Sample records for etiolated pea stems

  1. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.


    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  2. Nature and origin of the calcium asymmetry-arising during gravitropic response in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Migliaccio, F.; Galston, A.W.


    Seven day old etiolated pea epicotyls were loaded symmetrically with 3 H-indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) or 45 Ca 2+ , then subjected to 1.5 hours of 1g gravistimulation. Epidermal peels taken from top and bottom surfaces after 90 minutes showed an increase in IAA on the lower side and of Ca 2+ on the upper side. Inhibitors of IAA movement (TIBA, 9-hydroxyfluorene carboxylic acid) block the development of both IAA and Ca 2+ asymmetries, but substances known to interfere with normal Ca 2+ transport do not significantly alter either IAA or Ca 2+ asymmetries. These substances, however, are active in modifying both Ca 2+ uptake and efflux through oat and pea leaf protoplast membranes. The authors conclude that the 45 Ca 2+ fed to pea epicotyls occurs largely in the cell wall, and that auxin movement is primary and Ca 2+ movement secondary in gravitropism. They hypothesize that apoplastic Ca 2+ changes during the graviresponse because it is displaced by H + secreted through auxin-induced proton release. This proposed mechanism is supported by localized pH experiments, in which filter paper soaked in various buffers was applied to one side of a carborundum-abraded epicotyls. Buffer at pH 3 increased calcium loss from the side to which it is applied, whereas pH 7 buffer decreases it. Moreover, 10 micromolar IAA and 1 micromolar fusicoccin, which promote H + efflux, increase Ca 2+ release from pea epicotyl segments, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits H + efflux, has the reverse effect

  3. Small heat shock protein message in etiolated Pea seedlings under altered gravity

    Talalaiev, O.

    Plants are subjected to various environmental changes during their life cycle To protect themselves against unfavorable influences plant cells synthesize several classes of small heat shock proteins sHsp ranging in size from 15 to 30 kDa This proteins are able to enhance the refolding of chemically denatured proteins in an ATP-independent manner in other words they can function as molecular chaperones The potential contribution of effects of space flight at the plant cellular and gene regulation level has not been characterized yet The object of our study is sHsp gene expression in etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings exposed to altered gravity and environmental conditions We designed primers to detect message for two inducible forms of the cytosolic small heat shock proteins sHsp 17 7 and sHsp 18 1 Applying the RT- PCR we explore sHsps mRNA in pea seedling cells subjected to two types of altered gravity achieved by centrifugation from 3 to 8g by clinorotation 2 rpm and temperature elevation 42oC Temperature elevation as the positive control significantly increased PsHspl7 7 PsHspl8 1 expression We investigate the expression of actin it was constant and comparable for unstressed controls for all variants Results are under discussion

  4. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  5. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.


    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  6. Automorphosis-like growth in etiolated pea seedlings is induced by the application of chemicals affecting perception of gravistimulation and its signal transduction

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Ueda, Junichi

    Both microgravity conditions in space and simulated microgravity using a 3-dimensional clinostat resulted in: (1) automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings, (2) epicotyls bending ca. 45° from the vertical line to the direction away from cotyledons, (3) inhibition of hook formation and (4) alternation of growth direction of roots. These facts indicate that the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings on earth is under the influence of gravistimulation. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, blockers of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels, induced automorphosis-like epicotyl bending. Cantharidin, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase, also phenocopied automorphosis-like growth. On the other hand, cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D and brefeldin A did not induce automorphological epicotyl bending and inhibition of hook formation, although these compounds strikingly inhibited elongation of etiolated pea epicotyls. These results strongly suggest that stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels are involved in the perception of signals of gravistimuli in plants, and they are transduced by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades by changing levels of calcium ions. Possible mechanisms to induce automorphosis-like growth in relation to gravity signals in etiolated pea seedlings are discussed.

  7. Rhythmical changes of a level nitric oxide (NO in roots etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. and influence of exogenous calcium

    A.K. Glyan’ko


    Full Text Available Studied time dynamics (during 60 mines a level oxide nitric (NO in cross cuts of roots 2 – day etiolated seedlings of pea sowing (Pisum sativum L. by use of fluorescent probe DAF-2DA and a fluorescent microscope depending on action exogenous calcium (Ca2+. During an exposition of seedlings on water, solution CaCl2 are shown fluctuation in level NO in roots – his increase and decrease that testifies to the certain rhythm in generation NO. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ change time dynamics of level NO in comparison with variant “water”. Ca2+chelate EGTA removes action exogenous calcium on rhythmical change of a level NO in roots. Results are discussed in aspect of close interference of signaling systems and molecules (Ca2+, NO, Н2О2.

