuit and realisation of the therapeutic and commercial prospects ascribed to hESC research. Whilst the said prospects are enormous the Member States' different outlook upon the permissibility of engaging in such activities is, however, equally...... and morality in EU law are to be seen....

  13. The Interface Between EU Competition Law and Standard Essential Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the recent ECJ judgment in Huawei is discussed in light of the earlier case law from the EU and the US. The Huawei case has been long awaited and many in academia hoped that it would finally deliver answers to if, when and on what terms access to so-called Standard Essential Patents...... would be granted under EU antitrust law. However, the question is whether Huawei is that case. On the contrary, it seems that the ECJ ruling gives room for speculation even in reference to core issues, some of which are dealt with in this paper....

  14. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  15. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  16. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Lost in Implementation: EU Law Application in Albanian Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajdini Bojana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing importance of the researchers in the area of Europeanization in the candidate countries, the purpose of this paper is to analyse whether, and to what extent EU as a legal normative power has influenced Albania to approximate existing and future legislation and to ensure proper implementation. The paper argues that the Europeanization process is pushing Albania toward greater convergence with EU acquis by developing a modern legal framework. However, the paper points out that weak implementation has hampered the application of EU law in Albania due to: a weak bureaucracy or uneven distribution of human capacities; b the lack of an established practice of consultation with interest groups on specific draft legislation, and c the inability to put in sound planning mechanisms and to carry out a realistic assessment. The paper concludes that effective adjustment of Albanian legal system with EU norms requires cooperation between different actors involved in the approximation and implementation process.

  18. EU Civilian Crisis Management : Law and Practice of Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, C.

    2018-01-01

    In the growing collection of literature on the EU’s governance credentials, security and defence activities of the Union remain under-represented. This thesis attempts to fill that void by shedding light on the law and practice of accountability in EU civilian crisis management. Unknown to many, the

  19. Introduction. National Courts vis-à-vis EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Wind, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    National Courts and EU Law examines both how and why national courts and judges are involved in the process of legal integration within the European Union. As well as reviewing conventional thinking, the book presents new legal and empirical insights into the issue of judicial behaviour...

  20. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  1. Taxation of Foreign Foundations in Light of EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2016-01-01

    a) The article analyses why it is necessary to consider European law when national tax law is to test whether a foundation (i.e., an independent institution) domiciled in another EU/EEA country can be considered as an independent tax subject. In Denmark the qualification for tax purposes...... of a foreign foundation has so far been decided on the basis purely of national tax law. The article argues that it is necessary to consider European law in the testing because it creates a restriction on the freedom of establishment and capital movement if the foundation is not approved as the ‘beneficial...... owner’ of the income received by the foundation. Such restriction must be able to be justified on the grounds of compelling reasons, suitability and proportionality. b) There has been a long-standing tradition in Denmark and undoubtedly also in many other member states, for tax law to be sceptic...

  2. EU Overriding Mandatory Law and the Applicable Law on the Substance in International Commercial Arbitration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe position of mandatory law and public policy in arbitration has been extensively discussed for quite a number of years, however, there is little consensus on the role of arbitral tribunal in applying EU overriding mandatory law. At the same time, it is clear that (overriding)

  3. Family ties : The intersection of data protection and competition law in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Cabral, Francisco; Lynskey, Orla

    2017-01-01

    companies compete to acquire and process this data. This rivalry is subject to the application of competition law. However, personal data also has a dignitary dimension which is protected through data protection law and EU Charter rights to data protection and privacy.This paper maps the

  4. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  5. Energy law '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Bar Association's Section on Energy and Natural Resources Law selected eight key topics for discussion at their ninth seminar in the Netherlands in 1990. Only two papers specifically related to nuclear power and these were within the topic of environmental issues facing the energy industries. Both papers dealt with the legal aspects of nuclear plants sited near national borders and covered international law and the need for standardized regulations and agreements on issues such as environmental impacts, safety, radiological protection, public information and emergency plans in case of accidents. (UK)

  6. The structuring of GMO release and evaluation in EU law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kries, Caroline; Winter, Gerd

    2012-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their behavior in the environment are complex and can only be assessed if the different components are distinguished. This article examines, how by EU law the real causation processes from the GMO release to various endpoints are dissected, individually analysed and then again viewed in their entirety. In addition, the articles includes, how the intellectual process of assessment is divided into the steps of tiered generation, shared submission and structured evaluation of relevant knowledge. The framework proposed for such an examination allows to identify strengths and weaknesses of GMO risk assessment in the EU. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  8. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  9. European Dimension of Legal Education. A comparative study of the Romanian Law Curricula and EU Law Syllabus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinduşa Camelia Gorea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to provide a detailed view on the European legal education system in Romania.There are few papers on EU legal education policy in Romania. We try to fill this gap in some extend, as apart of a larger research we conducted in the past 3 years. Our sources of evidence were: the Romanianlegislation; a representative number of law curricula and EU law syllabus and a research survey of Romanianstudents, EU law professors and legal practitioners. We found out that the “traditional” Law specialization ismore desired by the potential students than the European Law specialization. Nevertheless, Romanian lawschools have enough discretion to introduce more EU law disciplines. By targeting the weak parts of the EUlegal education system, our study may reveal its benefits to law professors, legal researchers, responsiblefactors within the Romanian law departments and even to the Romanian legislator. This paper provides ashort explanation of the ascension and development of EU legal studies in Romania, an overview of the keyissues in the law curricula and the EU law syllabus and recommendations on the reforming the EU legaleducation in Romania.

  10. EU Cooperation in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumas, T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union with 15 Member States at the end of the century and with 6 more countries in the accession phase has set up certain instruments which enhance energy cooperation among them and with third countries. The major dimensions of EU energy policy presented in the White Paper are the external dimension - globalization of markets, the increasing environmental concern, the technology developments and the EU institutional responsibilities. To contribute to these, certain EU initiatives and supporting actions are undertaken through the energy and the broader co-operation programmes like THERMIE, SYNERGY, SAVE, ALTENER, PHARE, etc. The THERMIE programme supports the demonstration application and dissemination of innovative and successful energy technologies. SYNERGY is a programme for energy co-operation with third countries in energy policy and strategy implementation issues. SAVE and ALTENER concentrate on the promotion and enhancement of energy efficiency practices and use of renewable respectively. PHARE is a technical assistance programme addressed to Eastern European Countries which are in the phase of transition to market economy. There are also other initiatives like the Transeuropean Energy Network (TEN) and the activities managed by the financial institutions namely the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). All this context of programmes and initiatives is modified from period to period in order to serve the EU energy policies and the developments in the energy markets. The recent agreement which came up from the Kyoto conference has actually influenced the direction of actions towards more intensive amelioration of environmental pollution. (author)

  11. Renewable energy in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Allan; Myers, Stephen; Trow, Stuart

    1998-05-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of European Renewable Energy; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; The Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; The United Kingdom. (Author)

  12. EU international family law: Legal basis, sources, case law of ECJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers analysis of two issues. The first is the overview of the legal basis of international family law and it's sources under the Treaty of Lisbon on the Functioning of the European Union, and the second the case law of the European Court of Justice. Since 1999, when the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force, four regulations were adopted in matters of international family law as secondary sources of EU law, and three of them came into force. National courts of Member Sates are bound to apply directly three regulations, but so far only the interpretation of Brussels II bis Regulation has reached the European Court of Justice. Some of the judgments of the Court could be of interest for Serbian private international law. The reason is in the fact that the Court gave rulings on issues and concepts which are not defined in Serbian law, so they could influence the development and definitions of the those in the course of drawing up the new Act of Private International Law in Serbia. The paper reviews the Sundelind Lopez, the Hadady, the Case A. and the Mercredi judgments.

  13. Energy transfer between the Eu2+ dipole and aggregate centers in CsBr:Eu crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Turchak, R.; Voznjak, T.

    2007-01-01

    The energy transfer between the Eu 2+ -V Cs dipole centers and presumable CsEuBr 3 aggregate centers has been studied in CsBr:Eu crystals by means of investigation of their time-resolved emission spectra and luminescence decay kinetics at 300 K

  14. EU 2004 Declaration. EU policy workshop development of offshore wind energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruijne, R.

    2004-09-01

    Participants of the Dutch EU Presidency's 'EU Policy Workshop on the development of offshore wind energy' published this Declaration that called for action at the EU Transport, Energy and Telecom Council on November 29, 2004. The Declaration lists a series of action points on three main issues relating to the development of offshore wind energy in Europe: market development; environment; and grid integration of large scale offshore wind

  15. Agrofuels' role in the EU energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricase, C.; Lombardi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Over last years, growing concerns related to climate changes and to the necessity of a certain and guarantee energy supply have been generating considerations that will induce to a substantial review of the current European economic and energy system. In such a developing context, governments and economic operators have been giving an important role to bio energy as an instrument to lower polluting emissions, to diversify energy supply and to increase the value of rural areas. This was also emphasized by the European Union through specific measures and incentives. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current agrofuel' role (biodiesel and bio ethanol) in the EU energy policy, considering the problems related to their use as underlined by the lively discussion at international level [it

  16. State aid for the adequacy of production in EU competition law

    OpenAIRE

    Domazet, Siniša

    2017-01-01

    State aid is essentially inadmissible in EU competition law. The paper deals with state aid for the adequacy of production. Research has shown that if the conditions contained in the guidelines on state aid for environmental protection and energy for the period 2014-2020 are fulfilled, this form of state aid will be permitted. It has been established that there is no practice of the European Commission in connection with this form of state aid. Recommendation to the Member States is to carry ...

  17. Enlarging the EU's internal energy market: Why would third countries accept EU rule export?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange-Gstoehl, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Why would countries without a membership perspective seek integration into the EU's internal energy market? One major element of the EU's external energy policy is the export of EU energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond. A core legal instrument the EU uses in this context is the Energy Community Treaty (ECT). The ECT goes both geographically and regarding its depth significantly beyond neighbourhood or association policies, addressing potentially also countries in the 'far neighbourhood' and aiming at the creation of a Single Market for energy with these countries. While, however, EU candidate countries are obliged to adopt the 'acquis' before accessing the EU and therefore comply to EU rules already before they enter the Club, I argue that countries with no or only a vague membership perspective - i.e. countries where the EU cannot apply the 'conditionality' - approach (e.g., ENP countries)-aim at deeper integration with the EU because they are either eager to demonstrate their capability and potential to become part of the Club, they seek greater independence from a regional hegemon or they envisage significant economic gains as common norms, rules and standards are likely to increase economic exchange with the EU.

  18. Ownership unbundling in the electric power industry. Reconcilability with German constitutional law and with EU law relating to German vertically integrated utilities; Ownership unbundling in der Energiewirtschaft. Vereinbarkeit einer eigentumsrechtlichen Entflechtung in der Energiewirtschaft mit den Grundrechten des Grundgesetzes und des Gemeinschaftsrechts deutscher vertikal integrierter Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachovius, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The publication investigates legal problems relating to ownership unbundling of vertically integrated utilities according to new EU law, especially the draft directive of the EU Commission of 19 September 2007. After a definition of the term and its historical development, the problem of law giving competence of the EU is discussed. Another issue is the problem if a new structure of European and German energy law is compatible with the basic laws defined in EU law and German constitutional law, namely with the principle of guarantee of ownership, professional freedom, and general freedom of action.

  19. Europe, the EU and its 2050 Energy Storylines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J.; Weeda, E.

    2007-12-15

    This paper seeks to explore some of the conditions under which energy policy could be formulated in and by the European Union (EU) over the next 40 years. The development of energy policy at the EU level is addressed from a wider historical perspective, taking into account a number of factors that influence both the EU project and its energy supply security. These factors include the EU's international orientation and cooperation; the EU 'economic community of law' paradigm; the EU's (failing?) external leadership role; the impact of the fall of the Berlin Wall; and Europe's talents for creativity and improvisation. These factors are discussed in somewhat greater depth in the context of the formulation of an all-EU energy policy. The global energy policy environment is briefly discussed, indicating that energy resources for the world are less at stake than their access. On this basis, a closer look is taken at the theoretical and practical aspects of using scenarios as a tool for energy policy-making. A few examples are presented, and it is argued that scenarios should basically be addressed on the basis of storylines. Storylines do require a set of specific parameters, and in this case the choice was made to use the various roles played by stakeholders for intervening in markets and in the world order. This choice is argued on the basis of the global interrelations that are currently influencing resource policies in general and energy in particular. Market efficiency, climate change, poverty issues, geopolitics and global coordination mechanisms are considered, leading to the two policy dimensions of 'nationalism' versus 'globalism' and 'heavy' versus 'light' government as the axes for the scenarios and storylines. This paper develops four storylines that are conceivable and inherently consistent. They are labelled with names that refer not only to their content, but also to the political and

  20. Europe, the EU and its 2050 Energy Storylines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Weeda, E.

    2007-12-01

    This paper seeks to explore some of the conditions under which energy policy could be formulated in and by the European Union (EU) over the next 40 years. The development of energy policy at the EU level is addressed from a wider historical perspective, taking into account a number of factors that influence both the EU project and its energy supply security. These factors include the EU's international orientation and cooperation; the EU 'economic community of law' paradigm; the EU's (failing?) external leadership role; the impact of the fall of the Berlin Wall; and Europe's talents for creativity and improvisation. These factors are discussed in somewhat greater depth in the context of the formulation of an all-EU energy policy. The global energy policy environment is briefly discussed, indicating that energy resources for the world are less at stake than their access. On this basis, a closer look is taken at the theoretical and practical aspects of using scenarios as a tool for energy policy-making. A few examples are presented, and it is argued that scenarios should basically be addressed on the basis of storylines. Storylines do require a set of specific parameters, and in this case the choice was made to use the various roles played by stakeholders for intervening in markets and in the world order. This choice is argued on the basis of the global interrelations that are currently influencing resource policies in general and energy in particular. Market efficiency, climate change, poverty issues, geopolitics and global coordination mechanisms are considered, leading to the two policy dimensions of 'nationalism' versus 'globalism' and 'heavy' versus 'light' government as the axes for the scenarios and storylines. This paper develops four storylines that are conceivable and inherently consistent. They are labelled with names that refer not only to their content, but also to the political and societal climate prevailing in the region. The first, 'l'Europe des

  1. Three laws of energy transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, Igor

    2007-01-01

    The paper formulates and explores a hypothesis on three general energy transition laws: the law of stable long-term energy costs to income ratio; the law of improving energy quality; and the law of growing energy productivity. These laws are essential for shaping long-term projections and checking for their consistency. All three are rooted in amazingly stable in time and universal across countries energy costs to income ratios. Limited energy purchasing power sets up thresholds, which, if exceeded, bring asymmetry to energy demand to price elasticity. The author believes, that the theoretical postulate on the substantial substitution among production factors, which is used in the production functions theory, may be incorrect. In reality, innovations mainly lead to the substitution of a low-quality production factor with the same yet of a better-quality. Improving energy quality with stable costs to income ratio is accompanied by growing energy productivity. Energy costs to income thresholds are indicators allowing for better projections of oil prices

  2. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  3. On the use of law in transatlantic relations: legal dialogues between the EU and US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    Law plays a significant role in contemporary transatlantic relations outside of the bilateral context which, from the perspective of EU external relations law, might seem neither conventional nor apparent. Non-bilateral transatlantic relations increasingly deploy law as a communication tool between

  4. Governing towards renewable energy in the EU: competences, instruments and procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Th is contribution maps new questions and explores potential problems in EU renewable energy law, focusing on competences, regulatory instruments and administrative procedures. The transition towards renewable energy concerns a major transformation of society, which cannot be done on a

  5. Does EU law resolve or create conflicts between shareholders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders.......The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders....

  6. Not for designers: on the inadequacies of EU design law and how to fix it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margoni, T.

    2013-01-01

    Design rights represent an interesting example of how the EU legislature has successfully regulated an otherwise heterogeneous field of law. Yet this type of protection is not for all. The tools created by EU intervention have been drafted paying much more attention to the industry sector rather

  7. When a Fence Becomes a Cage: The Principle of Autonomy in EU External Relations Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    and unity of EU law and the EU legal order. What exactly does the principle of autonomy entail in EU external relations law? This Working Paper examines the case-law in which the Court has applied the principle of autonomy and argues that the principle is a more broad and all-compassing structural principle......In Opinion 2/13 the Court of Justice of the European Union found that the draft agreement on the EU’s accession to the European Convention on Human Rights was “liable adversely to affect the specific characteristics of EU law and its autonomy.” The Court in recent years has applied the principle...

  8. Energy Law'88 Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Seminar, divided into 10 topics, covered the legal, economic and trading aspects of oil, coal, natural gas and minerals, nuclear energy was examined from the viewpoint of present government policies, the future of this source of energy and of other sources. The papers presented at the Seminar are reproduced in the Proceedings. (NEA) [fr

  9. The Ne Bis in Idem Principle in the Enforcement of EU Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The current EU competition law enforcement regime was created by Regulation 1/2003 which entered into force on 1 May 2004. In essence, the system is based on a decentralised model where the European Commission and national competition authorities have parallel competences to apply EU competition provisions. National competition authorities and courts are obliged to apply Articles 101 and 102 TFEU whenever they apply national competition law to anti-competitive conduct which may affect trade b...

  10. A law of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geel, Pieter van

    2004-01-01

    Developing countries have a right to economic growth, and to achieve that they need energy. Without it they cannot bring about poverty reduction or meet the Millennium Development Goals. Two billion people have no access to modern forms of energy. Private enterprise cannot operate without it. Research shows that recurrent power outages inflict severe financial damage on businesses. And schools and health care institutions can clearly provide better services if they have access to power supplies. At the same time, we have to realize that our growing energy consumption is already causing environmental and health problems and damaging our economies. Poorer populations tend to use wood and charcoal as their main energy sources, but indoor wood fires lead to health difficulties, especially among women and children. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 1.6 million people die every year as a result of indoor air pollution. Use of fossil fuels for large-scale power generation and transport is also a source of air pollution, especially in cities in developing countries. According to the World Energy Assessment (2000), urban air pollution caused primarily by emissions from fossil fuels and motorized transport leads to around 800,000 deaths a year worldwide. Consumption of fossil fuels also leads to emissions of the greenhouse gases that cause climate change. More effort is needed to promote the use of renewable energy sources, so that they can eventually meet a greater proportion of our needs. For the next 30 to 50 years, however, there will be no realistic prospect of meeting all of our energy requirements through renewables. So we must also work on energy efficiency, cleaner fuels and modern fossil fuels

  11. Energy law and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemary Lyster; Adrian Bradbrook [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    The current unsustainable practices worldwide in energy production and consumption have led to a plethora of environmental problems. Until recently environmental law largely overlooked the relevance of energy production and consumption; energy was seen to be of little significance to the advancement of sustainable development. This has changed since 2000 with the global concern attached to climate change, the publication by the United Nations of the World Energy Assessment and the detailed consideration given to this issue at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. Australia has been seen to be lagging behind the other major industrialised nations of the world in addressing sustainable energy issues. Contents are: Overview of energy production and use in Australia; 2. Energy technologies and sustainable development; 3. Energy, international environmental law and sustainable development; 4. Evaluating Australian government initiatives relating to energy, climate change and the environment; 5. Sustainable energy in the Australian electricity and gas sectors; 6. State government initiatives relating to energy and the environment; 7. A sustainable energy law future for Australia. 2 apps.

  12. The atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The law establishes clearly the principles that Japan makes R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy only for the peaceful purposes. All the other laws and regulations concerning atomic energy are based on the law. The first chapter lays down the above mentioned objective of the law, and gives definitions of basic concepts and terms, such as atomic energy, nuclear fuel material, nuclear source material, nuclear reactor and radiation. The second chapter provides for the establishment of Atomic Energy Commission which conducts plannings and investigations, and also makes decisions concerning R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy. The third chapter stipulates for establishment of two government organizations which perform R and D of atomic energy developments including experiments and demonstrations of new types of reactors, namely, Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Chapters from 4th through 8th provide for the regulations on development and acquisition of the minerals containing nuclear source materials, controls on nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, administrations of the patents and inventions concerning atomic energy, and also prevention of injuries due to radiations. The last 9th chapter requires the government and its appointee to compensate the interested third party for damages in relation to the exploitation of nuclear source materials. (Matsushima, A.)

  13. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.

    2017-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  14. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Thomann, E.; Sager, F.

    2018-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  15. US Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is a new volume follows in the series supplementing the volumes 11 and 12 published in 1965 and 1966, updating the collection of Federal Acts and Executive Orders of the President of the United States of America relating to atomic energy legislation. Since the publication of volumes 11 and 12, the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954 alone has been amended 25 times, mainly as a consequence of by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act, both of 1978. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 is supplemented by a selection of the most important Federal Acts, Executive Orders of the President and Resolutions of the Congress. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. The EU as a global 'Rule of Law Promoter': the consistency and effectiveness challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pech, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the consistency and effectiveness of the EU as a global promoter of values by focusing on the rule of law, one of the key values on which the EU is based and which is also supposed to guide the EU’s external action. The paper first offers the diagnosis that the EU has failed to properly address a number of key issues: (i) what the EU seeks to promote under the heading ‘rule of law’; (ii) how it measures and monitors a country’s adherence to this principle and (iii) ...

  17. Competition in energy markets - law and regulation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter Duncanson; Brothwood, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Analysis of the origins, aims and implementation of the EU energy directives is essential to an understanding of the emerging internal market in energy in the European Union. This book provides a detailed and practical account of the legislation and the various developments in the Member States that are leading to a competitive energy market for the first time. It explains the legislation, EU case law and the relevant national laws, regulations and competence of the enforcing authorities. (Author)

  18. EU initiative on energy infrastructures and continuity of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    On December 10, 2003, the European Commission presented a comprehensive legislative package about energy infrastructure and continuity of supply. The proposals result in an agglomeration and extension of Community law provisions in the energy sector. A key role is played by the proposed directive ensuring the continuity of electricity supply and investments into infrastructure. This implies the need for the member countries henceforth to define the roles and responsibilities of grid operators and suppliers. The Energy Services Directive is to create a harmonized framework in the field of energy services and energy efficiency by providing common definitions, instruments, and methods. The legislative package has been forwarded to the European Parliament and to the Council. A first reading in the European Parliament is to be completed still in this legislative term by early May 2004. The Energy Ministers of the EU member countries were presented the package on continuity of supply on December 15, 2003. European legislation in the energy sector is keeping member countries busy, leaving them fewer and fewer possibilities for shaping policies of their own. There is danger of overregulation. (orig.)

  19. Dialogical Rule of Law and the Breakdown of Dialogue in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochenov, Dimitry; van Wolferen, Marinus

    2018-01-01

    Dialogue between different jurisdictional levels within complex constitutional systems is constantly on-going. Within the EU, this dialogue is an indispensable condition for the functioning of the Rule of Law, described as the tension between gubernaculum (the body of positive law) and jurisdictio

  20. Concurring Regulation in European Forest Law; Forest Certification and the New EU Timber Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Newly made EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) may prima facie look like competing regulation and an overlap of the existing forest certification schemes of FSC and PEFC as also EUTR combats illegally harvested timber. The novel EUTR, however, is a public law scheme wheras FSC and PEFC are private law

  1. Language Management Theory as a Basis for the Dynamic Concept of EU Language Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovalil, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Language law is a tool used to manage problems of linguistic diversity in the EU. The paper analyzes the processes in which language law is found in the discursive practice of agents addressing the Court of Justice of the European Union with their language problems. The theoretical-methodological basis for the research is Language Management…

  2. Joint Research and Development under US Antitrust and EU Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Björn

    This fascinating new book dissects, from a Competition law perspective, how Research and Development collaborations operate under both US and EU antitrust law. Analyzing the evolution of this innovation landscape from the 1970s to the present day, Blomqvist details the modifications and amendments...... made over this time to the relevant legal acts and guidelines. In doing to, the author picks up on the slow shift that has taken place in both the antitrust laws of the USA and the Competition Rules of the EU. The book concludes by discussing the necessity for a stringent attitude towards the antitrust...

  3. Towards EU Cybersecurity Law: Regulating a New Policy Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Tsagourias, Nicholas; Buchan, Russell

    2015-01-01

    EU cybersecurity forms a prime example of an area in which both internal and external (global as well as bilateral) policies are connected and in which the different legal competences of the Union need to be combined. Over the past decade the European Union started to take its first careful steps in

  4. Extraterritoriality in International Law : The Case of EU Climate Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobson, N.L.

    2018-01-01

    While the international climate regime has recently taken considerable strides, the post-Paris era leaves states with much discretion as to the ambition of their climate change policies. Over the past years, this pervasive ‘ambition gap’ has led the European Union (EU) to take provocative unilateral

  5. The Internet and the Global Reach of EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    and learning; international negotiation; coercion and conditionality; and blocking recognition of third country legal measures. The EU’s actions in exercising its global reach implicate important normative issues, such as distinguishing between the furtherance of core EU legal values and the advancement...

  6. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  7. EU AND TURKEY’S ENERGY STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfi Noyan OĞULATA

    2014-01-01

    generationis expected by 2020 to reach499 TWh with an annual increase of around 8% according to the higher demandscenario, or 406 TWh with an annual increase of 6,1% according to the lowerdemand scenario.By 2020 EU-27’s electricity generation details is as follows: Wind will reach 477TWh, Hydro will reach 384 TWh, Photovoltaic will reach 180 TWh, Biomass willreach 250 TWh, Geothermal will reach 31 TWh, Solarthermal electricty willreach 43 TWh, Ocean will reach 5 TWh, i.e. by 2020a share of over 40% ofrenewables in electricity production is expected.By making correct scenarios with using the correctmodelling tools, Turkey willreach 2023 energy target easily by correct annual energy investment rate, i.e. “By2023, Turkey’s main target is to increase the totalinstalled energy power to100.000 MW and the share of renewable resources isto increase at least 30percent of total production, i.e. 20,000 MW installed capacity for wind, 1.000MW installed capacity for geothermal and an additional installed capacity of5,000 MW for small hydro and to have at least 3 operating nuclear power plants.

  8. EU AND TURKEY’S ENERGY STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Önder İNCEKARA

    2012-07-01

    by 2020 to reach 499 TWh with an annual increase ofaround 8% according to the higher demand scenario, or 406 TWh with an annualincrease of 6,1% according to the lower demand scenario.By 2020 EU-27’s electricity generation details is as follows: Wind will reach 477TWh, Hydro will reach 384 TWh, Photovoltaic will reach 180 TWh, Biomass willreach 250 TWh, Geothermal will reach 31 TWh, Solarthermal electricty willreach 43 TWh, Ocean will reach 5 TWh, i.e. by 2020 a share of over 40% ofrenewables in electricity production is expected.By making correct scenarios with using the correct modelling tools, Turkey willreach 2023 energy target easily by correct annual energy investment rate, i.e. “By2023, Turkey’s main target is to increase the total installed energy power to100.000 MW and the share of renewable resources is to increase at least 30percent of total production, i.e. 20,000 MW installed capacity for wind, 1.000MW installed capacity for geothermal and an additional installed capacity of5,000 MW for small hydroand to have at least 3 operating nuclear power plants.”

  9. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU's support for international trade law.

  10. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  11. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  12. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  13. Strategies on biomass energies in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xenakis, E [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-08-01

    The main EU programmes, supporting the renewable deployment, are the research and development programmes JOULE, THERMIE and FAIR, included in the 4th framework programme, the ALTENER programme and the `Community Support Framework` programme. Research and development (R and E) activity within the JOULE and THERMIE programmes are divided into five areas, of which the third concerns the renewable energies. The support could range from 40 to 100 % of the cost. JOULE programme is research oriented, while the THERMIE programme is demonstration oriented. The FAIR programme is also a specific research and development programme for agriculture and agrifood industry. It could cover, among others, projects in connection with the biogas exploitation. The ALTENER programme provides support for the so called `software` actions, promoting renewables, mainly training and information actions, including events like the present one. Furthermode, it provides support for technical specifications, creation of infrastructure for the promotion of renewables and so on. ALTENER does not support investments. Finally the `Community Support Framework` programme promoting the regional development, could, in some cases, support traditional technology investments in relation to renewables. (au)

  14. Protection against sexual harassment at work in the EU law

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Slađana; Simeunović-Patić Biljana

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the most important EU acts that prohibit the sexual harassment in the workplace and recommend the protection mechanisms. The problem of sexual harassment has been perceived from the aspect of gender (in)equality and discrimination while its solution is found in urgeing for consistent implementation of the principle of equal opportunity of women and men in the sphere of labor and employment. For the purpose of providing a comparative insight, it has been also giv...

  15. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU policy of decreasing its overall gas demand and

  16. Gender Perspective on Access to Energy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Daskalova, Victoria Ivanova; Feenstra, Mariëlle Henriëtte; Franceschelli, Nicolo

    2017-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the European Parliament Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, presents an overview of the situation within the EU with regard to the way energy poverty is experienced by women and men and explores through a gender lens existing EU legislation

  17. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  18. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  19. The Atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to secure future energy resources, push forward progress of science and advancement of industry for welfare of the mankind and higher standard of national life by helping research, development and utilization of atomic power. Research, development and utilization of atomic power shall be limited to the peaceful purpose with emphasis laid on safety and carried on independently under democratic administration. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic power; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; reactor and radiation. The Atomic Energy Commission and the Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall be set up at the Prime Minister's Office deliberately to realize national policy of research, development and utilization of atomic power and manage democratic administration for atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Commission shall plan, consider and decide matters concerning research, development and utilization of atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall plan, consider and decide issues particularly concerning safety securing among such matters. The Atomic Energy Research Institute shall be founded under the governmental supervision to perform research, experiment and other necessary affairs for development of atomic energy. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall be established likewise to develop fast breeding reactor, advanced thermal reactor and nuclear fuel materials. Development of radioactive minerals, control of nuclear fuel materials and reactors and measures for patent and invention concerning atomic energy, etc. are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  20. Energy poverty policies in the EU: A critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Petrova, Saska; Sarlamanov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Once confined to the UK context – where it was struggling to receive political recognition for years – the concept of energy (or fuel) poverty is slowly entering the EU's agenda, where it has crept into a number of regulatory documents and policy proposals. Using evidence gathered from an international workshop and semi-structured interviews with decision-makers, experts and advocacy activists in Brussels and Sofia, this paper explores the adoption of policies aimed at addressing energy poverty within (i) the organisational context of the EU; and (ii) national state institutions in Bulgaria – a member state facing considerable problems at the energy affordability – social inequality nexus. While the former are largely nascent and poorly co-ordinated, the latter have already been implemented de jure to a significant extent. However, many unresolved issues surrounding their de facto implementation remain. At the same time, national policy makers remain largely unaware of the existence of direct energy poverty related initiatives at the EU level. - Highlights: ► This paper explores the adoption of energy poverty policies within the EU and Bulgaria. ► We establish the existence of a range of nascent efforts to address the issue at EU level. ► Bulgaria has been good at implementing EU energy poverty relevant directives. ► However, policy makers speak a different language when it comes to direct energy poverty action.

  1. Energy transfer mechanism in CsI:Eu crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.; Trefilova, L.; Karnaukhova, A.; Ovcharenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the scintillation process in CsI:Eu crystal exposed to the pulse electron irradiation (E=0.25 MeV, t 1/2 =15 ns and W=0.003 J/cm 2 ). It has been proved that the energy transfer from the lattice to Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu occurs through the re-absorption of STE emission. The proposed model rests on the following experimental facts: (1) the activator emission at 2.68 eV rises gradually after the decay of the excitation pulse even at temperature lower than 90 K when V k centers are immobile; (2) the rise time of 2.68 eV emission and the decay time of STE emission have the same temperature dependences at T=78–300 K; (3) the excitation spectrum of 2.68 eV emission overlaps the emission spectrum of STE. -- Highlights: • The scintillation process in CsI:Eu was studied under pulsed electron irradiation. • A model of the energy transfer from the lattice to Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu was proposed. • Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu reabsorb the π-emission of self-trapped excitons

  2. The Impact of the Lisbon Treaty on EU Competition Law: A Review of Recent Case Law of the EU Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Van Rompuy

    2011-01-01

    Since the Lisbon Treaty came into force on December 1, 2009, there has been no Treaty provision proclaiming adherence to the principle of undistorted competition. Ben Van Rompuy (Georgetown Univ. Law Center)

  3. Rethinking EU energy security considering past trends and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns - Graus, Wina

    2014-01-01

    EU energy policy objectives are directed at three highly interdependent areas: energy supply security, competitiveness and decarbonization to prevent climate change. In this paper, we focus on the issue of energy supply security. Security of energy supply for the immediate and medium-term future is

  4. Slovak Income Tax Legislation in Terms of EU Secondary Law Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčírová Renáta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the integration process of implementation of European Union secondary law into the Slovak tax legislation. In particular, the article analyses whether provisions of (i EU Parent Subsidiary Directive, (ii EU Interest and Royalty Directive and (iii EU Merger Directive are implemented into the Slovak Income Tax Act. Following our research, it should be noted that in general, the Slovak tax legislation has adopted the EU secondary law, in particular, the Parent Subsidiary and Interest and Royalty Directives have been implemented. It should be noted that the profit distributions are not subject to tax in Slovakia. It follows that interest and royalty are not subject to tax and is applicable to EU associated companies. Following the Slovak implementation of EU Merger Directive, merger transactions are generally treated as not giving rise to a capital gain. As a result, according to the Slovak Income Tax Act the income received by shareholders from acquiring new shares and income from exchange of the shares on merger transaction is not subject to income tax.

  5. Energy Vulnerability and EU-Russia Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Hunter Christie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of energy vulnerability is reviewed and discussed with a focus on Russia’s foreign energy relations, in particular those with European countries. A definition and a conceptual framework for quantifying energy vulnerability are proposed in the context of a review of recent research on energy vulnerability indices. In particular it is suggested that source country diversification should be reflected using the expected shortfall measure used in financial economics, rather than the Herfindahl-Hirschman or Shannon-Wiener indices, and that the former should then enter a calibrated function in order to yield expected economic loss. The issues of asymmetric failure probabilities and accidental versus intentional supply disruptions are then discussed with examples of recent Russian actions. Energy vulnerability measurement and modelling should ultimately inform policy. In particular, member states should legislate that no energy infrastructure project by one or more member states may increase the energy vulnerability of another member state. Additionally, European environmental policies, notably the EU ETS, should be amended so as to account for induced changes in energy vulnerability. Finally, member states should increase the level of transparency and disclosure with respect to gas import statistics and gas supply contracts.

  6. Protection against sexual harassment at work in the EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the most important EU acts that prohibit the sexual harassment in the workplace and recommend the protection mechanisms. The problem of sexual harassment has been perceived from the aspect of gender (inequality and discrimination while its solution is found in urgeing for consistent implementation of the principle of equal opportunity of women and men in the sphere of labor and employment. For the purpose of providing a comparative insight, it has been also given an overview of national legislative in this domain proceeding by conclusion that only few initial steps in creating the adequate mechanisms of protection from sexual harassment in the workplace have been made so far. .

  7. POST-CRIMEAN TWISTER: RUSSIA, THE EU AND THE LAW OF SANCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KALINICHENKO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU-Russia relations have never been simple. On the one hand, these two international actors have common values and interests. On the other, they have a conflictual relationship, which has become particularly acute after the Ukrainian crisis that started in 2014. After Ukrainian crisis, the EU and Russia have entered a new era. Unfortunately, it is an era of brinkmanship. This brinkmanship is marked, prima facie, by mutual sanctions. After 20 years of partnership and good neighborliness it sounds illogically, but it is a reality. The strategic nature of the EU-Russia partnership has been placed in doubt. The aim of this article is to show that the “war of sanctions,” which has frozen official contacts and negotiations have not achieved anything. This crisis can only be overcome through dialogue. However, at the moment, the main critics of the EU sanctions amongst EU Member States are too weak to convince the other members to lift them. The article concerns the modern legal aspects and modern legal circumstances surrounding EU-Russia relations in the light of recent events and the deterioration of relations between Russia and the EU in general. In this framework, an account is given of the EU’s reaction to the Ukrainian conflict in the context of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy and of the EU restrictive measures as well as in the context of the Russian countersanctions. A special attention is paid to the EU Court of Justice case-law in the field of the restrictive measures.

  8. Renewable energies in the EU-Accession States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Danyel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources in the EU-Accession States and to compare them with the framework in the EU-15. Besides the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. Most of these countries have had a century-long tradition in the utilisation of RES, primarily in biomass and hydropower. However, the communist regimes were convinced of the superiority of large-scale systems and converted the energy sectors into centralised units. Due to this dominating belief system more decentralised applications such as installations using renewable energies had to close. One crucial driving force for future renewable energy development in the Accession States comes from the stipulations set by the EU. The EU-Directive on the promotion of electricity produced from RES gives the new EU-members targets for their RES-development until 2010. Due to the Directive many Accession States have already begun to pay more attention to the topic and to introduce more systematic policies. Six of the Accession States have introduced minimum tariffs which were one of the main success conditions (besides a stable and sound investment programme as well as favourable background conditions) in the leading wind energy countries Germany and Spain. Beside the external pressure by the EU and other international obligations other driving forces such as the path dependencies in the national energy policies (degree of coal, oil and gas exploitation, nuclear power use, import dependency), the political support schemes for renewable energies, possibilities of obtaining external financial support and the cognitive environment are discussed. Finally similarities and differences between EU-15 and Accession States are worked out

  9. Russian energy in the EU market: Bolstered institutionsand their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The article examines institutional changes in EU–Russian energy relations since 2000. The article explores the ability of transformed institutions to limit the politicisation of energy and to reconcile the EU competitive-market approach with Russian state capitalism. More specifically, the article focuses on changes in intergovernmental, transgovernmental and transnational interactions. The article demonstrates that the gradual strengthening of transgovernmental and transnational institutions has inhibited the politicisation of energy relations and facilitated regulative cooperation between the EU and Russia. However, the potential of shared institutions is constrained by internal institutions on both sides. In Russia, these obstacles are insufficient top-down delegation of responsibilities in the government and its great power aspirations. In the EU, key barriers include inter-institutional rivalries, the EU’s propensity to impose its legislation on external partners and the integration of energy policy with foreign policy. The article presents several policy implications. First, it is futile to institutionally impose the regulative paradigm of one partner on the other; rather, mutual dialogue is needed. Thus, institutions should be structured appropriately. Second, current depoliticisation will require the involvement of not only the EU and Russia but also transit countries, such as Ukraine. Third, transgovernmental and transnational cooperation should be nurtured because this is a useful channel for both information exchange and a regulative convergence of policy implementing mechanisms. Finally, this incremental regulative convergence is the only option available today for the EU and Russia; this is also a way to further depoliticise energy relations. - Highlights: • EU and Russia developed transgovernmental and transnational energy institutions. • It allowed them to face energy challenges: depoliticisation and market construction. • Internal EU and

  10. THE IMPACT OF THE NEW EU LEGISLATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the Energy Union from the perspective of energy efficiency. The research has a multidisciplinary character, which implies an economic analysis of an empirical type, but also a theoretical approach to the benefits of energy efficiency. The author analyzes the impact of the new energy regulations on efficiency in the European Union (EU, namely the in-depth review of the Directive on Buildings Energy Performance, the new heating and cooling strategy for the intelligent transformation of this sector, as well as the strategy for protecting vulnerable consumers. The effects of the new energy efficiency regulations are more significant in a number of Member States, but as soon as these will be applied throughout the EU, the beneficial effects of increased energy efficiency are likely to be felt in the entire EU area.