  8. Characterization of a rapid, blue light-mediated change in detectable phosphorylation of a plasma membrane protein from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings

    Short, T.W.; Briggs, W.R.


    When crude microsomal membranes from apical stem segments of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska are mixed in vitro with γ-[ 32 P]ATP, a phosphorylated band of apparent molecular mass 120 kilodaltons can be detected on autoradiographs of sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis gels. If the stem sections are exposed to blue light immediately prior to membrane isolation, this band is not evident. Comparisons of the kinetics, tissue distribution, and dark recovery of the phosphorylation response with those published for blue light mediated phototropism or rapid growth inhibition indicate that the phosphorylation could be linked to one or both of the reactions described. However, the fluence-response relationships for the change in detectable phosphorylation match quite closely those reported for phototropism but not those for growth inhibition. Blue light has also been found to regulate the capacity for in vitro phosphorylation of a second protein. It has an apparent molecular mass of 84 kilodaltons and is localized primarily in basal stem sections

  9. Phloem unloading and cell expansion in pea stems

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Cosgrove, D.J.


    Phloem unloading into elongating stems of dark-grown pea seedlings was greater in regions with higher relative growth rates. Phloem transport was monitored over 1 h by measuring accumulation of radiolabel from 14 C-sucrose added between the cotyledons. The apical hook and plumule and 8 mm of the growing region of an intact plant were sealed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was raised to stop elongation. Phloem unloading was inhibited in the pressurized zone of elongation and accelerated in the apical hook and plumule, with the result that the magnitude of phloem transport into the stem was unchanged. The results demonstrate a coupling between cell expansion and phloem unloading

  10. The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on gene expression and pigment composition in etiolated and green pea leaf tissue: UV-B-induced changes are gene-specific and dependent upon the developmental stage

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Strid, A.; Anthony, R.G.


    The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280–320nm) on gene expression and pigment composition has been investigated in pea tissue at different stages of development. Pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Feltham First) seedlings were grown for 17d and then exposed to supplementary UV-B radiation. Chlorophyll a per unit fresh weight decreased by more than 20% compared with control levels after exposure to UV-B radiation for 7d. In contrast, chlorophyll b content remained the same or increased slightly. Leaf protein biosynthesis, as determined by 35 S-methionine incorporation, was rapidly inhibited by UV-B radiation, although the steady-state levels of proteins were either unchanged or only slightly altered. RNA transcripts for the chlorophyll a/b binding protein (cab) were also rapidly reduced to low or even undetectable levels in the expanded third leaf or younger leaf bud tissue after exposure to UV-B radiation. In contrast, cab RNA transcripts were either low or undetectable in etiolated pea tissue, but increased substantially in light and during exposure to UV-B radiation. The cab RNA transcripts were still present at control levels in pea plants after 7d of greening under supplementary UV-B radiation or UV-B alone. The protein composition changed significantly over the 7d of greening, but no differences could be detected between the light treatments. The increase in chlorophyll content was slightly greater during de-etiolation under supplementary UV-B radiation than under control irradiance. Under UV-B radiation alone, chlorophyll was synthesized at a greatly reduced rate. Changes in protective pigments were also determined. Anthocyanins did not change in either etiolated or green tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. However, other flavonoids increased substantially in either tissue during exposure to light and UV-B radiation. The RNA levels for chalcone synthase were measured in green and etiolated tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. The chs RNA transcripts were

  11. Chlorophyll mutation in field Pea (Pisum Sativum L.) that causes white stem in plants

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.


    A white stem pea mutant recovered after exposing seeds of P. sativum cv Auralia to gamma-irradiation. The mutant has shown to have single-gene recessive inheritance, characterized morphologically and for seed productivity. New mutant 1/240 had similar phenotype to previously named mutants white stem and alts (albina-terminalis) but no allelism tests were performed between the new and the previously reported mutants. The mutation in line 1/240 may be useful as a genetic marker. (authors)

  12. Analysis of Protein by Spectrophotometric and Computer Colour Based Intensity Method from Stem of Pea (Pisum sativum at Different Stages

    Afsheen Mushtaque Shah


    Full Text Available In this study proteins were analyzed from pea plants at three different growth stages of stem by spectrophotometric i.e Lowry and Bradford quantitative methods and computer colour intensity based method. Though Spectrophotometric methods are regarded as classical methods, we report an alternate computer based method which gave comparable results. Computer software was developed the for protein analysis which is easier, time and money saving method as compared to the classical methods.

  13. Auxin transport in leafy pea stem cuttings is partially driven by photosynthesis

    Kumpula, C.L.; Potter, J.R.


    When 14 C-IAA was applied to the apex of disbudded leafy pea stem cuttings (15 cm long), the movement of 14 C-IAA to the base of the cuttings after 24 h was influenced by the photosynthetic rate. In the absence of photosynthesis, light did not influence 14 C-IAA movement. Photosynthesis was altered by varying light, CO 2 concentration, or stomatal aperature (blocked with an antitranspirant). Radioactivity (identified by co-chromatography) was 25, 60, and 5% IAA, IAA-aspartate, and indolealdehyde respectively regardless of treatment. Adventitious root formation was reduced 50 to 95% and movement of IAA was inhibited 50 to 70% by decreasing gross photosynthesis 90 to 100%. Apparently, photosynthesis partially drives the movement of IAA from the apex to the base where roots arise. This gives a probably role of photosynthesis in rooting, because in this system virtually no rooting will take place without exogenous auxin and at least a low level of gross photosynthesis

  14. Gibberellin-induced changes in the populations of translatable mRNAs and accumulated polypeptides in dwarfs of maize and pea

    Chory, J.; Voytas, D.F.; Olszewski, N.E.; Ausubel, F.M.


    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the molecular mechanism of gibberellin-induced stem elongation in maize and pea. Dwarf mutants of maize and pea lack endogenous gibberellin (GA 1 ) but become phenotypically normal with exogenous applications of this hormone. Sections from either etiolated maize or green pea seedlings were incubated in the presence of [ 35 S] methionine for 3 hours with or without gibberellin. Labeled proteins from soluble and particulate fractions were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and specific changes in the patterns of protein synthesis were observed upon treatment with gibberellin. Polyadenylated mRNAs from etiolated or green maize shoots and green pea epicotyls treated or not with gibberellin (a 0.5 to 16 hour time course) were assayed by translation in a rabbit reticulocyte extract and separation of products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both increases and decreases in the levels of specific polypeptides were seen for pea and corn, and these changes were observed within 30 minutes of treatment with gibberellin. Together, these data indicate that gibberellin induces changes in the expression of a subset of gene products within elongating dwarfs. This may be due to changes in transcription rate, mRNA stability, or increased efficiency of translation of certain mRNAs

  15. Macromolecular organization of xyloglucan and cellulose in pea epicotyls

    Hayashi, T.; Maclachlan, G.


    Xyloglucan is known to occur widely in the primary cell walls of higher plants. This polysaccharide in most dicots possesses a cellulose-like main chain with three of every four consecutive residues substituted with xylose and minor addition of other sugars. Xyloglucan and cellulose metabolism is regulated by different processes; since different enzyme systems are probably required for the synthesis of their 1,4-β-linkages. A macromolecular complex composed of xyloglucan and cellulose only was obtained from elongating regions of etiolated pea stems. It was examined by light microscopy using iodine staining, by radioautography after labeling with [ 3 H]fructose, by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescein-lectin (fructose-binding) as probe, and by electron microscopy after shadowing. The techniques all demonstrated that the macromolecule was present in files of cell shapes, referred to here as cell-wall ghosts, in which xyloglucan was localized both on and between the cellulose microfibrils

  16. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    Swiecicki, W.K.


    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  17. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.


    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of 3 H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action

  18. Pea disease diagnostic series - Powdery Mildew

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of pea worldwide, and it could be caused by two fungal species Erysiphe pisi and E. trifolii. White powdery patches on leaves, stems and pods are characteristics of the disease. The pathogen may form black fruiting bodies called chasmothecia near the end of the gr...

  19. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response.

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin


    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters.

  20. Analysis of the state of posttranslational calmodulin methylation in developing pea plants

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.


    A specific calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used in a radiometric assay to analyze the degree of methylation of lysine-115 in pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Calmodulin was isolated from dissected segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by incubation with the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of [ 3 H]methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. By this approach, the presence of unmethylated calmodulins were demonstrated in pea tissues, and the levels of methylation varied depending on the developmental state of the tissue tested. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments of both etiolated and green plants, and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The incorporation of methyl groups into these calmodulin samples appears to be specific for position 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position competitively inhibited methyl group incorporation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in the ability of methylated and unmethylated calmodulins to activate pea NAD kinase raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation of calmodulin could be another mechanism for regulating calmodulin activity

  1. Emprego do estiolamento na propagação de plantas Etiolation to clonal plant propagation

    Luiz Antonio Biasi


    shoot turns green in the light. The process is not well understood, although is known that etiolation promove anatomical and physiological tissue changes which are correlated with ease of rooting. The changes include decreased of lignification and suberization of stem tissues, increased of undifferentiated parenchyma and decreased cell wall thickness. The light control of auxin metabolism is also changed, causing changes in phenolic substances content and in the activity of IAA-oxidase and rooting cofactors.