  11. EU Energy Policy in a Supply-constrained World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-10-01

    Energy is quickly becoming an issue of integration and disintegration of the EU and will perhaps turn out to be the ultimate litmus test of political and economic unity in the EU, as energy issues are increasingly intertwined with wider security issues on the continent. Very often, economic issues are elevated to the political-strategic level, serving a different agenda than merely contributing to the energy policy agenda of the EU. The challenges to the EU and its member states in the energy sector are many: some issues are part of the wider geopolitical and geo-economic agenda, but some are also the product of the new EU that emerged after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The enlargement with member states that are asymmetrically dependent on oil and gas supplies mainly from Russia has further emphasised the growth of structural energy import dependency. Moreover, the new member states did not have the benefit of introducing the energy 'acquis', i.e. liberalisation, in a period of ample supply and relatively low prices. From 2004 onwards, energy has become tighter and more politicised. It was these developments that also uncovered the calculated risk of the old member states to embark on liberalisation without putting a crisis management policy into place. With the increasing worries about the security of supply and the asymmetric exposure of Eastern Europe to a single supplier, energy security issues also began to dominate the internal policy debates both in energy and in external relations. The new developments require the EU member states to consider how and to what extent their external energy policies should also be merged into a more EU-wide approach, if they can agree on the common risks that need to be averted and the common benefits gained, and if and how a crisis mechanism for fuels other than oil is needed to manage the perceived increased security of supply risks. Moreover, they should also consider the internal market design they set out to implement and

  12. Consumer protection in energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Krom, H.; Van Leeuwen, E.T.W.M.; Schaap, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the protection that energy consumers are entitled to in the framework of the energy law. First we provide an overview of the parties operating in the energy market that consumers deal with directly or indirectly. Next the supply permit is addressed, which provides an important safeguard for consumers against unreliable suppliers. In part 4 we address the protection of the consumer prior to and while closing an agreement. Part 5 addresses the supplier's obligations. Part 6 discusses the judicial processes that are available to the consumer in case of (partial) non-observance of the agreement. We also pay attention to the compensation schemes and emergency supply in case a supplier is permanently unable to fulfill his obligations. Finally, we address the termination of the agreement. [nl

  13. Financial Consumer Protection in the EU : Towards a Self-Sufficient European Contract Law for Consumer Financial Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of European contract law in the field of consumer financial services gives rise to the question to what extent it is self-sufficient. A self-sufficient European contract law presupposes the existence of an EU-made and EU-enforced contract-related legal order which is largely

  14. Member States must apply most favoured nation treatment under EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to case law from the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), a Member State is not obliged to enact most favoured nation treatment if a tax treaty prescribes a certain type of tax treatment (bilateral most favoured nation treatment). In this article, the author discusses whether EU

  15. The impact of the definition of the precautionary principle in EU Food Safety Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation 178/2002 contains a definition of the precautionary principle. This is the first time a legal definition of the principle has been formulated for all EU food law. This fact, however, has been given hardly any attention in literature. It is all the more surprising because the lack of clear

  16. The EU-Russia Energy Dialogue: Competition Versus Monopolies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Russia and the European Union have clearly entered a new stage in their energy relations, defined by a growing asymmetry between a strengthened national monopoly on the supply side and a gradual opening of markets in Europe. In this context, a multitude of new approaches to EU Russia energy relations have been voiced recently by a wide variety of experts. Unfortunately, many of them involve 'defensive' solutions, driven by lack of mutual trust on both sides. Is a positive approach nevertheless still possible? The paper argues that competition is a key universal value in the development of a new and sustainable energy relationship between Russia and Europe. It is clear that EU competition regulators should take the lead in setting up a new framework for EU-Russia energy relations in the future. The success of their endeavors will not only determine the security of energy supply for European consumers, but also that of the Russian and Eurasian energy markets. (author)

  17. Energy Climate Change - Challenges and Prospects of the EU Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, P.; Bosnjakovic, B.; Frankovic, B.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the main challenges and prospects of EU policy in the field of energy and climate change, without going into technical details, but establishes the main themes of sustainability: economy, environment and new jobs. It describes the foundations and the objectives of the current EU energy policy, and the reasons why the current approach to reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is disappointing. Also, the question is whether EU will achieve the renewable energy goals for the year 2020. The security of energy supply and availability is also considered, especially in view of high dependence on import energy in the today fragmented market. For the way forward to mid-century, the targets to year 2030 are of critical importance. Also, the paper gives an overview of the state of renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions in Croatia.(author)

  18. Impact of Transposition of the Directive 2013/34/EU into the National Laws of EU Member States Emphatically V4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has published the Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and related reports of certain types of undertakings for reasons of increasing of the competitive advantage and productivity of small and medium‑sized enterprises. The EU Member States have to incorporate the rules of the Directive with their national law by 20 July 2015 at the latest during the year 2016. The intention of this paper is to determine and to evaluate the impacts of transposition of the Directive into the Czech Accounting Law and into the national accounting laws of EU Member States chosen. There is an identification of main differences of Czech Accounting Law and of amended Czech Accounting Law issued 1st of January 2016. There is an impact of implementation of the Directive 2013/34/EU on financial statements and at the same time on requirements of audit for individual categories of Czech accounting entities. In this paper, there is also an analysis of impact of the Directive 2013/34/EU on national accounting laws V4 States and on several further EU Member States. On the basis of comparison of differences recognized, there is an deduction of findings for companies falling into the same group.

  19. Disconnecting Humanitarian Law from EU Subsidiary Protection: A Hypothesis of Defragmentation of International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolosi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) has often revealed the tight interrelation between refugee law, humanitarian law and international criminal law. It has been argued that the latter bodies of law have, in fact, played a major role in the development of most key concept of

  20. Electricity imports from outside the Community in the EC Internal Market in electricity. Commercial policy of the EC, a subject matter of the EU internal electricity market Directive, or within national law-making competence of the EU member states?; Stromimporte aus Drittstaaten im EG-Binnenmarkt fuer Energie. Handelspolitik der EG, Gegenstand der Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien oder eigene Regelungszustaendigkeit der Mitgliedstaaten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Voelkerrecht, Euoparecht und Auslaendisches Oeffentliches Recht

    2000-07-01

    The author analyses in great depth the applicable laws and regulations as well as the Treaty of Rome in connection with the question of whether the implementation of the EU IEM Directive and the deregulation of electricity markets of EU member states really weakened the legal position of EC member states vis a vis non-member states to the extent that Community members have no means to defend themselves against dumping practices of electricity traders from outside the Community. The concluding statement of the legal analysis is that the EC member states do have the right to use the legal provisions governing competitive electricity trade inside the Community as well in dealing with traders from outside the Community. (orig./CB) [German] Der Beitrag untersucht die Frage, ob die Herstellung des Binnenmarkts fuer Elektrizitaet tatsaechlich dazu gefuehrt hat, dass Importeure aus Drittstaaten von den Mitgliedstaaten der Gemeinschaft in keiner Weise mehr beschraenkt werden koennen. Eine genauere Untersuchung der einschlaegigen Bestimmungen des EGV und des Sekundaerrechts ergibt ein differenziertes Bild; in jedem Fall sind die Mitgliedstaaten berechtigt, Beschraenkungen, die die Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien im Verhaeltnis zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten zulassen, auch im Verhaeltnis zu Drittstaaten anzuwenden. (orig./CB)

  1. Governance of EU labour law: implementation of the EU Working Time Directive in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, E.; Ramos Martín, N.; Barbier, J.-C.; Rogowski, R.; Colomb, F.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter deals with the challenges that European law poses for national legislation and practices regarding working time. The regulation of working time is situated at the crossroads of health and safety regulations and employment protection. The European Union has acknowledged the need to

  2. Accounting Standards and Legal Capital in EU Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukas Panetsos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interaction between accounting standards and legal capital in the European Union legal framework. More in particular, it attempts to compare on a parallel basis the distributional and behavioural function of both concepts and to address whether the current legal status quo in the European Union fulfils these functions. First, this paper makes a short reference to the various accounting families which are encountered today, with a strong emphasis on the distinction between Anglo-American and Continental systems. Then, it describes the EU accounting regulation and the introduction of IFRS in domestic legislation. Further, it discusses the concept of legal capital as it has been established in European jurisdictions and it points to the relevance of the Continental accounting standards. It is argued that both are characterized by paternalism, contrasting with Anglo-American standards and American distributional methods, which are outlined by contractariansm. The final argument is that the combination of legal capital rules and Anglo-American standards, like the IFRS, neither achieves the protective role prescribed to the former, nor guarantees the aims of the latter.

  3. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such

  4. The Paramountcy of EU Law Over National Law The Extent to which Lyon’s Statements Reflect on the Relationship between EU and Domestic Law within the UK and Candidate States such as Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbi Ago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As we live in a world that is becoming ever more globalized, it is unavoidable to consider the effect supranational entities and globalization itself have on the national sovereignty of the state. The EU is probably the most well-known example of a supranational entity and as such it cannot help but bring about a number of sides regarding its power over its members. There are many that would claim the EU has undermined national sovereignty, especially when it comes to the legal sphere. The issue at hand has been addressed by scholars such as Dr. Anne Lyon and this paper is a direct analysis of her statement regarding paramountcy. In summation, Lyon has stated that EU law has undermined national law. This has happened due to a number of reasons, one of which is the passing of a parliamentary Act intending to prioritize EU law. At this point, shall they need to provide otherwise, it is quite an argument to claim whether they could give effect to national law instead. Therefore, it has become necessary to consider the extent to which these statements reflect the relationship between EU law and ‘domestic’ laws within the UK and try and apply to the legal future of candidate states, such as Albania. This paper analyzes the two parts of Lyon’s argument, namely the paramountcy and parliamentary aspects of the issue, while also aiming to provide a framework on which future candidate states such as Albania can work on in order to achieve a more efficient assimilation into the EU legal system together with the forewarnings necessary shall they wish the opposite.

  5. Face and Emotion Recognition on Commercial Property under EU Data Protection Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinski, Peter; Trzaskowski, Jan; Luzak, Joasia

    2016-01-01

    This paper integrates and cuts through domains of privacy law and biometrics. Specifically, this paper presents a legal analysis on the use of Automated Facial Recognition Systems (the AFRS) in commercial (retail store) settings within the European Union data protection framework. The AFRS...... to the technology's potential of becoming a substantial privacy issue. First, this paper introduces the AFRS and EU data protection law. This is followed by an analysis of European Data protection law and its application in relation to the use of the AFRS, including requirements concerning data quality...

  6. EU Criminal Law and the Regulation of Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Summers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities afforded by the global information space give rise to the potential for the commission of new crimes –crimes such as hacking or denial of service attacks– and for existing crimes, such as speech offences or fraud, to be committed in new ways and with potentially larger consequences. One of the biggest challenges for the regulation of information and communications technology is that the global information space does not respect national boundaries. In order to be successful, any regulatory approach will call for some degree of cooperation between countries. This poses an obvious problem for those seeking to develop a regulatory structure. This challenge is particularly relevant in the criminal law context, as the criminal law has traditionally been considered to be the product and responsibility of national law. This article considers the EU’s regulatory approach in this area. The aim here is not to offer a critique of the EU’s regulatory structure in the context of cybercrime, but rather to use the situation in the EU to illustrate various issues arising in the context of the criminal law regulation of information and communications technology. This article examines some of the issues which have arisen in the context of the regulation of cyber activity at the EU level as a result of this tension between national sovereignty and broader overarching EU regulation and assesses the relevance of these issues in the context of criminal law regulation more broadly. Consideration of the processes of criminalisation and harmonisation provides the basis for an analysis of the manner in which the EU seeks to justify its involvement in criminal law in this field.

  7. MANAGING RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE EU10 REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCUREAN Mirela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of renewable energy and regional development have gained a global dimension, as well as the concerns about the economic growth. Therefore, this study investigates the issue of managing renewable energy in the EU10 region, within the context of recovery and anticipated growth of the region. The findings of this study disclose that an important source of economic growth in the EU10 region's countries may be to start some new investments in renewable energy. In order to develop the field of renewable energy may be used EU funds, and may be envisaged different public-private partnership models, that may contribute to lower societal costs and increased deployment rates. The study was conducted by combining a wide variety of sources, such as statistics, reports and articles. The results reported in this study could be used for further research in the area of implementing green energy projects in the EU10 region. Another direction for further research could be to identify the most attractive countries for different renewable energy investment projects in the EU10 region.

  8. Legal Status of the Catholic Church as an Economic Entity in EU and Croatian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Sokol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the Catholic Church’s legal status in the European Union primarily falls within the competences of the Member States. The Croatian legal framework in this respect consists of various types of legal rules, most important of which is the set of international agreements entered into between the Republic of Croatia and the Holy See. Still, EU competition, state aid and free movement rules affect this legal framework to a significant degree. The aim of this paper is to analyse the applicability of the said EU rules to the activities of the Catholic Church in Croatia, that is to determine whether the Catholic Church can be considered an undertaking conducting an economic activity (and to what degree according to the said legal framework, whether the Croatian national legal framework is aligned with the EU rules, and whether there are points of contention in this area which need to be legally rectified. The second part of this paper analyses the European Union state aid and free movement legal framework, primarily trying to determine whether the Catholic Church is an undertaking carrying out an economic activity as prescribed by EU law. In this analysis, several issues emerge which have not been clearly resolved by the Court of Justice. The following part features an outline of the Croatian national legal framework on the legal status of the Catholic Church, focusing on potential points of contention between the national and the EU law. Finally, certain solutions to the mentioned issues are proposed, on the European and the national level, in accordance with legal certainty as the general principle of (EU law.

  9. Delaney and the Motor Vehicle Insurance Directives: Lessons for the Teaching of EU Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    A recent series of cases relating to the EU Motor Vehicle Insurance Directives and their application in the UK makes for interesting reading. It is the UK’s negligent transposition, and a lack of knowledge and awareness by lawyers and judges in the cases of the interaction between domestic and EU law, which compounds the negative effects. The issues raised in Delaney v Pickett [2011] and Delaney v Secretary of State [2014] do not just generate concern as to the implications they have for the ...

  10. Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C.L. 308) seeks to amend the Atomic Energy Commission Act of 1963 (Act 204) so as to provide for the establishment of a Radiation Protection Board and other institutes under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Law further repeats the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law of 1982 (P.N.D.C.L. 37). (EAA)

  11. EU Law and Mass Internet Metadata Surveillance in the Post-Snowden Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ni Loideain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Legal frameworks exist within democracies to prevent the misuse and abuse of personal data that law enforcement authorities obtain from private communication service providers. The fundamental rights to respect for private life and the protection of personal data underpin this framework within the European Union. Accordingly, the protection of the principles and safeguards required by these rights is key to ensuring that the oversight of State surveillance powers is robust and transparent. Furthermore, without the robust scrutiny of independent judicial review, the principles and safeguards guaranteed by these rights may become more illusory than real. Following the Edward Snowden revelations, major concerns have been raised worldwide regarding the legality, necessity and proportionality standards governing these laws. In 2014, the highest court in the EU struck down the legal framework that imposed a mandatory duty on communication service providers to undertake the mass retention of metadata for secret intelligence and law enforcement authorities across the EU. This article considers the influence of the Snowden revelations on this landmark judgment. Subsequently, the analysis explores the significance of this ruling for the future reform of EU law governing metadata surveillance and its contribution to the worldwide debate on indiscriminate and covert monitoring in the post-Snowden era.

  12. EU Energy Strategy and The Role of Fission Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2008-01-01

    European Council in its conclusions of 8/9 March 2007 endorsed conditionally as EU objective a 30 percent reduction of GHG emission by 2020 compared to 1990 with a firm commitment to achieve at least 20 percent reduction. Further commitments are reduction of energy consumption by 20 percent compared with projections for 2020 and a 20 percent share of renewable energy sources in overall energy consumption in 2020. Assuming that the reduction of energy consumption by 20 percent relative to projections for 2020, is achieved, as well as increase of renewable in total energy consumption from 4.4 percent share in 1990 to 20 percent in 2020, and provided that nuclear contribution is not reduced, then the CO 2 emission reduction target of 20 percent by 2020 relative to 1990 could be attained. However, both these commitments on consumption decrease and share of renewable in 2007 EC conclusions are in comparison with the 2006 Green Paper so ambitious that reserve measures should be considered. The 2006 Green Paper projected an increase of a share of renewable in total energy production to 12.2 percent by 2030. According to IEA World Energy Outlook 2004 projections, used in Green Paper, wind power would in 2030 contribute with 11 percent in electricity production, on the level of 480 TWh. This projection would require installed wind power of 170 to 180 GW. With new, considerably higher target for renewable by 2020 and limited scope for hydro and solar power increase, wind power would probably have to be increased by at least 50 percent, to about 250-270 GW, to bring renewable share to the 20 percent in overall energy consumption. At present installed wind power in EC amounts to about 50 GW, so to reach a 20 percent target for renewable by 2020 over 200 GW of new wind power would have to be built in not much more than 10 years, unless some spectacular advance with solar energy. Assuming that mass installations start by 2010 the required annual construction would be about 20 GW

  13. The Treaty of Maastricht and energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.; Pielow, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In December 1993 a German-Spanish colloquy on topical questions of community law as well as national and supra-national energy law was held at the Institute of Mining and Energy Law at Bochum. Discussions centered around the constitutional issues surrounding the treaty establishing the European Union of 7th February 1992, which came into force on 1st November 1993, and its implications for the national regulatory systems in the energy economy. Against this background the most recent developments in energy law and energy policy in Spain and the Federal Republic of Germany were described. (orig./HP) [de

  14. The EU Integration Discourse in the Energy Relations with Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichý Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy issue is a long-term one of the most discussed, controversial topics in relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The intention of the present article is an attempt to overcome the largely non-discursive and in the security conditions anchored way of looking at the energy interaction of the EU and the RF and through an integration discourse to analyze EU energy relations with Russia in the years 2004 - 2014. In the theoretical level, the article is based on a critical constructivism, which in relation to the discourse as the main concept reflects a number of fundamental knowledge. At the methodological level, the article is based on the discourse analysis as a basic methodological tool through which the author examines the EU text documents.

  15. Economic Impacts of the 1997 EU Energy Tax: Simulations with Three EU-Wide Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.; Klaassen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In March 1997 the European Commission adopted a proposal that increases existing minimum levels of taxation on mineral oils by around 10 to 25% and introduces excises for other energy products. This paper analyses the macroeconomic impacts of the proposal. It employs three models: HERMES, GEM-E3, and E3ME. All models confirm that the proposal will have positive macroeconomic impacts when the tax revenues are used to reduce social security contributions paid by employers. For the EU as a whole, both GDP and employment are expected to be higher and CO2 emissions are 0.9 to 1.6 percent lower. The positive EU-wide effects can be observed in practically all member states. The sector impacts are modest, with the energy sector expected to face the most negative impacts. Differences between model results are due to the model type (general equilibrium or macro-econometric), the EU countries covered and the way tax exemptions were handled. Crucial assumptions to obtain the 'double dividend' are the modelling of the labour market and the impacts on EU external trade. The sensitivity of the results for the use of tax revenues, tax exemptions and tax rate increases is assessed. 21 refs

  16. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk

  17. EU energy and climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graça Carvalho, Maria da

    2012-01-01

    This paper will summarise the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. In current international negotiations Europe has proposed a 20% reduction in GHG (greenhouse gases) in the developed countries by 2020 or 30% should there be an international agreement in the domain. However it is important to define measures to achieve the targets. One of the principal tools is to improve energy efficiency under the energy efficiency action plan, which will help to achieve a 20% energy saving by 2020. On the other hand, the amount of energy from renewable sources consumed in Europe will have to rise from its current level of 8.5%–20% by 2020. These are ambitious but achievable targets. Nonetheless, these can only be achieved through strong investment in areas of the knowledge triangle which strengthens research and innovation in the energy sector in Europe. The paper covers European Energy and Climate Change Policy, the European Strategic Energy Technology plan, the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, European and national Road maps to a low carbon economy, the Energy Efficiency Plan for 2011 and finishes with a brief consideration of the EU’s energy infrastructure priorities. -- Highlights: ► This paper summarises the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. ► Reduction of GHG emissions by 30%-international agreement or −20% without agreement. ► Use of 20% of renewable energies by 2020. ► Increase of energy efficiency of 20% by 2020. ► Consolidating of the internal energy market.

  18. Report of the European Energy Law Seminar 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukenkamp, J.F.M.; Webbink, F.J.; Fenijn, A.W.C.; Klapwijk, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Annual European Energy Law Seminar was held on 12 and 13 April 2010 at the Grand Hotel Huis ter Duin in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. This article reports on the meeting. The presentations held on the first day addressed various aspects of the Third Energy Package such as the issues of unbundling and third party access, the establishment of a European network of regulators, the collaboration of regulators and the ongoing market integration. Day 2 addressed security of supply and climate protection and the required investments. An overview is also provided of recent developments in the EU competition legislation. [nl

  19. From Lëtzebuerg to Luxembourg: EU Law, Non-Discrimination and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    BELAVUSAU, Uladzislau

    2010-01-01

    [Virginie Pontin v. T-Comalux SA, ECJ (Third Chamber), Judgment of 29 October 2009, C-63/08] In autumn 2009 the ECJ made another step forward in fostering gender equality through the instrumental framework of the EU law. The case triggers the right of pregnant women to protection against employers, who use inadequately constructed procedural norms to disguise an illegal dismissal. The Court holds that where the only remedy available under national legislation to a worker dismissed during preg...

  20. What is a Leading Case in EU law? An empirical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska; Panagis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Lawyers generally explain legal development by looking at explicit amendments to statutory law and modifications in judicial practice. As far as the latter are concerned, leading cases occupy a special place. This article empirically studies the process in which certain cases become leading cases....... Our analysis focuses on Les Verts, a case of considerable fame in EU law, closely scrutinising whether it contains inherent leading case material. We show how the legal relevance of a case can become “embedded” in a long process of reinterpretation by legal actors, and we demonstrate that the actual...

  1. THE EFFECTS OF THE PRIMACY OF THE EU LAW ON THE INVESTORSTATE DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Biriş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the existing conflict between EU law and the provisions contained in Bilateral Investment Treaties with respect to the arbitration clause. In the context of the post-Lisbon, the European Union has exclusive competence in the area of investment is the only entitled to conclude investment treaties with third countries. However, many Member States continue to maintain in force bilateral treaties signed pre-Lisbon and jurisdiction clauses which conflict with European law. This paper will analyze the case law and doctrine in the field and will try to find solutions to avoid possible bottlenecks that may arise when a Member State is in a position to choose between compliance with European law and the rest of its international obligations.

  2. EU Foreign Energy Policy. From Intergovernmentalism to Supranationalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, N. [European University Institute, Florence (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    The European Union's increasing reliance on imports from third countries is reason for unsettling concern. It is anticipated that by 2030, assuming a continuation of the recent trend, more than 70 per cent of the EU's energy consumption has to be imported. Notwithstanding such anticipation, European regulation addressing the external dimension of energy policy remained far and few between. In practise it is the individual countries being leading actors on the foreign energy relations stage exercising their own respective foreign policies. To cope with these threats to the EU foreign energy policy, the European Commission issued its long anticipated Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation proposing concrete instruments on how energy foreign relations should be addressed in the future. But - does the Union have the power to bring about the crucial rebound?.

  3. Energy independence of the EU and the role of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    After having outlined that the Ukrainian crisis has revealed the challenge of the EU energy independence and the issue of its dependence, and also indicated the evolutions of gas imports for some European countries between 1995 and 2011, this publication discusses the level of this energy dependence as it appears through the evolution of energy resources, and through the evolution of the final energy mix. It also briefly comments the position of member states. Then, it analyses the influence of French choices on this dependence level (contribution of France to a lower dependence, evolution of energy dependence rates of European countries), and defines the potential role France could play and actions France could implement for a positive evolution of EU energy independence

  4. EU Foreign Energy Policy. From Intergovernmentalism to Supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union's increasing reliance on imports from third countries is reason for unsettling concern. It is anticipated that by 2030, assuming a continuation of the recent trend, more than 70 per cent of the EU's energy consumption has to be imported. Notwithstanding such anticipation, European regulation addressing the external dimension of energy policy remained far and few between. In practise it is the individual countries being leading actors on the foreign energy relations stage exercising their own respective foreign policies. To cope with these threats to the EU foreign energy policy, the European Commission issued its long anticipated Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation proposing concrete instruments on how energy foreign relations should be addressed in the future. But - does the Union have the power to bring about the crucial rebound?.

  5. Power law scaling for rotational energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, D.E.; Smith, N.; Driver, R.D.; Brunner, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    We have applied a new scaling law to several sets of rotational energy transfer cross sections. The new law asserts that the square of the T-matrix depends on the amount of energy transferred as a power law. Two different kinds of angular momentum statistics are assumed, one corresponding to m/sub j/ being conserved and the other corresponding to m/sub j/ being completely randomized. Numerical fits are presented which demonstrate that the data follow the power law better than the widely used exponential gap law

  6. Definition of an intramolecular Eu-to-Eu energy transfer within a discrete [Eu2L] complex in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonat, Aline; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2012-06-25

    Ligand L, based on two do3a moieties linked by the methylene groups of 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, was synthesized and characterized. The addition of Ln salts to an aqueous solution of L (0.01 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) led to the successive formation of [LnL] and [Ln(2)L] complexes, as evidenced by UV/Vis and fluorescence titration experiments. Homodinuclear [Ln(2)L] complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, and Lu) were prepared and characterized. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the Lu and Yb complexes in D(2)O solution (pD = 7.0) showed C(1) symmetry of these species in solution, pointing to two different chemical environments for the two lanthanide cations. The analysis of the chemical shifts of the Yb complex indicated that the two coordination sites present square antiprismatic (SAP) coordination environments around the metal ions. The spectroscopic properties of the [Tb(2)L] complex upon ligand excitation revealed conventional behavior with τ(H2O) = 2.05(1) ms and ϕ(H2O) = 51%, except for the calculation of the hydration number obtained from the luminescent lifetimes in H(2)O and D(2)O, which pointed to a non-integer value of 0.6 water molecules per Tb(III) ion. In contrast, the Eu complex revealed surprising features such as: 1) the presence of two and up to five components in the (5)D(0)→(7)F(0) and (5)D(0)→(7)F(1) emission bands, respectively; 2) marked differences between the normalized spectra obtained in H(2)O and D(2)O solutions; and 3) unconventional temporal evolution of the luminescence intensity at certain wavelengths, the intensity profile first displaying a rising step before the occurrence of the expected decay. Additional spectroscopic experiments performed on [Gd(2-x)Eu(x)L] complexes (x = 0.1 and 1.9) confirmed the presence of two distinct Eu sites with hydration numbers of 0 (site I) and 2 (site II), and showed that the unconventional temporal evolution of the emission intensity is the result of an unprecedented intramolecular Eu-to-Eu

  7. Reflections on the ‘Administrative, Not Constitutional’ Character of EU Law in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindseth Peter L.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is broadly recognized, the realm of administrative power greatly expanded over the course the twentieth century (particularly after 1945. This essay argues that this expansion, along with differential conceptions of legitimacy deeply bound up with it, are crucial to understanding not just the modern administrative state but also the nature of EU governance and the law governing its operation. Despite a dominant paradigm that seeks to understand EU governance in autonomously democratic and constitutional terms, the legitimacy of integration as a whole has remained primarily ‘administrative, not constitutional’. The EU’s normative power, like all power of an ultimately administrative character, finds its legitimacy primarily in legal, technocratic and functional claims. This is not to deny that European integration involves ‘politics’ or has profound ‘constitutional’ implications for its member states or citizens. The ‘administrative, not constitutional’ paradigm is meant only to stress that the ultimate grounding of EU rulemaking, enforcement, and adjudication comes closer to the sort of administrative legitimacy that is mediated through national executives, national courts, and national parliaments to a much greater extent than the dominant paradigm supposes. This is the reality that the ‘administrative, not constitutional’ paradigm on EU law has always sought to emphasize, and it is one that is particularly pertinent to the integration process in times of crisis. It is unsurprising, in these circumstances, that the public law of European integration has continually resorted to mechanisms of nationally mediated legitimacy in order to ‘borrow’ legitimacy from the national level. Unless and until Europeans begin to experience democracy and constitutionalism in supranational terms, the ‘administrative, not constitutional’ paradigm suggests that the EU’s judicial doctrines must be adjusted. The purpose should be to

  8. Intellectual property law and competition law in China - Analysis of the current framework and comparison with the EU approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Nga Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Yeung Nga Man looks at the question of protection of intellectual property rights in the Chinese legal system with comparative reference to policy and practice in the European Union. What is the best way to stimulate competition but yet also protect innovation? Part I of the essay examines the present IPRs protection in China. In Part II, contrary to the myth that competition and IP law conflict with one another, the author argues that both foster innovation and development, and enhance consumer welfare. Part III discusses the competition law regime in China with a specific focus on AML and evaluation of the enforcement of the regime. Part IV outlines the European Union approach, which China might consider adopting. Part V discusses the Block Exemptions approach from the E.U. on horizontal agreements.

  9. Incentives for energy efficiency in the EU emission trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Group for Sustainability and Technology; Betz, Regina [New South Wales Univ. (Australia). Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets

    2008-07-01

    This paper explores the incentives for energy efficiency induced by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for installations in the energy and industry sectors. Our analysis of the National Allocation Plans for 27 EU Member States for phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-2012) suggests that the price and cost effects for improvements in carbon and energy efficiency in the energy and industry sectors will be stronger than in phase 1 (2005-2007), but only because the European Commission has substantially reduced the number of allowances to be allocated by the Member States. To the extent that companies from these sectors (notably power producers) pass through the extra costs for carbon, higher prices for allowances translate into stronger incentives for demand- side energy efficiency. With the cuts in allocation to energy and industry sectors these will be forced to greater reductions, thus the non-ET sectors like household, tertiary and transport will have to reduce less, which is more in line with the cost-efficient share of emission reductions. The findings also imply that domestic efficiency improvements in the energy and industry sectors may remain limited since companies can make substantial use of credits from the Kyoto mechanisms. The analysis of the rules for existing installations, new projects and closures suggests that incentives for energy efficiency are higher in phase 2 than in phase 1 because of the increased application of benchmarking to new and existing installations and because a lower share of allowances will be allocated for free. Nevertheless, there is still ample scope to further improve the EU ETS so that the full potential for energy efficiency can be realized. (orig.)

  10. Atomic Energy Law with ordinances. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The revised edition of the text is due to a variety of major changes in, and amendments to, the German Atomic Energy Law. This book includes the current version of the Atomic Energy Law which has been changed several times, the 1982-version of the ordinace concerning procedures laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, the 1976 radiation protection ordinance together with recent amendments, the 1973 X-ray ordinance, the 1977 financial security ordinance laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, the 1981 ordinance concerning costs, the ordinance concerning performance in anticipation of ultimate disposal. The book is a compilation of the basic Atomic Energy Law which is needed mostly for imminent practical requirements. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Prospects of Renewable Energies Evolution in the Context of EU Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Amel Ghediri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, EU countries are not provided with sufficient amount of energy resources to satisfy an internal energy demand. According to this, such issues as country's energy security, usage of new energy sources, its economy and environmental consequences of irrational use of energy resources are becoming more acute. The article is devoted to various kinds of alternative energy sources, in particular, "green energy" and the issue of increasing use of renewable energy sources. The main goal of the publication is to analyze the energy policy of the EU countries, the expansion of renewable energy potential as the most energy-efficient sources.

  12. The EU THERMIE energy support programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio Nunes, P. de

    1994-01-01

    THERMIE is a five-year (1990-1994) European Union programme to encourage the development of innovative energy technologies. The financial support of projects is aimed in particular at promoting and disseminating advanced and innovative technologies which might not easily be put into effect otherwise, owing to financial (rather than technological) risks. A THERMIE programme covering the period 1995-1998 is being prepared. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. EU and worldwide geothermal energy inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the world geothermal congress of April 2005, this document puts the different applications of this sector into perspective. At the end of 2004, the installed electrical capacity in European Union countries amounted to 822,1 MWe and thermal capacity to 6589,8 MWth (including 4531 MWth of heat pumps). Statistics on the geothermal energy situation and distribution are presented and analyzed. A comparison between current trend and white paper objectives is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  15. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  16. Contract law and the Digital Single Market: towards a new EU online consumer sales law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2015-01-01

    In its Digital Single Market Strategy, unveiled in May 2015, the Commission has promised to come up with a revised proposal for a Common European Sales Law by the end of the year. More indications have been given the Commission in an Inception Impact Assessment, published in July 2015. The debate on

  17. The new legal basis of the EU's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farantouris, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    According to article 194 of the EU Lisbon Treaty, energy now falls within the province of European policy and is a sector for shared responsibility with member countries, in the same way as for the environment, transportation, the interior market and trans-European networks (article 4 of the Lisbon Treaty). The introduction in the Treaty of a chapter devoted to energy clearly has a political emphasis, as its shows the EU's attachment to the implementation of a coherent policy. However, its enactment carries with it not insignificant legal changes, because a specific and autonomous legal basis is established for the first time, thus allowing the Union to take decisions and actions in the area of energy. (author)

  18. EU Directives, national regulations and incentives for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H.; Scholz, H.; Bloem, H.; Werring, L.

    2004-01-01

    The European Union long-term strategy for security of energy supply and its commitment to curb climate change led to the adoption of a series of Strategy Papers and EU Directives. In all these, it is clearly stated that climate change is a long-term challenge for the international community and that the commitments made in the Kyoto Protocol can only be a first step. The promotion of renewable energies is a most important element of this process. It regards industry, jobs and foreign trade balance as well, generating benefit to social sustainability. Photovoltaic is a key technology with the potential not only to serve the needs in energy supply of tomorrow in a sustainable way, but already today, it can improve security and stability of electricity services at peak times, due to its decentralized nature. This paper gives an update on the EU and National legislation in place to promote the implementation of photovoltaic. (authors)

  19. Efficiency as a Priority of EU Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to recent conclusions of the European Council it is necessary to stress the need to increase energy efficiency in the EU so as to achieve the objective of saving 20% of the energy consumption compared to projections for 2020 as estimated by the Commission in its Green Paper on Energy Efficiency and to make good use of their National Energy Efficiency Actions Plans for this purpose (i.e. Second NEEAPs from 30 June 2011. It should improve the EU’s industrial competiveness with a potential for creating substantial benefits for households, business and public authorities.

  20. COMPETITION AND REGULATION IN THE EU ENERGY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Havriş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available When prices are high and public service obligations are not properly fulfilled, consumers wonder if they obtain what they need from the market. In electricity and gas markets of the EU Member States, apart from the persistence of high, non-transparent regulated prices, a number of shortcomings have been identified by the European Commission, such as a less than optimal network use for energy transmission, a lack of coordination and cooperation across borders by transmission system operators and national authorities, and a lack of transparent and simple procedures for dealing with consumers’ complaints. These are the main elements of the infringement proceedings that the European Commission decided to launch on 25 June 2009 against 25 Member States for non–compliance with certain Community provisions in the Second Internal Energy Market Package, which entered into force on 1 July 2007. Quite emblematic is the fact that it occurred the same day as the adoption of the Third Internal Energy Market Package aiming to ensure a proper functioning of the EU energy market. We intend to analyse what has happened in the recent years at the EU level in order to liberalise and remove the significant remaining obstacles to competition in the energy market.

  1. Reduced energy conservation law for magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    A global energy conservation law for a magnetized plasma is studied within the context of a quasiparticle description. A reduced energy conservation law is derived for low-frequency, as compared to the gyromagnetic frequency, plasma motions with regard to both non-uniform mean flows and fluctuations in the plasma. The mean value of plasma energy is calculated and sufficient stability conditions for non-equilibrium plasmas are derived. (orig.)

  2. Translating EU renewable energy policy for insular energy systems: Reunion Island's quest for energy autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sawatzky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the negative impacts of climate change has led to agreement on the need to decarbonise energy systems through the employment of renewable energy. With many national and transnational policies in place, the options available to insular energy systems (IES differ from those of interconnected areas due to fragility in their production and distribution networks. Based on the concepts of policy mobility and translation, this study examines the interplay of EU renewable energy policy and insular governance processes aimed at achieving energy autonomy through renewable energy development. Reunion Island, a French Overseas Department and Region, is used as a case study to examine local energy governance processes, aspects that shape regional translation of national and EU policy, and the potential effects that create structures and pathways of energy transition. The study shows that Reunion Island’s regional Energy Governance Committee has significant application potential as a governance tool in other IES and small islands within the EU, but that renewable energy development is restricted due to national policy measures and path dependent governance structural constraints.

  3. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  4. Terminological and Definitional Problems of Deficit and Debt in the Polish and EU Law of Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Lotko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish and the EU public finances law there are serious terminological difficulties concerning the deficit and the debt. They arise first from the terminological chaos in this field and second from the parallel application of the EU and the Polish methodology of calculating of deficit and debt. Thus, the paper aims to explain the terminological and definitional problems of deficit and debt in the public finances law using unobtrusive research consisting of the detailed analysis of the Polish and EU legislation. Although there is no doubt that it would be desirable to order the applied terms, in the current legal situation, it would be extremely difficult, as it would require the changes to the Constitution, laws, and modification of translations of UE acts. The solution to the problem, presenting additional advantages, could consist of full transition to the EU methodology by the renouncement from the Polish methodology.

  5. Law project relative to the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  6. Development of energy law in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2000-01-01

    In Norway, energy law is still in its infancy, nine years after the deregulation of the energy market. But on the year 2000 budget 1,5 million NOK have been made available for research and teaching of energy law at Nordic Institute for Maritime Law, University of Oslo. This institute has for many years been working on judicial matters in connection with the offshore petroleum activities and has extended their research into problems faced by the electric power sector after the deregulation of the market

  7. Climate, energy and emissions trading in the EU and DK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck-Madsen, S.

    2004-04-01

    European Union member states are facing two serious challenges: human-induced climatic changes and oil shortage. Evidence that human-induced global heating is threatening the climatic balance is piling up and the conflicts over the last oil resources are becoming critical. The European Union has neither large oil resources nor foreign-political or military power to conquer additional oil resources. The EU Commission's awareness of these facts is influencing the EU energy and climate policy. Recently EU launched the directive on carbon dioxide emissions trading within certain energy-heavy sectors. The greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive requires a national ceiling on the allocation of CO 2 quotas for the heavy industry and energy sectors, thus adapting the quantity of quotas to the Kyoto requirements. This requirement can be quite extensive for the sectors affected by the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive, if national governments choose to abstain from political intervention in order to reduce release of greenhouse gases in sectors outside the emissions trading, e.g. agriculture, transportation, households, and smaller industry and service. Lack of action in these sectors will require the governments to impose either large burdens or use of national Joint Implementation and Clean Development agreements on the heavy industry and energy sectors outside national borders, thus conflicting with the Kyoto Protocol. (BA)

  8. The Best of Both Worlds? Free Trade in Services and EU Law on Privacy and Data Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakovleva, S.; Irion, K.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between European Union (EU) law on privacy and data protection and international trade law, in particular the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the WTO dispute settlement system. The argument distinguishes between the effects of international

  9. Third single energy market package of the EU Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    In adopting the so-called Third Single Energy Market Package on September 9, 2007, the European Commission has initiated a comprehensive reform of the single energy market. The main item of the package is the separation of generation and supply from the transmission grids and transport networks in the electricity and gas sectors (ownership unbundling), an approach favored by the Commission. On the other hand, the Commission wants to advance protection of the European market in case firms from third countries, to the extent in which they do not comply with the EU unbundling requirements, would want to assume control over an EU grid or network. The key points of the package are presented. The legal and entrepreneurial ramifications are discussed, for instance, under the aspect of protection of ownership, and concrete as well as potential concerns about ownership unbundling are voiced. (orig.)

  10. Investing EU ETS auction revenues into energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Summerton, P.; Pollitt, H.; Billington, S. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    The overall objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using EU ETS auction revenues to stimulate investments in energy savings in three key target sectors, i.e. Households, Tertiary and Industry (including both ETS and non-ETS industrial installations). The scenarios used refer basically to the situation before the recent agreement on the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and include (a mixture of) different policy options to enhance energy savings in the target sectors, in particular (1) reducing the ETS cap, (2) introducing an Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO) for energy suppliers or distributors, and/or (3) using ETS auction revenues to support additional (private) investments in raising energy efficiency. In order to meet this objective a variety of different policy scenarios have been defined and analysed by means of the 'Energy-Environment-Economy Model for Europe (E3ME)'. The study presents and discusses a large variety of scenario modelling results by the year 2020 at the EU27 level. These results refer to, among others, energy savings, GHG emissions, the ETS carbon price, household electricity bills and to changes in some macro- or socio-economic outcomes such as GDP, inflation, employment or international trade. Finally, the study discusses some policy findings and implications, including options to enhance the effectiveness of some EE policies, in particular those having a potential adverse effect on the ETS carbon price.

  11. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  12. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  13. Modelling energy demand in the buildings sector within the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O Broin, Eoin

    2012-11-01

    In the on-going effort within the EU to tackle greenhouse gas emissions and secure future energy supplies, the buildings sector is often referred to as offering a large potential for energy savings. The aim of this thesis is to produce scenarios that highlight the parameters that affect the energy demands and thus potentials for savings of the building sector. Top-down and bottom-up approaches to modelling energy demand in EU buildings are applied in this thesis. The top-down approach uses econometrics to establish the historical contribution of various parameters to energy demands for space and water heating in the residential sectors of four EU countries. The bottom-up approach models the explicit impact of trends in energy efficiency improvement on total energy demand in the EU buildings stock. The two approaches are implemented independently, i.e., the results from the top-down studies do not feed into those from the bottom-up studies or vice versa. The explanatory variables used in the top-down approach are: energy prices; heating degree days, as a proxy for outdoor climate; a linear time trend, as a proxy for technology development; and the lag of energy demand, as a proxy for inertia in the system. In this case, inertia refers to the time it takes to replace space and water heating systems in reaction to price changes. The analysis gives long-term price elasticities of demand as follows: for France, -0.17; for Italy, -0.35; for Sweden, -0.27; and for the UK, -0.35. These results reveal that the price elasticity of demand for space and water heating is inelastic in each of these cases. Nonetheless, scenarios created for the period up to 2050 using these elasticities and an annual price increase of 3 % show that demand can be reduced by more than 1 % per year in France and Sweden and by less than 1 % per year in Italy and the UK. In the bottom-up modelling, varying rates for conversion efficiencies, heating standards for new buildings, end-use efficiency, and

  14. Nuclear energy law after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.; Harcher, L.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the legal issues surrounding the possibility of accidents at nuclear installations in Europe. Contents include: Regulations and control by international organizations in the context of a nuclear accident; The role of Euratom; Border installations: the interaction of administrative, European community and public international law; and Border installations: the experience of Wackersdorf. Concepts of nuclear liability and the liability of suppliers to nuclear power plants are discussed

  15. Review and prospects of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartkopf, G.

    1983-01-01

    At the 7th German Symposium on Atomic Energy Law which took place on March 16th, 1983 in Goettingen the Undersecretary of State of the Federal Ministery of the Interior, Dr. Guenter Hartkopf, delivered the opening speech. The speech deals with the conditions set by constitutional law and ethics, improvement of nuclear liability, guide line for incident response, participation of the public in licensing procedures under atomic energy law, necessary measures to prevent damage, the concept of waste management. Also in future the safety of the citizens has absolute priority. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. ‘Non-discrimination Does Not Fall Down from Heaven’: The Context and Evolution of Non-discrimination in EU Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Equality and non-discrimination in EU law are firmly embedded in EU law, either as general principles of law or they are written down in the Treaties and secondary legislation. This paper sketches the evolution of three specific forms of equality and non-discrimination, the prohibition of

  17. Subsidiarity and proportionality in the shaping of EU law on the protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of subsidiarity was introduced into the primary sources of EU law by the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, as a norm of general application, in order to determine whether the Union can take action in areas that do not fall under its exclusive competence, that is in areas that could be governed both by the acts of the EU and that of the member states. The principle of subsidiarity is based on the undisputedly appropriate idea that the citizens' needs ought to be addressed at the level closest to them. It allows the Union to take action if and insofar the objectives of the proposed measure cannot be sufficiently achieved by action of member states, taking into account its scale and expected effects, while they could clearly be achieved more efficiently by measures of the Union. Even if the conditions of the use of competence based on the principle of subsidiarity are met, it is limited by the principle of proportionality, according to which the institutions of the EU may take action only within the confines of the objectives laid out in the primary sources of EU law. In concrete cases, however, the principle of subsidiarity is as a rule subject to differing interpretations, creating a constant field for confronting standpoints of the Commission and that of the member states. Yet, the number of cases in which the Court of Justice has decided on the application of principle of subsidiarity is very small (around twenty so far, in which the Court demonstrated that it will not lightly overturn an EU action on the ground that it is not in compliance with the principle of subsidiarity. The Protocol on the Application of Principles of Subsidiarity and Proportionality, introduced by and attached to the Amsterdam Treaty, and taken over by the Lisbon Treaty, sets out a procedure in which the national assemblies of the member states gain right to give reasoned opinion as to why they consider that a legislative proposal of the Commission does not comply

  18. Shifting policy priorities in EU-China energy relations: Implications for Chinese energy investments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gippner, Olivia; Torney, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    Shifting energy policy priorities both in China and the EU (European Union) have transformed their bilateral relationship. In order to assess the impact of domestic policy priorities on bilateral energy cooperation and climate policy, this comparative study traces the evolution of EU and Chinese approaches to energy policy – and their relative emphasis on factors and frames such as availability, efficiency, affordability and environmental stewardship. Drawing on government documents and a data set of interviews with Chinese policy-makers, experts and academics in 2015–2016, the article argues that while the EU started with a strong emphasis on environmental stewardship and moved towards a focus on affordability and availability, China started with a strong emphasis on availability and has moved towards a greater emphasis on environmental stewardship. This shift in frames on the Chinese side and subsequent changes in subsidy structures and targets can partially explain the increase in investments in renewable energy technologies. The article concludes that the Chinese and EU perspectives have become more aligned over the past ten years, coinciding with an increasing trend towards renewable energy in Chinese energy investments in the EU, for example in Italy and the UK. - Highlights: • Compares dominant frames of energy policy in China and the European Union in the period 2005–2015. • Shows that there has been a convergence of policy frames between China and the EU. • Convergence on environmental stewardship is necessary but not sufficient for FDI in clean energy.

  19. EU policy options for climate and energy beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.; Notenboom, J.; Boot, P. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Groenenberg, H.; Winkel, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, the EU climate and energy package with targets for 2020 (the so-called 20-20-20 targets) were formulated. For the period after 2020, however, there are no legally binding targets at the EU level, except for a decreasing ETS cap which will not be sufficient in light of the ambition for 2050. This leads to uncertainty for market players, as project lead times are long and high upfront investments need to deliver returns well beyond 2020. In its Green Paper on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, the European Commission recognised the need for clarity regarding the post-2020 policy framework. Currently under discussion is whether the approach for 2020 should be continued towards 2030 in the form of three more stringent targets or that other approaches would be more appropriate. Within this context, the Dutch Government asked PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Ecofys for advice. PBL and Ecofys have subsequently analysed possible options for an EU policy framework for 2030 that will steer towards a low-carbon economy by 2050 in a cost-effective way.

  20. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@ewea.org; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  1. Direct employment in the wind energy sector. An EU study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers - including major sub-components - are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles - project managers, engineers and O and M technicians - is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice. (author)

  2. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  3. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH) [de

  4. The nuclear energy: law and fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezghani, A.

    1996-01-01

    This document mentions the feeling of fear which goes along the idea of nuclear energy, as well as ethics and law. Technological aspects, political choices and financial matters are responsible for the nuclear energy development. Then it is shown that the consequences of this development is the continuous feeling of fear and risk which goes with every nuclear activities. (TEC)

  5. Auditing versus consultancy: a critique of the EU law reforms on the new form of auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kubra Kandemir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Auditors used to serve the interest of the shareholders only. However, there have been significant changes in terms of auditors’ role and their function. Auditors are now expected to verify financial statements, but at the same time give an assurance regarding the financial sustainability of the entity. Regarding the latter role, audit firms provide consulting services, including risk assessment and management services. However, the law does not assign the latter role to external auditors. This situation results in an expectations gap in relation to both the role of the auditors and the scope of the external auditing. In addition, the growing economic importance of consulting and the long years of auditor tenure is likely to impair auditor independence. This paper submits that the new form of auditing is not problematic but creates issues. First, the expectations between the users of the financial reports and auditors are wider. Second, auditors’ independence is damaged due to the long years of auditor tenure and dependence of non-audit fees generated from consultancy services that not related to audit. The recent law reforms issued by the European Commission has brought some important provisions in terms of filling the expectations gap, reinforcing auditor independence and reducing the familiarity threat. EU’s relatively strict rules on provision of non-audit services and audit firm rotation are expected to have an important impact in the audit market. A critical analysis of the new EU law is submitted with some policy recommendations.

  6. GENERAL CONSIDERATION REGARDING EU LAW IN THE DOMAIN OF CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra STĂNCIULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage is a rich and diverse mosaic of cultural and creative expressions, our inheritance from previous generations of people and our legacy for those to come. In the terms of the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, the cultural heritage includes: monuments, such as architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature; groups of buildings and sites, such as works of man or the combined works of nature and man and areas including archaeological sites, all of these being of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science. Because of its substantial importance for the evolution of humanity, all nations in general and the European Union in particular, should have the duty of ensuring the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage. EU law states through the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union at article 167 that the action of the Union shall be aimed at encouraging cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, supporting and supplementing the action in areas such as: improvement of the knowledge and dissemination of the culture and history of the European people; conservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage of European significance and others. While policy in this area is primarily the responsibility of Member States, regional and local authorities, the EU is committed to safeguarding and enhancing Europe's cultural heritage through a number of policies and programmes. Due to the lack of such policies and programmes, the lack of consistent terminology and legal definitions, especially between EU languages, the lack of information and data on the crimes that affect cultural goods, the purpose of the essay is to emphasize the need of a rigorous legal program and policy and to observe the

  7. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution ...

  8. The EU electricity production structure requires a differentiated energy policy; Die Stromerzeugungsstruktur der EU erfordert eine differenzierte Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-04-15

    For the electricity production of the EU there are differentiated structures which are based on different natural conditions, political decisions and investments of past decades. It has long been struggled committed to the ''one and correct'' energy policy. But precisely because of the differences in the individual countries, a unified energy and climate policy for the EU is not the right way. Diversity is a strength, which quite the EU Commission considered. Increased understanding of the specifics in other countries should just apply the German politics and the public that all too often judges from their own perspective. [German] Bei der Stromerzeugung in der EU bestehen differenzierte Strukturen, die auf unterschiedlichen natuerlichen Gegebenheiten, politischen Entscheidungen und Investitionen vergangener Jahrzehnte beruhen. Seit langem wird engagiert um die ''eine und richtige'' Energiepolitik gerungen. Doch gerade wegen der Unterschiede in den einzelnen Laendern kann eine vereinheitlichte Energie- und Klimapolitik fuer die EU nicht der richtige Weg sein. Vielfalt ist eine Staerke, was die EU-Kommission durchaus beruecksichtigt. Mehr Verstaendnis fuer die Spezifika in anderen Laendern sollte daher gerade die deutsche Politik und Oeffentlichkeit aufbringen, die allzu oft aus eigener Perspektive heraus urteilt.

  9. A Low Carbon EU Energy System and Unconventional Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, F.; Kanudia, A.; Tosato, GC.

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the potential role of unconventional fossil fuels in a global low carbon energy system. Making use of a systemic approach, the paper presents an original application of a global partial equilibrium energy system model (TIAM-JET). In order to give a worldwide perspective with higher detail on European energy systems, the model links a set of extra-European macro-regions to the 30 European countries. First, a review of the most recent estimates of the available stocks of unconventional hydrocarbon resources is used to build the set of assumption for the scenario analysis. Secondly, a set of scenarios assuming different availability and cost of unconventional fuels are added to both a Current Trend scenario and a Carbon Constrained (CC) scenario, to explore the perspectives of unconventional gas and oil in a scenario halving CO 2 emissions by 2050, which is consistent with a 2 degree temperature increase. The results show if/how unconventional sources can contribute to the robustness of the European energy system with respect to the stress of a strong carbon constraint. We define this robustness as the capacity of the energy system to adapt its evolution to long-term constraints and keep delivering energy services to end users. In our approach robustness represents the long-term dimension of energy security. Assessing this ''system property'' requires analysing the wide range of factors that can exercise a stabilizing influence on the energy services delivery system, together with their relations, actual interactions and synergies. The energy system approach used for the analysis seeks to take into account as much of this complexity as possible. We assess the robustness of the EU system to the carbon constraint by looking at how the CC scenario affects energy system costs and energy prices under scenarios with different deployment of unconventional sources. This provides insights on the synergies and/or trade-offs between energy security and

  10. Incentives to improve energy efficiency in EU Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Beestermoeller, C.; Gardiner, A.

    2013-04-15

    The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) includes provisions related to network tariffs and regulation. It is timely therefore to revisit the potential options for energy efficiency in grids, the treatment of energy efficiency in network tariffs and alternative policies for improving energy efficiency. This project builds on work done previously for the European Copper Institute in this area. In this paper, we concentrate on energy efficiency in electricity network design and operation. Other articles in the Directive relate to the role of the network tariffs and regulations in enabling or incentivising the provision of energy efficiency to end users. In section 2, we describe technical efficiency measures to reduce losses (improve energy efficiency) in the grid. Section 3 reviews grid tariffs in three countries to identify whether they provide incentives or disincentives for energy efficiency in the grid. Section 4 discusses and evaluates alternative regulations for energy efficiency in grids. Section 5 concludes and discusses the main components of the optimal policy framework.

  11. A common vision of energy risk? Energy securitisation and company perceptions of risk in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Stoddard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, energy security is provided by EU institutions, member states and commercial energy companies. However, despite the important role companies play in the provision of European energy security, it is not immediately evident to what extent the interests of the internationally operating energy firms are in line with the energy security preferences held by EU institutions. Analysing this relationship from the perspective of perceptions of energy security and energy business risk, this paper examines the extent to which there is a convergence between the energy securitisation of the European Commission and the observation of business risk as perceived by major European and international energy firms. It finds that while there are some significant areas where Commission securitisation contradicts energy company interests (e.g. climate change and energy prices there is also a high degree of convergence, in particular regarding perceptions of upstream political risk.

  12. Why atomic energy affects Civil Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knieper, R.

    1980-01-01

    Based on the decision of July 20, 1979 by the Amtsgericht Stuttgart, which dismissed the complaint filed by the Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart (public utility) against electricity boycotters as being unfounded for the time being, the author states that a political function is due to Civil Law. The concrete question is whether political considerations have surpassed the limits of laws and interpretations bound by the basic rights. The relationship between a customer depending on power supply and the supply monopolist exceeds contractual relationship by far since it is a social relationship: it is inescapably embraced by the customer's dependence on power supply and by the customer being subject to research work. Atomic energy is being introduced into law of contract by means of dogmatic crutches - breach of additional obligation under a contract. However, in Civil Law, there are a great number of such means enabling solutions to be corrected which seem to be inadequate. (HSCH) [de

  13. Atomic energy law after the opt-out. Alive and fascinating. Report about the 14th German atomic energy law symposium 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Atomic energy law remains a living, fascinating subject matter. Nearly 200 participants were convinced of this impression at the 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium held in Berlin on November 19-20, 2012. Under the scientific chairmanship of Professor Dr. Martin Burgi, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), after an interruption of 5 years, again organized a scientific conference about practice-related topics of atomic energy and radiation protection law. Atomic energy law once again proved to be a reference area for sophisticated issues of constitutional law and administrative law above and beyond its technical confines. The agenda of the 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium featured a broad spectrum of topics ranging from backfitting of nuclear power plants to European atomic energy and radiation protection law, to challenges facing national legal systems in the execution of atomic energy law, to legal issues connected with decommissioning and waste management, and on to the topical subject of finding a repository site. The 14 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium, on the whole, again demonstrated that an open discourse between science and practice is able to furnish important contributions to the implementation of laws in a balanced way rooted in practice. Especially the contributions dealing with the independence of public authorities and their organization, the doctrine of the reservation of functions of the executive branch, and planning by laws contain additional provisions able to influence the continued development of administrative law also above and beyond atomic energy law. The BMU also referred to a decision just heard from Brussels to the effect that a new European Safety Directive would be published as early as in 2013. As a consequence of the nuclear stress tests conducted EU-wide, the Directive is to lay down provisions about transparency

  14. Ninth German symposium on atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.; Birkhofer, A.

    1991-01-01

    The symposium dealt with the forthcoming amendment to the Atomic Energy Law. There was an introductory presentation of the plans of the Federal Government for the amendment the aims attached to the amendment as seen by the Social Democratic Party and the revival of the nuclear option. The topics of the five work sessions were: questions concerning constitutional law - Laender administration on behalf of the Federal Government - subordinate legislation in the system of energy law; legislation on liability; financial security financing of decommissioning; licensing, supervision, retrofitting; waste disposal, ultimate waste disposal, fuel cycle. All lectures held in the work sessions and the reports on the discussions following them are included. Finally the amendment project was considered from the technological point of view and a resume was drawn. All 22 lectures have been seperately prepared for retrieval from the database. (HSCH) [de

  15. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EUEnergy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  16. The Institutionalised and Non-institutionalised Exemptions from EU Public Procurement Law: Towards a more Coherent Approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Willem A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374662819

    2014-01-01

    From a EU public procurement law perspective, contracting authorities have a discretionary power to decide upon who is allowed and best suited to provide public services to the public. When public authorities deem the in-house performance of a service to be the most suitable, the Court of Justice of

  17. Corrigendum: Big Data in medical research and EU data protection law : challenges to the consent or anonymise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, Menno; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Biesaart, Monique C I H; van Delden, Johannes J M

    Medical research is increasingly becoming data-intensive; sensitive data are being re-used, linked and analysed on an unprecedented scale. The current EU data protection law reform has led to an intense debate about its potential effect on this processing of data in medical research. To contribute

  18. Objective justification and Prima Facie anti-competitive unilateral conduct : an exploration of EU Law and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Tjarda Desiderius Oscar van der

    2014-01-01

    The prohibition of anti-competitive unilateral conduct by firms with market power is not absolute, but allows for derogation. For the purposes of EU law, the ECJ has accepted that a so-called ‘objective justification’ plea may be invoked in the case of a prima facie abuse of dominance. Even though

  19. From mutual recognition to mutual scientific opinion? Constitutional framework for risk analysis in EU food safety law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation 178/2002 (the so-called General Food Law – GFL) codifies risk analysis as the core principle of the modern food safety policy. This article places the GFL in EU multi-level food safety governance and analyses the impact of risk analysis, the precautionary principle and mechanisms of

  20. Issue of special jurisdiction in disputes coming from contractual relationship under the EU and Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Special jurisdiction in matters of contracts is based on the close link between the cause of action and the territory of the court on which the jurisdiction is conferred. This is exception to the general jurisdiction based on defendant's domicile. It is introduced to legal systems with aims to facilitate the sound administration of justice and to make the balance between parties, giving the plaintiff a choice to bring proceedings to a court of his convenience. The structure of special jurisdiction rules contained in Brussels I Regulation is very complex. The general rule disguises more than it reveals at first glance and ought to be read in the light of the previous judgments of the ECJ and special rule is the modernizing element as it introduces an autonomous fact-based concept for the most important categories of contracts. After adoption of the new Serbian Law on International Private Law the rules on special jurisdiction shall be applied in accordance with EU standards, i.e. with ECJ practice.

  1. Fighting Human Trafficking in the European Union: A master’s thesis on the ability of EU law to fight trafficking in women for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Stine Piilgaard Porner

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery. The EU continuously seeks to strengthen its fight against this crime, latest with the Directive on Prevention, Combat and Protection adopted in April 2011. But to what extent is the EU able to fight human trafficking through law? Human trafficking is a complex problem which can be assessed from different perspectives. The EU primarily addresses the fight against human trafficking through criminal law, and this thesis investigates the e...

  2. Exchange of researchers of oil substituting energies in EU countries; EU shokoku no sekiyu daitai energy kenkyusha koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to further promote smoother introduction of oil substituting energies and development of new energies and energy saving technologies, it was intended to exchange and acquire items of information effective to learn the current state and policy trends on research and development of new energies and energy conservation in the EU countries who are the industrialized countries like Japan and enthusiastic in developing oil substituting energies. Therefore, exchange of researchers was carried out with an objective to contribute to research and development of oil substituting energies by deepening mutual understanding on the development efforts and forming efficient cooperative relationship. The researchers who visited Japan are Dr. Robert Durand (France) and Prof. and Dr. Bruno Scrosati (Italy). Dr. Durand has a great knowledge about fuel cells and storage batteries, and Dr. Scrosati about electrolytes and lithium batteries. Both gentlemen have visited the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, NEDO, Toshiba, Sony, Sanyo Electric, Japan Storage Battery, Matsushita Battery Industry, the Industrial Technology Research Institute of Osaka, and Kansai Electric Power Company. Views and information were exchanged and a number of good results were rewarded.

  3. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  4. Environmental law in Thuringia. Text collection with introduction. Pt. 1. Waste law, nuclear, radiation and energy law, soil protection law and land reparcelling, forestry law, fishing and hunting law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Matthias Werner

    2015-01-01

    The volume 1 of the collection on the Thuringian Environmental Law contains additional to a detailed introduction: - Waste management - Nuclear, radiation and energy law - Soil protection law and land reparcelling - Forestry, fishery and hunting law. [de

  5. The need and necessity of an EU-wide renewable energy target for 2030. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, R.; Winkel, T.; Klessmann, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In 2020, some leading EU energy and climate policies will expire. At present, the EU and its Member States are discussing the design of a post-2020 policy portfolio. In a discussion paper commissioned by the European Copper Institute, Ecofys shows that an EU-wide renewable energy target is a necessary part of a 2030 portfolio. The paper analyses, in detail, two realistic policy portfolio options for renewable energy, target-setting in particular: one 'decarbonisation-only' EU target with voluntary national targets for renewable energy, and one that includes an EU-wide renewable energy target, broken down into binding national targets. The analysis shows that the latter option, when supported by appropriate and improved EU and Member States' policies and measures, is most suitable in facilitating a European low-carbon economy.

  6. EU Design Law and 3D Printing: Finding the Right Balance in a New e-Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholder who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  7. Conceptual and Institutional Aspects of EU Energy Policy (1990-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Borovskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideological and institutional framework of the European energy policy, which is still work in progress, is crucial to the EU as it faces new political and economic challenges related to the recent Ukrainian crisis. Even if key energy policy issues are still decided by member states as the EU only seeks to speak with one voice in energy matters externally, much progress has been made over the last two decades in terms of the EU's energy policy formulation and institutional development. The Lisbon Treaty made the energy policy a sphere of "shared competence" of EU institutions and member states. The European Commission's numerous policy documents ("White" and "Green books" 1995, 2000 and 2006 provided a basis for the development of an integrated energy market. Substantial progress has been achieved in the area of energy policy harmonization between the EU and neighboring countries (Energy Charter Treaty, European Energy Community. The Union's key energy policy areas also included supply diversification (trans-European energy networks, development of unconventional energy production, climate change and energy efficiency. Over the last decade climate changes has become a cornerstone of EU energy policy and is regarded by the EU as key to moderating energy demand and reducing import dependency.

  8. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the EU in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The EU is one of the most advanced places of petroleum substituting energy development. The EU is highly aware of environmental issues. For the COP3 held at Kyoto in December 1997, The EU gave more severe regulation of CO2 emission than the other advanced countries. The EU takes efforts in the development and introduction of energy effective for global environmental protection. In addition, research and development of geothermal, biomass and wave force energy are actively promoted in this place. Energy situations in this place are significant for predicting and analyzing the future trends of energy development and consumption in the other countries. Firstly, this report looks back toward energy demand held in check to a head at the beginning of the 1990`s. Secondly, supply of energy and cover of energy trend are described for recent years from the point of view. Thirdly, competitiveness of energy in EU countries are discussed from a position of energy density. Fourthly, circumstances about environmental issues are considered. Fifthly, the world market of energy is also considered. Finally, development of new energy and a trend of introduction with a sample of Sweden are introduced. 13 refs., 15 figs., 28 tabs.

  9. Problems and perspectives in energy law and environmental law. Documentation; Probleme und Perspektiven im Energieumweltrecht. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Wolfram; Pielow, Johann-Christian (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This book contains the contributions and discussion of the 13th annual meeting of the Institute of Mining Law and Energy Law of the Ruhr University Bochum. The meeting washed on 6 March 2009 under the title ''Problems and Perspectives in Energy Law and Environmental Law''. (orig.)

  10. Energy policy in the EU and in Russia. Positions, potential conflicts, approaches for cooperation.; Energiepolitik in der EU und Russland. Interessenlagen, Konfliktpotenziale, Kooperationsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebing, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    The paper under the above mentioned title tries to develop an understanding of the question why energy relations and cooperation between the European Union and Russia in energy matters haven't been very successful over the last decade and why relations are affected by crises frequently. In order to answer these questions meaningfully, several steps need to be made: First, the paper offers a summary of recent policy debate on energy questions on the EU side. It identifies relevant participants in the ''political arena'' and describes their positioning and interaction, based on a multi-level-governance approach. Following a look at history of European energy policy developments, the paper concludes that a complex European policy field has developed recently, although there is no direct responsibility for energy matters with European institutions so far, but that the justification for any law-making in the said areas is deducted from secondary EU level responsibilities such as common market, competition law or environmental matters. However, there is a huge bandwidth of positions between political actors, civil service, parliaments, industry associations, consumers - organizations etc as well as between community and national level organizations. Not only a battle for power and competence between these levels hinders a straight and consistent energy policy across the EU, there is also significantly different focus with different players on where to put effort between conflicting objectives of the ''European Energy Triangle'', demanding (1) secure and reliable, (2) cheap and competitive as well as (3) environmentally friendly energy supplies. Despite all these differences, within the EU, a strong and well-regarded new area of policy debate has developed in the energy sector and a lot has been achieved. Observers frequently demand the EU to ''speak with one voice'' towards third parties, eg gas producing

  11. Law of the Energy Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Decree-Law consist of three chapters each on divided in articles and subsections and came into force in November 1 st., 1995. Chapter I, with the heading 'Nature and Powers', defines the Energy Regulatory Commission as a decentralized organ of the Energy Secretariat with technical and operative autonomy in terms of the law, and establish the conditions for the sell, generation, exportation and importation of electricity with destination to particular and public services. The sell transport, storage and distribution of natural gas, as well as the gas liquefied from petroleum are also considered. Chapter II with the heading 'Organization and duties' establish that the Commission is integrated by five Committee, the President included. The Committee members will deliberate in collegiate manner and the decisions are by majority, having the President a vote of quality. Chapter III for 'General provisions' is related to the lawsuits arises between the Commission and the users of services. (Author)

  12. Luminescence and energy transfer of Sm3+ and Eu3+ in Ca2PO4Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhijun; Li, Panlai; Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2014-01-01

    Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ , and Sm 3+ –Eu 3+ doped Ca 2 PO 4 Cl phosphors are synthesized by a solid-state method. Ca 2 PO 4 Cl:Sm 3+ can produce red emission under the 400 nm radiation excitation, and the emission peak is located at 601 nm, which is assigned to the 4 G 5/2 → 6 H 7/2 transition of Sm 3+ . Ca 2 PO 4 Cl:Eu 3+ can create red emission under the 392 nm radiation excitation, and the strongest peak is located at 620 nm, which is attributed to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . The energy transfer from Sm 3+ to Eu 3+ in Ca 2 PO 4 Cl has been validated and the critical distance (R c ) of Sm 3+ to Eu 3+ in Ca 2 PO 4 Cl is calculated to be 1.14 nm. With increasing Eu 3+ doping concentration, the energy transfer efficiency (Sm 3+ →Eu 3+ ) gradually increases to 53.7%. The luminescence property of Ca 2 PO 4 Cl:Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ can be tuned by properly tuning the relative ratio of Sm 3+ –Eu 3+ , and the emission intensity of Ca 2 PO 4 Cl:Eu 3+ can be greatly enhanced by codoped Sm 3+ . - Highlights: • Ca 2 PO 4 Cl:Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ can produce red emission under the 400 nm radiation excitation. • The energy transfer from Sm 3+ to Eu 3+ in Ca 2 PO 4 Cl has been validated. • The critical distance of Sm 3+ to Eu 3+ in Ca 2 PO 4 Cl is calculated to be 1.14 nm

  13. A programme law for the French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    A programme law on energy has been published on the 13. of July 2005 to the Official Gazette. By this law, the supply safety will be secured, a competitive price of energy will be guaranteed and the greenhouse effect controlled. The trends of the law are given here as well as the means taken up to make this law enforced. (O.M.)

  14. Exploiting the renewable energy potential of EU. For a 100% renewable energy by 2050, or how to put the EU on Track by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Adam; Anderson, Jason; Bureau de Politique Europeenne du WWF, Brussels

    2013-01-01

    This report shows where Europe needs to be by 2030 in order to reach a fully renewable energy system by 2050. It is comes just as the European Commission is beginning to consider post-2020 climate and energy plans. Coming amid an increasingly active debate over what should follow current EU climate and energy legislation (the 20-20-20 package), WWF's report adapts the WWF Global 2050 Energy Scenario to the EU27 level and shows that by 2030 the EU could: use at least 38% less energy compared to a business as usual projection, generate more than 40% of its energy from renewable sources, by doing both, reduce its energy related greenhouse emissions by 50% compared to 1990 levels

  15. Japan-EU joint research project on petroleum substituting energy; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren kyodo kenkyu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Four EU research workers were invited from Portugal, Italy and France for promoting R & D of petroleum substituting energies in Japan. The joint research on the wide area energy use network system (advanced district cooling and heating) includes the experimental technology for measuring heat transfer acceleration and drag reduction, evaluation of rheological characteristics of fluid, and development and selection of an adequate composition equation of fluid. The joint research on MCFC includes the test method and procedure of components and cells in relation to corrosion by molten carbonate, elution of NiO cathodes, electrode modeling and alternative materials for cathodes. The joint research on geothermal gases includes the research method of fumarolic gases such as volcanic gas and geothermal gas, applications in Italian geothermal fields and the relation of geothermal gases with the origin of fluid, deep conditions and volcanic activity. In addition, the joint research on light energy conversion (energy transfer system between binuclear metal complexes) and the performance and use of metal complexes as catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells was also performed. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Brexit Coup d’Etat: Tracking the Overthrow of EU Rule of Law in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McMurtry

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This analysis was researched and written days before the snap June 8 UK election which, it explains, would lock in the electoral minority of the ‘Brexit referendum’ with no public understanding of the immense historical stakes and dominant powers involved behind the political scenes. Least of all has been recognised that the hard Brexit led by the now minority-government Tories entails massive de-regulation of the most powerful transnational private financial and agri-food interests in the UK and the EU. Yet no sooner had I completed the body of the following analysis than the London terror attack struck on Saturday night June 3, with PM Theresa May pointing accusing those who sought causal understanding of the terrorist attacks as showing “far too much tolerance”. The first pages of the analysis below bring this pre-election turn of events into explanation of the slow-motion ‘Brexit coup’ that continues today before it is fully understood. While the June 8 2017 election turned against the Tory-May government as anticipated by the article, the global struggle for life-protective law still remains under more systemic threat than since 1945.

  17. The licensing procedure under Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1983-01-01

    This post-doctoral thesis of 1981 has been updated to include developments in this field up to the year 1983. The author discusses in detail all questions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, predominantly from the point of view of administrative law. He investigates nuclear energy and its contribution to electricity supplies with a view to other energy sources, renewable energy sources, alternative energy policies, nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, development of the nuclear industry, nuclear power stations in operation, under construction, or in development. Following a survey of the nuclear controversy, both on the national and the international level, the author reviews the legal system and arising controversies in the Federal Republic of Germany, defining the purpose of this thesis to be the systematic analysis of the available legal instruments, in order to show structural deficiencies in the planning law relating to nuclear power stations, and thus reasons of ambiguities within the licensing procedure. The author studies the following terms and requirements: licensing requirements and licensability, the licensing method and scenario, the legal character of licences, their contents and effects within the stepwise procedure, and due publication. (HSCH) [de

  18. Dark Energy and the Hubble Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    The Big Bang predicted by Friedmann could not be empirically discovered in the 1920th, since global cosmological distances (more than 300-1000 Mpc) were not available for observations at that time. Lemaitre and Hubble studied receding motions of galaxies at local distances of less than 20-30 Mpc and found that the motions followed the (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. For decades, the real nature of this phenomenon has remained a mystery, in Sandage's words. After the discovery of dark energy, it was suggested that the dynamics of local expansion flows is dominated by omnipresent dark energy, and it is the dark energy antigravity that is able to introduce the linear velocity-distance relation to the flows. It implies that Hubble's law observed at local distances was in fact the first observational manifestation of dark energy. If this is the case, the commonly accepted criteria of scientific discovery lead to the conclusion: In 1927, Lemaitre discovered dark energy and Hubble confirmed this in 1929.

  19. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  20. Large-scale renewable energy project barriers: Environmental impact assessment streamlining efforts in Japan and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures have been identified as a major barrier to renewable energy (RE) development with regards to large-scale projects (LS-RE). However EIA laws have also been neglected by many decision-makers who have been underestimating its impact on RE development and the stifling potential they possess. As a consequence, apart from acknowledging the shortcomings of the systems currently in place, few governments momentarily have concrete plans to reform their EIA laws. By looking at recent EIA streamlining efforts in two industrialized regions that underwent major transformations in their energy sectors, this paper attempts to assess how such reform efforts can act as a means to support the balancing of environmental protection and climate change mitigation with socio-economic challenges. Thereby this paper fills this intellectual void by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese EIA law by contrasting it with the recently revised EIA Directive of the European Union (EU). This enables the identification of the regulatory provisions that impact RE development the most and the determination of how structured EIA law reforms would affect domestic RE project development. The main focus lies on the evaluation of regulatory streamlining efforts in the Japanese and EU contexts through the application of a mixed-methods approach, consisting of in-depth literary and legal reviews, followed by a comparative analysis and a series of semi-structured interviews. Highlighting several legal inconsistencies in combination with the views of EIA professionals, academics and law- and policymakers, allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of what streamlining elements of the reformed EU EIA Directive and the proposed Japanese EIA framework modifications could either promote or stifle further RE deployment. - Highlights: •Performs an in-depth review of EIA reforms in OECD territories •First paper to compare Japan and the European

  1. Impact of energy policy instruments on the estimated level of underlying energy efficiency in the EU residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.; Zorić, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of energy efficiency is seen as one of the top priorities of EU energy policy (EC, 2010). In order to design and implement effective energy policy instruments, it is necessary to have information on energy demand price and income elasticities in addition to sound indicators of energy efficiency. This research combines the approaches taken in energy demand modelling and frontier analysis in order to econometrically estimate the level of energy efficiency for the residential sector in the EU-27 member states for the period 1996 to 2009. The estimates for the energy efficiency confirm that the EU residential sector indeed holds a relatively high potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency. Therefore, despite the common objective to decrease ‘wasteful’ energy consumption, considerable variation in energy efficiency between the EU member states is established. Furthermore, an attempt is made to evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency measures undertaken in the EU residential sector by introducing an additional set of variables into the model and the results suggest that financial incentives and energy performance standards play an important role in promoting energy efficiency improvements, whereas informative measures do not have a significant impact. - Highlights: • The level of energy efficiency of the EU residential sector is estimated. • Considerable potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency is established. • The impact of introduced energy-efficiency policy measures is also evaluated. • Financial incentives are found to promote energy efficiency improvements. • Energy performance standards also play an important role

  2. Present situation of the development of petroleum substitution energy (E.U.); Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper investigates and reports policies for and the developmental trend of petroleum substitution energy in the E.U. The technology of 18 wind turbine makers in West Europe is on a level that they can almost sell MW-class turbines for practical use. The wind turbine industry in Denmark is on a level of No.1 of the world, and occupies approximately 50% of the world market share. The capacity of the wind power generation in Germany which finished the installation at the end of 1995 exceeded 1000 MW. EEWC has recently been established as an organization for using waste as energy. Municipal solid wastes discharged in West Europe are regarded to be equivalent to 5% of all the power demand there. In Spain, biomass is a petroleum substitution energy source which is most used. A target amount for the use set by the government is equal to 427000 tons in oil. Biomass is most used in the residential field, and it is mainly the use of agricultural and forestry wastes as fuel. Rapeseed oil is studied as fuel for bio car. In Denmark, production of rapeseed as fuel use crop is increasing. 14 refs.

  3. Discussion on ``The Second Law and Energy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Seth; Banerjee, Debjyoti; Bejan, Adrian; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Geskin, Ernest; Ghoniem, Ahmed; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Keck, James C.; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Peterson, Richard; Salamon, Peter; Williamson, Lihong

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Thomas Widmer, Ernest Geskin, James Keck, Noam Lior, Debjyoti Banerjee, Richard Peterson, Erik Ydstie, Ron Zevenhoven, Zhuomin Zhang, and Ahmed Ghoniem. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Current state-of-the-art efficiency of combined-cycle energy conversion technology is about 60%. Based on the trend of historical data, some forecast that second-law efficiency of energy conversion will reach 80% by the end of the century. What technologies are at sight that might hold this promise? • Nanotechnologies and microtechnologies point towards the development of microscopic heat engines? How do second law limitations map down to these scales? • Combustion is the principal way of converting the chemical energy of fossil fuels to thermal energy, but it is highly irreversible. Are there promising ways to reduce combustion irreversibility? Are fuel cells the only alternative to combustion?

  4. Admissibility of appeals in atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Using two decisions made by the Federal Court of Administration on the Whyl reactor on July 17, 1980, and on the Stade reactor on December 22, 1980, which he considers as having at least an orientation effect, the author examines the admissibility of appeals filed according to the Atomic Energy Law. For substantiating the appeal, he discusses rules of law that protect third parties and the complainant's obligation to substantiate the appeal. In view of the preclusion of objectives, he differentiates between 'forfeiture' preclusion and 'validity' preclusion. In his view, the above-mentioned decisions produce effects that are to the benefit of the constitutional state and the necessary further development of economy and technology. (HSCH) [de

  5. Concentration depolarization of luminescence of Eu3+-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodunov, E.N.; Lebedev, V.P.; Malyshev, V.A.; Przheuskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of concentrational depolarization luminescence (CDL) of phosphate and germanate glasses, containing Eu 3+ ions, has been carried out. On the basis of three-body self-consistent approximation the theory of CDL is conceived, which takes into account Eu-Eu interaction of higher multipolarities. By comparing the theory with the experiment energy transfer radii for Eu-Eu dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are determined. The attempt to discriminate Eu-Eu interaction types in the studied range of Eu 3+ ion concentration change has failed owing to law accuracy of luminescence emittance anisotropy measurement

  6. Acquisition of the ownership of agricultural lands in Hungary, taking the EU's and other countries' law into consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilágyi János E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article concentrates on the acquisition of ownership (and in some respects: use of agricultural and forestry lands, especially as to the cross-border aspects. One of the hypotheses of the article is that the above mentioned issue is a topical question almost all around the world. Nevertheless, the article focuses on a European aspect of the cross-border acquisition, namely the new land law rules of the EU's Member States having joined the European Union in 2004 and 2007. In 2014 and 2015, the European Commission had assessed the land law of these Member States (i.e. Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and initiated infringement procedures against these countries at the Court of Justice of the European Union. Besides the regulation of these new Member States of the EU, the present article deals with the legislation of other Member States as well as the provisions of non-EU states. The article gives substantial consideration to phenomena such as sovereignty, land-hunger or soil degradation which may exercise significant influence on the land law of a state.

  7. The 2030 EU Climate and Energy Package: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    It is not surprising that in difficult economic times a long-term issue like climate policy has slipped down the agenda. However, Europe still has fundamental challenges to face in this regard. The IPCC's 5. assessment report underscored again the urgency of action on climate change. Europe will need to prepare its position for the crucial 2015 climate change negotiations hosted by France. Moreover, Europe's energy sector is in dire need of long-term orientations. Europe's fuel bill is a significant weight on its economy; the weight of evidence suggests that Europe will not replicate the US shale gas revolution. It is also important not to exaggerate the importance of the US shale revolution for competitiveness and economic performance. Europe will need to develop its own collective, competitive solutions. In comparison with 2008, there is significant divergence in Member States' vision for the 2030 climate and energy package. Some want renewables targets, others don't. Neither the Commission nor Member States are yet ready to address energy efficiency in the new package. And so on. This article conducts three thought experiments, thinking through three radically different designs for the 2030 package. These are a CO 2 only package, an innovation package, or a subsidiarity package. These reflections lead to the conclusion that a combination of elements is needed. Firstly, carbon pricing via the EU ETS should remain a central pillar, and be reinforced. Secondly, technology deployment objectives remain necessary: the key question should be what kind of targets and how to negotiate them, not whether. Finally, there is a need to build flexibility into the new package, in order to take into account the diversity of Member States' circumstances and preferences. (authors)

  8. Eco-innovation - putting the EU on the path to a resource and energy efficient economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bleischwitz, Raimund

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to support the European Parliament’s ITRE Committee in its work on the EU's industrial and energy policy and to give advice on the following issues: Why is the issue of resource scarcity back on the agenda? What are the strategic conclusions for the EU? What can the EU expect from eco-innovation in a large range of industrial sectors? Are existing measures meeting the EU aims and expectations, and what new policy initiatives should be set forward? To meet the...

  9. EU energy policies towards the 21st century: a business intelligence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Paul K.

    1998-06-01

    This report discusses the EU energy policy, and examines the single market, the internal electricity and gas markets, and the single market with respect to coal, oil and biofuel. The environmental policy, the control of air quality, climate change policies, security of supplies, and economic and social cohesion are addressed. Nuclear issues, research and demonstration programmes, EU enlargement, and international affairs are discussed. (UK)

  10. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  11. Population risk and subjective public law in atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, G.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of jurisdiction in atomic law and in other planning and immission laws, the author deals with the question whether a plaintiff can base his action against a nuclear licence on the fact that the general population risk is very high around the chosen site or because of the type of reactors. Even if jurisdiction negates this question because of the function of the administrative-judicial legal protection (individual involvement), it nevertheless regards it as neccessary with the increasing number and size of NPPs, to make the general population risk accessable to actions. The author critically deals with the protection norm theory of the legal dogmatics and that of the practical jurisdiction. He suggests to replace the 'Nachbarklagen' model in atomic laws by a model of 'Eingriffsverwaltung' and to regard the licences primarily as tolerance declarations to the neighbourhood and secondarily as favouring administrative actions. (UN) [de

  12. The Institutionalised and Non-Institutionalised Exemptions from EU Public Procurement Law: Towards a More Coherent Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a EU public procurement law perspective, contracting authorities have a discretionary power to decide upon who is allowed and best suited to provide public services to the public. When public authorities deem the in-house performance of a service to be the most suitable, the Court of Justice of the EU has allowed these authorities to rely on the institutionalised and non-institutionalised exemptions, which exempt a possible duty to contract out a public contract. The first part of this contribution discusses the recent codification of these exemptions in Article 12 Directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement. It concludes that this codification creates some legal certainty, but it mostly expands the scope of these exemptions from public procurement law. The second part of this contribution proposes a more coherent approach for these exemptions by discussing the challenges of regulating and enforcing the pre-procurement phase (the make-or-buy decision in which a public authority decides to favour the internal or external performance of a service. It concludes by providing legal perspectives to regulate and enforce this decision-making phase.

  13. EU's external energy governance: A multidimensional analysis of the southern gas corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasov, Faig Galib

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to apply a multidimensional lens to the European Union's (EU's) vision to the yet to be establish Southern Gas Corridor. I will argue that, the EU's natural gas vision towards the Caspian basin is based not only on bringing additional gas volumes to the EU markets in order to ensure physical security of supply. It is rather multidimensional external governance geared, firstly, towards absorbing all the actors along the whole value chain in to the EU's common energy regulatory framework and shifting energy provision from a bilateral political domain onto a multilateral market domain. Secondly, it is a process of diffusion of norms and values into the governance system of the energy partners. - Highlights: • EU's Southern Gas Corridor strategy is structurally embedded in its external governance. • The counterpart of the EU's energy imports is its attempt to export its acquis. • EU's energy security necessitates diffusion of norms and values to producers

  14. Luminescence and Tb3+-Ce3+-Eu3+ ion energy transfer in single-crystalline films of Tb3Al5O12:Ce,Eu garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Batentschuk, M.; Osvet, A.; Winnacker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the processes of excitation energy transfer between the host cations (Tb 3+ ions) and the activators (Ce 3+ and Eu 3+ ions) in single-crystalline films of Tb 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce,Eu (TbAG:Ce,Eu) garnet which is considered as a promising luminescent material for the conversion of LED's radiation. The cascade process of excitation energy transfer is shown to be realized in TbAG:Ce,Eu: (i) from Tb 3+ ions to Ce 3+ and Eu 3+ ions; (ii) from Ce 3+ ions to Eu 3+ ions by means of dipole-dipole interaction and through Tb 3+ ion sublattice

  15. [EU law on marketing authorization of medicines. History, current state of development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The article describes the development of EU policies and regulations on the marketing authorization of medicines. First, it describes the changing perspective of the EU towards the regulation of such authorizations. While its original focus was on the liberalization of national markets, it has today assumed overarching political responsibility for the development and marketing of medicines. Second, the article describes the current, rather fragmented regulatory system. Finally, political perspectives on the integration of markets for medicines are developed.

  16. The Economics of Parallel Trade – Iconoclast Views on a Dogma of EU Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to demonstrate that whilst parallel trade (also referred to as “grey market trade” in the United States, or as “arbitrage” in economic theory) in the European Union is subject to a remarkably favourable legal regime, the economic case supporting this approach remains to be made. To this end, it shows that the position of the EU Courts, and more generally of the EU institutions, is far from unquestionable in light of the relevant economic literature.

  17. Energy transfer induced Eu{sup 3+} photoluminescence enhancement in tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambouli, W. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H., E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Universite de Tunis-ElManar ElManar 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Gelloz, B. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, 184-8588 Tokyo (Japan); Ferid, M. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Koshida, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, 184-8588 Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    In this work, structural, thermal and optical properties of Eu{sup 3+} doped TeO{sub 2}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass were investigated. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements reveal an important stability factor {Delta}T=143.52 K, which indicates the good thermal and mechanical stabilities of tellurite glass. From the absorption spectrum, the optical band gap was found to be direct with E{sub g}=3.23 eV. The temperature dependences of photoluminescence (PL) properties of Eu-doped and Eu-Tb codoped tellurite glass are investigated. As the temperature increases from 7 to 300 K, both the PL intensity and the PL lifetime relative to the {sup 5}D{sub 2}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 0} are nearly constant below 230 K and then an enhancement takes place. This anomalous feature is attributed to the thermally activated carrier transfer process from charged intrinsic defects states to Eu{sup 3+} energy levels. By co-doping tellurite glasses with Eu and Tb, a strong Eu{sup 3+} PL enhancement is shown due to excitation transfer from Tb{sup 3+} and intrinsic defects to Eu ions. - Highlights: > TeO{sub 2}-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass doped Eu{sup 3+} with good thermal stability elaborated. > PL evolution of Eu{sup 3+} with temperature shows a non-conventional behavior. > Thermally activated carrier transfer from intrinsic defects states to Eu{sup 3+} shown. > Strong Eu{sup 3+} PL enhancement is shown in Eu-Tb codoped glass.

  18. Renewable Energy resources in the Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection and Energy; Erneuerbare Energien in den neuen EU-Umwelt- und Energiebeihilfeleitlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht

    2014-08-15

    Overall the provisions of the German Renewable Energy Law (EEG) of 2014 correspond to the stipulations of the EU Commission in its new Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection and Energy, and their interpretation should therefore be strictly oriented to the latter. A point of concern in systematic respects is the participation of electricity self-producers in the EEG levy, because it violates the costs-by-cause principle. Irrespective of this issue, the exemption of old installations from this regulation is warranted for reasons of protection of legitimate expectation. For self-produced electricity from fossil-fuel-based cogeneration the EEG levy is to be reduced by 40%, following an agreement between the federal government and the EU Commission.

  19. Mergers and concentrations occurring on the basis of acquiring of control in Serbian and EU competition law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevant Serbian and EU competition legislation does not define what is considered a concentration, but regulates which business transactions lead to concentrations of undertakings. Concentrations can be differentiated according to whether the concentration affects legal position of the merging undertakings. A concentration shall be deemed to arise where a change of control on a lasting basis results from the merger of two or more previously independent undertakings or parts of undertakings. Second type of concentrations occurs in the case of an acquisition of control. Finally, the concentration shall be deemed to arise in the case of creation of a joint venture performing on a lasting basis all the functions of an autonomous economic entity. This paper analyses mergers and concentrations occurring on the basis of acquiring of control in Serbian and EU competition law.

  20. Effect of Optical Excitation Energy on the Red Luminescence of Eu(3+) in GaN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, H. Y; Lee, C. W; Everitt, H. O; Lee, D. S; Steckl, A. J; Zavada, J. M

    2005-01-01

    ...)] transition from GaN:Eu. Time-resolved PL measurements revealed that for excitation at the GaN bound exciton energy, the decay transients are almost temperature insensitive between 86 K and 300 K, indicating an efficient...

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of algae energy production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacevic, V.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Today’s society relies heavily on fossil fuels as a main energy source. Global energy demand increase, energy security and climate change are the main drivers of the transition towards alternative energy sources. This paper analyses algal biodiesel production for the EU road transportation and

  2. Green energy laws and Republican legislators in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, Jonathan S.; Hess, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The policy context for green energy laws in the United States has changed over the past few years, because the Republican Party has increasingly opposed renewable electricity and other green energy policies. In this study, we draw on a database of 6071 votes on RPS (renewable portfolio standards) and PACE (Property-Assessed Clean Energy) laws by individual state legislators in the United States to examine the circumstances shaping Republican votes for green energy laws from 2007–2011. We find that votes on these laws are indeed increasingly partisan, with Republicans supporting RPS laws especially less than Democrats. However, Republicans' support for these laws is higher in states with weaker fossil fuel industries. Furthermore, Republicans tend to support the laws where median household income is lower, environmental organizations are weaker, labor-environmental coalitions are absent, and the proportion of Democrats in the legislature is lower, suggesting a reactive effect against green energy policies in more progressive settings. - Highlights: ► We analyze Republican votes for state RPS and PACE laws from 2007–2011. ► Support for RPS laws declined, while support for PACE laws remained steady. ► Support for both laws is lower in states with strong fossil fuel industries. ► Support for both laws is lower in more Democratic legislatures.

  3. Competition Law and the Energy Sector (Konkurenčno pravo in energetski sektor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Grilc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence and place of competition law in the energy sector. Since energy is considered an economic sector, which is regulated, it also touches the phenomenon of regulation itself, as well as the liberalization. In terms of content it is divided into two parts. The first set is of general and introductory character. It deals with regulation, liberalization and competition law from conceptual aspects and tackles the relationship between rules that constitute sectoral regulation and legislation in the field of competition law. The different packages liberalization in the EU, especially the sectoral report in 2007 are dealt with, as well. The second part goes deeper into the analysis of recent cases in the field of competition law in the EU. It deals with agreements which restrict competition, abuse of dominant position. In particular, it analyses the long-term supply contracts and all steps for their assessment, as well as the competitive problems of public undertakings and undertakings with exclusive rights, and the latest anti-competitive practices.

  4. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  5. Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation in the Baltic Sea region becomes a locomotive of the Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation, and, as a result, is capable of changing the quality of relations between the partners.

  6. Nuclear energy and radiation protection law: no. 14 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The full text of Jordan's Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection Law, no. 14 1987. The law's 39 articles govern all aspects organizing the utilization of nuclear energy and radiation protection activities in the country; including terms and conditions for licensing activities and personnel, and the import, export, and disposal of radioactive sources. The law establishes for the purpose of implementing its regulations, a consultative technical committee and a radiation protection board, both in the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources

  7. The EU and Climate Change Policy: Law, Politics and Prominence at Different Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad David Damro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is a prominent player in the politics of climate change, operating as an authoritative regional actor that influences policy-making at the national and international levels. The EU’s climate change policies are thus subjected to multiple pressures that arise from the domestic politics of its twenty-seven individual member states and the international politics of non-EU states with which it negotiates. Facing these multiple pressures, how and why could such a non-traditional actor develop into a prominent player at different levels of climate change policy-making? This article argues that the EU’s rise to prominence can be understood by tracking a number of historical-legal institutional developments at the domestic and international levels. The article also provides a preliminary investigation of the EU emissions trading scheme, a new institutional mechanism that illustrates the policy pressures arising from different levels.

  8. Recommendation on measures to safeguard freedom of expression and undistorted competition in EU trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    , University of Oxford, United Kingdom Christophe Geiger Associate Professor, Director General and Director of the Research Department, Centre for International Intellectual Property Studies, University of Strasbourg, France Gustavo Ghidini Professor of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, University...... Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich, Germany Paul van der Kooij Associate Professor of Intellectual Property Law, Leiden Law School, University of Leiden, The Netherlands Annette Kur Senior Researcher, Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich, and Honorary Professor...... Professor of Commercial Law, University of Parma, Italy Timo Minssen Associate Professor, Centre for Information and Innovation Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Ansgar Ohly Professor of Civil Law, Intellectual Property and Competition Law, University of Munich, Germany Alexander Peukert Professor...

  9. Dealing With Legal Loopholes and Uncertainties Within EU Public Procurement Law Regarding Framework Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    the clarification of the governing rules and the introduction of further guidelines. Unfortunately, clarifications were not fully provided in the new Directive 2014/24/EU. This article is a study of legal loopholes and uncertainties that occur during public procurement of framework agreements as a result of current...... EU rules and national practices in Denmark and the United Kingdom. The article highlights the need for clarification of the existing rules and introduction of transparency to the subsequent call-off stage of framework agreements. To achieve study aims, three methods were applied: a doctrinal analysis...

  10. law, the laws of nature and ecosystem energy services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    refrigeration to preserve food, energy to cook food, vehicles that can carry us hundreds or ... Tomain Ending Dirty Energy Policy 47-52. 25 ...... methods of purifying water, as in the case of the New York City water system.129 For instance ...

  11. EU – RUSSIA AND THE ENERGY DIMENSION OF THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Dusciac

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Union Strategy, launched in February 2015, is a vast project aiming at identifying a set of common responses to a series of present and future challenges in the field of energy. The question of energy security occupies a central position in EU’s relationships with its neighbours. In this context, economic and political ties with the Russian Federation in its role of major supplier of energy resources to EU member states are of crucial importance. Acquiring a higher degree of independence from the Russian supply of natural gas has been proclaimed as a national priority by several ex-Soviet republics. Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia have recently signed Association Agreements with the EU. We look into the early stages of the implementation of AA’s and analyse their consequences on the EU – Russia relations in the energy field. A series of common characteristics and possible developments in the field of energy are analysed.

  12. EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Tatyana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue, the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU — Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions for energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. This research is based on a political and legal analysis of various documents and employs various international relations theories (including integration theories. The article demonstrates that the EU nd Russia have made a transition to the integration agenda manifested in the Energy Dialogue (its current goal is the creation of a common European energy market. The author describes the process of gradual consolidation of transgovernmental and transnational institutions, which leads to depoliticization of cooperation and mutual socialization of the partners. Finally, legal discussions on the development of common rules have become more constructive. In sum, the current situation in EU — Russia energy relations is favourable and positively affects cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  13. The EU-Africa Energy Partnership: Towards a mutually beneficial renewable transport energy alliance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Michael B.; Ryan, Rachel; Oloruntoba, Richard; Heidt, Tania von der; Ryan, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's EU-Africa Energy Partnership, with respect to its emphasis on transport fuels, aims to ensure that Member States can fulfil agreed upon commitments to sustainable energy via the importation of biomass grown in sub-Saharan Africa. This policy aims to reduce the dependence of developing sub-Saharan nations on fossil-fuels, while ensuring the global proliferation of alternative transport energy generation as a means to combat climate change. Though the policy seems equitable in theory, and indeed mutually beneficial, several important issues arise. The paper examines the EU-Africa Energy Policy in the context of biofuels in particular, with a view to identifying potential flaws and imbalances and making policy recommendations. Aside from establishing critical uncertainties, the study adduces environmental science, historical comparanda and economic theory in order to assess the various threats associated with aspects of the policy, especially in light of previous policies that have stifled the development of sub-Saharan economies. In addition, the paper has substantial relevance to developing and newly industrialized nations in Asia and South America also seeking to invest in biomass cultivation and production.

  14. ‘Access to Justice’ and the Development of the Van Gend En Loos Doctrine: The Role of Courts and of the Individual in EU Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminova Nasiya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘access to justice’ within the meaning of the Treaty of Lisbon and the pertinent CJEU jurisprudence is primarily seen as access to the EU judicial system, i.e. to the EU Member States’ national courts applying the EU Law or/and the CJEU. The concept of ‘access to justice’ is therefore developing such premises of the Van Gend en Loos judgment as direct effect, vigilance of the EU individual, and the symbiotic relationship between the CJEU and national courts via the preliminary reference procedure. This work aims to explore the development of two basic ideas of Van Gend en Loos, i.e. granting directly enforceable EU rights to individuals and authorizing national courts to protect those rights, in light of the ‘access to justice’ concept within the meaning of the Lisbon Treaty – considering their importance for the realization of EU individuals’ substantive rights and uncertainty surrounding this issue. The paper develops a critique of the theory of justice in EU Law, analyzing if and how the Van Gend en Loos premises influenced the role of individuals making an attempt to claim their EU rights and the role of the EU courts responsible for the enforcement of ‘access to justice’ in the European Union. The claim of this paper is that the new concept of ‘access to justice’ brought by the Lisbon Treaty may be seen as the further development of the Van Gend ‘federalizing effect’ for greater integration through law and an enhanced protection of the individual within the EU multilevel system of Human Rights protection.

  15. Towards More Synergy in the Interpretation of the Prohibition of Sex Discrimination in European Law?
    A Comparison of Legal Contexts and some Case Law of the EU and the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne D. Burri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-discrimination provisions in EU law and in the ECHR have a different background and the Court of Justice of the EU and the European Court of Human Rights have differing roles. However, in both European systems the prohibition of discrimination has become of increasing importance: EU law now covers more discrimination grounds, the scope of both EU law and the ECHR non-discrimination provisions has expanded and, in particular in the field of gender equality, there is an impressive body of - in particular EU - case law. National courts are confronted with issues that fall either under the ECHR or the EU provisions or both. Sometimes similar questions are interpreted by both European courts, for example in case of overlapping subject-matters, such as sex discrimination in the field of pensions, social security benefits or parental leave. The paper offers an analysis of the legal contexts and case law of both European systems in some areas that overlap and the main similarities and differences in approaches to sex equality in both systems. The comparison shows that while the ECtHR sometimes allows a gradual abolition of forms of direct sex discrimination, the approach of the Court of Justice is much stricter.

  16. Big Data in medical research and EU data protection law: challenges to the consent or anonymise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Menno; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Biesaart, Monique C I H; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    Medical research is increasingly becoming data-intensive; sensitive data are being re-used, linked and analysed on an unprecedented scale. The current EU data protection law reform has led to an intense debate about its potential effect on this processing of data in medical research. To contribute to this evolving debate, this paper reviews how the dominant 'consent or anonymise approach' is challenged in a data-intensive medical research context, and discusses possible ways forwards within the EU legal framework on data protection. A large part of the debate in literature focuses on the acceptability of adapting consent or anonymisation mechanisms to overcome the challenges within these approaches. We however believe that the search for ways forward within the consent or anonymise paradigm will become increasingly difficult. Therefore, we underline the necessity of an appropriate research exemption from consent for the use of sensitive personal data in medical research to take account of all legitimate interests. The appropriate conditions of such a research exemption are however subject to debate, and we expect that there will be minimal harmonisation of these conditions in the forthcoming EU Data Protection Regulation. Further deliberation is required to determine when a shift away from consent as a legal basis is necessary and proportional in a data-intensive medical research context, and what safeguards should be put in place when such a research exemption from consent is provided.

  17. Monitoring Energy Efficiency in the EU-27 the ODYSSEE - MURE Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosseboeuf, D.; Bozic, H.; Vuk, B.; Novosel, D.; Keco, M.; Karan, M.; Vukman, S.; Krstulovic, V.

    2008-01-01

    Since more than a decade, the European Commission through the Intelligent Energy for Europe programme and 29 partners, mainly European national energy efficiency agencies, have developed common methodologies on energy efficiency monitoring. This relies on two complementary tools: 1) ODYSSEE, an internet database on energy efficiency indicators. Around 200 indicators comparable and harmonised across countries are developed at sectoral or end uses levels, over the period 1980-2006 for the EU-15 countries and from 1990 for EU-10 countries + Croatia and Norway. 2) MURE, an interactive internet data base on energy efficiency policies. More than 1300 policies descriptions are stored. When available, ex-post evaluations are reported. Based on this material provided by each of partners representing all the EU-Members and Croatia, a cross countries analysis is carried by sector on the recent trends for the EU as a whole and by countries. This diagnosis of benchmark shows that countries which have performed the best differ according to the end uses. The contribution of the manufacturing sector in the energy savings seems slowing down compared to the late nineties. Inversely, results in transport seem now encouraging. The building sector has performed disappointingly despite numerous policies. Analysis of the policy mix across countries and its dynamic shows divergences between the EU-15 countries and the EU 10. Innovative measures can be found everywhere and are discussed extensively. These results become more and more widely used by member state to assess and interpret the target and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan of the plan of the Energy Service directive recently launched. This report presents an analysis of energy efficiency trends in Croatian on the basis of energy efficiency indicators based on the ODYSSEE methodology. This analysis focuses on the period 1992-20041, in the energy consumption and energy efficiency in total and in sectors (industry

  18. Copyright in the age of online access : Alternative compensation systems in EU copyright law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Miranda Branco Tomé Quintais, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The large majority of the EU population uses the Internet. For many individuals, their online acts of enjoyment and expression are restricted by copyright. For users and rights holders alike, the existing model of exclusivity with enforcement is problematic. Online enforcement is either impossible

  19. The Development of General Principles for EU Competition Law Enforcement - The protection of legal professional privilege

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the scope of the EU principle of legal professional privilege ('LPP') and the mechanisms for bottom-up integration. LPP refers to the confidential nature of certain written communications between lawyer and client. Bottom-up integration is the process whereby domestic legal

  20. Bifurcation of Mobility, Bifurcation of Law : Externalization of migration policy before the EU Court of Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2017-01-01

    The externalization of European migration policy has resulted in a bifurcation of global human mobility, which is divided along a North/South axis. In two judgments, the EU Court of Justice was confronted with cases challenging the exclusion of Syrian refugees from Europe. These cases concern core

  1. Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law: promoting more women in corporate decision making?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martín, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Equality is a broad and complex concept with various meanings (equal treatment, equal opportunities, formal equality, and substantive or de facto equality). Although there are strong similarities in the definition of key concepts related to equality, the EU and other international organisation have

  2. Is tax avoidance the theory of everything in tax Law? A terminological analysis of EU legislation and case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, Cihat

    The primary goal of this article is to analyze the use of the term ‘tax avoidance’ in the legislative framework and case law of the European Union to point out the absence of a common linguistic approach. The consequences derived from the terminological chaos will also be discussed; thus, the study

  3. Energy Revolution. A Sustainable Pathway to a Clean Energy Future for Europe. A European Energy Scenario for EU-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, S.; Baker, C.

    2005-09-01

    Greenpeace and the Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment of the German Aerospace Center (DLR),have developed a blueprint for the EU energy supply that shows how Europe can lead the way to a sustainable pathway to a clean energy future. The Greenpeace energy revolution scenario demonstrates that phasing out nuclear power and massively reducing CO2-emissions is possible. The scenario comes close to a fossil fuels phase-out by aiming for a 80% CO2 emissions reduction by 2050.The pathway in this scenario achieves this phase-out in a relatively short time-frame without using technological options (such as 'clean coal') that are ultimately dead ends, deflecting resources from the real solutions offered by renewable energy. Whilst there are many technical options that will allow us to meet short-term EU Kyoto targets (-8% GHG by 2010), these may have limited long-term potential. The Greenpeace Energy Revolution Scenario shows that in the long run, renewable energy will be cheaper than conventional energy sources and reduce EU's dependence from world market prices from imported fossil and nuclear fuels.The rapid growth of renewable energy technologies will lead to a large investment in new technologies.This dynamic market growth will result in a shift of employment opportunities from conventional energy-related industries to new occupational fields in the renewable energy industry. Renewable energy is expected to provide about 700,000 jobs in the field of electricity generation from renewable energy sources by 2010

  4. The EU - 2030 Energy and Climate Framework - the View of the WEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulreich, S.

    2013-01-01

    The EU is about to define its new 2030 energy and climate framework. The European MCs of the WEC made recently a questionnaire about this new agenda, that coincides largely with the responses of EU member states to the 2030-consultation. The presentation will summarize the survey and the member states contributions to the consultation. Furthermore it will sketch the ongoing discussions and briefly introduce the future work of the WEC Europe on this topic.(author)

  5. Issues - I. Renewable energies and urban planning law - Urban planning law and renewable energies: I love you, neither I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory Kalfleche

    2012-01-01

    After having noticed that fossil energies must still be used beside renewable energies, and that renewable energies have some negative impacts on landscape and on the environment, the author highlights the fact that the French urban planning law gives a strong support to small renewable energy production units. In a second part, he shows that despite a commitment for the development of renewable energies, urban planning law mostly remains a constraint as far as the development of large units is concerned

  6. Austria: Implementation of EU law requires only minor changes in existing legal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pany, F.

    1997-01-01

    The existing Austrian radiation protection law is based on the radiation protection act of 1969 and the statutory ordinance in effect since 1972. Transformation of EURATOM Basic Standards into Austrian law will not cause essential modifications in practical radiation protection in Austria. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Basic law of atomic energy for pacific uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This law comprehend information about the pacific uses of atomic energy. Likewise it creates the Commission of Atomic Energy and stipulates: it s organization and functions, regulations and licensures, responsibilities, income and patrimony. (SGB)

  8. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  9. Law on the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an amended and corrected edition of the Bulgarian atomic energy law. Its purpose is to promote nuclear energy peaceful applications, to regulate the use of radioactive substances and instrumentation, to provide protection against the radioactive hazards. The Law also determines the status of the Governmental Regulatory Body - the CUAEPP

  10. Report of the European Energy Law seminar 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, J.M.; Mueller, H.K.; Mutsaers, A.

    2011-01-01

    The 24th European Energy Law Seminar was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 11-12 April 2011. The first day attention was paid to the liberalization of the energy markets, the climate and energy. The second day was dedicated to energy security, the upstream sector and development of energy infrastructure. [nl

  11. Comparison of the evolution of energy intensity in Spain and in the EU15. Why is Spain different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiluce, Maria; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio; Ocana, Carlos [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid, Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Energy intensity in Spain has increased since 1990, while the opposite has happened in the EU15. Decomposition analysis of primary energy intensity ratios has been used to identify which are the key sectors driving the Spanish evolution and those responsible for most of the differences with the EU15 energy intensity levels. It is also a useful tool to quantify which countries and economic sectors have had most influence in the EU15 evolution. The analysis shows that the Spanish economic structure is driving the divergence in energy intensity ratios with the EU15, mainly due to strong transport growth, but also because of the increase of activities linked to the construction boom, and the convergence to EU levels of household energy demand. The results can be used to pinpoint successful EU strategies for energy efficiency that could be used to improve the Spanish metric. (author)

  12. Legal constraints on EU Member States as primary law makers : a case study of the proposed permanent safeguard clause on free movement of persons in the EU negotiating framework for Turkey's accession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tezcan, Narin

    2015-01-01

    Do Member States of the EU have a free hand in drafting Accession Treaties, or are there legal constraints on their primary law making function in this context? That is the central question this thesis addresses. It argues that such constraints do exist, and tries to identify them, thereby hoping to

  13. Eu-energy label for electric appliances; Das EU-Energielabel fuer Elektrogeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    When buying a new appliances to have clear and understandable information on energy consumption to avoid later expensive surprices by to high power cost. But European classifiaction A to G of big household appliances is out of date and must be changed.(orig./GL)

  14. The eu-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, Mehdi P.; Crijns-Graus, Wina H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the eu, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  15. The EU-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy : The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Crijns-Graus, W.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the EU, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply

  16. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  17. Energy policy for Europe. Ensuring secure and low-carbon energy in the EU's internal market. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egenhofer, C.; Hammes, J.J.; Pedersen, K.

    2006-12-01

    In early March 2006, the European Commission re-launched the discussion on an Energy Policy for Europe with the 2006 publication of its Green Paper 'Secure, Competitive and Sustainable Energy for Europe'. This manifests the EU's will to broaden its reflection on its future energy systems, taking into account increasing market liberalisation and globalisation, environmental pressures, technological challenges and the growing import dependency from politically unstable regions. Other major contributions to this debate include the climate change communication 'Winning the battle against climate change' (published in 2005), the Green Paper on Energy Efficiency (2005), the Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2006), the ongoing works of the High Level Group on Competitiveness, Energy and the Environment (2006) and the enquiry into the energy sector by DG Competition of the European Commission in 2006. The Spring European Council in March 2006 welcomed the Energy Policy Green Paper and committed itself adopting a prioritised Action Plan at its spring session in 2007, to be prepared by the European Commission and the Energy Council. Early next year, the European Commission will table both the EU Strategic Energy Review, accompanied by a number of sectoral policies and a Green Paper on future climate change policy for the period post-2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Both the EU Strategic Energy Review and the post-2012 Green Paper will outline the European Union (EU) 'energy and climate change vision' and propose a roadmap towards achieving EU energy and climate change objectives, namely, how to ensure the competitiveness of European industries while at the same time combating climate change and ensuring security of energy supply. To contribute to this debate, the CEPS multi-stakeholder Task Force on 'energy policy for Europe' has presented this Interim Report, which attempts to develop the key elements for an EU energy policy framework. Although this report will focus

  18. Mitigation and Compensation under EU Nature Conservation Law in the Flemish Region: Beyond the Deadlock for Development Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Schoukens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For years, the predicament of many of the European protected habitats and species in the Flemish Region, as in many other Member States, passed relatively unnoticed. The lack of proper rules and clear implementation rules fuelled the impression amongst project developers and planning authorities that the impacts of project developments on biodiversity did not really warrant closer assessment. However, in the past ten years, strict national case law has significantly altered this view. Faced with tighter judicial scrutiny, the Habitats and Birds Directives were seen as an important obstacle to project development. Hence mitigation and compensation have now come up as novel approaches to better align spatial aspirations with the conservation of nature. In reality, mitigation was often used as a cover-up for projects that would not fit the strict requirements enshrined in the derogatory clauses. Interestingly, the Belgian Council of State showed itself quite cautious in reasserting the lax view of some planning authorities on mitigation and compensation. In reviewing the legality of several new approaches to mitigation and compensation, the Belgian Council of State, which was initially very cautious in quashing decisions that would actually jeopardise major infrastructure developments, has rendered some compelling rulings on the specific application of mitigation and compensatory measures in a spatial planning context. By letting the objectives of EU nature conservation law prevail in the face of economic interests, the recent case law of the Belgian Council of State can be seen as a remarkable example of judicial environmental activism.

  19. Comparative analysis of the EU criminal law for environmental protection and the Albanian one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Petrela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of two main parts where the first one presents the path how the environmental issue was included in the primary legislation of the European Union (EU, starting this theoretical panorama from the first founding treaty – Treaty of Rome, in 1957. It shows that with the passing of years the environmental protection has become one of the most important fields of action of the European Community supported by the primary and secondary legislation of the EU and its several bodies with competencies in this field. The second part of the paper starts with the commitments on the environmental protection that the Albanian state has made upon signature and entrance into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU. In addition, this article presents a summary of the legislative activity in Albania regarding environmental protection in the last two decades with special focus on the time period after the approval of the current Constitution of 1998, which is the basis and origin of every legislative initiative. Furthermore, there are presented the key features of the Albanian environmental legislation, as well as the protection mechanism from the criminal legislation point of view. The presentation of the European and national reality with special focus on environmental protection serves to a comparative purpose between the two models. It also serves to draw conclusions and propose suggestions on how the Albanian legislation should be developed and improved in order to be in line with that of the European Union and effective in practice to serve the ultimate goal of environmental protection and prevention from further environmental degradation.

  20. Costs and Benefits to EU Member States of 2030 Climate and Energy Targets - February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Costs and Benefits to EU Member States of 2030 Climate and Energy Targets is based on analyses using the POLES-Enerdata model and presents an overview of the main European energy and climate policies: reduction of CO_2 emissions, development of renewable energies, and promotion of energy efficiency. The report looks forward to 2030 and beyond to evaluate possible targets and the goal of maintaining global temperature rise to 2 deg. C. This publication was produced by Enerdata's Global Energy Forecasting team, including the modelling and scenario analysis, within the framework of an external service contract to the UK's Department of Energy and Climate Change. This project looks ahead to 2030. To do this, scenarios were developed using the POLES-Enerdata model, a world energy-economy model that fully describes the energy system and associated GHG emissions. This report analyses the costs and benefits to all EU Member States under different scenarios of the level and type of EU targets defined within a 2030 climate and energy framework. Scenarios include progressively more stringent GHG targets in 2030 (40%, 50%, and 60% reductions compared to 1990), alternative assumptions on access to international credits (0%, 5% and 10% of 1990 emissions), the addition of RES burden shares by Member State, accelerated CCS commercial availability and reduced renewables learning rates. These are the sensitivities commissioned as part of this report; however, they are not a comprehensive range covering all possible outcomes that could arise in reality. What are the costs and benefits to Member States under different scenarios of the level and type of EU targets? The analysis assesses the benefits of different scenarios to improved air quality and health, diversity of energy supply, and reduced costs of meeting longer term emission reduction targets (notably the EU's commitment to reduce emissions by 80-95% by 2050). Relying on more low-carbon, domestic, or diversified sources of

  1. Economic, environmental and international trade effects of the EU Directive on energy tax harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Schumacher, Katja; Diekmann, Jochen; Schumacher, Dieter; Carmes, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In October 2003, the European Union introduced a Directive, which widens the scope of the EU's minimum taxation system from mineral oils to all energy products including coal, natural gas and electricity. It aims at reducing distortions that currently exist between Member States as well as between energy products. In addition, it increases previous minimum tax rates and thus the incentive to use energy more efficiently. The Directive will lead to changes in the energy tax schemes in a number of countries, in particular some southern Member Countries (Greece, Spain, Portugal) and most of the new Member States. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the EU energy tax harmonization with GTAP-E, a computable general equilibrium model. Particular focus is placed on the Eastern European countries, which became new members of the EU in May 2004. We investigate the effects of the tax harmonization on overall economic growth and sectoral development. Special attention is paid to international trade in order to analyze if competitiveness concerns, which have been forwarded in the context of energy taxation are valid. Furthermore, the effect on energy consumption and emissions and thus the contribution to the EU's climate change targets is analyzed

  2. EU energy policies achievement by industries in decentralized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, Nicola; Stoppato, Anna; Benato, Alberto; Schiro, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    Energy Roadmap outlined by the European Commission sets out several routes for a more sustainable, competitive and secure energy system in 2050. All the outlined scenarios consider energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. In this paper, more attention has been devoted to the energy efficiency issue, by the identification of new micro and small networks opportunity fed by hybrid plants in the North-East of Italy. National energy balance and national transmission system operator data allowed to collect industrial energy consumptions data on the investigated area. Applying industrial statistics to the local energy needs allows to collect a dataset including consumption information by factory and by company structure (size and employees) for each industrial sector highlighting the factory density in the area. Preliminary outcomes from the model address to the exploitation of local by-product for energy purposes.

  3. EU energy policies achievement by industries in decentralized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destro Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy Roadmap outlined by the European Commission sets out several routes for a more sustainable, competitive and secure energy system in 2050. All the outlined scenarios consider energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. In this paper, more attention has been devoted to the energy efficiency issue, by the identification of new micro and small networks opportunity fed by hybrid plants in the North-East of Italy. National energy balance and national transmission system operator data allowed to collect industrial energy consumptions data on the investigated area. Applying industrial statistics to the local energy needs allows to collect a dataset including consumption information by factory and by company structure (size and employees for each industrial sector highlighting the factory density in the area. Preliminary outcomes from the model address to the exploitation of local by-product for energy purposes.

  4. Key Questions for Achieving EU Emission Reductions without Abandoning Other Energy Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, G.

    2014-01-01

    What considerations must be addressed to ensure that efforts to achieve the EU's new 2030 emissions and renewables targets are compatible with the other energy goals of the EU and its member states: energy security, and energy affordability? How should these other energy goals be addressed when pursuing energy efficiency improvements, upgrading electricity systems to handle different renewable energy sources, and developing policies to reduce overall CO2 emissions? Markets have been defined as being central to achieving all of Europe's energy goals - both the creation of an EU internal energy market and the use of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) to allow a market for managing a portion of the continent's greenhouse gas emissions. But once these markets are in place and operational, there will still be great variances among the goals, instruments, and level of market integration available for the different countries and regions of Europe. Choosing the most cost effective mechanisms for pursuing the new goals will require effective use of the flexibility that is available - an improved ETS, tradable national targets for non-ETS emissions, and a rapidly widening array of cost-effective renewable energy options. Sufficient use of this flexibility should facilitate the flow of energy investments toward energy system improvements where there is low-hanging fruit - anywhere in the continent - without requiring that local or continental energy security goals be sacrificed. (author).

  5. Atomic energy law after the opt-out. Alive and fascinating. Report about the 14{sup th} German atomic energy law symposium 2012; Atomrecht nach dem Ausstieg. Lebendig und spannend. Tagungsbericht 14. Deutsches Atomrechtssymposium 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Atomic energy law remains a living, fascinating subject matter. Nearly 200 participants were convinced of this impression at the 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium held in Berlin on November 19-20, 2012. Under the scientific chairmanship of Professor Dr. Martin Burgi, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), after an interruption of 5 years, again organized a scientific conference about practice-related topics of atomic energy and radiation protection law. Atomic energy law once again proved to be a reference area for sophisticated issues of constitutional law and administrative law above and beyond its technical confines. The agenda of the 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium featured a broad spectrum of topics ranging from backfitting of nuclear power plants to European atomic energy and radiation protection law, to challenges facing national legal systems in the execution of atomic energy law, to legal issues connected with decommissioning and waste management, and on to the topical subject of finding a repository site. The 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium, on the whole, again demonstrated that an open discourse between science and practice is able to furnish important contributions to the implementation of laws in a balanced way rooted in practice. Especially the contributions dealing with the independence of public authorities and their organization, the doctrine of the reservation of functions of the executive branch, and planning by laws contain additional provisions able to influence the continued development of administrative law also above and beyond atomic energy law. The BMU also referred to a decision just heard from Brussels to the effect that a new European Safety Directive would be published as early as in 2013. As a consequence of the nuclear stress tests conducted EU-wide, the Directive is to lay down provisions about

  6. Exclusion of objections in licensing procedures according to Atomic Energy Law or Pollution Control Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution shows that the exclusion of objections after expiration of the term provided for in licensing procedures under Atomic Energy Law and Pollution Control Law has to be understood extensively and that it is in accordance with German Basic Law. In detail, the treatise is limited to the discussion of the following issues: the effects of the expiration of the period on the right to raise objections, the importance of the exclusion of objections for lawsuits and the importance of the exclusion of objections for constitutional law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance; Die Europaeisierung der deutschen Energie- und Klimapolitik. Neue Formen der Politikgestaltung und Steuerung im EU-Mehrebenensystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-23

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  8. Multiplying sources as the best strategy for EU-Russia energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Energy security and gas supply have become issues of central concern for the European Union as reserves in the North Sea are dwindling. Russia is offering to replace the North Sea supplies in the future, but the EU should be aware that Moscow will not be able to fully meet Europe's demand in the future. Russia will remain a significant supplier, but the EU needs to look for other possible sources of gas supply in Northern Africa, in the Caspian Sea region, in the Barents Sea, and in the Persian Gulf. Diversification is the best strategy for enhancing European energy security. (author)

  9. Energy transfer driven tunable emission of Tb/Eu co-doped lanthanum molybdate nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kukku; Alexander, Dinu; Sisira, S.; Gopi, Subash; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Joseph, Cyriac

    2018-06-01

    Tb3+/Eu3+ co-doped lanthanum molybdate nanophosphors were synthesized by conventional co-precipitation method. The Powder X-ray diffractogram revealed the formation of highly crystalline tetragonal nanocrystals with space group I41/a and the detailed analysis of the small variation of lattice parameters with Tb/Eu co-doping on the host lattice were carried out based on the ionic radii of the dopants. The FTIR spectra is employed to identify the fundamental vibrational modes in La2-x-y (MoO4)3:xTb, yEu nanocrystals. The formation of nanocrystals by oriented attachment was recognized from the HR TEM images and the d-spacing calculated was in accordance with that corresponding to highest intensity diffraction peak in the XRD patterns. The constituent elements present in the samples were identified with the aid of EDAX and elemental mapping analysis. The broad Mo6+- O2- CTB and the sharp excitation peaks of Tb and Eu identified from the UV-Vis absorption spectra facilitates the suitability of exciting the phosphors effectively over NUV and visible region of the spectra. The possibility of energy transfer from host to Tb3+/Eu3+ ions and from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions were confirmed from the PL excitation spectra monitoring 5D0→7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions around 615 nm. The correlated analysis of PL emission spectra, life time measurements and CIE diagram, upon different excitation channels elucidate the excellent luminescent properties of La2-x-y (MoO4)3:xTb, yEu nanophosphors with tunable emission colours in a wide range varying from yellow green region to reddish orange region and the efficient energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions in lanthanum molybdate host lattice. The Tb→Eu energy transfer efficiency and probability were calculated from the decay measurements and the values were found to be satisfactory for exploiting the prepared nanophosphors for the development of multifunctional luminescent nanophosphors.

  10. The role of gas in the external dimension of the EU energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Oultremont, Clementine d'

    2013-01-01

    As an economically attractive option for investors, a potential backup source for renewables and the cleanest fossil fuel, natural gas is expected to play an important role in the European transition towards a low-carbon economy by 2050. At a time when European primary energy resources are being depleted and energy demand is growing, the gas import dependency of the EU will continue to grow significantly in the coming years. The EU is thus facing important challenges linked to its gas policy both internally, by attempting to create a competitive, interconnected and well-functioning internal market for gas; and externally, by struggling to develop a coherent and collective external strategy, which would allow it to both diversify and secure its gas supply from abroad. Meanwhile, new sources of unconventional gas could change the world's energy markets with potential consequences for the EU. However, many uncertainties remain regarding their development within the EU. In view of all these challenges, this Policy Paper concludes by laying out concrete recommendations on how the EU could strengthen its gas strategy both internally and externally

  11. Survey of strategies for low-energy buildings in EU countries; Kortlaegning af strategier for lavenergibyggeri i EU lande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The overall objective of this task is to identify and analyze several European countries' approaches to regulate energy efficiency in new buildings. In addition, the study maps the initiatives established in relation to introduce voluntary low energy mechanisms at national level. As part of this work it has been a major goal to explore how individual countries are preparing the introduction of a ''nearly zero'' energy framework. The introduction of a ''nearly zero'' framework has been invoked via the new revised Building Directive (2010/31/EU) which requires that all new buildings are ''Nearly Zero'' by 31 December 2020, however, new public buildings must meet ''nearly zero'' requirement already by 31. December 2018. Finally, the survey also includes an examination of national and political conditions and current legislation on energy consumption in buildings. The countries in the survey are: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Britain, France, Switzerland and to a limited extent Ireland and Poland. The comparative analysis of the countries' efforts is presented in the main part of the report, and the individual country reports are presented in appendices. (LN)

  12. Electricity market in Croatia according to the new energy laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, L.; Tomasic-Skevin, S.; Blagajac, S.; Dokmanovic, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents laws and regulations related to the electricity market, with emphasis on changes introduced after the package of energy laws had been adopted in 2001. The paper gives an overview of by-laws, which are about to enter into force or are in final preparation stage, creating conditions for eligible customers to change supplier and freely negotiate electricity price. The paper also presents electricity market model in Croatia as well as procedure of supplier change. (author)

  13. Designing planning and reporting for good governance of the EU's post-2020 climate and energy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Colombier, Michel; Spencer, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The European Union has agreed climate and energy goals for 2030. These objectives include, among others: reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40%; increase the share of renewable energy to at least 27% of total final energy consumption; improve the efficiency of energy consumption by at least 27-30%. But while the targets are clear, what remains less clear is how the EU is to ensure that they are collectively achieved by its 28 Member States and how the actions Member States take to meet their goals by 2030 can be made consistent with Europe's more ambitious, climate objectives to reduce emissions by 80-95% by 2050. This paper puts forward a proposal for a new European Energy Union 'governance mechanism' that attempts to answer these questions, taking into account the priorities of different Member States in the current European context. The EU's 2020 Climate and Energy Package could assign legally-binding national targets to Member States for different aspects of their energy systems, such as for renewable energy, because these targets, although ambitious, remained at the margins of the national energy mix. But as the low-carbon transition makes progress, the changes required to national energy mixes become more fundamental and structural, and national competencies become increasingly important in defining the strategic direction of the energy sector and decarbonization strategies. However, it is also crucial that Member State's nationally determined strategies are consistent with the EU's overarching climate and energy goals, both to 2030 and 2050, and that their progress on key areas of EU relevance and competency can be effectively monitored. Doing this will require a more nuanced approach to governing EU climate policy than the two extremes that are currently presented in the debate: either a) a set of top-down, legally binding targets for all aspects of Energy Union, or b) a harmonised but ultimately very weak planning and reporting instrument with no

  14. Republic of Lithuania law on nuclear energy. No. I-1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Law on Nuclear Energy adopted by the Parliament 14 November, 1996 has the main goals of ensuring nuclear safety, peaceful use of nuclear energy and preventing from illegal use of nuclear materials. The basic assumptions of the law reinforce obligations of Lithuania under Convention on Nuclear Safety. The law determines fundamentals on nuclear energy management, principles for the state regulation for nuclear safety and radiation protection, guidelines for licensing in nuclear energy, special requirements for the design and construction of nuclear energy facilities, basic conditions for the operation of nuclear energy installations, basic requirements for the transportation and storage of nuclear and radioactive materials, basic requirements for preventing nuclear or radiation related incidents together with procedures for elimination of consequences, basic economic and financial conditions for nuclear energy and specificity of working relations in nuclear energy

  15. Energy efficient appliance choice under the EU labeling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This paper extends the existing empirical literature on consumers' choices when exposed to energy labeling schemes by allowing choices to depend on household socio-economic characteristics, technology-related factors, behavioral and motivational factors, and country conditions in a multi-country analysis. To account for a possible knowledge-based selection bias, the econometric model distinguishes label class knowledge from the energy class choice decision. As a general finding, most covariates show stronger relationships with knowledge of labeling class than with the choice of energy efficiency class. Four factors show particularly strong and expected influences on label class awareness. First, general awareness of household energy use and energy saving technologies spills over into awareness of the energy class of specific appliances. Second, socioeconomic characteristics mater, as education increases label class awareness and older age reduces awareness. Third, economic incentives matter, as stated economic importance of energy saving and higher country electricity prices both generate greater label awareness. By contrast, stated concerns about global warming do not appear to have a broad impact on awareness. Fourth, effective country implementation of the labeling scheme raises label awareness. More surprisingly, most factors that promote awareness of appliance energy classes have a limited influence on actual appliance energy class choice. Efficient energy behavior in the household is not strongly linked to appliance energy class choice. Socio-economic characteristics also have limited influence. This finding is inline with other studies that find that household socio-economic characteristics have relatively weak associations with the adoption of energy efficient technologies (Mills and Schleich 2010, Brohmann et al. 2009). In fact, with education it is vocational degrees rather than university degrees that are positively associated with the propensity to

  16. German atomic energy law in the international framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1992-01-01

    The regional conference was devoted to the legal problems that ensue from German reunification against the background of the integration of German atomic energy law within international law. The elements of national atomic energy legislation required by international law and recent developments in international nuclear liability law were discussed from different perspectives. The particular problems of the application of the German Atomic Energy Act in the 5 new Laender (the territories of the former GDR) were presented and discussed, namely: The continued validity of old licences issued by the GDR; practical legal problems connected with the construction of nuclear power plants in the 5 new Laender; the legal issues connected with the final repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben; and the new developments in radiation protection law following from the Unification Treaty and the new ICRP recommendations. All 14 lectures have been abstracted and indexed individually. (orig.) [de

  17. The promotion and control functions of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The question about the purpose of atomic energy law may sound superfluous in Germany, a country where a highly differential legal framework for the peaceful utilization of nuclear power has existed for nearly 40 years in the Basic Law, the Atomic Energy Act, and its ordinances, and a comprehensive body of case laws. Yet, it is justified in view of the declared intention of the German federal government to establish an environmental code into which atomic energy law, hitherto an independent branch of the law, would be integrated, and it is justified also in view of persistent complaints that the present rules and regulations stifled investment activities. A look into some codes of law may help answer the question. Already in 1959, the authors of the Atomic Energy Act outlined the purposes of the legislation in relatively clear terms in Section 1. Besides the two foreign policy aspects of security and loyalty under treaties, which do not concern us in this connection, the key purposes of atomic energy law are stated there as promotion and protection. The protection purpose, which implies the need to protect life, health, and property from the hazards of nuclear energy and harmful effects of ionizing radiation, ranks second in the Act. In accordance with the ruling in 1972 of the Federal Administrative Court, however, it should rank at the top. (orig.) [de

  18. Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junbeum; Guillaume, Bertrand; Chung, Jinwook; Hwang, Yongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Critical and precious materials requirement in the wind energy system in the EU 27 by 2020. - Highlights: • The critical and precious materials consumption were calculated in wind energy system in the EU 27. • The future requirement of critical and precious materials was estimated in the EU 27 by 2020. • Fluorspar, silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum are the mainly used and required materials. • This research approach could be applied to other industrial sectors as well as other renewable technology. - Abstract: Critical materials as well as rare earth elements and precious metals such as platinum, gold and silver are used significantly for computer hard disk drives, mobile phones, hybrid electric vehicles, batteries, renewable energy system and many other applications. It is therefore important to quantify and estimate both current stocks and flows of such materials, as well as future requirement for industries and economies. In this study, which is focused on wind energy system in the European Union (EU) 27, the current consumption and future requirement of critical and precious materials were calculated and estimated using the wind power production dataset from ecoinvent and data from National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). It is shown that fluorspar has been the most consumed material to date, and will probably be the most required material in the future. Among other critical and valuable materials, the main materials used for current wind energy system are silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum. These materials will also be required significantly by 2020 for the wind energy system in the EU 27. It is argued that these results should be connected to the future energy and material policy and management

  19. Safety requirements laid down in the Atomic Energy Law and in the Law on Immission Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with safety requirements relating to installations, laid down in the Atomic Energy Law and in the Law on Immission Control. Actually it is a matter of how the safety requirements of sect. 7 of the Atomic Energy Law can be compared with those laid down in the sections 5 and 6 of the Federal Act for the Protection Against Nuisances. In the process, three comparative levels are examined: 1. The normative conditions concerning the licencability of hazardous installations, 2. those demands that go way beyond that in order to reduce residual risks, and 3. the licensing authorities' scope of discretion. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Red light for Green Paper: The EU policy on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The EU Green Paper on energy efficiency calls for action to decrease energy use and thus achieve increased competitiveness, fulfil the environmental targets and increase security of supply. In this comment, we examine the role the EU Commission suggest that energy efficiency, and policies supporting energy efficiency, takes. The policies and the suggestions are qualitatively elaborated upon in the light of the goal of a common European electricity market. We suggest that the rationales for the energy efficiency measures are weak, and that the suggested goals of increased competitiveness, environmental targets, and security of supply are best reached with the direct measures especially designed for each goal. Some of the energy efficiency measures may counter-act other direct policies. Further, The Green Paper measures may prove detrimental to the European Electricity market insofar as the policies suggested could lead to a policy fatigue among the electricity consumers

  1. Slovenian Experience as the EU Candidate Country in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Slovenia was the first EU acceding country which has managed to successfully reach consensus with the European Commission (EC) on the chapters Energy, which comprises nuclear energy, and Environment, which comprises nuclear safety and radiation protection. This practically meant that the EU adopted the position that these two chapters did not, at that stage, require further negotiation. The EC will continue to monitor the progress in adoption and implementation of the EU legislation throughout the negotiations. The activities in relation to the accession of Slovenia to the EU in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear safety are reflected in the transposition of the legislation and establishing the institutions capable of implementing the EU legislation. The importance of regular reporting to the EC on the status is vital for monitoring the progress. The EC issues progress reports for all candidate countries on annual basis and the action plan has been devised by the EC to put some extra pressure on the candidate countries. The position of the EU in the area of nuclear legislation is reflected in the so called Non-binding EU acquis. The actual position of the EU towards each Candidate Country and to these countries as a whole is contained in the document Report on Nuclear Safety in the Context of the Enlargement. The Act on Nuclear and Radiation Safety had been drafted and is planned to be passed by the Parliament in the first half of 2002. The EC is willing to provide support in implementation of projects to strengthen nuclear safety in Slovenia (assistance to the regulatory authority, review of seismic studies, support with the periodic safety review, review and application of PSA studies). The recent status in the preparation of the position of Slovenia in negotiations in to the EU in the field of nuclear energy, nuclear safety and radiation protection shows that Slovenia has still some tasks to be done, but there are no pending issues which might hinder the

  2. Present problems with atomic energy laws and regulations. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The report includes two speeches held by the author on the 3rd Japanese-German Atomic Law Symposion in Tokio on 5-7 Oct. 1992. The titles are: 1) Recent developments in the German Laws and regulations ruling atomic energy; 2) Legal aspects of stopping and eliminating nuclear plants in Germany. Both speeches were translated into Japanese. (HP) [de

  3. Climate for Collaboration: Analysis of US and EU Lessons and Opportunities in Energy and Climate Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vita, A.; de Connick, H.; McLaren, J.; Cochran, J.

    2009-11-01

    A deepening of cooperation between the United States and the European Union requires mutual trust, and understanding of current policies, challenges and successes. Through providing such understanding among policymakers, industry and other stakeholders in both economies, opportunities for transatlantic cooperation on climate change and energy policy emerge. This paper sets out by discussing the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as related to climate. This context is essential to understanding how cap-and-trade, renewable energy and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US, as described in Chapter 3.1. For each of these policies, a barrier analysis and discussion is provided. Chapter 4 builds off this improved understanding to listobservations and possible lessons learned. The paper concludes with recommendations on topics where EU and US interests align, and where further cooperation could prove beneficial.

  4. The Third EU Energy Market Package. Are We Singing the Right Song?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, Jacques [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    The liberalisation of EU energy markets has been a key objective of EU policy makers for many years. Proposals issuing from Brussels have met with both applause and resistance from many business and political circles. Ever since the project of a 'single European market for gas and electricity' began in the early 1990s, the debate has been alternatingly dominated by rational and emotional arguments, resulting in more or less effective compromises. In this new CIEP Briefing Paper the author takes a thorough look at energy policy in the European Union. He author offers a detailed and thoughtful expose of the current discussions on European electricity and gas markets, and offers key suggestions for fruitful discussions on how to secure competitive EU markets with a reliable external security of (gas) supply.

  5. Frustration of contracts, signed in compliance with law of England, as a probable consequence of EU sanctions against Russian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Padiryakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective comprehensive analysis of the doctrine of the frustration of contracts signed in compliance with law of England and the practice of its application for the Russian companies. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematicstructural formallegal comparativelegal legal modeling method. Results due to the introduction of the EU sanctions there is the risk of foreign counterpartiesrsquo refusal to execute contracts with Russian companies on the legal basis of frustration of treaties. The essence of the frustration doctrine is that the contract obligations may be terminated if after their signing such events occur which make their fulfillment impossible or unlawful. When signing international agreements under English law the lawyers of Russian companies should include provisions governing the relationships of the parties in case of impossibility of the contract execution due to the occurrence of an event that caused the treaty frustration in particular the imposition of sanctions. It is recommended to specify in the contract how the losses arising from the inability to execute the contract will be distributed between the parties. Scientific novelty for the first time basing on court practice review the definition of the frustration of contracts according to the law of England is formulated the legal implications of the recognition of the contract frustrated are discussed and the legal conditions are proposed that should be provided for in the text of a contract to avoid the problem of uncertainty in the allocation of losses of the parties in case of occurrence of external events including sanctions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activity

  6. Law, Public Interest and Interpretation: Prolegomena of a Normative Framework on Administrative Discretion in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, J.

    2014-01-01

    It is conventionally assumed that administrative discretionary decisions are determined by political and expert-driven considerations and that law’s structuring and constraining capacity in that regard is and should be limited. Law defines a space within which discretionary choices are irrelevant to

  7. Innovation in EU competition law : The resource-based view and disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Cabral, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Innovation has so far been handled by competition law according to market structure, that is to say, assuming that market power allows undertakings to evade competitive pressure including those which spur innovation on. This structural approach has fitted innovation in a tried-and-tested analytical

  8. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  9. Demonstrations of the Action and Reaction Law and the Energy Conservation Law Using Fine Spherical Plastic Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, A.; Tanaka, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Lee, Y. I.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    Equipment for demonstrating Newton's third law and the energy conservation law in mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine spherical plastic beads in place of metal ball bearings. To demonstrate Newton's third law, special magnetized Petri dishes were employed as objects, while to examine the energy conservation law, a…

  10. The No.I. Law (1980) on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Law regulates all aspects of the use and application of nuclear energy. The four basic principles of the law are as follows: 1. Nuclear energy can be applied only for peaceful purposes, and this must be promoted by effective international cooperation. 2. The materials, equipment and establishments serving the application of nuclear energy are generally in social ownership. 3. Nuclear energy can be applied only with satisfactory safety precautions, and its uses are determined and regularly controlled by the state. 4. The compensation of the damages caused by nuclear energy applications is regulated by special rules. The enforcement of the law and the direction, control and development of the application of nuclear energy is the responsibility of the Council of Ministers. (R.J.)

  11. Review of the current application of EU Structural Funds to renewable energy schemes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a study commissioned to examine the support for UK renewable energy projects received from the EU Structural Funds. The rationale for supporting renewable energy is explored, and the types of activities on which eligible renewable energy projects focus are described. The need for all projects to provide matching funding is discussed along with the range of different types of projects that have been supported, and the different justifications for that support.

  12. Luminescence and energy transfer properties of Eu3+ and Gd3+ in ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villabona-Leal, E.G.; Diaz-Torres, L.A.; Desirena, H.; Rodríguez-López, J.L.; Pérez, Elías; Meza, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Red luminescence emission in ZrO2:Gd 3+ –Eu 3+ nanocrystal under 250 nm radiation excitation is achieved. These materials exhibit a tetragonal phase that is retained by the presence of lanthanide ions. Thus, a study of the optical properties as a function of the dopant concentration was been carried out without the deleterious effects of having segregation of other crystalline phases. We analyze the emission and lifetime curves as a function of dopant concentration through a rate equation simulation, finding an excellent fitting. As results, the nonradiative and radiative relaxation constants, as well as a quantitative estimation of the energy transfer processes among Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ and O 2− ions are reported for the first time. The proposed model can be extended (or applicable) to explain the fluorescence dynamics in other nanomaterials doped with Eu 3+ and Gd 3+ under UV excitation. -- Highlights: • ZrO 2 nanocrystal exhibits a tetragonal phase in the presence of Eu and Gd dopants. • Emission and lifetimes as a function of dopant concentration were analyzed by rate equation model. • Quantitative estimation of the energy transfer processes among Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ and O 2− ions are reported

  13. Atomic energy and modifications in the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, P.

    1981-01-01

    Licensing procedures concerning large-scale projects are characterized by special features which, in this combination, are not known to ''traditional'' administrative procedures and to administrative proceedings. As an example, we have to make mention of the necessity to assess the repercussions highly complex chemical, physical and technological relationships have, and of the (potential) involvement of the masses, as well as of relevant controversial decisions and their economic consequences. Judges and jurists are trying to cope with the arising problems by setting up new legal models and conditions for procedures which are not laid down. Here, a development in law was launched or at least pushed ahead which has led to a partly discernible, partly covered change in subjective administrative law, administrative procedures and proceedings the import of which will be fully recognized only little by little. (HSCH) [de

  14. Why atomic energy affects Civil Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knieper, R.

    1980-01-01

    The author deals with the widely disparaged decision of the Stuttgart Local Court which dismissed the complaint filed against some 'electricity rate payment boycotters' as being 'unfounded for the time being'. He proceeds on the question as to whether political considerations have surpassed the disciplining limits of laws and interpretations bound by the Basic Law. He considers the real problem to be whether the protected interests of third parties may be sacrified for the sake of any ideals of freedom. The relationship between complainant and defendant is much more complex than a contractual relation, the social dependence on power supply and being at the mercy of researchers embrace this relation inescapably. To make this general problem operationable, the court resorts to the construction of 'an additional obligation under a contract being broken'. (HSCH) [de

  15. Yearbook of wind energy law 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    In the yearbook 2015, the technical papers are dealing with the distance recommendations of the State Working Group of Bird Conservation Observatories, with aesthetics as a public interest in the planning and authorization regime for wind turbines, the prospect of the citizen and community participation law in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the conflict between wind turbines and weather radars and with the higher court jurisdiction for feed management. [de

  16. Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space? London and New York: Routledge, 2014. xxx, 268 pp. Notes on Contributors. Preface by Marc Maresceau. Foreward by Kostiantyn Yelisieiev. Illustrations. Informative table and list. Index. $145.00, cloth.

  17. The proceduralisation of data protection remedies under EU data protection law : Towards a more effective and data subject-oriented remedial system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The proceduralisation of data protection remedies under EU data protection law: towards a more effective and data subject-oriented remedial system?
The right to remedy breaches of data protection is laid down in both Directive 95/46/EC (Art. 22) and the Council of Europe Data Protection Convention

  18. Horizontal aspects of the decentralisation of EU-competition law enforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Brammer, Silke

    2008-01-01

    Introduction 1 CHAPTER 1: Overview of the Decentralised Enforcement of EC Competition Law 3 I. Background to the reform – History of the reform process, principal objectives and main criticism of the reform proposal 3 A. The previous enforcement system – Overview, justification, drawbacks 4 1. Regulation 17 4 2. Major deficiencies of the centralised system under Regulation 17 6 B. The reform 9 1. Main objectives of the reform 9 2. Development of the reform process 10...

  19. Convergence without hard criteria: Does EU soft law affect domestic unemployment protection schemes?

    OpenAIRE

    Paetzold, Jörg; van Vliet, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The European Employment Strategy (EES) aims to promote convergence of domestic labour market policies by soft law instruments. Previous studies on the impact of the EES are mainly focused on active labour market policies. The present study aims at explaining cross national variation in national passive labour market policies and unemployment benefit levels. Building on the most recent measures and pooled time series data, the empirical findings reveal the presence of a convergence process amo...

  20. Promoting renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in EU-27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansino, Jose M.; Pablo-Romero, Maria del P.; Roman, Rocio; Yniguez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    In addition to public policies aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings, EU authorities have also promoted the use of Renewable Energy Sources for heating and cooling uses (RES H and C). This paper analyses the main policy measures implemented in EU-27 countries up to 2009: i.e. subsidies, tax incentives, financial support and feed-in tariffs. Twenty-three Member States (MSs) have developed some of these policy measures. The most widespread measure is the subsidy (22 MSs have implemented these) because from a political point of view, subsidies provide a straightforward approach to promote the use of RES H and C. Secondly, tax incentives have been used for reducing investment costs and making renewable energy profitable. Thirdly, financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly. While financial incentives might be used more extensively for promoting RES H and C if they are accompanied by other policy measures, feed-in tariffs are not likely to be implemented significantly in the future because this measure is not designed for household heat producers. - Highlights: → Main EU policies to reduce energy consumption are focused on buildings' efficiency. → Alternative incentives to promote the use of RES H and C in EU-27 are now studied. → Subsidies are the most widespread measure. → Tax incentives are used for reducing investment costs and making RES profitable. → Financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly.

  1. A strategic research agenda for photovoltaic solar energy technology : report of the EU PV technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Ballif, C.; Bett, A.; Dimmler, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Fath, P.; Ferrazza, F.; Gabler, H.-J.; Hall, M.; Marti, A.; Mason, N.; Mellikov, E.; Milner, A.; Mogensen, P.; Panhuber, C.; Pearsall, N.; Poortmans, J.; Protogeropoulos, C.; Sarre, G.; Sarti, D.; Strauss, P.; Topic, M.; Zdanowicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    The EU PV Technology Platform [1] aims at joining forces on a European level to contribute to the further development of photovoltaic solar energy into a competitive technology that can be applied on a large scale and to the strengthening of the position of the European PV industry on the global

  2. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  3. Wind energy - The facts. An analysis of wind energy in the EU-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    Since the previous edition of Wind Enera - The Facts was published five years ago, the wind energy sector has undergone rapid change and transformation. There has been an explosion in demand for and Interest in a cleaner energy world from politicians, institutions, policy makers and regulators, the media, commentators and the general public. Such interest necessitates a greater depth of understanding of the wind power sector if informed choices and policy decisions are to be made. The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), and the European Commission's Directorate General for Transport' and Energy have collaborated on this report to provide a detailed overview of the wind power sector. Wind Enera - The Facts provides a comprehenslve overview of the essential issues concerning wind power today: technology, cost, prices, environment, industry and employment, market, and research and development. Wind energy is a relatively young but rapidly expanding industry. Over the past decade, global installed capacity has increased from 2,500 megawatts (MW) in 1992 to just over 40,000 MW at the end of 2003, at an annual growth rate of near 30%. Almost three quarters of this capacity has been installed in Europe. Penetration levels in the electricity sector have reached 20% in Denmark and about 5% in both Germany and Spain. The north German state of Schleswig-Holstein has 1,800 MW of installed wind capacity, enough to meet 30% of the region's total electricity demand, while in Navarra, in Spain, 50% of consumption is met by wind power. If positive policy support continues to develop, EWEA has projected that wind power will achieve an installed capacity of 75,000 MW in the EU-15 by 2010. This would represent an overall contribution to electricity supply of 5.5%. By 2020, this figure is expected to increase to more than 12%, with wind power providing energy equal to the demand of 195 million European household consumers. (au)

  4. Cost evaluation of energy crops at farm gate in different EU countries and related agricultural issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliope, P.; Dalianis, C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest on energy crops varies greatly among EU regions. Certain climatic conditions prevailing in the areas, determine the coice of the energy crop which is going to be used as raw material for energy production. Furthermore, energy markets, farm structure and set aside regulations as well as national policy play a critical role to biomass exploitation for energy purposes. A common methodology was developed (Moore, 1996) for comparing costs of different options for ''biomass-to-energy systems'' across six EU countries (figure 1). This methodology was developed in the framework of an AIR Concerted Action financed by DGXII of EU and entitled ''Development of a Standard Methodology for Integrating Non-Food Crops in Rural Areas with Niche Energy Markets''. Cost estimations were done form the first stage of raw material production till the final energy product (kWh of heat and electricity or lt of liquid biofuel. In this paper, only the raw material production cost estimation phase will be presented. (Author)

  5. Fossil fuel subsidies and the new EU Climate and Energy Governance Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    There is currently no dedicated process to track the extent of fossil fuel subsidies, nor to ensure that Member States phase them out. This situation is inconsistent with the European Union's stated decarbonization and energy efficiency dimensions under the Energy Union. The EU is therefore in need of an alternative process for tracking and ensuring the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies by the Member States. The new Energy Union governance mechanism presents an opportunity for creating this alternative. Providing the right price signals is essential part of the policy mix that is needed to achieve Europe's climate policy goals. Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies in the EU is an important part of aligning energy prices with the EU's climate and energy goals. Depending on how they are measured, combined fossil fuel subsidies in the EU range from 39 to over euro 200 billion per annum (European Commission, 2014). They therefore constitute a significant source of incoherence between the EU's climate mitigation and fiscal policies for energy. However, there has recently been mixed progress in addressing fossil fuel subsidies in Europe. For instance, under the Europe 2020 Strategy, Member States had committed to begin developing plans for phasing out fossil fuel subsidies by 2020. Progress on implementing these plans was supposed to be monitored under the European Semester. However, the decision was taken to remove the focus on energy and fossil fuel subsidies from the European Semester in 2015. As yet, no new system for governing the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies has been advanced, leaving the question of fossil fuel subsidy reform in limbo. The advent of the EU's Energy Union project creates an opportunity for putting the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies back on track in Europe. This could be done by including requirements for national goal setting on specific kinds of fossil fuel subsidies in a dedicated sub-section of the National Climate and Energy Plans

  6. Communal energy law. An outline. 2. ed.; Kommunales Energierecht. Darstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneke, Hans-Guenter; Ritgen, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Ensuring a reliable, reasonably priced, environmentally friendly energy supply area-wide belongs to the most important public services that cities, administrative districts and municipalities are required to provide. In preparation of its second edition the present publication was thoroughly revised to do justice to the numerous legislative changes attending the energy turnaround. It presents the wide array of legal instruments at the disposal of municipalities for fulfilling their important duties in matters relating to the energy supply. It discusses the requirements of communal economic law as well as the constitutional and energy economy related framework conditions governing the energy supply. The concession contract, one of the most important instruments in the area of energy supply, has been given a chapter of its own. In regard to another of its focal topics the publication explains how municipal planning autonomy, especially in the area of land use planning, can help municipalities implement energy policies according to their own ideas. The publication concludes with a discussion of topics concerning municipalities as energy consumers, namely energy-related environmental law, the requirements of the Renewable Energy Heat Law and laws on energy saving.

  7. Interaction between the EU emissions trading scheme and energy policy instruments in the Netherlands. Implications of the EU Directive for Dutch Climate Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Van Dril, A.W.N.

    2003-11-01

    The present study analyses the potential interactions between the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and some selected energy and climate policy instruments in the Netherlands. These instruments include: (1) The Benchmarking Covenant (BC): a negotiated agreement with energy-intensive industries in order to improve their energy efficiency; (2) The Regulatory Energy Tax (REB): an ecotax (or levy) on the consumption of gas and electricity, including the partial exemption of this ecotax on renewable electricity; (3) The Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP): a feed-in subsidy system for producers of renewable electricity; and (4) The system of Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs): a system of guarantees of origin to promote renewable electricity based on the partial exemption of the REB. A general finding of the present report is that once the EU ETS becomes operational, the effectiveness of all other policies to reduce CO2 emissions of the participating sectors becomes zero. The report explores the specific implications of this general finding for the coexistence of the EU ETS and the selected policy instruments in the Netherlands. It concludes that this coexistence will have a significant impact on the performance of both the EU ETS and the selected instruments in the Netherlands

  8. Extended Challenges for the EU's Climate and Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslauer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Market-driven climate and energy policies are far more effective than regulation-driven policies. It is time for the EU to rethink its energy strategy. The world is in the throes of a global energy transition as countries seek to meet rising demand by fundamentally changing their energy sectors. Global energy demand is expected to increase by 1.4 percent through 2030, with demand for electricity (a renewable) rising by more than 2 percent during this time period. The European Union has been front and center in this energy transition, seeking to meet three climate and energy targets by 2020: (1) reduce CO2 emissions, (2) increase renewables, and (3) become more energy efficient. Most countries are on track to meet the first two targets but meeting the third one has proved to be more difficult. This is largely because there is no single European power market. Energy policies and regulations are still driven by individual nations. If this continues, the EU energy transition will be costly - prices will shoot up and global competitiveness will suffer. It's time for the EU to work as one large entity and adopt market-driven policies. The advantages include a smoother energy transition in a growing economy, ability to leverage size for more competitive energy costs, and lower prices for consumers. In an ideal scenario, there is one overriding EU target for reducing CO2 emissions, and then the other two - renewables and energy efficiency - act as levers to meet that target. Essentially, the market decides which solutions are the most efficient. A market-driven energy strategy is funded from a CO2-emissions certificate market - to send the right price signals - or a CO2 tax to allocate costs to CO2 emissions. Rather than concentrating funds on feed in tariffs, funds are geared toward improving energy efficiency, research and development of renewables and running pilot programs. In this way, the EU 'incentivizes' innovation and funding is far less than what

  9. Taylor Law in Wind Energy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Calif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Taylor power law (or temporal fluctuation scaling, is a scaling relationship of the form σ ~  (Pλ where !! is the standard deviation and hPi the mean value of a sample of a time series has been observed for power output data sampled at 5 min and 1 s and from five wind farms and a single wind turbine, located at different places. Furthermore, an analogy with the turbulence field is performed, consequently allowing the establishment of a scaling relationship between the turbulent production IP and the mean value (P.

  10. Legal instruments for groundwater protection. A systematic analysis of EU law and German federal law and state law; Rechtliche Instrumente des Grundwasserschutzes. Eine systematische Analyse des EG-, Bundes- und Landesrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotulla, M.

    1999-07-01

    In Germany, the groundwater quality is endangered by a great variety of anthropogenic activities. Although it is widely accepted that the situation calls for quick action and implementation of legal provisions for efficient, nationwide protection of this essential natural resource, the legislature so far remained disappointingly inactive. This is why the author of the study presented in this book examines existing German federal and state law as well as EU law in order to reveal the possibilities offered by those bodies of law. The author analyses the many, splintered legal provisions under public law that are applicable today in Germany in absence of a proper code of environmental law, for their capability of being applied for protection of the groundwater. The legal instruments are identified and evaluated for the given purpose, and approaches for harmonisation or maybe optimisation are elaborated. (orig./CB) [German] Das Grundwasser in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist von einer Vielzahl zivilisatorischer Aktivitaeten bedroht. Strategien fuer einen prinzipiell flaechendeckend wirksamen Schutz dieser Naturressource werden zwar mittlerweile allenthalben gefordert, zeigen bislang aber nicht die erhoffte Wirkung. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht der Autor in dieser Studie die rechtlichen Moeglichkeiten, welche die bundesdeutsche Rechtsordnung unter Einbeziehung des einschlaegigen EG-Rechts zum Schutz des Grundwassers bereithaelt. Er analysiert primaer das in den letzten dreieinhalb Jahrzehnten zu einem unueberschaubaren Konglomerat angewachsene oeffentlich-rechtliche Umweltschutzregelwerk auf seine grundwasserschuetzende Eignung. Es gilt insbesondere, die diffus und querschnittartig ueber die verschiedensten Rechtsbereiche vertreuten Instrumentarien zu ermitteln und zu bewerten sowie - wo erforderlich - zu harmonisieren oder gar zu optimieren. (orig.)

  11. CHALLENGES OF THE NOT-SO-FAR FUTURE: EU ROBOTICS AND AI LAW IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mihaela CATEA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the emerging European legislation in the area of artificial intelligence and robotics, based on the currently fast developing technical procedures for the manufacture of products characterized by autonomy. The importance of having a clear and stable legislation for the production and spread of technical devices has been under discussion for some time now and member states have reached preliminary conclusions regarding the definition and criteria by which one can identify artificial intelligence. Also, continuous innovation lead to the necessity of integrating these AI products in common household economy and therefore, the need for a proper legal framework addressing both liability and limits for creating and operating machines for civil use arose. This article shall review the measures already taken by the European Parliament and the European Commission for the establishment of a standardized legal framework related to robotic and artificial intelligence products. The objectives of this study are to analyze the general guidelines available as created by the EU legislator which shall ultimately be transposed in national legislation, in order to supersede the current lack of regulations for companies developing and selling AI products nation-wide.

  12. Energy efficiency and the law: A multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is an energy-intensive country. The inefficient use of, mostly, coal-generated energy is the cause of South Africa's per capita contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, pollution and environmental degradation and negative health impacts. The inefficient use of the country's energy also amounts to the injudicious use of natural resources. Improvements in energy efficiency are an important strategy to stabilise the country's energy crisis. Government responded to this challenge by introducing measures such as policies and legislation to change energy consumption patterns by, amongst others, incentivising the transition to improved energy efficiencies. A central tenet underpinning this review is that the law and energy nexus requires a multidisciplinary approach as well as a multi-pronged adoption of diverse policy instruments to effectively transform the country's energy use patterns. Numerous, innovative instruments are introduced by relevant legislation to encourage the transformation of energy generation and consumption patterns of South Africans. One such innovative instrument is the ISO 50001 energy management standard. It is a voluntary instrument, to plan for, measure and verify energy-efficiency improvements. These improvements may also trigger tax concessions. In this paper, the nature and extent of the various policy instruments and legislation that relate to energy efficiency are explored, while the interactions between the law and the voluntary ISO 50001 standard and between the law and the other academic disciplines are highlighted. The introduction of energy-efficiency measures into law requires a multidisciplinary approach, as lawyers may be challenged to address the scientific and technical elements that characterise these legal measures and instruments. Inputs by several other disciplines such as engineering, mathematics or statistics, accounting, environmental management and auditing may be needed. Law is often

  13. An assessment of the sustainable energy investments in the framework of the EU-GCC cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Askounis, Dimitris T.

    2007-01-01

    The cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) should be broadened, deepened and become more interactive due to GCC states' accession to the Kyoto protocol in 2005. Nowadays, the GCC states start putting climate change and its business opportunities on the top of their priorities' list towards the accomplishment of the sustainable development goals. However, the level of development of sustainable energy investments (renewable energy, CO 2 sequestration and rational use of energy) is low until now in the GCC. For the above reason, the assessment of appropriate investments needs to be taken into account both by the governments in order to design the appropriate framework for supporting them and the project investors to identify the commercially profitable ones. In this framework, the aim of this paper is the identification and assessment of sustainable energy investments in the framework of the EU-GCC co-operation. (author)

  14. Testing the transport energy-environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the EU27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo-Romero, M.P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transport activities are essential for economic and social development. Nevertheless, the transport sector has also shown the fastest growth in energy consumption in the European Union and its contribution to increasing greenhouse gas emissions merits the thorough attention of academics and policy makers. In this paper we analyze the relationship of economic growth and transport activities with transport final energy consumption. Energy Kuznets curves are estimated for a panel data set covering the EU27 countries in the period 1995–2009 for total transport energy use, household transport energy use, and productive transport energy use (all three in absolute and per capita energy use terms). The productive transport energy use and gross value added relationship are further considered as per hour worked. Finally, the control variables of energy prices and differences in the economic structures are tested. Empirical results show that the elasticity of transport energy use with respect to gross value added in per capita terms decreases from a threshold for the three transport energy consumption variables, but the turning point of improved environmental quality is not reached in any instance. - Highlights: • Transport EKCs are estimated for the EU countries in the 1995–2009 period. • Total, household and production activity transport energy uses are analyzed. • Data support a concave shape, but the turning point is not reached. • Richer countries have more limited potential for energy efficiency policies. • EKCs elasticity values are considered to support policy interpretations.

  15. Implementing the EU climate and energy package with the economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007, the European heads of state and government agreed at their European Council upon a 20% greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target compared to 1990-levels and a 20% share of renewable energies in EU's final energy consumption by 2020. To implement these commitments, the European Commission prepared a set of legislative proposals - the so-called 'Climate and Energy Package' - which was jointly endorsed by the European Parliament and the European Council in Dec. 2008 and formally adopted in April 2009. This new policy will run from 2013 to 2020. Hence, the reinforcement of European Union's energy and climate policy in the decade to come was decided and prepared in 2007-2008. But in the meantime, the economic conditions worldwide and in Europe more particularly have radically changed compared to what they were in 2007-2008 when the package was designed. The European Commission has drafted its proposals for the Climate and Energy Package following the outcomes of an impact assessment based on several modeling tools. These modeling tools were not used for determining the 20-20 in 2020 targets or checking their feasibility - those were political targets decided by the European Council in March 2007. The models served to assess the effects and costs of different allocation methodologies. In its drafting proposals, the Commission projected an annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 2.2% on average until 2010 in the EU and a 2.4% growth between 2010 and 2020. But because of the economic crisis, the European Union has on the contrary seen a sharp fall of its GDP in 2009: according to the latest forecast by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which is quite similar with forecasts from other organizations, such as the European Commission or the OECD, the EU-27 should see its GDP decrease by 4.2% in 2009. Opinions are divided when it comes to the question of when and how fast the economy recovers. The IMF has predicted a rather flat GDP growth in 2010

  16. Technical efficiency of economic systems of EU-15 countries based on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampatsou, Christina; Papadopoulos, Savas; Zervas, Efthimios

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Data Envelopment Analysis is used to determine the Technical Efficiency index of EU-15 countries from 1980 to 2008, using cross-country comparison. Technical Efficiency index represents the capacity of an economy to produce a higher level of Gross Domestic Product for a given level of total energy input. The level of the Technical Efficiency index is determined from the energy mix (fossil fuels, non-fossil fuels, nuclear energy) of each country and depends on the maximization level of the production of the Gross Domestic Product of the economic system, without waste of energy resources. The current study is applied in the case of the EU15 countries. Its scope is to highlight the differentiations of country classifications before and after the integration of nuclear energy in the energy mix of each country. The main result is that the integration of nuclear energy as an additional input in the energy mixture affects negatively the Technical Efficiency of countries. Also, when an economy achieves a decrease of the energy consumption produced from fossil fuels, and a better exploitation of renewable energy sources, clearly improves its capacity to produce more output with the given levels of inputs. - Highlights: ► Technical efficiency index of EU-15 countries is determined through the DEA method. ► Level of the TE index is determined from the energy mix used in each country. ► TE level depends on the maximization level of GDP without waste of energy resources. ► Capacity of an economy to produce more GDP for a given energy input is determined. ► TE differentiation before and after the integration of nuclear energy is performed

  17. Energy Transfer between U(VI) and Eu(III) Ions Adsorbed on a Silica Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. K.; Cha, W.; Cho, H. R.; Im, H. J.; Jung, E. C.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Understanding of chemical behavior of actinide in a groundwater flow is important for assessing the possibility of their migration with water flows in a radioactive waste disposal site. Uranium is ubiquitous in the environment and a major actinide in a nuclear fuel cycle. Americium and curium having isotopes of long half life are minor actinides in a spent fuel. If a minor actinide coexists with uranium in a groundwater flow, some interactions between them could be expected such as minor actinide adsorption onto uranium precipitates and competition with each other for an adsorption to a mineral surface site. Eu(III) ion is frequently used as a chemical analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III) ions in a migration chemistry. The luminescent spectra of U(VI) and Eu(III) ions show a dependency on the coordination symmetry around them, and the changes in intensity or bandwidth of spectra can yield valuable information on their local environment. The luminescent lifetime also strongly depends on the coordination environment, and its measurement is valuable in probe studies on micro-heterogeneous systems. The excited U(VI) ion can be quenched through Stern.Volmer process, hydrolysis of excited species, exciplex formation, electron transfer or energy transfer. In case of U(VI)-Eu(III) system, the interaction between two ions can be studied by measuring the effect of Eu(III) ion on the quenching of U(VI) ion luminescence. There are only a few investigations on the interaction between an excited U(VI) ion and a lanthanide(III) ion. In perchlorate solution, the energy transfer to Eu(III) ion occurred only in solutions of pH>3.87. In this study, the quenching of U(VI) luminescence by Eu(III) on a silica surface was measured. The results will be discussed on the basis of a chemical interaction between them

  18. Mining law and energy law in the context of today's most urgent problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffer, U.; Ipsen, K.; Tettinger, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    Present mining law and energy law is discussed in 29 papers. Fundamental aspects of legal policy are discussed from the view of the Federal Government and of the Land of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Among the subjects discussed are: Property rights and mining; brown coal projecting; instruments for the promotion of power generation from coal; law on mining damage, industrial safety, and social security. There are several papers on legal problems of power supply, e.g. the autonomy of public utilities, the construction of power supply networks, the utilisation of renewable energy sources, waste incineration, and court decisions in the nuclear licensing procedure. There is a section on international law and a comparison of legal regulations, comprising: legal measures and standards within the IAEA; organisation and tasks of the IEA, energy law and energy policy of the USA, Japan, Great Britain, France, and the COMECON states (the latter referred to the production of energy sources and the electric power generation capacity). (orig./HP) [de

  19. Infrequent blue and green emission transitions from Eu3+ in heavy metal tellurite glasses with low phonon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.; Tanabe, S.; Lin, L.; Yang, D.L.; Liu, K.; Wong, W.H.; Yu, J.Y.; Pun, E.Y.B.

    2006-01-01

    Eu 3+ doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite (Eu 3+ :LKBBT) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching. Twelve emission bands including infrequent blue and green bands are observed and they almost cover whole visible spectral region under violet light radiation. The blue and green emissions of Eu 3+ rarely appeared in oxide glasses before, but they have been clearly recorded in Eu 3+ :LKBBT glasses even in the case of high concentration doping of Eu 3+ . The analysis based on spontaneous-radiative rate, energy gap and Raman scattering reveals that the obtaining of the abundant multichannel emissions of Eu 3+ is due to the higher refractive index and the lower phonon energy in LKBBT glass system

  20. European Non-Discrimination Law : A Comparison of EU Law and the ECHR in the Field of Non-Discrimination and Freedom of Religion in Public Employment with an Emphasis on the Islamic Headscarf Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary multicultural issues in Europe raise the question whether the overlap between the non-discrimination regimes of the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe in the field of public employment may lead to conflicting case law. Would the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ)

  1. Atomic Energy Law and technical standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieweg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The dissertation given a representation of the origination of the Nuclear Technology Committee (KTA), its responsibilities and organization, and of the procedure of establishing and amending the KTA rules in terms of factural structure, and deals with the legal quality of the KTA and its legal organizational form. In addition, it describes the legal status of the KTA members, the legal quality of the KTA office and of the bodies participating in the establishment of rules. In conclusion, it deals with the legal quality of KTA rules and their legal significances within administrative and court procedures and proceedings bearing on atomic law. The author qualifies the KTA rules as simple administrative acts in the form of abstract-general anticipated expert's opinions. (HSCH) [de

  2. Safety philiosophies in technology-related law discussed for the example of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1993-01-01

    In practice, legal ruling and its technical implementation stand isolated side by side. Taking the example of atomic energy law, the reasons for this situation and the significance of the deficit in the legal control of technology are examined. It is discussed how the controlling capacity of the law can be increased through the legal implementation of safety philosophies for technology. The paper deals with the problematic realtionship between technical and legal norms, with safety philosophies in the sense of mental approaches, safety concepts or safety postulates and their legal significance, and with the safety philosophy adhered to by the authorities and courts. The following learning processes in safety philosophy are described: new concepts of protection within the field of determinism, probabilistic safety concepts as well as concepts for the reduction of damage potential. Altogether it can be stated that the safety philosophy currently adhered to in Federal German licensing practice is not the only possible one; rather, that there are many different ways of conceptualizing, stipulating and checking technical safety. At least in the field of atomic energy law, this insight has a twofold significance: de lege lata there are several ways of operationalizing the licence requirements laid down in Article 7 of the Atomic Energy Law and the legally defined requirements for a licence withdrawal with the aid of technical licensing criteria. In all cases the legal wording is indeterminate and does not prescribe any specific safety philosophy. De lege ferenda it must be noted that amendments to the Atomic Energy Law entail a regularization of safety philosophy. This is a political necessity if the Atomic Energy Law is to be developed further and thus maintained as a modern security law. (orig.) [de

  3. Renewable energy resources in the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnizhevskij, B.V.; Mal'tseva, A.V.; Muzalev, E.Yu.; Makarova, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analysis of about 30 sources (USA, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Israel, EEC) were used to distinguish some characteristic features of foreign legislation, concerning use of renewable energy sources [ru

  4. Renewable energy research 1995–2009: a case study of wind power research in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Garcia- Zorita, J. Carlos; Serrano-López, Antonio Eleazar

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports the developments and citation patterns over three time periods of research on Renewable Energy generation and Wind Power 1995–2011 in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark. Analyses are based on Web of Science and incorporate journal articles as well as conference proceeding papers...... terms to map knowledge export areas. Findings show an increase in citation impact for Renewable Energy and Wind Power research albeit hampered by scarcely cited conference papers. Although EU maintains its global top position in producing Renewable Energy and Wind Power research the developments of EU...... Wind Power research are EU-self citations. An expected intensified EU collaboration in the Wind Energy field does not come about. The most productive research institutions in Denmark and Spain are also the most cited ones....

  5. [The new law on radiation protection as a consequence of the EU safety standard of 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, G

    2017-07-01

    The transformation of a European guideline (2013/59/Euratom) from 2013 into national law requires adaptation of the national statutory regulations. This year, all areas of protection from ionizing radiation will be subject to the new radiation protection law (StrlSchG). Through this, the German X‑ray and Radiation Protection Acts will be combined to form a higher level of authority. The main parts of the StrlSchG will receive a new classification and will be organized according to the exposure scenario: radiation protection in planned exposure scenarios, radiation protection in emergency exposure scenarios, radiation protection in existing exposure scenarios, and the regulation of overall exposure scenarios. The most important or modified regulated points for radiology are concerned with early recognition, where the application of X‑ray or nuclear radiation is permitted in principle under certain conditions; the consultation of medical physics experts in all diagnostic investigative procedures involving radiation and applications for radiological intervention that are linked to high doses in the person under investigation; teleradiology, another special case of the application of X‑rays in humans that requires approval, now with the "required" technical qualification in radiation protection, formerly with the "full" technical qualification, in addition to research, the simplified approval procedure being substituted with a notification procedure.Furthermore, in contrast to previous regulations, those tasked with radiation protection can contact the regulators directly in the case of conflict, which indicates considerable reinforcement of their authority.The only dose limit that will be considerably reduced is the organ-specific equivalent dose of the eye lens, where the highest value will be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year in those who are exposed to radiation professionally.

  6. Energy Decay Laws in Strongly Anisotropic Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sebastien; Politano, Helene

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a uniform magnetic field B 0 =B 0 e parallel on energy decay laws in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The nonlinear transfer reduction along B 0 is included in a model that distinguishes parallel and perpendicular directions, following a phenomenology of Kraichnan. We predict a slowing down of the energy decay due to anisotropy in the limit of strong B 0 , with distinct power laws for energy decay of shear- and pseudo-Alfven waves. Numerical results from the kinetic equations of Alfven wave turbulence recover these predictions, and MHD numerical results clearly tend to follow them in the lowest perpendicular planes

  7. European Energy Law Seminar 2005. Report of NeVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterom, A.R.; Boumans, L.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the lectures and presentations at the title seminar, which was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 30-31 May 2005. The seminar was organized by the Dutch Association for Energy Law (NeVER), the Scandinavian Institute for Maritime Law of the University of Oslo, and the Groningen University. The subjects presented concerned recent developments with regard to the internal (European) energy market, LNG, developments in the North Sea area, supply security and quality in a competitive market, reorganization of the European market for natural gas in the light of the liberalization process and privatization of the energy sector [nl

  8. The Energy Industry Law - legislative deficits or appropriate legal instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Conclusion: The job of the Energy Industry Law is to secure for the government the necessary influence without endangering the private enterprise structure of the power supply industry. The Energy Industry Law has achieved satisfactory results. For it is in no way obvious that a different system would have achieved lower prices or a level of capacity more exactly tuned to sales. The powers of objection and prohibition contained in Sect. 4 of the Energy Industry Law are limited to (all) circumstances which influence the reliability and cheapness of supply. These powers should not be used to promote a nuclear power phaseout, introduce renewable energy sources, promote the protection of the environment, to counter the demand for cheapness of supply, to enforce power-heat cogeneration and to enforce decentralisation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  10. Triple energy transfer and color tuning in Tb3+ and Eu3+-coactivated apatite-type gadolinium-containing phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Liang, Qimeng; Li, Shuo; Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Lü, Wei

    2017-11-01

    A family of apatite-type fluorophosphate phosphors with general formula Sr3Gd(1-m-n)Na(PO4)3F:mTb3+,nEu3+ (SGN:mTb3+,nEu3+) have been synthesized via the high-temperature solid-state reaction method. Triple energy transfer processes from Gd3+ in the host to both Tb3+ and Eu3+, as well as from Tb3+ to Eu3+ have been verified by the photoluminescence spectra. Under the excitation of UV light, both green line from the transitions of Tb3+ and red line origin from the transitions of Eu3+ have been simultaneously observed in a single phase phosphor, which makes a promise for tunable color emissions from yellowish-green through yellow and ultimately to reddish-orange by simply adjusting the Eu3+ content (n) in SGN:0.20Tb3+,nEu3+ phosphors. Additionally, the energy transfer from the Tb3+ to the Eu3+ ions has been demonstrated to be a resonant type via a quadrupole-quadrupole mechanism based on the Dexter's theoretical model, and the energy transfer efficiency increases with an increase in Eu3+ concentration.

  11. Brief reflections on the basis of energy law in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canton-Fourrat, A.; Fanfil, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    African energy resources are more than sufficient to meet the continent's needs; but the interest they arouse both strategically and economically is the source of the difficulties facing the African continent in this field. Hence the need for Africa, using particularly its regional organizations and drawing on other international experiences, to work at a synchronization of energy law across the continent. (authors)

  12. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

  13. Osobennosti jenergeticheskoj strategii ES v Baltijskom regione [The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the issues of EU energy policy in the 1990s-the beginning of the 2000s in order to identify the features of energy supply and energy safety of the Baltic region countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the stepwise description of actions taken by EU leaders and EU member states in order to formulate a common European energy policy. The 2004 EU enlargement posed the problem of taking into account the features of energy supply of Eastern European countries and, especially, the Baltic States. The energy industries of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as other Eastern European and CIS countries, are closely related to the energy industry of the Russian Federation. Trying to allow for this circumstance, EU leaders and energy structures took a number of organizational measures aimed, on the one hand, at an increase in energy independence of new members of the EU and, on the other hand, at taking into account the recent trends in the energy market development. The research shows that most of the initiatives do not take into account the perspective and interests of Russia, which has a strong presence in the energy market. The analysis conducted will help the assessment of prospects of further development of the Baltic States' energy industry and its interaction with that of the Russian Federation.

  14. Can the future EU ETS support wind energy investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the future Emissions Trading Scheme legislation should be designed to allow the European Union to comply with the 20% CO 2 emissions reduction target, while at the same time promoting wind energy investments. We examine whether CO 2 prices could eventually replace the existing support schemes for wind and if they adequately capture its benefits. The analysis also looks at the effectiveness of the clean development and joint implementation mechanisms to trigger wind projects and technology transfer in developing countries. We find out that climate policy is unlikely to provide sufficient incentives to promote wind power, and that other policies should be used to internalise the societal benefits that accrue from deploying this technology: CO 2 prices can only reflect the beneficial impact of wind on climate change but not its contribution to the security of supply or employment creation. A minimum price of around Euro 40/tCO 2 should be attained to maintain present support levels for wind and this excludes income risks and intermediation costs. Finally, CDM improves the return rate of wind energy projects in third countries, but it is the local institutional framework and the long-term stability of the CO 2 markets that matters the most

  15. Can the future EU ETS support wind energy investments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economic Analysis, Faculty of Economics,University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigues, Gloria [European Wind Energy Association, EWEA, Rue D' Arlon 63-65, 1040 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    This article discusses how the future Emissions Trading Scheme legislation should be designed to allow the European Union to comply with the 20% CO{sub 2} emissions reduction target, while at the same time promoting wind energy investments. We examine whether CO{sub 2} prices could eventually replace the existing support schemes for wind and if they adequately capture its benefits. The analysis also looks at the effectiveness of the clean development and joint implementation mechanisms to trigger wind projects and technology transfer in developing countries. We find out that climate policy is unlikely to provide sufficient incentives to promote wind power, and that other policies should be used to internalise the societal benefits that accrue from deploying this technology: CO{sub 2} prices can only reflect the beneficial impact of wind on climate change but not its contribution to the security of supply or employment creation. A minimum price of around EUR40/tCO{sub 2} should be attained to maintain present support levels for wind and this excludes income risks and intermediation costs. Finally, CDM improves the return rate of wind energy projects in third countries, but it is the local institutional framework and the long-term stability of the CO{sub 2} markets that matters the most. (author)

  16. French case law and the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Jean

    1980-01-01

    This Article which covers the most representative examples of French case-law in the nuclear field, analyses the cases involved and the relevant court decisions. It describes the evolution of the nuclear debate in France, the progressive constitution of anti-nuclear associations and their fight against nuclear energy development in the courts in the context of the licensing procedures for nuclear installations. The author analyses French law and the legal basis for the courts' decisions. (NEA) [fr

  17. Energy Company strategies in the dynamic EU Energy Market (1995-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Heuvel, S.; De Jong, J.; Van der Linde, C.; Sherwood, D.

    2010-05-01

    Generally, companies adapt their strategies to a changing environment, a process that often moves faster than the implementation of new policy measures. These strategic reactions are often taken to mitigate risks and to secure a strong position in an increasingly competitive market. Such responses interact with the main policy priorities. It is therefore interesting to understand the interaction between company strategies and policy priorities and to assess whether synergies can be found and whether strategies and policy objectives can be aligned. This study concentrates on gas and electricity companies in Europe's largest markets. The structure of the paper is as follows. Chapter 2 introduces the major changes that have taken place and that have formed the basis of the EU's new energy policy priorities. Chapter 3 presents the strategic responses that followed these major trends. In Chapter 4, specific strategies that companies developed to deal with the changing environment are highlighted and illustrated with examples. Chapter 5 discusses the alignment of company strategies and policy objectives and presents a number of policy recommendations to make use of the companies for reaching policy targets. The final chapter provides the conclusion. A number of appendices are included to provide background to the analyses.

  18. Limits of an "Energy Union": only pragmatic progress on EU energy market regulation expected in the coming months

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Severin; Geden, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Since the Juncker Commission took office in late 2014, the idea of an »Energy Union« has been a central theme of the EU energy policy debate. Today, the Energy Union concept covers every area of current European energy and climate policy. Its primary objective is to create a coherent, overarching policy framework. From a political perspective, the Commission’s aim is to prevent any further renationalization of energy policy. But although the Member State governments constantly refer to the en...

  19. Renewable Energies and European Union Law: between (internal) market and general interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvesdu, Carlos Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The various legislative instruments of the European Union related to renewable energy illustrate the complex relationship between the market and the public interest in the EU. How does the European public power articulate the public interest and the market? Such European laws are united by the way of a dialectical common approach. Firstly, it is about using the market to achieve the public interest, namely the protection of the environment. Therefore, the promotion of renewable energies, as a public interest goal, largely depends on the market. However, the market can do wrong. When the market is insufficient, fallible, the European Union will not hesitate to intervene to inflect it, in the name of the public interest

  20. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  1. Aspects of energy economy and energy economy law as regards electromobility. Pt. 1; Eenrgiewirtschaftliche und energiewirtschaftsrechtliche Fragen der Elektromobilitaet. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fest, Claus [RWE Effizienz GmbH, Dortmund (Germany). Umfeldmanagement/Stakeholder Management; Franz, Oliver [RWE AG, Essen (Germany). Regulierungsmanagement; Haas, Gabriele [RWE AG, Essen (Germany). Energie- und Regulierungsrecht

    2010-04-15

    The integration of electromobility into an overall concept for the future transport and energy economy is gradually taking on shape. The commitment to electromobility is growing, not only nationally but also at the EU level. However, beside some overriding problems relating to economic policy there are also numerous subordinate issues that are important for the practical implementation of electromobility. Those concerning the energy and network industries have to do with the integration of electromobility into today's market and its process landscape. There are also some unresolved questions of energy law.

  2. Re-energising Europe. Putting the EU on track for 100% renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.; Anderson, J. [WWF European Policy Office, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    The report shows where Europe needs to be by 2030 in order to reach a fully renewable energy system by 2050. The key findings are that Europe has significant untapped potential for cutting energy use and maximising indigenous power sources that could deliver cheaper and more secure energy. However, this potential is at risk because of a lack of political ambition. There is a particular need for greater clarity on policy frameworks for renewable energy and energy efficiency after 2020 just one investment cycle away. Based on recent research by ECOFYS for WWF, by 2030, the EU: (a) could be using at least 38% less energy (compared to a business as usual projection; (b) could be generating more than 40% of its energy from renewable sources, and (c), by doing both, could reduce its energy related greenhouse emissions by 50% compared to 1990 levels. Achieving such levels would put the EU on track to delivering a 100% renewably powered energy system by 2050 at the latest. It should be noted that while biomass use has been assessed based on the global model, a more detailed sustainability vision for biomass use in Europe is needed.

  3. Nordic views on the next generation of EU energy efficiency targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    EU has a target for energy efficiency for 2020, namely a 20 % reduction in the primary energy consumption relative to the PRIMES 2007 forecast for 2020. According to the new energy efficiency directive, that was agreed upon in June 2012, the target is that primary energy consumption must be no more than 1,474 Mtoe or that final energy consumption must be no more than 1,078 Mtoe by 2020. This is an absolute target for EU as a whole. There are no binding targets for member states. Due to the time lapse from goal setting, to policy formulation and practical implementation it is found that 2020 is just around the corner, and that it is high time to start discussion about the next goals. This could be concrete targets for 2030 and indicative targets for 2050. In this report target design and policy instruments are discussed from a Nordic perspective: Is it relevant to have an energy efficiency target? Should targets for energy efficiency be set in terms of primary energy or final energy? In absolute numbers or in relative numbers? Whether and how to divide the burden sharing? What are the Nordic positions of strength with regard to policy instruments? (LN)

  4. Energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27: A dynamic dematerialization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R.; Ziolkowski, Bozydar

    2015-01-01

    Energy use in the European Union's (EU) transport sector amounted to 340 Mtoe in 1999 with the following increasing trend up to 379 Mtoe in 2007 and a decrease from 2008 on, down to 365 Mtoe in 2010. This changing pattern posed several fundamental questions and uncertainties regarding the broader picture of energy efficiency and environmental protection. One of them refers to absolute changes in energy use efficiency in the transport sector over time and the ways of measuring efficiency. Traditional scientific approaches conceptualized to measure efficiency of energy use do not address annual dynamics of changes in the energy use in a given sector per capita. Thus, they are not precise enough for political and methodological purposes as they do not reflect the exact amount of energy consumed in the respective countries and societies. This paper shows a possible solution to this problem and a new perspective on measuring energy efficiency by using the product generational dematerialization (PGD) indicator. The PGD indicator allows for measuring energy efficiency as a dynamic change of consumption and population occurring simultaneously. Thus, it provides an extension to the traditional methodology commonly used for measuring efficiency. To visualize a practical application of this approach, the paper provides an example of evaluating energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27 in 2000–2010. The results of the analysis show a clear materialization tendency in the transport sector (the energy consumption change exceeded the population growth) until 2007 and a reverse tendency (dematerialization) between 2008 and 2010. As energy consumption has a direct impact on environmental quality and exhaustion of natural resources, the paper points out the necessity of extending sustainable resource management policies by new methodologies and providing more efficient solutions for energy consumption in the transport sector. - Highlights: • PGD indicator proves a

  5. Handbook on German-Russian energy law; Handbuch zum deutsch-russischen Energierecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saecker, Franz Juergen (ed.) [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The handbook under consideration offers a comparative presentation of the energy law in Russia and in the Federal Republic of Germany and would like to promote an approach of the energy legal regulations of the two states and the European Union. The handbook covers the entire legal problems from the exploration over the production and transport from energy resources up to the processing and consumption. The handbook considers not only the energy economy law, the energy antitrust law, the energy contractual law and the energy environment law, but also refers to the atomic law and the mining law in the presentation of the energy right.

  6. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physic Experiments, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the ...

  7. 1992 developments in Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manger, R.

    1993-01-01

    The draft legislation amending the German Atomic Energy Act existing since the autumn of 1992 clearly focuses of the back end of the fuel cycle. Spent fuel and waste management is to be opened up, privatized, and paid for. Opening spent fuel and waste management supplement the former priority given to the utilization of radioactive residues by an equivalent option, i.e. the orderly disposal of such waste which, at present, is permitted only under very limited conditions. The draft still needs to be harmonized with other ministries. (orig.) [de

  8. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  9. The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible...... are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050...

  10. Negative energy radiation and the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, D.; Ottewill, A.C.; Sciama, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that the second law of thermodynamics can be violated by processes involving the absorption by a hot body of negative energy fluxes of quantum origin. We show that this suggestion is false in the case of the process recently proposed by Davies, at least for a simple model of the hot body involved. Such a model body would not in fact be able to absorb the negative energy flux incident on it. We suggest that our argument can be generalized, and that there is no reason to doubt the second law. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear energy and nuclear safety in Slovenia in view of the accession to the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    The recent status in the preparation of the position of Slovenia in negotiations in to the EU in the field of nuclear energy, nuclear safety and radiation protection shows that Slovenia has still some tasks to be done, but there are no pending issues which might hinder the accession process. The effective communication has been established between EC and Slovenia. There are no issues which would need further clarification or even a transition period.(author)

  12. Interdependence and Diversification. A View at Current EU-Russian Energy Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Beniczky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at exploring the implications of energy interdependence for political relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation under current circumstances determined by the crisis in Ukraine. In this context, relying on the interdependence model of international relations theory, asymmetries in sensitivity and vulnerability of the sides were established and linked to their respective diversification strategies as part of the political power play between the EU and R...

  13. The Nordic welfare model providing energy transition? A political geography approach to the EU RES directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westholm, Erik; Beland Lindahl, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The EU Renewable Energy Strategy (RES) Directive requires that each member state obtain 20% of its energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. If fully implemented, this implies major changes in institutions, infrastructure, land use, and natural resource flows. This study applies a political geography perspective to explore the transition to renewable energy use in the heating and cooling segment of the Swedish energy system, 1980–2010. The Nordic welfare model, which developed mainly after the Second World War, required relatively uniform, standardized local and regional authorities functioning as implementation agents for national politics. Since 1980, the welfare orientation has gradually been complemented by competition politics promoting technological change, innovation, and entrepreneurship. This combination of welfare state organization and competition politics provided the dynamics necessary for energy transition, which occurred in a semi-public sphere of actors at various geographical scales. However, our analysis, suggest that this was partly an unintended policy outcome, since it was based on a welfare model with no significant energy aims. Our case study suggests that state organization plays a significant role, and that the EU RES Directive implementation will be uneven across Europe, reflecting various welfare models with different institutional pre-requisites for energy transition. - Highlights: ► We explore the energy transition in the heating/cooling sector in Sweden 1980–2000. ► The role of the state is studied from a political geography perspective. ► The changing welfare model offered the necessary institutional framework. ► Institutional arrangements stand out as central to explain the relative success. ► The use of renewables in EU member states will continue to vary significantly.

  14. High Eu 4f low-energy oscillator strength in the isostructural rare-earth Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As)

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2012-04-11

    The isostructral Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) are investigated within density functional theory. We employ the local spin density approximation with onsite interaction (LSDA + U) for varying U from 0 eV to 7 eV to model the Coulomb repulsion of the Eu 4f electrons. The LSDA + U optical conductivity disagrees with the experimental spectrum, while the simple LSDA is successful. Contrary to the expectation, it is found that EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) has a large oscillator strength for the f → d transitions in the low-energy range (below 1.5 eV) in which effects of the joint density of states play a key role. The materials show a sizeable magneto-optical Kerr effect.

  15. High Eu 4f low-energy oscillator strength in the isostructural rare-earth Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As)

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The isostructral Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) are investigated within density functional theory. We employ the local spin density approximation with onsite interaction (LSDA + U) for varying U from 0 eV to 7 eV to model the Coulomb repulsion of the Eu 4f electrons. The LSDA + U optical conductivity disagrees with the experimental spectrum, while the simple LSDA is successful. Contrary to the expectation, it is found that EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) has a large oscillator strength for the f → d transitions in the low-energy range (below 1.5 eV) in which effects of the joint density of states play a key role. The materials show a sizeable magneto-optical Kerr effect.

  16. The current German regime governing third-party access to power transmission systems and denial of TPA, discussed from the angle of applicable civil law, energy industry law and antitrust law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, G.

    2000-01-01

    The German EnWG (energy industry law) for deregulation of the energy sector and implementation of the Internal Energy Market Directive of the EU contains an obligation to contract and make rules for establishing a legally binding system for access to and use of third parties of transmission and distribution networks in the competitive electricity market. The design of such contracts under private law as well as the grid code for network operation primarily being a matter of the contracting parties, the legal basis and opportunities for governmental supervisory functions are embodied in various laws. The legal analysis of this contribution examines the current situation and asks whether the existing provisions of the German BGB (Civil Code), antitrust law and the EnWG offer practicable means in case of need for governmental supervisory action in order to ensure evolution and adherence to a legal framework that will ensure the objectives of the politically willed deregulation of the energy sector and foster development of an open market serving the public welfare. (CB) [de

  17. Implementing the EU climate and energy package with the economic crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerebel, C.

    2009-07-01

    In March 2007, the European heads of state and government agreed at their European Council upon a 20% greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target compared to 1990-levels and a 20% share of renewable energies in EU's final energy consumption by 2020. To implement these commitments, the European Commission prepared a set of legislative proposals - the so-called 'Climate and Energy Package' - which was jointly endorsed by the European Parliament and the European Council in Dec. 2008 and formally adopted in April 2009. This new policy will run from 2013 to 2020. Hence, the reinforcement of European Union's energy and climate policy in the decade to come was decided and prepared in 2007-2008. But in the meantime, the economic conditions worldwide and in Europe more particularly have radically changed compared to what they were in 2007-2008 when the package was designed. The European Commission has drafted its proposals for the Climate and Energy Package following the outcomes of an impact assessment based on several modeling tools. These modeling tools were not used for determining the 20-20 in 2020 targets or checking their feasibility - those were political targets decided by the European Council in March 2007. The models served to assess the effects and costs of different allocation methodologies. In its drafting proposals, the Commission projected an annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 2.2% on average until 2010 in the EU and a 2.4% growth between 2010 and 2020. But because of the economic crisis, the European Union has on the contrary seen a sharp fall of its GDP in 2009: according to the latest forecast by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which is quite similar with forecasts from other organizations, such as the European Commission or the OECD, the EU-27 should see its GDP decrease by 4.2% in 2009. Opinions are divided when it comes to the question of when and how fast the economy recovers. The IMF has predicted a rather

  18. Abstract Collection of 23rd Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: How to define and implement an energy policy in light of new EU guidelines for the year 2030?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 23rd Forum is dedicated to the issues of implementation of EU climate and energy policy up to 2030. If the necessity of CO2 emissions reduction would be accepted, as the highest EU political goal, the basic problem of the implementation policy is how to implement the envisaged goals. Until now, the implementation policy, commonly stated as 3x20, has shown as insufficient to achieve the goals. The main problems of the implementation policy in the professional discussions are stated as follow: 1) Should the CO2 emission reduction be stated as the single goal or should the reaming two goals (RES and energy efficiency), which in fact are means of achieving CO2 emission reduction, be retained as well; 2) How to insure the financing of the climate policy measures due to the fact that Emission Trade System has not fulfilled expectations; 3) How to define renewable energy sources position without disturbance of the market. The recent period shows the great confrontation of the market and administration to the detriment of the market. If the current processes continue there will be less of the market and more of the administration. Therefore, for the period around 2050 - the market would not be a basic concept of the relation in EU. Among professionals can be noticed certain frustration due to the fact that political solutions neglect objective problems in energy systems, especially in electric power system which is the most sophisticated due to necessary balance between production and demand side. The political measures couldn't change the basic principles and laws of physics and electrical engineering. Due to that, consequences are reflected on the operation of electric power system, the prices, the development plans and security of supply as well. It is expected that the discussion will show the way in which the solutions of implementation policy should be sought. The solutions which will comply with the technical and energy conditions of electric power system

  19. Statistical analysis regarding energy supply and demand in the EU and Romania between 1990 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina GRADINARU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and mankind’s unlimited needs in term of energy, in opposition with the limited nature of our planet energy sources, impose an all new approach regarding the way in which we produce our energy and how efficient we are using it. The European Union is a world leader in promoting sustainability in this field, and Romania, as part of this multi-state organization, follows the same path. We will see further in this paper the evolution of the main statistical indicators regarding energy, with a particular emphasis on electricity, for both the EU and Romania. The starting point will be primary energy production and demand, continuing with the sources of energy, and finishing with electricity and its relevant indicators regarding production and renewable sources. Finally, the relevant conclusions will be drawn.

  20. E2 = Energy concept x final storage [+ the law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    The world is changing all the time, opinions and evaluations assume new shapes. It is the function of the law to ensure reliability and confidence by its very continuity. However, it is not only the revisions of the law which are subject to the zeitgeist; also the interpretations and applications of the law are not exempt from current trends of thought. The coalition agreement signed by the CDU/CSU and FDP parties on October 26, 2009 announced an energy concept encompassing life extension of nuclear power plants and a continued exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a repository for high-level waste producting heat. The Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) tries to prove in a legal opinion that an extension of nuclear power plant life was illegal and unconstitutional because the problem of the back end of the fuel cycle was not likely to be solved in a foreseeable time. Continuing exploration of the Gorleben salt dome is based on mining law. The agency responsible for filing an application under the German Atomic Energy Act is the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). In Germany, the final storage issue has always been an area of violent political debate. Given the strategic purpose of the DUH legal opinion as a tool furthering opt-out of the use of nuclear power, several points are presented and discussed in this article which were overlooked in that opinion. The equation, 'energy concept x final storage =..?', seems to be open today. The law can support results. Existing legal regulations especially about the nuclear power sector must be used as starting points for new ideas: The existence of legal norms is to ensure reliability and confidence. Consequently, changes in the law must be prepared very thoroughly and weighed comprehensively. In current thinking, after all, transparency is part of political action, especially so in defining and implementing goals in topics such as the energy concept and final storage. Yet, unnecessary delays would not be justified

  1. Statistical and methodological issues in connection with the EU directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. Final report; Statistisch-methodische Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der Richtlinie der EU-KOM zu Endenergieeffizienz und zu Energiedienstleistungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Schlomann, B.; Gruber, E.

    2006-09-15

    After its recent approval by the EU the Directive on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services entered into force on 17 May 2006. In this research project the Fraunhofer Institute ISI, acting on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economy and Technology, examined how this Directive might be transposed into German national law. In a first step the basic prerequisites for the Directive's transposition into national law were examined. This involved determining the national savings target for Germany as specified by the Directive and assessing its aimed-for savings in general. A question of focal interest was whether such an assessment should best be performed by a top-down or a bottom-up approach or by a combination of the two. The main characteristics of these two approaches were discussed in connection with the statistical data basis in Germany. These characteristics were then used directly for an assessment of ''Early Action'', i.e. of political measures that were implemented at an early stage (mostly after 1995) but which the Directive recognises as savings. The public sector was examined in greater depth because it has been charged with a model role by the Directive. This preparatory work provided a basis for the second step, in which a basic model for the implementation of activity assessments in Germany as required by the Directive was drafted and a possible structure for the energy efficiency action plans which the Directive requires to be set up by the member states was outlined.

  2. Markets for energy efficiency: Exploring the implications of an EU-wide 'Tradable White Certificate' scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in European energy policy reveal an increasing interest in implementing the so-called 'Tradable White Certificate' (TWC) schemes to improve energy efficiency. Based on three evaluation criteria (cost-effectiveness, environmental effectiveness and distributional equity) this paper analyses the implications of implementing a European-wide TWC scheme targeting the household and commercial sectors. Using a bottom-up model, quantitative results show significant cost-effective potentials for improvements (ca. 1400 TWh in cumulative energy savings by 2020), with the household sector, gas and space heating representing most of the TWC supply in terms of eligible sector, fuel and energy service demand, respectively. If a single market price of negative externalities is considered, a societal cost-effective potential of energy savings above 30% (compared to the baseline) is observed. In environmental terms, the resulting greenhouse gas emission reductions are around 200 Mt CO 2-eq by 2010, representing nearly 60% of the EU-Kyoto-target. From the qualitative perspective, several embedded ancillary benefits are identified (e.g. employment generation, improved comfort level, reduced 'fuel poverty', security of energy supply). Whereas an EU-wide TWC increases liquidity and reduces the risks of market power, autarky compliance strategies may be expected in order to capture co-benefits nationally. Cross subsidies could occur due to investment recovery mechanisms and there is a risk that effects may be regressive for low-income households. Assumptions undertaken by the modelling approach strongly indicate that high effectiveness of other policy instruments is needed for an EU-wide TWC scheme to be cost-effective

  3. Topical problems in the implementation of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basse, H.

    1983-01-01

    The German Symposium on Atomic Energylaw, a discussion circle of law and various opinious in the field of nuclear energy, is 10 years old and has in the meanwhile become an institution. The 7th meeting again had an impressive scientific level as far as the speeches, and discussions were concerned. (orig.) [de

  4. Energy conservation law for randomly fluctuating electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbur, G.; Wolf, E.; James, D.

    1999-01-01

    An energy conservation law is derived for electromagnetic fields generated by any random, statistically stationary, source distribution. It is shown to provide insight into the phenomenon of correlation-induced spectral changes. The results are illustrated by an example. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. The nuclear energy in the context of Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    The present work has as its objective the study of nuclear activity within the context of Brazilian Law. It focuses on the organizational structure in which, as part of the Directives of the National Nuclear Energy Policy, this activity is being developed through specific legal norms. (Author) [pt

  6. Wind and Solar Energy Role in the Achievement of EU Climate Policy After 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper grades the possible role of solar and wind energy in the generation of electricity after 2020. The development of those energy sources will be defined by the climate policy implemented based on the last year's Paris Climate Agreement, but also by the existing initiatives of the European Commission (2030 climate and energy framework and 2050 low-carbon economy). Additionally, electricity generation from RES is observed through the decrease of dependency on the import of fossil fuels outside of the EU. According to the report of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the biggest share of RES power plants, after hydro power plants, in EU are wind and solar power plants. Both wind and sun are constantly available resources, but with variable specific power, which makes the maximal generation dependent on the time of day and/or weather (wind, clouds). Future increase of wind and solar energy has to be observed from various perspectives as to properly grade it for the next period, until 2020. Therefore, this paper considers the following, intertwined aspects: Maturity of wind and solar technologies and future trends, Price of electricity generation from wind and solar power plants, with an analysis of price decreasing trends; Possibilities of power energy system and measures for the acceptance of wind and solar power plants; Integrative approach to all forms and transformations of electricity; Market integration of RES - aspirations towards free trade(author).

  7. EU energy-intensive industries and emissions trading: losers becoming winners?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettestad, Joergen

    2008-11-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) initially treated power producers and energy-intensive industries similarly, despite clear structural differences between these industries regarding pass through of costs and vulnerability to global competition. Hence, the energy-intensive industries could be seen as losing out in the internal distribution. In the January 2008 proposal for a reformed ETS post-2012, a differentiated system was proposed where the energy-intensive industries come out relatively much better. What is the explanation for the change taking place? Although power producers still have a dominant position in the system, the increasing consensus about windfall profits has weakened their standing. Conversely, the energy-intensive industries have become better organised and more active. This balance shift is first and foremost noticeable in several important EU-level stake holder consultation processes. Energy-intensive industries have, however, also successfully utilised the national pathway to exert influence on Brussels policy-making. Finally, growing fear of lax global climate policies and related carbon leakage has strengthened the case of these industries further. The latter dimension indicates that although energy-intensive industries have managed to reduce internal distribution anomalies, external challenges remain. (author). 9 refs

  8. State of the Low-Carbon Energy Union: Assessing the EU's progress towards its 2030 and 2050 climate objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Pierfederici, Roberta; Sartor, Oliver; Berghmans, Nicolas; Samadi, Sascha; Fischedick, Manfred; Knoop, Katharina; Pye, Steve; Criqui, Patrick; Mathy, Sandrine; Capros, Pantelis; Fragkos, Panagiotis; Bukowski, Maciej; Sniegocki, Aleksander; Virdis, Maria Rosa; Gaeta, Maria; Pollier, Karine; Cassisa, Cyril

    2016-11-01

    Rather than examining aggregate emissions trends, this study delves deep into the dynamics affecting each sector of the EU energy system. It examines the structural changes taking place in power production, transport, buildings and industry, and benchmarks these with the changes required to reach the 2030 and 2050 targets. In so doing it aims to influence both the ambition and direction of future policy decisions, both at Member State and EU level. In order to assess the adequacy of the EU and its Member States policies with the 2030 and 2050 decarbonization objectives, this study goes beyond the aggregate GHG emissions or energy use figures and analyse the underlying drivers of emission changes, following a sectoral approach (power generation, buildings, industry, and transport). Historical trends of emission drivers are compared with the required long-term deep decarbonization pathways, which provide sectoral 'benchmarks' or 'corridors' against which to analyse the rate and direction of historical change for each Member State and the EU in aggregate. This approach allows the identification of the necessary structural changes in the energy system and policy interventions to reach deep decarbonization, and therefore the comparison with the current policy programs at European and Member State level. The EU has made significant progress in the structural decarbonization of its energy system. However, despite of this progress, the EU is currently 'off-track' to achieve its objectives by 2030 and 2050. First, the rate of change is insufficient across a large number of the indicators assessed. Second, too much of the change in aggregate emissions has been driven by cyclical effects rather than structural decarbonization, notably the impact of the financial crisis and subsequent slow recovery. Third, long-term decarbonization options, for example to decarbonize industrial processes and materials, are not being adequately prepared. While some policies under the EU's 2030

  9. Acoustomagnetoelectric effect in nondegenerate semiconductor with nonparabolic energy dispersion law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.; Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.

    2007-10-01

    We have studied acoustomagnetoelectric effect in nondegenerate semiconductor with nonparabolic energy dispersion Law. Attention was focused on the surface acoustomagnetoelectric effect (SAME). This is to reduce Joule's energy dissipated in the sample. It was observed that in a weak magnetic field the SAME is proportional to H 2 whiles in strong magnetic field it is independent of H. The effect is also dependent on the the scattering mechanism and finally SAME changes sign when the magnetic field is turned through 90 deg. (author)

  10. POWER MANAGEMENT SAFETY IN EU AND THE ENERGY POLICY IN TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EU countries face a serious problem of being too much dependent on the crude oil import. Transportation sector is especially dependent on import of fuels. Therefore The White Paper of 2011 outlines the need for more effective energy supplies management as one of the main European transportation policy objectives. Technical innovations, featuring a wider use of alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, liquefied natural gas (LNG and biofuels play a great role in the process of ensuring energy safety.

  11. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hermansen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    ) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular......In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG...

  12. Limited and unlimited liability in the German Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1982-01-01

    The liability of operators of nuclear installations in the FRG is limited under current law to the sum of one thousand million DM (section 31 of the Atomic Energy law). Since about the autumn of 1979, the Federal Ministry of the Interior is making inquiries into the necessity and appropriateness of abandoning the provision on liability limitations, in order to improve the victims compensation. The legal problems involved in this decision are presented by the author, trying to answer the question of whether the current system of liability limitations should be maintained or abandoned by discussing this issue from the point of view of the legal functions ''justice'' and ''expedience'' of this provision. The manifold international interlacement of the atomic energy law does not allow this study to be restricted to the law of the FRG. A brief review of the development and current state of the international nuclear liability law is the basis of this study into the problems of a possible modification of the German nuclear liability provisions. The study is carried out with the purpose of elaborating model solutions. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagicour, F.

    2002-03-01

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  14. Law on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy: key concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompignan, D. de

    2005-01-01

    The key concepts which ought to be included in legislation governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be divided into two categories depending on whether they derive from the fundamental principles of nuclear law or reflect categories of general law. Their inclusion results in compliance with a shared obligation when they derive from a binding international instrument. It also permits the transposition into law of broader nuclear concepts and principles, and the more specific characteristics of a general nuclear law, which is to lay down priorities. When the resulting classification is tested in reality, we can see that it is difficult to measure the effectiveness of the two concept categories inasmuch as this depends not only on quantifiable and controllable legal elements but also on non-legal behavioural factors, an obvious example of which is safety culture. Once the difficulties of defining a legal framework for nuclear activities and selecting the key concepts to guide them are known, the inclusion of a concept in a general nuclear law is determined by national legal and ethical considerations. Thus, a general nuclear law should indicate the way in which the legal principles which reflect various prevailing ethical imperatives with regard to the environment, participation, and public interest, are applicable to the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, having regard to the national specificities of each country and the particular nature of these activities. This means that there is a need to find original legal solutions reconciling the constraints of a specific law with the requirements of the ordinary law, i.e. the key concepts deriving from the principles of nuclear law. Given the possible reluctance of lawmakers to commit themselves for the future by formulating detailed provisions valid over the long term, it has been suggested that a code of good practice for the nuclear industry should be introduced which would go beyond the

  15. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (2) manure management; and (3) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork. (author)

  16. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork.

  17. EU-Russia energy relations. What chance for solutions? A focus on the natural gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Dimo

    2011-07-01

    Public debate about energy relations between the EU and Russia is distorted. These distortions present considerable obstacles to the development of true partnership. At the core of the conflict is a struggle for resource rents between energy producing, energy consuming and transit countries. Supposed secondary aspects, however, are also of great importance. They comprise of geopolitics, market access, economic development and state sovereignty. The European Union, having engaged in energy market liberalisation, faces a widening gap between declining domestic resources and continuously growing energy demand. Diverse interests inside the EU prevent the definition of a coherent and respected energy policy. Russia, for its part, is no longer willing to subsidise its neighbouring economies by cheap energy exports. The Russian government engages in assertive policies pursuing Russian interests. In so far, it opts for a different globalisation approach, refusing the role of mere energy exporter. In view of the intensifying struggle for global resources, Russia, with its large energy potential, appears to be a very favourable option for European energy supplies, if not the best one. However, several outcomes of the strategic game between the two partners can be imagined. Engaging in non-cooperative strategies will in the end leave all stakeholders worse-off. The European Union should therefore concentrate on securing its partnership with Russia instead of damaging it. Stable cooperation would need the acceptance that the partner may pursue his own goals, which might be different from one's own interests. The question is, how can a sustainable compromise be found? This thesis finds that a mix of continued dialogue, a tit for tat approach bolstered by an international institutional framework and increased integration efforts appears as a preferable solution. (orig.)

  18. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law; EuGH: Europarechtliche Unbedenklichkeit der Kernbrennstoffsteuer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-08-14

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  19. Tunable luminescence properties and efficient energy transfer in Eu2+, Tb3+ co-doped NaBaPO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eu2 + and Tb3+ singly doped and co-doped NaBaPO4 phosphors were synthesized by solid state reaction. The structure character, photoluminescence properties and the lifetime were investigated. The emission spectra of NaBaPO4:Eu2+, Tb3+, Na+ phosphor show both broad blue emission band and sharp green emission peaks. The energy transfer mechanism from Eu2+ to Tb3+ in NaBaPO4 host was discussed. The excitation spectra of NaBaPO4: Eu2+, Tb3+, Na+ phosphor show broad excitation band in the 250–400 nm range, which was in agreement with the near-ultraviolet (n-UV chip. The hue of the NaBaPO4: Eu2+, Tb3+, Na+ phosphors could be appropriately tuned by adjusting the contents of activators.

  20. Nuclear Energy and Liability in Law. Records of the meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The question of nuclear energy and liability in law was discussed at a one-day meeting organised jointly by the Societe francaise de radioprotection and the Societe francaise d'energie nucleaire. This report contains three of the papers presented. The first paper describes the different types of liability: civil, penal, administrative, international and explains the reasons which have led the legislator to introduce special liability rules to meet the problems raised by nuclear energy. The second paper deals with radiation protection and the different types of liability in law which may result from activities involving radiation protection. Finally, the third paper discusses nuclear risk insurance from the viewpoint of atomic insurance pools and specifies that insurers are concerned with improving accident prevention measures, in close collaboration with nuclear operators and the public authorities. (NEA) [fr

  1. Poland - Electricity and gas marked development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Practical guidelines for using EU funds for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The present report is prepared as part of the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU - funds'. The EU structural and cohesion funds are presently considered the most relevant funds concerning support to energy projects. In general, the Polish administration of the EU structural funds is strongly decentralized. The eligible project types to be supported from the various structural funds are described in a number of sector programmes. The sector programmes are described in vertical view, meaning that it is difficult to assess what kind of energy projects are eligible for support and, if eligible, then under which programme. This report presents a horizontal view of the various programmes in order to give an overview of the possibilities of support to energy related projects. The background for this report is a study of the following sector programmes: 1. Improvement of the competitiveness of enterprises. 2. Human resources development. 3. Restructuring and modernization of food sector and rural development. 4. Fisheries and fish processing. 5. Transport - maritime economy. 6. Integrated regional operational programme. 7. Technical assistance. Based on this review, it can be stated that energy projects in general have a low priority but can be supported under various measures within the programmes. (BA)

  2. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Energy intensity, target level of energy intensity, and room for improvement in energy intensity: An application to the study of regions in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2014-01-01

    While the previous literature shows that a decline in energy intensity represents an improvement in energy use efficiency, it does not provide a target level of energy intensity, nor what room for improvement in terms of energy intensity could entail. This study establishes an indicator of such room for improvement in terms of energy intensity by measuring the difference between the target level of energy intensity and the actual energy intensity and thereby monitors energy use efficiency. The traditional indicator of energy intensity, defined as energy use over GDP, mainly estimates energy use efficiency, but is a partial effect between the energy input and GDP output. However, our proposed indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity is the total-factor effects based on the multiple-inputs model. By taking the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency using the indicator of the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity, this study concludes that an improvement in energy intensity does not fully depend on a decline in energy intensity, and we instead need to confirm whether the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity decreases. This finding is particularly relevant for energy policy-makers. - Highlights: • This paper establishes an indicator for the room for improvement in terms of energy intensity. • This study takes the 27 EU members to investigate their energy use efficiency. • A different result appears by using our proposed indicator

  4. Assessment of non-cost barriers to renewable energy growth in EU Member States - AEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    The accelerated deployment of renewable energy technologies has become a major priority for public policy makers across the globe. In the last two decades, most of the debate concerning the promotion of renewables was focused on the financial support schemes and on improving grid access conditions for renewable electricity. Of course, these are crucial issues which will continue to deserve serious attention in the future. However, during the last few years, the importance of tackling non-financial and non-technical barriers to renewable electricity, heat and transport has gained the attention of many policy analysts. In June 2009, Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, entered into force. The articles 13, 14 and 16 of the Directive contain a number of requirements for Member States to address or remove non-cost barriers to the increased deployment of renewable energy sources. This study presents among others an overview of these barriers in all EU Member States; their history, their impact on renewable energy deployment and suggestions for policy solutions, where feasible. Separate studies were carried out for 27 EU-countries and made available in a zip-file.

  5. Save-Odyssee project on EEI - final report - Part 2: energy efficiency in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators (EEI) was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. This report presents the status of the implementation of energy efficiency policies in European Union countries: institutional changes/context, measures and programmes, budget, pricing, subsidies and taxes. (J.S.)

  6. Bacterial growth laws reflect the evolutionary importance of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2015-01-13

    We are interested in the balance of energy and protein synthesis in bacterial growth. How has evolution optimized this balance? We describe an analytical model that leverages extensive literature data on growth laws to infer the underlying fitness landscape and to draw inferences about what evolution has optimized in Escherichia coli. Is E. coli optimized for growth speed, energy efficiency, or some other property? Experimental data show that at its replication speed limit, E. coli produces about four mass equivalents of nonribosomal proteins for every mass equivalent of ribosomes. This ratio can be explained if the cell's fitness function is the the energy efficiency of cells under fast growth conditions, indicating a tradeoff between the high energy costs of ribosomes under fast growth and the high energy costs of turning over nonribosomal proteins under slow growth. This model gives insight into some of the complex nonlinear relationships between energy utilization and ribosomal and nonribosomal production as a function of cell growth conditions.

  7. The law on energy transition for a green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the main issues addressed by the French law on energy transition for a green growth. Thus, it evokes its main objectives and how they can be reached (notably through a control of energy demand, a wider carbon share in taxes), gives an overview of measures related to building renovation, to the development of clean transports (priority to less polluting transport modes, energy efficiency and renewable energy in transports, reduction of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions, plan for air quality), to the struggle against wastage and to the promotion of circular economy, to the promotion of renewable energies, to the reinforcement of nuclear safety and citizen information, to the simplification and clarification of procedures, to making citizens, enterprises and State able to act together (through governance tools, the steering of electricity production, energy transition in territories, specific measures for non-interconnected areas)

  8. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  9. Conference report 11th German atomic energy law symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The 11 th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) was held in Berlin on October 9 and 10, 2001. Approximately 250 participants from industry, politics, administration, science, and associations had accepted the invitation by BMU and discussed a variety of questions arising mainly out of the new nuclear energy policy of the federal government. In the introductory session, Federal Minister for the Environment Juergen Trittin sketched the framework of federal policy resulting from the criteria set forth by the federal government and the negotiations with the power utilities after the agreement on the future use of nuclear power had been signed. The following seven technical sessions dealt with basic constitutional matters as well as problems of public law and economic law stemming from the nuclear power policy of the federal government. Major points included the amendment to the Atomic Energy Act, interim storage, the redefined objectives of final storage, and problems relating to yardsticks by which to gauge safety, and problems of ensuring safety. Among other subjects, also the relationship between the federal government and the federal states in nuclear regulatory matters as well aspects of power economy and energy policy were debated. (orig.) [de

  10. Analysis of the EU renewable energy directive by a techno-economic optimisation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Arne; Rosenberg, Eva; Seljom, Pernille; Espegren, Kari; Fidje, Audun; Lindberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The EU renewable energy (RES) directive sets a target of increasing the share of renewable energy used in the EU to 20% by 2020. The Norwegian goal for the share of renewable energy in 2020 is 67.5%, an increase from 60.1% in 2005. The Norwegian power production is almost solely based on renewable resources and the possibility to change from fossil power plants to renewable power production is almost non-existing. Therefore other measures have to be taken to fulfil the RES directive. Possible ways for Norway to reach its target for 2020 are analysed with a technology-rich, bottom-up energy system model (TIMES-Norway). This new model is developed with a high time resolution among others to be able to analyse intermittent power production. Model results indicate that the RES target can be achieved with a diversity of options including investments in hydropower, wind power, high-voltage power lines for export, various heat pump technologies, energy efficiency measures and increased use of biodiesel in the transportation sector. Hence, it is optimal to invest in a portfolio of technology choices in order to satisfy the RES directive, and not one single technology in one energy sector. - Highlights: • A new technology-rich, bottom-up energy system model is developed for Norway. • Possible ways for Norway to reach its renewable energy target for 2020 is analysed. • Results show that the renewable target can be achieved with a diversity of options. • The green certificate market contributes to increased investments in wind power

  11. Judgement of the Court of Justice of the EU in respect to the law on excise duty on nuclear fuel. Only the first act of the drama?; EuGH-Urteil zur Kernbrennstoffsteuer. Nur des Dramas 1. Akt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June 2015. The German Hamburg Finance Court had doubted whether the country's Nuclear Fuel Tax Act was compatible with European law. In the context of an action lodged by a nuclear power plant operator against this tax, the court had suspended the legal action and submitted various legal questions to the ECJ. The decision now taken by the ECJ is not really surprising considering that in his opinion, in February, the Advocate General had already argued that the tax was compatible. The Federal Constitutional Court must now decide whether the German concept of excise duty is to be interpreted in accordance with the EU directive issued to harmonise these very taxes or whether there is some flexibility allowing a different decision.

  12. Characterization of the household electricity consumption in the EU, potential energy savings and specific policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Paula; Almeida, Anibal de (ISR-Univ. of Coimbra, Dep. Electrical Engineering (Portugal)). e-mail: pfonseca@isr.uc.pt; Feilberg, Nicolai (SINTEF Energiforskning AS (Norway)); Markogiannakis, George (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources - CRES (Greece)); Kofod, Casper (Energy piano (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Although significant improvements in energy efficiency have been achieved in home appliances and lighting, the electricity consumption in the average EU-27 household has been increasing by about 2% per year during the past 10 years. Some reasons for such increase are associated with an increased degree of basic comfort and level of amenities (particularly in the new EU member countries) and also with the widespread utilization of relatively new types of loads whose penetration and use has experienced a very significant growth in recent years. With the objective of contributing to an increased understanding of the energy consumption in the EU-27 households for the different types of equipment including the consumers' behaviour and comfort levels, and to identify demand trends, a large energy monitoring campaign, co-funded by the IEE programme, was carried out in 12 countries, accompanied by a lifestyle consumer survey. From the measurements carried out it can be concluded that IT and entertainment loads, including standby, are a key contributor to the power demand. In basically all types of loads there is wide range of performance levels, including new emerging technologies, in the models available in the market. Available technology, associated with responsible consumer behaviour, can reduce wasteful consumption. The potential electricity savings that exist in the residential sector in Europe, and that can already be implemented by existing means, like the use of BAT (best available technology) efficient appliances or the elimination/mitigation of standby consumption, can reach up to 48% savings. Specific policy recommendations to promote market transformation and behavioural changes in the equipment selection and operation have been identified.

  13. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENERGY SECURITY IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a sustainable, secure and competitive energy supply has long been recognized within the Community, and has been addressed on numerous occasions, notably in the Green Papers elaborated by the Commission in 2000 and 2006. Recent supply crises and rapidly escalating fuel prices have focused the minds of leaders across the European Union, as well as those of businesses and individual energy consumers. Energy policy transcends a range of different policy areas, including competition, transport, environment and energy itself. Decisions relating to energy policy in Europe are primarily within the remit of individual Member State governments, with the European Commission’s powers limited to two specific areas (creation of the European single market and matters relating to nuclear safety and security under the EURATOM Treaty. The extent of the transfer of powers towards Europe is clearly a critical decision point and in practice a sensitive balance is likely to be required between those matters for which the Commission should have responsibility and those where Member State governments retain sole authority. European officials are putting into evidence their belief that Europe’s energy predicament is acute and mention energy security as a priority issue for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Policy commitments say that energy strategy must move beyond the internal sphere and become systematically a part of EU external relations. The Commission’s 2006 Energy Green Paper promised “a better integration of energy objectives into broader relations with third countries”.

  14. Energy from waste in Europe: an analysis and comparison of the EU 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Manuel; Ragossnig, Arne

    2011-10-01

    This article focuses on analysing the development of waste-generated energy in the countries of the European Union (EU 27). Besides elaborating the relevant legal and political framework in the waste and energy sector as well as climate protection, the results from correlation analyses based on the databases of the energy statistics from Eurostat are discussed. The share of energy from waste is correlated with macro-economic, waste- and energy-sector-related data, which have been defined as potentially relevant for energy recovery from waste in the countries of the European Union. The results show that a single factor influencing the extent of waste-generated energy could not be isolated as it is being influenced not only by the state of economic development and the state of development of waste management systems in the respective countries but also by energy-sector-related factors and the individual priority settings in those countries. Nevertheless the main driving force for an increase in the utilization of waste for energy generation can be seen in the legal and political framework of the European Union leading to the consequence that market conditions influence the realization of waste management infrastructure for waste-generated energy.

  15. Correlations between energy economy and housing market prices in the EU-impacts on future sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maassen Maria Alexandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global economic system is facing multiple challenges in terms of social development, technology and innovation, as well as sustainability needs. As a result, the value of existing assets is changing globally depending on the scarcity, necessity and effects on the business field leading to increased prices of traditional sources of energy and increased competition in the economic field. Thus, the EU energy market has progressed in reducing its dependence on external energy sourcing, by increasing production of renewable energy, such as wind or solar, as well as by further integration of the electric grid. Based on the Pearson coefficient this article intends to research the correlations between the economic, energy and house prices in recent years and the future possible impacts depending on their evolution. For example, gas prices in the past decade increasing household costs in most countries due to the dependence on third parties for energy, lead to the need of increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption, which have consequently decreased electricity prices since 2008. However, this development has still not solved the additional costs issue of households due to the new technologies implemented although wind and solar energy receive in general low margins. Such energy issues, as well as the increased housing prices after the financial crisis in 2008 have caused on their own an additional burden on the economy and households spending income in the next years following.

  16. Eurogulf: an Eu-GCC dialogue for energy stability and sustainability. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abi-Aad; Skinner, R.; Arnott, R.; Mabro, R.; Luciani, G.; Luciani, G.

    2005-01-01

    The EUROGULF project was launched in 2002 by a consortium led by the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute, and comprising the Oxford Institute of Energy Studies, the Energy Policy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens and ECONERGY SAL of Beirut. Funding is provided by the European Commission through a grant from the SYNERGY program. The objective of the project is to analyse European Union (EU) - Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relations with respect to oil and gas issues and propose new policy initiatives and approaches to enhance cooperation between the two regional groupings. The project has originated a collection of papers whose provisional drafts have been discussed in two workshops: in Riyadh in April 2004, and in Florence in November 2004. This document is the final research report presented at the concluding conference in Kuwait, on April 2005. It gathers the final versions of the project papers: Executive Summary and Policy Paper; Task 1 - Economic and Political Conditions for Energy Security: Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Supply Responses to Price Changes in the Medium Term and the Definition of an 'Optimal' Price Band for Guaranteeing Energy Security in the Long Term; Discussion of the Desirable Rate of Exploitation of GCC Hydrocarbon Resources in the light of the Objectives of Maximizing Revenue and Achieving Economic Development in the Long Run; Promoting Economic Diversification as a Tool to Encourage Countries holding Major Hydrocarbon Reserves to Increase Production in line with Growing Global Demand at Stable Prices; Task 2 - Enhancing the Efficiency and Transparency of the International Oil Markets: The Reference Pricing System: Origins, Rationale, Assessment; Reforming Reference Pricing and Seeking for Alternative Pricing Systems; Strategic Stockpiles vs. Market Intervention for Price

  17. Eurogulf: an Eu-GCC dialogue for energy stability and sustainability. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Abi-Aad [ECONERGY, Washington (United States); Skinner, R.; Arnott, R.; Mabro, R. [Oxford Institute for Energy Studies - OIES (United States); Luciani, G.; Luciani, G. [EUI, RSCAS, Mediterranean Programme (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROGULF project was launched in 2002 by a consortium led by the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute, and comprising the Oxford Institute of Energy Studies, the Energy Policy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens and ECONERGY SAL of Beirut. Funding is provided by the European Commission through a grant from the SYNERGY program. The objective of the project is to analyse European Union (EU) - Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relations with respect to oil and gas issues and propose new policy initiatives and approaches to enhance cooperation between the two regional groupings. The project has originated a collection of papers whose provisional drafts have been discussed in two workshops: in Riyadh in April 2004, and in Florence in November 2004. This document is the final research report presented at the concluding conference in Kuwait, on April 2005. It gathers the final versions of the project papers: Executive Summary and Policy Paper; Task 1 - Economic and Political Conditions for Energy Security: Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Supply Responses to Price Changes in the Medium Term and the Definition of an 'Optimal' Price Band for Guaranteeing Energy Security in the Long Term; Discussion of the Desirable Rate of Exploitation of GCC Hydrocarbon Resources in the light of the Objectives of Maximizing Revenue and Achieving Economic Development in the Long Run; Promoting Economic Diversification as a Tool to Encourage Countries holding Major Hydrocarbon Reserves to Increase Production in line with Growing Global Demand at Stable Prices; Task 2 - Enhancing the Efficiency and Transparency of the International Oil Markets: The Reference Pricing System: Origins, Rationale, Assessment; Reforming Reference Pricing and Seeking for Alternative Pricing Systems; Strategic Stockpiles vs. Market Intervention for

  18. Eurogulf: an Eu-GCC dialogue for energy stability and sustainability. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Abi-Aad [ECONERGY, Washington (United States); Skinner, R; Arnott, R; Mabro, R [Oxford Institute for Energy Studies - OIES (United States); Luciani, G; Luciani, G [EUI, RSCAS, Mediterranean Programme (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROGULF project was launched in 2002 by a consortium led by the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute, and comprising the Oxford Institute of Energy Studies, the Energy Policy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens and ECONERGY SAL of Beirut. Funding is provided by the European Commission through a grant from the SYNERGY program. The objective of the project is to analyse European Union (EU) - Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relations with respect to oil and gas issues and propose new policy initiatives and approaches to enhance cooperation between the two regional groupings. The project has originated a collection of papers whose provisional drafts have been discussed in two workshops: in Riyadh in April 2004, and in Florence in November 2004. This document is the final research report presented at the concluding conference in Kuwait, on April 2005. It gathers the final versions of the project papers: Executive Summary and Policy Paper; Task 1 - Economic and Political Conditions for Energy Security: Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Supply Responses to Price Changes in the Medium Term and the Definition of an 'Optimal' Price Band for Guaranteeing Energy Security in the Long Term; Discussion of the Desirable Rate of Exploitation of GCC Hydrocarbon Resources in the light of the Objectives of Maximizing Revenue and Achieving Economic Development in the Long Run; Promoting Economic Diversification as a Tool to Encourage Countries holding Major Hydrocarbon Reserves to Increase Production in line with Growing Global Demand at Stable Prices; Task 2 - Enhancing the Efficiency and Transparency of the International Oil Markets: The Reference Pricing System: Origins, Rationale, Assessment; Reforming Reference Pricing and Seeking for Alternative Pricing Systems; Strategic Stockpiles vs. Market Intervention for Price

  19. A harmonized calculation model for transforming EU bottom-up energy efficiency indicators into empirical estimates of policy impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Marvin J.; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This study is an impact analysis of European Union (EU) energy efficiency policy that employs both top-down energy consumption data and bottom-up energy efficiency statistics or indicators. As such, it may be considered a contribution to the effort called for in the EU's 2006 Energy Services Directive (ESD) to develop a harmonized calculation model. Although this study does not estimate the realized savings from individual policy measures, it does provide estimates of realized energy savings for energy efficiency policy measures in aggregate. Using fixed effects panel models, the annual cumulative savings in 2011 of combined household and manufacturing sector electricity and natural gas usage attributed to EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 is estimated to be 1136 PJ; the savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 is estimated to be 807 PJ, or the equivalent of 5.6% of 2011 EU energy consumption. As well as its contribution to energy efficiency policy analysis, this study adds to the development of methods that can improve the quality of information provided by standardized energy efficiency and sustainable resource indexes. - Highlights: • Impact analysis of European Union energy efficiency policy. • Harmonization of top-down energy consumption and bottom-up energy efficiency indicators. • Fixed effects models for Member States for household and manufacturing sectors and combined electricity and natural gas usage. • EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 are estimated to have saved 1136 Petajoules. • Energy savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 are 5.6 percent of 2011 combined electricity and natural gas usage.

  20. The Enhanced Intramolecular Energy Transfer and Strengthened ff Luminescence of a Stable Helical Eu Complex in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hasegawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The luminescence of a Eu complex (EuL is enhanced by stabilization of the coordination structure in highly viscous ionic liquids. The EuL was found to maintain a stable single helical structure both in organic solvents and in the ionic liquids [BMIM][PF6] and [EMIM][PF6]. A colorless solution of EuL dissolved in [BMIM][PF6] exhibits bright red luminescence with a quantum yield of 32.3%, a value that is much higher than that in acetonitrile (12%. Estimated rate constants for the energy relaxation pathway indicate that the energy transfer efficiency is enhanced in [BMIM][PF6] as a result of the suppression of molecular fluctuations in the ligands. Additionally, a highly luminescent helical structure is preserved in [EMIM][PF6] up to 120 °C.

  1. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  2. Stress-Testing the EU Proposal on Matrimonial Property Regimes : Co-operation between EU private international law instruments on family matters and succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, Jaki; Quinza Redondo, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to critically analyse the European Commission's Proposal for a Council Regulation on jurisdiction, applicable law and recognition and enforcement of decisions in matters of matrimonial property regimes (COM (2011) 126). It focuses upon the coordination of the Proposal's provisions

  3. Energy distribution of the 'shake off' electrons at the 152Eu decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrokhovich, N.F.

    2008-01-01

    On the special vacuum installation of coincidences of g-quanta and beta-particles with low energy electrons, including e 0 -electrons of the secondary electron emission (gamma beta e 0 -coincidences) for the first time the energy spectrum of 'shake off' electrons at 152 Eu decay is investigated in the range of 200 - 1700 eV. Registration of electrons of 'shake off' is carried out on e 0 -electrons of the secondary electron emission, created by them. By realization of threshold measurements the integral spectrum was obtained and on this basis the differential spectrum is computed. It is established, that the continuum of 'shake off' electrons is low energy and practically finishes at 400 eV. In the region of 300 eV the maximum energetic distribution is observed

  4. EU's forest fuel resources, energy technology market and international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikainen, A.; Laitila, J.; Parikka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project is to provide for the Finnish bioenergy technology, machine and appliance manufactures information about forest fuel resources in the EU and international bioenergy trade mechanisms. The projects results act as an instrument for market potential assessments and provide information to the local energy producer about biomass as an energy source. The possibilities to use forest chips in CHP and heating plants will be investigated in the case studies. Total number of case studies will be 3-4, and they will mainly be located in Eastern Europe, where also large forest resources and utilisation potential are found. Case studies include three main tasks: 1) Assessment of forest fuel resources around the CHP or heating plant. 2) Forest fuel procurement cost study and 3) Study on the economics forest fuel based energy production. The project will be carried out as cooperation between Finnish research institutes and companies, and local actors. First case study was carried out at Poland. (orig.)

  5. New Law on Nuclear Energy into force on March 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    1988-01-01

    In Finland new Law on Nuclear Energy enters into force on March 1, 1988 after ten years' preparation work. The Parliament approved the new law, compensating the old law on atomic energy on 1957, unanimously in November 1987. The new law provides the decisions on new nuclear power plants to be made by the Government and finally ratified by the Parliament

  6. Renewable energy sources evolution connected with Romania's accession to the EU process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, M.; Matei, L.

    2005-01-01

    The RES direct support in 2010 for the EU-15 countries varies from 0.08 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Finland, to 1.32 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Denmark, with a weighted average of 0-39 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 0.44 Euro cents/kWh. EURELECTRIC's position on RES support is in favor of market-based mechanisms to support renewable sources, which do not lead to market distortions. EURELECTRIC supports the Commission's intention to create a regulatory framework for the promotion of renewable sources in the internal market. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 is aiming at the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. On the other hand, the development of the future European green market will influence Romania's energy policy concerning RES development. The development of some national schemes presenting an obstacle to a European certificate trading system, which do not recognize foreign certificates, could cut down the Romania's opportunities to sell into an European green electricity market the electricity generated at low price in the existing large hydropower plants. Some member states accepted electricity generated in large HPP as 'green', the others consider only small HPP in this category. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of new renewable sources in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low support ability to increase the electricity price in Romania. (author)

  7. Decarbonising the energy intensive basic materials industry through electrification – Implications for future EU electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenböhmer, Stefan; Nilsson, Lars J.; Åhman, Max; Schneider, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The need for deep decarbonisation in the energy intensive basic materials industry is increasingly recognised. In light of the vast future potential for renewable electricity the implications of electrifying the production of basic materials in the European Union is explored in a what-if thought-experiment. Production of steel, cement, glass, lime, petrochemicals, chlorine and ammonia required 125 TW-hours of electricity and 851 TW-hours of fossil fuels for energetic purposes and 671 TW-hours of fossil fuels as feedstock in 2010. The resulting carbon dioxide emissions were equivalent to 9% of total greenhouse gas emissions in EU28. A complete shift of the energy demand as well as the resource base of feedstocks to electricity would result in an electricity demand of 1713 TW-hours about 1200 TW-hours of which would be for producing hydrogen and hydrocarbons for feedstock and energy purposes. With increased material efficiency and some share of bio-based materials and biofuels the electricity demand can be much lower. Our analysis suggest that electrification of basic materials production is technically possible but could have major implications on how the industry and the electric systems interact. It also entails substantial changes in relative prices for electricity and hydrocarbon fuels. - Highlights: • Energy intensive basic materials industry has a high share in EU greenhouse gas emissions. • Decarbonising these industries is very important, but still relatively unexplored. • Electrification is possible regarding renewable energy resources and technologies. • Combination with energy and materials efficiency, biofuels and CCS is crucial. • Electrification needs very high amounts of electricity and strong policies.

  8. Multilevel LMDI decomposition of changes in aggregate energy consumption. A cross country analysis in the EU-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Landajo, M.; Presno, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the factors behind the change in aggregate energy consumption in the EU-27, also identifying differences between member states. The logarithmic-mean Divisia index method (LMDI) is applied to multiplicatively decompose, at the country level, the variation in aggregate energy consumption in the EU-27 member states for the 2001–2008 period. We also analyse the sensitivity of the results when several aggregation levels are considered, with energy intensity used as the criterion to aggregate countries. This allows us to check robustness of results, also enabling an improved understanding of both inter and intra-unit effects. Results indicate that improvements in energy efficiency in the EU-27 were not enough to overcome the pressure of European economic activity on aggregate energy consumption. Mediterranean countries, and especially former communist states, increased their energy consumptions, most of them favoured by structural change. The analysis also reveals that the impact of intra-group movements on aggregate energy consumption is partially offset when moving from higher to lower aggregation levels. - Highlights: • Increase in EU-27 aggregate energy consumption is decomposed through LMDI at 3 levels. • We present the subgroup activity effect and we demonstrate its nulls consequences. • Structural and intensity group effects lose influence when moving to a higher level. • R and D, quality energies, efficient technologies, are main tools to lower energy consumption. • Structural effect: “Green” attitudes and changes in consumer choices, also necessary

  9. Exploring the EU ETS beyond 2020. A first assessment of the EU Commission's proposal for Phase IV of the EU ETS (2021-2030). COPEC Research Program: the Coordination of EU Policies on Energy and CO2 with the EU ETS by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie; Afriat, Marion; Vaidyula, Manasvini; Dahan, Lara; Cail, Sylvain; Cassisa, Cyril; Keramidas, Kimon; Coussy, Paula; Portenart, Philomene

    2015-11-01

    This report, written in partnership with I4CE and IFPen, provides the first complete and comprehensive assessment of the EU Commission's proposal and its coherence with the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy policies, demonstrating that: 1 - Re-calibrating the EU ETS requires considering its interactions with complementary climate and energy policies by 2030. Interactions between different policies may induce additional costs vis-a-vis an optimal transition to a low-carbon economy. 2 - Introducing the Market Stability Reserve is necessary to support the ambition of the EU ETS. Guaranteeing MSR effectiveness calls for a governing framework to be established before 2030. 3 - The free allocation mechanism for Phase IV requires more flexible and targeted allocation to sectors most exposed to carbon leakage risk. 4 - Expanding the EU ETS scope with the inclusion of the road transport sector may not necessarily be the most cost-effective way to achieve the GHG 2030 target. 5 - Considering the large scale of ETS auction revenues by 2030, the use of ETS proceeds by the European Commission and by Member States constitutes an increasingly relevant funding source to support decarbonization efforts in non-ETS sectors and to finance R and D in low carbon technologies

  10. Environmental screening and evaluation of energy-using products (EuP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnaes, M. (2.-0 LCA consultants ApS, Aalborg, (Denmark)); Thestrup, J. (In-JeT ApS, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Remmen, A. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this Memorandum is to provide a background document for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in assessing the impact of the EuP Directive 2005/32/EC of 6 July 2005. Firstly, it aims to highlight the areas of general environmental impact affected by the directive and shall assist the EPA in prioritising the focus, efforts and instruments to be applied in relation to the implementation of the EuP directive in Denmark. Secondly, it aims at extracting and highlighting horizontal themes from the product oriented policy adopted by the European Commission. The conclusions have been derived by the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the EPA. However, it is the intention that the conclusions can be used as guidance for selecting the strategic focus points. Many aspects of energy-using products (EuPs) have a negative impact on the environment (emissions to air including greenhouse gases, to soil, water, and energy consumption, etc.). The Council and the European Parliament adopted a Commission proposal for a Directive on establishing a framework for setting Eco-design requirements (e.g. energy efficiency) for all energy using products in the residential, tertiary, and industrial sectors. The Commission launched an invitation to tender for 20 preparatory studies corresponding to the major categories of Energy using Products. The studies provide the Commission with the necessary information background to prepare for the next phases, the impact assessment, the consultation with the Eco-design Forum and a draft implementing measures. References to all the Preparatory Studies are found in section 20. The background papers produced in the preparatory studies describes relevant environmental impact issues, but the conclusions are often focused on energy aspects only. Hence, the Danish EPA is interested in a wider assessment and medium to long-term perspectives of the product groups in terms of total environmental impact

  11. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway: monitoring of energy efficiency in EU27, Norway and Croatia (ODYSSEE-MURE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2009-09-15

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of Energy Demand Trends and Energy Efficiency in the EU - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 16.6 M toe (195 TWh) in 1990 to 19.2 M toe (226 TWh) in 2007 and has been relatively constant the last ten years. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 10 % from 1990 to 2007, but is lower in 2007 than in 1998. Final energy use in households has increased from 3515 k toe (41 TWh) in 1990 to 3826 (45 TWh) in 2007. The climate corrected energy use has been at approximately 4000 k toe since the mid 1990s. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 13 %, or 0.7 % per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 13 % higher in 2007 (or approximately 1.9 M toe or 22 TWh). (Author)

  12. Trade-facilitated technology spillovers in energy productivity convergence processes across EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Jun; Baylis, Kathy; Mulder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This empirical paper tests for trade-facilitated spillovers in the convergence of energy productivity across 16 European Union (EU) countries from 1995 to 2005. One might anticipate that by inducing specialization, trade limits the potential for convergence in energy productivity. Conversely, by inducing competition and knowledge diffusion, trade may spur sectors to greater energy productivity. Unlike most previous work on convergence, we explain productivity dynamics from cross-country interactions at a detailed sector level and apply a spatial panel data approach to explicitly account for trade-flow related spatial effects in the convergence analysis. Our study confirms the existence of convergence in manufacturing energy productivity, caused by efficiency improvements in lagging countries, while undermined by increasing international differences in sector structure. Further, we find that trade flows explain 30 to 40% of the unobserved variation in energy productivity. Trade continues to explain the unobserved variation in energy productivity even after accounting for geographic proximity. Last, we find that those countries and sectors with higher dependence on trade both have higher energy productivity growth and a higher rate of convergence, further implying that trade can enhance energy productivity. Thus, unlike concerns that trade may spur a ‘race to the bottom’, we find that promoting trade may help stimulate energy efficiency improvements across countries. - Highlights: • We test for trade-facilitated spillovers in cross-country energy productivity convergence. • We use a spatial panel-data approach and data for 16 European Union countries. • Efficiency improvements in lagging countries cause energy productivity convergence. • Trade flows explain 30 to 40% of unobserved variation in energy productivity. • Higher dependence on trade means higher rates of energy productivity growth

  13. The law concerning the environmental impact assessment. Vol. 1. Collection of regulations with an introduction to EIA law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The present book contains all regulations relevant to EIA in compact form: The EU EIA Directive; the Federal Law on the EIA; the Procedural Rules of Atomic Energy Law; the Ninth Ordinance on the Federal Emissions Control Law including the pertinent general administrative regulation; the Federal Mining Law; the Federal Building Law; the Federal Regional Planning Law; and the EIA laws of the Laender such as implementing regulations, the Land EIA Laws, and the Land Planning Laws. There is a basic introduction to EIA law preceding this collection of regulations and laws. (orig./HP) [de

  14. EU leaders should not be afraid to already embrace the climate change and energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Schaik, L.

    2008-01-01

    The spring European Council of 13 and 14 March 2008 will present a first opportunity to seal at the political level the climate action and renewable energy package the Commission proposed on 23 January 2008. The proposals are meant to ensure implementation of ambitious targets set at the spring European Council of 2007: to reach by 2020 a 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels and a 20% renewables share in the EU's final energy consumption that includes a 10% share of biofuels for transport. They are currently being discussed in various formations and committees of the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. Economics and Finance Ministers have already indicated that costs of climate change policies should not be too high. Environment Ministers have emphasised the need for stringent sustainability standards for biofuels and other environmental aspects of the package, and their Energy counterparts the competitiveness effects for energy industries. Agriculture Ministers will undoubtedly point to the opportunities of biofuels for European farmers. The European Parliament will have its own wish list and each EU member state seems to have a special circumstance for why the targets allocated to it in fact represent a disproportionate burden. Business lobbies attempt to shift: the burden to other sectors and do not forget to emphasise supposedly negative effects of the proposals on employment and competitiveness. Renewable energy producers underline the need for a continuation of subsidy schemes. Environment NGO's state the proposals are not nearly as far reaching as needed to save the planet, but that specific measures, notably the use of biofuels, should not harm other environmental objectives of the European Union, such as those on biodiversity and development cooperation

  15. Study of the spectroscopy properties of uranium matrix doped with europium. Energy transfer between UO22+ and Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, Jose Eduardo Monteiro de Sa

    2007-01-01

    Uranyl compounds (UO 2 2+ ) present a great potential as luminescent materials, for instance, applied in technology laser, luminescent probes, cells for conversion of energy, etc. In this work it is studied the efficiency of energy transfer in the compound Eu 3+ doped in UO 2 (MS) 2 .(H 2 O)n matrix and UO 2 2+ in Eu(MS) 3 (H 2 O)n for to be used as efficient Light Conversion Molecular Devices (LCMD) and/or in solar cells for energy conversion. It is also described the synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic study of the matrix Eu(MS) 3 .(H 2 O)n.(x%mol) UO 2 2+ and UO 2 (MS) 2 .(H 2 O)n.(x%mol) Eu 3+ (where x= 1, 3, 5 and 10). The compounds obtained was characterized by elementary analyses for determine the U 6+ concentration, infrared spectra, thermal analyses and luminescence spectra. The IR data suggest that the MS ligand acts as bidentate one. The emission spectra of Eu 3+ doped in UO 2 (MS) 2 .(H 2 O) 2 matrix showed characteristic fluorescence bands of the uranyl ion, attributed to the transition of 3 Π u -> 1 Σ g + of the uranium matrix. For the UO 2 2+ in Eu(MS) 3 (H 2 O) 6 the transitions of D o -> 7 F J (J=0 ->4 ) are predominant in the spectra. The intense europium luminescence associated with uranyl sensitising is registered in emission spectra of Eu 3+ ions in the range of 420-720 nm. The quenching rate constant of UO 2 2+ fluorescence with Eu 3+ is also determined. (author)

  16. Coordination of the EU's emissions trading, energy taxation and subsidies for energy production. Interim Report by the Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Working Group was to make preparations for the coordination of emissions trading in the European Union, energy taxation and energy production subsidies. It was supposed to issue an interim report on the role of energy taxation by 15 December 2003. In its interim report, the Working Group examined the present energy taxation scheme and the needs for its development upon the start-up of EU-wide emissions trading in 2005. The aim has been to recognise the immediate needs for amending energy taxation and energy tax subsidies in the near future while taking account of the outlines set out in the Government Programme. From the climate policy perspective, emissions trading is an efficient means of steering, because the commitment set for the emissions trading sector can be met by means of it. At the first stage, the EU's emissions trading will concern carbon dioxide emissions only, and in the future probably also other greenhouse gas emissions mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol. Its steering effect does not extend to other emissions, such as acidifying emissions. Other measures will be required for curbing them. Emissions trading is not a sufficient instrument for energy policy, although it partly directs development in a direction that is favourable for energy policy targets. On top of that, the most important steering mechanism of emissions trading, the price of an emission allowance, is beyond the reach of Finnish energy policy. It is determined on the EU-wide emission allowances market. The current energy taxation and energy tax subsidies safeguard the position of renewable energy sources in the circumstances of emissions trading. The competitiveness of domestic fuels, too, can be partly secured with current taxes. In the energy production of communities and industry, energy wood often replaces peat. i.e. two domestic and local fuels are competing against one another. In condensing power production peat is clearly losing more of its competitive edge the higher the

  17. Energy and transport in comparison: Immaterialisation, dematerialisation and decarbonisation in the EU15 between 1970 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapio, P.; Luukkanen, J.; Vehmas, J.; Banister, D.; Willamo, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the development of transport and energy use with a focus on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the EU15 countries between 1960 and 2000, and separately by each individual EU country between 1970 and 2000. Based on a review on the literature, immaterialisation can be defined as the reduction of energy intensity and transport intensity; dematerialisation can be defined as the reduction in carbon intensity of energy production and the carbon intensity of transport; decarbonisation can be defined as the reduction in (total and transport) carbon intensity of the whole economy. Although there is a clear pattern of reduction in energy intensity of the economy and carbon intensity of energy production, a similar patter cannot be found in transport. Neither the transport intensity of the economy nor the carbon intensity of transport has been reduced. In particular, freight transport intensity has grown between 1985 and 2000. Data presented by country have shown even more variation. The EU15 countries were aggregated into six groups by cluster analysis to establish the different patterns on each of the three measures. It is concluded that the EU15 countries will have problems in achieving the EU White Paper target of decoupling transport growth from economic growth and the Kyoto target of reducing total CO 2 emissions by 8% from the 1990 level between 2008 and 2012. However, there are some weak signals suggesting a more sustainable passenger transport system. (author)

  18. Energy and transport in comparison: Immaterialisation, dematerialisation and decarbonisation in the EU15 between 1970 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapio, Petri; Banister, David; Luukkanen, Jyrki; Vehmas, Jarmo; Willamo, Risto

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the development of transport and energy use with a focus on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the EU15 countries between 1960 and 2000, and separately by each individual EU country between 1970 and 2000. Based on a review on the literature, immaterialisation can be defined as the reduction of energy intensity and transport intensity; dematerialisation can be defined as the reduction in carbon intensity of energy production and the carbon intensity of transport; decarbonisation can be defined as the reduction in (total and transport) carbon intensity of the whole economy. Although there is a clear pattern of reduction in energy intensity of the economy and carbon intensity of energy production, a similar pattern cannot be found in transport. Neither the transport intensity of the economy nor the carbon intensity of transport has been reduced. In particular, freight transport intensity has grown between 1985 and 2000. Data presented by country have shown even more variation. The EU15 countries were aggregated into six groups by cluster analysis to establish the different patterns on each of the three measures. It is concluded that the EU15 countries will have problems in achieving the EU White Paper target of decoupling transport growth from economic growth and the Kyoto target of reducing total CO 2 emissions by 8% from the 1990 level between 2008 and 2012. However, there are some weak signals suggesting a more sustainable passenger transport system

  19. Energy efficiency policies for space heating in EU countries: A panel data analysis for the period 1990–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ó Broin, Eoin; Nässén, Jonas; Johnsson, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Space heating demand between 1990 and 2010 modelled using a panel of 14 EU countries. • The impacts of 260 efficiency polices affecting space heating demand are examined. • Regulatory policies found to have had a greater success than financial or informative. • High priority should be given to regulatory policies for space heating energy goals. - Abstract: We present an empirical analysis of the more than 250 space heating-focused energy efficiency policies that have been in force at the EU and national levels in the period 1990–2010. This analysis looks at the EU-14 residential sector (Pre-2004 EU-15, excluding Luxembourg) using a panel data regression analysis on unit consumption of energy for space heating (kWh/m 2 /year). The policies are represented as a regression variable using a semi-quantitative impact estimation obtained from the MURE Policy Database. The impacts of the policies as a whole, and subdivided into financial, regulatory, and informative policies, are examined. The correlation between the actual reductions in demand and the estimated impact of regulatory policies is found to be stronger than the corresponding correlations with the respective impacts of financial policies and informative polices. Together with the well-known market barriers to energy efficiency that exist in the residential sector, these findings suggest that regulatory policy measures be given a high priority in the design of an effective pathway towards the EU-wide goals for space heating energy

  20. Comments made by the Syndicate of renewable energies on the draft of orientation law about energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This document presents the proposals of modifications and the comments made by the French syndicate of renewable energies (SER) about the draft of energy law proposed by the government in November 2003. The document is presented as 3 columns with the original text of the law, the modifications proposed by the SER and their observations. The comments of the SER concern only the promotion of development and use of renewable energy sources, the energy saving certificates and the development of bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  1. The EU's 2030 Climate and Energy Framework and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas; Julia, Pierre-Emanuel; Bart, Istvan; Gawlikowska-Fyk, Aleksandra; Neuhoff, Karsten; Ruester, Sophia; Selei, Adrienn; Toth, Borbala; Szpor, Aleksander; Tuerk, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This study argues that there is no magic bullet to improving EU's security of supplies of natural gas, be it shale gas, LNG, internal market infrastructure, greater demand side efficiency or fuel substitution by renewables, etc. A comprehensive strategy of mutually reinforcing elements is essential. This strategy must encompass immediate short-term priorities as well as setting longer term goals. It must also give equal weight to both supply side (e.g. renewables, gas infrastructure, and new sources like shale or LNG) and demand side (e.g. consumption efficiency) options

  2. An assessment of the natural gas supply potential of the south energy corridor from the Caspian Region to the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrakis, Dimitrios; Thomaidis, Fotios; Ntroukas, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Security and diversification of EU energy supply underlines the importance of an energy corridor bridging the natural gas reserves of the broader Caspian Region with the EU consumption centers. This paper examines the supply potential of this corridor, the major natural gas fields and the already existing networks. An assessment of the supply cost up to the Turkish borders is carried out, while the case of Egypt as a future supplier is also investigated. Conclusions review the prospects for the construction of the considered energy corridor

  3. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway 2006. Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU15 and Norway (Odyssee-Mure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2006-12-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU-15 and Norway - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 192 TWh in 1990 to a present maximum of 219 TWh in 1999. From then it has been a slight decrease and in 2005 the final energy consumption was 215 TWh. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 11 percent from 1990 to 2004, and in the period 1998-2004 it seems to be steadying at approximately 78 TWh. Final energy use in households has increased from 41 TWh in 1990 to a maximum of 46.6 TWh in 1996 and 2002. In 2005 44.1 TWh was used, which is almost the same as the consumption in 1994. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 10 percent, or 0.7 percent per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 10 percent higher in 2004 (or approximately 19 TWh) (author) (ml)

  4. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EU (CRIMINAL LAW: LEGALITY, EQUALITY, NON-DISCRIMINATION, SPECIALTY AND NE BIS IN IDEM IN THE FIELD OF THE EUROPEAN ARREST WARRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOREL NEAGU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the field of the European arrest warrant, critically analysing the principles invoked in several decisions validating the European legislation in the field: legality, equality and non-discrimination, specialty, ne bis in idem. The author concludes that an area of freedom, security and justice could be built on these principles, but further harmonisation of legislation needs to be realised to avoid a ”journey to the unknown” for European citizens in respect to legislation of other member states of the EU.

  5. LAW, THE LAWS OF NATURE AND ECOSYSTEM ENERGY SERVICES: A CASE OF WILFUL BLINDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Hodas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems services include the collection, concentration, and storage of solar energy as fossil fuels (e.g., coal, petroleum, and natural gas. These concentrated forms of energy were produced by ancient ecosystem services. However, our legal and economic systems fail to recognise the value of the ecosystem service subsidies embedded in fossil fuels. This ecosystem services price subsidy causes overuse and waste of fossil fuels in the free market: fossil fuels are consumed more quickly than they can be replaced by ecosystem services and in far larger quantities than they would be if the price of fossil fuels included the cost of solar energy collection, concentration and manufacturing of raw fossil fuels. Moreover, burning fossil fuels produces enormous environmental, human health and welfare costs and damage. Virtually no legal literature on ecosystem services, sustainable development, or sustainable energy, considers fossil fuels in this context. Without understanding stored energy as an ecosystem service, we cannot reasonably expect to manage our fossil fuel energy resources sustainably. International and domestic energy law and policy systems generally ignore this feature of fossil fuel energy, a blind spot that explains why reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels is fundamentally a political challenge. This paper will use new understandings emerging from the field of complex systems to critique existing legal decision-making models that do not adequately account for energy ecosystem services in policy design, resource allocation and project approvals. The paper proposes a new "least-social-cost" decision-making legal structure that includes ecosystem energy services.

  6. Energy transfer from triplet aromatic hydrocarbons to Tb3+ and Eu3+ in aqueous micellar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, M.; Grieser, F.; Thomas, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitization of Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ luminescence by energy transfer from aromatic triplet donors like naphthalene, bromonaphthalene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate solution has been studied. Formal second-order rate constants for the energy transfer process in the micellar solutions were determined as 5 x 10 5 and 1.8 x 10 5 M -1 S -1 for transfer from biphenyl to Tb 3+ . The method of converting these rate constants to second-order constants pertaining to the micellar microenvironment is discussed; it is estimated that the transfer process at the micelles is charaterized by rate constants about one order of magnitude smaller than the formal ones. The transfer process is thus extremely slow. 7 figures

  7. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The law establishes the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in accordance with the Basic Act on Atomic Energy as a government corporation for the purpose of promoting R and D and utilizations of atomic energy (first chapter). The second chapter concerns the directors, advisers and personnel of the institute, namely a chairman of the board of directors, a vice-chairman, directors not more than seven persons, and auditors not more than two persons. The chairman represents and supervises the intitute, whom the prime minister appoints with the agreement of Atomic Energy Commission. The vice-chairman and other directors are nominated by the chairman with the approval of the prime minister, while the auditors are appointed by the prime minister with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission. Their terms of office are 4 years for directors and 2 years for auditors. The third chapter defines the scope of activities of the institute as follows: basic and applied researches on atomic energy; design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors; training of researchers and technicians; and import, production and distribution of radioisotopes. Those activities should be done in accordance with the basic development and utilization plans of atomic energy established by the prime minister with the determination of Atomic Energy Commission. The fourth chapter provides for the finance and accounting of the institute, and the fifth chapter requires the supervision of the institute by the prime minister. (Matsushima, A.)

  8. Temperature dependent luminescence and energy transfer properties of Na2SrMg(PO4)2:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dongling; Shang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yang; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2013-11-21

    Eu(2+) singly and Eu(2+)/Mn(2+) co-doped Na2SrMg(PO4)2 (NSMP) phosphors have been prepared via a high-temperature solid-state reaction process. Upon UV excitation of 260-360 nm, the NSMP:xEu(2+) phosphors exhibit a violet band located at 399 nm and a blue band centered at 445 nm, which originate from Eu(2+) ions occupying two different crystallographic sites: Eu(2+)(I) and Eu(2+)(II), respectively. Excitation wavelengths longer than 380 nm can selectively excite Eu(2+)(II) to emit blue light. Energy transfer processes in the Eu(2+)(I)-Eu(2+)(II) and Eu(2+)-Mn(2+) pairs have been observed and investigated by luminescence spectra and decay curves. The emission color of as-prepared samples can be tuned by changing the relative concentrations of Eu(2+) and Mn(2+) ions and adjusting the excitation wavelength. Under UV excitation of 323 nm, the absolute quantum yield of NSMP:0.005Eu(2+) is 91%, which is higher than most of the other Eu(2+)-doped phosphors reported previously. The temperature dependent luminescence properties and decay curves (4.3-450 K) of NSMP:Eu(2+) and NSMP:Eu(2+), Mn(2+) phosphors have been studied in detail. Thermal quenching of Eu(2+) has been observed while the emission band of Mn(2+) shows a blue-shift and an abnormal increase of intensity with increasing temperature. The unusual thermal quenching behavior indicates that the NSMP compound can serve as a good lattice host for Mn(2+) ions which can be used as a red-emitting phosphor. Additionally, the lifetimes for Eu(2+)(I) and Eu(2+)(II) increase with increasing temperatures.

  9. The energy sector between the two poles of the free market system and the public service obligations. Potential and limitations of state control, with an emphasis on the act for reform of the energy industry law (ENG) and the EU Internal Market Directive; Der Energiesektor zwischen Marktwirtschaft und oeffentlicher Aufgabe. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen staatlicher Steuerung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Gesetzes zur Neuregelung des Energiewirtschaftsrechts und des Europarechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, F.

    2000-07-01

    In Part A of the book it will be brought out that despite differing conceptual starting points and despite state control's way of working, there is no alternative to legal control. In co-operative models and consensual solutions in those states with private sector service providers, which exist in diverse forms in the energy sector, too, the law operates as a framework or regulatory warning, or it has a reserve function. An end to state control is not linked to that because the state remains responsible for the achievement of the goals the notification ans definition of which it undertakes as a public duty. The results found are discussed and confirmed in Part B of the book in connection with the reform of the legal framework of the energy industry (the German act named ENG). In Part C of the book it will be shown to what extent legal constitutional limitations stand in the way of state control in the energy sector. (orig./CB) [German] Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wird staatliche Steuerung durch Recht an Beispielen des Energiesektors untersucht, wobei insbesondere Fragen des Wirkens und der Erscheinungsformen staatlicher Steuerung sowie die Auswirkungen der Veraenderung staatlicher Steuerung auf die Rolle des Staates und auf das Verhaeltnis von Staat und Gesellschaft im Vordergrund stehen. Im zweiten Teil werden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der europarechtlichen Regelungen die Moeglichkeiten, rechtliche Grenzen und Maengel staatlicher Steuerung im bisherigen System der Elektrizitaetsversorgung in Deutschland dargestellt, da Reformen, um dem Steuerungsanspruch des Staates gerecht zu werden, diesezu beachten haben. Es wird u.a. untersucht, inwieweit Entstaatlichungsstrategien im Rahmen der Reformen im Energiesektor Anwendung finden. Im dritten Teil werden die verfassungsrechtlichen Restriktionen untersucht. (orig./CB)

  10. EU Energy Market Development in Light of Fulfilling Obligations from the Paris Climate Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdarevic, N.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Paris Climate Agreement, the Union has set an ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent below the 1990 level until year 2050. The climate and energy frame of the EU defines goals for 2030 that include at least 40 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in comparison with the 1990 level, as well as achieving at least 27 percent share of RES in energy consumption for the entire Union and at least 27 percent improvement of energy efficiency. It is expected that the power sector will give a decisive contribution to decarbonization. It is estimated that, in order to fulfil such goals, the share of low-carbon technologies in energy mix will have to increase from the current 45 percent to 60 percent in 2020, through fulfilling the goal with the RES share, then to 75-80 percent in 2030 and eventually to almost 100 percent in 2050. The bulk of that share will be investments to RES with a variable production (wind and solar power plants; further on addressed as variable RES producers). For the fulfilment of said goals, a structural change of electricity generation sector will be necessary to achieve a significant level of decarbonization in 2030, which will have significant repercussions on the electricity market considering the participation of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. Therefore, it is necessary to start with the transition as soon as possible and to send signals about the vitality of lowering investments into high-carbon technologies to a minimum in the next two decades. In that context, this paper is dedicated to the restructure of electricity generation sector and the reform of electricity market with the purpose of achieving high share of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. After the introduction, the base setting of the Paris Agreement will be pointed out and its influence on the EU electricity market will be examined. After that, the achieved level of electricity market development in the

  11. Judgement of the Court of Justice of the EU in respect to the law on excise duty on nuclear fuel. Only the first act of the drama?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June 2015. The German Hamburg Finance Court had doubted whether the country's Nuclear Fuel Tax Act was compatible with European law. In the context of an action lodged by a nuclear power plant operator against this tax, the court had suspended the legal action and submitted various legal questions to the ECJ. The decision now taken by the ECJ is not really surprising considering that in his opinion, in February, the Advocate General had already argued that the tax was compatible. The Federal Constitutional Court must now decide whether the German concept of excise duty is to be interpreted in accordance with the EU directive issued to harmonise these very taxes or whether there is some flexibility allowing a different decision.

  12. The Influence of European Law Concerning Gender Discrimination in Romanian Labor Market: Some Aspects of Women’s Migration in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GOUDENHOOFT

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination in employment is one of the problems that have not lost its actuality and discrimination of women, as a species of this principle is a problem that has interesting aspects in Romania. This paper proposes a series of conceptual approach, an attempt to define discrimination against women in employment, a content analysis, including issues of harassment and discrimination. An important part involves the attempt to highlight the sources of discrimination, as well as underlining the paradox that this category of people is not a minority. We want to underline the equality principle reflected by international law, European law, and Romanian legislation and several problems related to gender specificity on the labor market. We have analyzed the international legal framework, the European one (with the multitude of EU directives and the Romanian legislation on this area and I drew a number of conclusions on a few misconceptions of Romanian collective mind, regarded as sources of discrimination.

  13. Code of laws and regulations on atomic energy controls. Showa 53 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The code has collected above laws and regulations promulgated by 10th February, 1978 and they can be classified into following several categories. 1. Atomic Energy Basic Law and Atomic Energy Commission Establishment Law including their related government orders, regulations and rules. 2. The Law for Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and regulations, rules, instructions and guidelines. 3. The Law on Technical Criteria for the Prevention of Radiation Hazards and the Law Concerning the Prevention of Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc. including their related government orders, regulations, rules and announcements. 4. The Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage with its relating government order and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage. 5. Laws for establishing those nuclear energy development organizations as Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. 6. Other laws relating to atomic energy and radiation utilization including their pertaining regulations, rules, standards, etc. such as: Electricity Business Law; Land Transportation and Cars Law; Ships and Vessels Safety Law; Aviation Law; Employees' Health and Safety Law; Electricity Resources Development Law; and others

  14. Methodological proposal for territorial distribution of the percentage reduction in gross inland energy consumption according to the EU energy policy strategic goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolon-Becerra, A.; Lastra-Bravo, X.; Botta, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    A 20% reduction in the consumption of energy is one of the main goals of the European Union's (EU) 20/20/20 Energy Strategy. But the uniform application of this overall goal to all of the countries is neither fair nor equitable, as it does not take into consideration the characteristics of the energy system in each Member State. This article therefore proposes a nonlinear distribution methodology with objective, dynamic goals for reducing gross inland energy consumption, according to the context and characteristics of each member state. We hope it will open discussion on how these overall goals can be weighted. Then we analyse the situation of the energy indicators related to energy efficiency in the reference year (2005) used by the EU for reaching its goal of reducing the gross inland consumption by 20% by 2020, and its progress from 1996 to 2007. Finally, the methodology proposed is applied to the year 2020 on the NUTS0 territorial level, that is, to members of the EU, according to the EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS). Weighting is done based on energy intensity, per capita gross inland consumption and per capita energy intensity in two scenarios, the EU-15 and EU-27.

  15. VAT application in travel services pursuant to the Czech and EU legislations and a proposal for amendments in the Czech value-added tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domain of value-added tax has been already fully harmonized. Its regulation dwells on the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value-added tax, and all member countries of the European Union are obliged to provide for the implementation of this Directive into their national legislations similarly as the Czech Republic, which entered the European Union on 1 May 2004. The Act no. 235/2004 Coll. on the value-added tax as amended (hereinafter „value-added tax law“ should be therefore in line with the Directive. In reality however, some issues in the VAT law have not been fully harmonized yet. One of these issues is for example the application of a special routine for travel services according to §89 of the VAT law, which is in essential contradiction with the Directive in question, the controversial point being definition of the person of customer whom the Directive understands in a different way than the VAT law. Thus, the characterization of the problem based on the Czech and EU legislations with respect to jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Community forms a framework of the paper. Based on a comparative analysis of the application of special and ordinary routines in providing travel services to the customer by the taxpayer, tax incidence in his assessment base is determined. At the same time, the paper also includes a proposal for the change of the definition of customer in the VAT law so that the application of the given routine is fully in line with the EU Directive.

  16. Fossil and renewable energy consumption, GHGs (greenhouse gases) and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of EU (European Union) countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bölük, Gülden; Mert, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently a great number of empirical research studies have been conducted on the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income. The EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis has been tested for various types of environmental degradation. The EKC hypothesis states that the relationship between environmental degradation and income per capita takes the form of an inverted U shape. In this paper the EKC hypothesis was investigated with regards to the relationship between carbon emissions, income and energy consumption in 16 EU (European Union) countries. We conducted panel data analysis for the period of 1990–2008 by fixing the multicollinearity problem between the explanatory variables using their centered values. The main contribution of this paper is that the EKC hypothesis has been investigated by separating final energy consumption into renewable and fossil fuel energy consumption. Unfortunately, the inverted U-shape relationship (EKC) does not hold for carbon emissions in the 16 EU countries. The other important finding is that renewable energy consumption contributes around 1/2 less per unit of energy consumed than fossil energy consumption in terms of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in EU countries. This implies that a shift in energy consumption mix towards alternative renewable energy technologies might decrease the GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We investigate the EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis for 16 EU (European Union) countries. • We fix the multicollinearity problem between explanatory variables. • We found no evidence to support the EKC hypothesis in EU between 1990 and 2008 periods. • Renewable energy contributes less to GHGs (greenhouse gases) around ½ that of a unit of fossil energy

  17. Quality, merit, aesthetics and purpose: an inquiry into EU copyright law's eschewal of other criteria than originality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gompel, S.; Lavik, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the rule that no other criteria than originality shall be applied to determine the eligibility for protection of works, as contained in a few EU Directives on copyright (i.e. the Computer Programs Directive, the Term Directive and the Database Directive). While aimed to

  18. Community legal borderlines for nationally arranged restraints of competition. Presented with the help of decisions of the European Court of Justice with special consideration of price regulations in energy law; Gemeinschaftsrechtliche Grenzen fuer staatlich veranlasste Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen. Dargestellt anhand von Entscheidungen des EuGH unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Preisregelungen im Energierecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasse, M.

    2006-07-01

    In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the limits which are set by anti-competitive interventions of the member states of the European Community into the market. Following the introduction and the formulation of the problem, the contribution consists of the following chapters: (a) The limits of the nationally arranged restraints of competition in the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice; (b) Limits of nationally arranged restraints of competition from factual norms of the European Community contract; (c) Commitment of the member states of the European Community to the free competition due to general fundamentals of the Community law; (d) Exceptions of the prohibition nationally arranged restraints of competitions; (e) Application of the competitional obligation from paragraph 10 section 2 of the European Community Contract.

  19. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  20. Report on surveys in fiscal 1998 on the project to invite petroleum substituting energy related experts in Japan and EU; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren senmonka shohei jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In relation with coping with global environmental problems in recent years, needs are increasing more than ever for enhancing fossil energy utilization rates, developing and expanding utilization of petroleum substituting energies that can substitute fossil energies. Since Japan is particularly a large energy consuming country, and cannot escape from depending on import for the majority of its energy resources, it is an urgent issue to enhance the energy utilization efficiency and further promote development and utilization of new energies. To do this, it is indispensable to exchange such item of information as identification of actual status in other countries of handling the petroleum substituting energies. Taking up geothermal energy, fiscal 1998 invited four experts from EU countries. Visits were made for about two weeks on Japanese research institutes and business enterprises related to geothermal energy, and opinions and information were exchanged. A seminar was held on the final day, where the EU experts have made presentations on the current status and future prospects on geothermal research and development in EU. Greatly valuable suggestions were given for the Japan's future geothermal research and development. (NEDO)

  1. The blessings of energy efficiency in an enhanced EU sustainability scenario. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenboehmer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Although the anticipated 'end of cheap oil' has boosted the interest in energy efficiency as a cornerstone of energy and climate strategies, it is usually taken into account on the basis of rather narrowly defined cost-benefit considerations. As a consequence, substantial ancillary benefits are usually barely considered.In a recent study for the European Parliament (EP), the authors assessed two enhanced climate strategies compared to a more conventional strategy. One enhanced climate policy scenario relies, in particular, on raising the annual pace of energy efficiency improvement. The other aims at a radical boost of the market share of renewable energy forms, which, however, presupposes an equally radical improvement of energy efficiency.The present article presents the scenario results and places them in the context of risk characterisation of the considered climate policy scenarios. Risks of international turmoil and energy price hikes could be reduced if dependency rates for fossil fuel imports went down. A more ambitious climate policy can also strengthen the EU position in post-Kyoto global climate agreements and a moderated need for emission trading can, for example, reduce conflicting pressures on clean technology transfer. On the other hand, the implementation of the efficiency strategy will entail increased domestic risks because it will involve a re-prioritisation of resource allocation and will thus affect the current distribution of wealth in both the energy sector and some other closely related sectors.The article outlines the main drivers behind the ambitious energy efficiency scenario and it attaches tentative price tags to the ancillary effects, with special emphasis on the above sketched swapping of risks. It will, therefore, strongly argue for a more holistic view, which underscores the need for political action and the benefits of such proactive policies in favour of energy efficiency

  2. Role of nuclear energy in the energy policy of Slovakia and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    During October 10-11, 2005 was carried out an International conference Role of nuclear Energy in the energy policy of Slovakia and the European Union. The Conference proceeded in following sessions: (I) Role of nuclear energy in the energy market; (II) Environment, renewable energy sources; (III) Industry views; (IV) Slovak experience; (V) Panel discussion. Totally, 128 persons took part in this Conference. Thirty-one scientific lectures were presented.

  3. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  4. Photoluminescence, energy transfer and tunable color of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+) activated oxynitride phosphors with high brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Huo, Jiansheng; Feng, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-21

    New tuneable light-emitting Ca3Al8Si4O17N4:Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) oxynitride phosphors with high brightness have been prepared. When doped with trivalent cerium or divalent europium they present blue luminescence under UV excitation. The energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions is deduced from the spectral overlap between Ce(3+) emission and Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) excitation spectra. The energy-transfer efficiencies and corresponding mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the mechanisms of energy transfer from the Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions are demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole and dipole-dipole mechanism, respectively, by the Inokuti-Hirayama model. The International Commission on Illumination value of color tuneable emission as well as luminescence quantum yield (23.8-80.6%) can be tuned by controlling the content of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+). All results suggest that they are suitable for UV light-emitting diode excitation.

  5. Characterization of CERN-EU high energy reference radiation fields with recombination chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.

    1998-01-01

    The CERN-EU reference radiation field facility (called CERFF) is available behind a shielding of high-energy particles beam at CERN since 1993. At present the parameters of the radiation from beam target are well investigated, however, there are still some serious doubts concerning contribution of low-LET concurrent radiation. This paper presents an experimental procedure for determination of the contribution from the concurrent radiation by measuring the absorbed dose and recombination index of radiation quality at different beam intensities. Additionally, the values of H * (10) were measured in several measuring locations. Measurements were performed with a REM-2 recombination chamber and compared with those obtained by using a HANDI-TEPC instrument. (author)

  6. EU development strategy for renewable energies - How is it outlined?; EU-Ausbaustrategie fuer Erneuerbare Energien - wie wird sie konzipiert?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, M. [Europaeische Sonnenergie-Vereinigung EUROSOLAR e.V., Bonn (Germany). Sektion Deutschland

    2008-07-01

    On 23rd January, 2008, the European Commission submitted its package to the climatic and energy policy. Beside the parliamentary bills for the reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions, a central component of this package is the parliamentary bill for the development of renewable energies in Europe. As a consequence, the race around the finite energy sources is intensified, and the dependence from imports will increase dramatically. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on development strategies of the European Union for renewable energies. The guideline proposal, submitted at 23rd January, 2008, plans that the member states of the European Union transfer their ''origin certificates'' for electricity, thermal energy and coldness from renewable energies only to another country, if they achieved their respective intermediate objective. Additionally, the member states have to decide whether they participate at the certificate trade or not.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of algae energy production in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Vujadin; Wesseler, Justus

    2010-01-01

    Today's society relies heavily on fossil fuels as a main energy source. Global energy demand increase, energy security and climate change are the main drivers of the transition towards alternative energy sources. This paper analyses algal biodiesel production for the EU road transportation and compares it to the fossil fuels and 1st generation biofuels. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to aggregate private and external costs and derive the social cost of each fuel. The following externalities were internalized: emissions (GHG and non-GHG), food prices impact, pesticides/fertilizers use and security of supply. Currently the social cost of producing algal biodiesel at 52.3 EUR GJ -1 is higher than rapeseed biodiesel (36.0 EUR GJ -1 ) and fossil fuels (15.8 EUR GJ -1 ). Biotechnology development, high crude oil prices and high carbon value are the key features of the scenario where algal biodiesel outcompetes all other fuels. A substantial investment into the biotechnology sector and comprehensive environmental research and policy are required to make that scenario a reality. (author)

  8. A climate for collaboration. Analysis of US and EU lessons and opportunities in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, A.; McLaren, J.; De Coninck, H.C.; Cochran, J.

    2009-11-01

    This paper aims to improve mutual understanding between the EU and US with regard to climate change and energy policy, suggesting specific opportunities for transatlantic cooperation in this area. A background on the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as they relate to climate policy sets the context. This is followed by an overview of how cap and trade, renewable energy, and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US. Some observations and lessons learnt within each of these areas are highlighted. Building on these insights, recommendations are made regarding the carbon market, possibilities for new technologies to bridge the valley of death, and best practices and standards.

  9. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The institute is established under the atomic energy basic law to make effectively research of development of atomic energy in general and help to promote investigation, development and utilization of it. The institute is a legal person and has its main office in Tokyo. Its capital is the amount of yen 2,500 million plus contributions by persons other than the government. The government invests the said yen 2,500 million at the time of its establishment. The articles of the institute shall prescribe matters, such as: capital, contributions and assets; officer and meeting; business and its execution; accounting, etc. The officers are consisted of a chief director, a deputy chief director and less than 7 directors and less than 2 auditors. The chief director is appointed by the Prime Minister with the consent of the atomic energy commission. The term of the chief director, the deputy chief director and directors is 4 years and that of auditors is 2 years. Functions of the institute include basic and application research of atomic energy, planning, building and operation of reactors, training of researchers and engineers of atomic energy, etc. The budget, the business program and the financial project shall be prepared each business year and authorized by the Prime Minister. The institute is subject to the supervision of the Prime Minister. (Okada, K.)

  10. Entropy of holographic dark energy and the generalized second law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praseetha, P; Mathew, Titus K

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have considered holographic dark energy and studied its cosmology and thermodynamics. We have analyzed the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in a flat universe consisting of interacting dark energy and dark matter. We performed the analysis under both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. If the apparent horizon is taken as the boundary of the universe, we have shown that the rate of change of the total entropy of the universe is proportional to (1+q) 2 , which in fact shows that the GSL is valid at the apparent horizon, irrespective of the sign of the deceleration parameter, q. Hence, for any form of dark energy, the apparent horizon can be considered as a perfect thermodynamic boundary of the universe. We confirmed this conclusion by using the holographic dark energy model. When the event horizon is taken as the boundary, we found that the GSL is only partially satisfied. The analysis under nonequilibrium conditions revealed that the GSL is satisfied if the temperature of the dark energy is greater than the temperature of the dark matter. (paper)

  11. Integrated energy and climate policy. Securing the supply of natural energy. An investigation of the German and European law; Integrierte Energie- und Klimapolitik. Die Sicherstellung der Erdgasversorgung. Eine Untersuchung deutschen und europaeischen Rechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, Henning

    2012-07-01

    Due to the extreme importance of natural gas as an energy source within an integrated energy policy and climate policy at national and European level, and due to the specific risks associated with the supply of natural gas, the contribution under consideration reports on the security of supply of natural gas. The following aspects are examined: To what extent are regulations on security of the natural gas supply provided in the German and European law. Which actors have the responsibility for the security of supply? What are the weaknesses in the legal arrangement of security of supply? The contribution also reports on the increasing importance of the EU as an actor of guarantee. The contribution of the EU to the security of supply in the supply of natural gas also is analysed.

  12. EU Energy Market and Regulation enter a new Framework: Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Energy Union provides a new framework for market and regulation. This contribution discusses its main elements (dimensions), in particular energy market functioning. Energy Union adds some new focal points to its development, e.g. research and innovation, in addition to sustainability. Energy Union also aims at improving customers position on the market, and paves the way for efficiency enhancements in regulation and market monitoring at European level. Three aspects of potential future improvements are discussed how the existing Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators may further contribute to the efficient market functioning and implementation of planned infrastructure investment. (author).

  13. Energy policy of the EU and the role of Turkey in Energy Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHTER AYKIN Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available All the nations define strategies and develop policies on national and international levels to eliminate risks against energy security. The aim of this paper is to define the energy policy of the European Union and identify the potential of Turkey in securing energy supply to the European Union. To achieve this end, after explaining the policy frame of the European Union and that of Turkey in energy related matters, the existing and planned energy routes expanding from the Russian Federation, Caspian Sea and the Middle East to the European Continent are mapped, and the role assigned to Turkey as an energy hub is exemplified with reference to its accession process. It is concluded that Turkey’s membership is to enrich the European Union and contribute to its energy supply security.

  14. ENTHALPY EU PROJECT: ENABLING THE DRYING PROCESS TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER, REALISING PROCESS EFFICIENCY IN THE DAIRY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta ALVAREZ PENEDO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The EU funded ENTHALPY project aims to significantly reduce the consumption of water and energy in milk powder production to increase efficiency in the dairy production chain. Using a systematic approach, ENTHALPY project focusses on innovations within the post-harvest chain representing the highest energy and water consumption such as RF heating, solar thermal energy, mono-disperse atomising, dryer modelling, inline monitoring, enzymatic cleaning and membrane technology,

  15. ENTHALPY EU PROJECT: ENABLING THE DRYING PROCESS TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER, REALISING PROCESS EFFICIENCY IN THE DAIRY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Berta ALVAREZ PENEDO; Sandra FORSTNER; Alexandru RUSU

    2016-01-01

    The EU funded ENTHALPY project aims to significantly reduce the consumption of water and energy in milk powder production to increase efficiency in the dairy production chain. Using a systematic approach, ENTHALPY project focusses on innovations within the post-harvest chain representing the highest energy and water consumption such as RF heating, solar thermal energy, mono-disperse atomising, dryer modelling, inline monitoring, enzymatic cleaning and membrane technology,

  16. Developments in environmental and engineering law in 1990. Section VI. Atomic energy and radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandner, T.

    1991-01-01

    Section VI is devoted to the development of atomic and radiation protection law in the period between 1.1.1990-31.1.1991. Through the debate on the greenhouse effect, nuclear power has recently become more attractive again as an energy carrier. Legislation took place in the EC (import conditions after the Chernobyl accident, maximum radioactivity values in animal feeds) and in Germany (statutory order on the establishment of a Radiation Protection Register, special provisions for the acceded territories of the former GDR). The following individual questions are discussed: Federal supervision - decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 22.5.1990 on the fast breeder reactor with regard to the right to issue orders; nuclear disposal - decision of the Federal Administrative Court on the Gorleben salt dome with regard to planning procedure. (HSCH) [de

  17. Amendment of the atomic energy basic law and other related laws and establishment of the nuclear safety commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Kenji

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Law and related several laws were amended in the recent diet session. The amendment of the laws was requested after the radiation leakage from nuclear-powered ship ''Mutsu''. The reform of administrative system of atomic energy development and utilization are consisted of two important points: one is to establish the Nuclear Safety Commission for strengthening nuclear safety administration, and the other is to give an authority to each ministry or agency to regulate nuclear power reactor from the establishment to operation according to its original mission. (author)

  18. The new law on radiation protection as a consequence of the EU safety standard of 2013; Das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz als Auswirkung der EU-Grundnormen von 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layer, G. [Klinikum Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The transformation of a European guideline (2013/59/Euratom) from 2013 into national law requires adaptation of the national statutory regulations. This year, all areas of protection from ionizing radiation will be subject to the new radiation protection law (StrlSchG). Through this, the German X-ray and Radiation Protection Acts will be combined to form a higher level of authority. The main parts of the StrlSchG will receive a new classification and will be organized according to the exposure scenario: radiation protection in planned exposure scenarios, radiation protection in emergency exposure scenarios, radiation protection in existing exposure scenarios, and the regulation of overall exposure scenarios. The most important or modified regulated points for radiology are concerned with early recognition, where the application of X-ray or nuclear radiation is permitted in principle under certain conditions; the consultation of medical physics experts in all diagnostic investigative procedures involving radiation and applications for radiological intervention that are linked to high doses in the person under investigation; teleradiology, another special case of the application of X-rays in humans that requires approval, now with the ''required'' technical qualification in radiation protection, formerly with the ''full'' technical qualification, in addition to research, the simplified approval procedure being substituted with a notification procedure. Furthermore, in contrast to previous regulations, those tasked with radiation protection can contact the regulators directly in the case of conflict, which indicates considerable reinforcement of their authority. The only dose limit that will be considerably reduced is the organ-specific equivalent dose of the eye lens, where the highest value will be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year in those who are exposed to radiation professionally. (orig.) [German] Die Umsetzung einer

  19. European energy market liberalisation and integration. An assesment of the new EU energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2008-06-01

    The new energy package presented by the European Commission (EC) in September 2007 contains a number of diverse, and sometimes controversial, measures aimed at bringing current European energy markets closer to the ideal of one competitive and fully integrated market. We discuss the flaws and merits of the package and signal a number of concerns regarding the ultimate effectiveness of the new energy market Directive into which the proposed package will culminate

  20. The origin of the energy-momentum conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2017-09-01

    The interplay between the action-reaction principle and the energy-momentum conservation law is revealed by the examples of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories, and general relativity. These two statements are shown to be equivalent in the sense that both hold or fail together. Their mutual agreement is demonstrated most clearly in the self-interaction problem by taking account of the rearrangement of degrees of freedom appearing in the action of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories. The failure of energy-momentum conservation in general relativity is attributed to the fact that this theory allows solutions having nontrivial topologies. The total energy and momentum of a system with nontrivial topological content prove to be ambiguous, coordinatization-dependent quantities. For example, the energy of a Schwarzschild black hole may take any positive value greater than, or equal to, the mass of the body whose collapse is responsible for forming this black hole. We draw the analogy to the paradoxial Banach-Tarski theorem; the measure becomes a poorly defined concept if initial three-dimensional bounded sets are rearranged in topologically nontrivial ways through the action of free non-Abelian isometry groups.