  2. Mutation breeding in peas

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  3. Mutation breeding in peas

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.


    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  4. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    Fadl, F.A.M.


    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  5. Phytochrome regulates GTP-binding protein activity in the envelope of pea nuclei

    Clark, G. B.; Memon, A. R.; Thompson, G. A. Jr; Roux, S. J.


    Three GTP-binding proteins with apparent molecular masses of 27, 28 and 30 kDa have been detected in isolated nuclei of etiolated pea plumules. After LDS-PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose these proteins bind [32P]GTP in the presence of excess ATP, suggesting that they are monomeric G proteins. When nuclei are disrupted, three proteins co-purify with the nuclear envelope fraction and are highly enriched in this fraction. The level of [32P]GTP-binding for all three protein bands is significantly increased when harvested pea plumules are irradiated by red light, and this effect is reversed by far-red light. The results indicate that GTP-binding activity associated with the nuclear envelope of plant cells is photoreversibly regulated by the pigment phytochrome.

  6. ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea

    Formulation and evaluation of complementary food based on bambara nut ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... Objectives: The study formulated and evaluated complementary food made from composites of maize, bambara nut and pigeon pea. Materials ...

  7. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Ehsan Khodapanahi


    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  8. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.


    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  9. Transcriptomics analysis of etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in response to microgravity

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression profile of two-week-old etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings under microgravity on board space flight BRIC16 were compared with ground grown control in...

  10. Evidence against the involvement of ionically bound cell wall proteins in pea epicotyl growth

    Melan, M. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.


    Ionically bound cell wall proteins were extracted from 7 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls with 3 molar LiCl. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the cell wall proteins. Growth assays showed that treatment of growing region segments (5-7 millimeters) of peas with either dialyzed serum, serum globulin fraction, affinity purified immunoglobulin, or papain-cleaved antibody fragments had no effect on growth. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed antibody binding to cell walls and penetration of the antibodies into the tissues. Western blot analysis, immunoassay results, and affinity chromatography utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies confirmed recognition of the protein preparation by the antibodies. Experiments employing in vitro extension as a screening measure indicated no effect upon extension by antibodies, by 50 millimolar LiCl perfusion of the apoplast or by 3 molar LiCl extraction. Addition of cell wall protein to protease pretreated segments did not restore extension nor did addition of cell wall protein to untreated segments increase extension. It is concluded that, although evidence suggests that protein is responsible for the process of extension, the class(es) of proteins which are extracted from pea cell walls with 3 molar LiCl are probably not involved in this process.

  11. Identification and Pathogenicity of Bacteria Associated with Etiolation and Decline of Creeping Bentgrass Golf Course Putting Greens.

    Roberts, Joseph A; Ma, Bangya; Tredway, Lane P; Ritchie, David F; Kerns, James P


    Bacterial etiolation and decline has developed into a widespread issue with creeping bentgrass (CBG) (Agrostis stolonifera) putting green turf. The condition is characterized by an abnormal elongation of turfgrass stems and leaves that in rare cases progresses into a rapid and widespread necrosis and decline. Recent reports have cited bacteria, Acidovorax avenae and Xanthomonas translucens, as causal agents; however, few cases exist where either bacterium were isolated in conjunction with turf exhibiting bacterial disease symptoms. From 2010 to 2014, turfgrass from 62 locations submitted to the NC State Turf Diagnostic Clinic exhibiting bacterial etiolation and/or decline symptoms were sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens. Isolated bacteria were identified using rRNA sequencing of the 16S subunit and internal transcribed spacer region (16S-23S or ITS). Results showed diverse bacteria isolated from symptomatic turf and A. avenae and X. translucens were only isolated in 26% of samples. Frequently isolated bacterial species were examined for pathogenicity to 4-week-old 'G2' CBG seedlings and 8-week-old 'A-1' CBG turfgrass stands in the greenhouse. While results confirmed pathogenicity of A. avenae and X. translucens, Pantoea ananatis was also shown to infect CBG turf; although pathogenicity varied among isolated strains. These results illustrate that multiple bacteria are associated with bacterial disease and shed new light on culturable bacteria living in CBG turfgrass putting greens. Future research to evaluate additional microorganisms (i.e., bacteria and fungi) could provide new information on host-microbe interactions and possibly develop ideas for management tactics to reduce turfgrass pests.

  12. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry evidence for several endogenous auxins in pea seedling organs.

    Schneider, E A; Kazakoff, C W; Wightman, F


    Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the auxins present in the root, cotyledons and epicotyl of 3-dold etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) seedlings has shown that all three organs contain phenylacetic acid (PAA), 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) and 4-chloro-3-indoleacetic acid (4Cl-IAA). In addition, 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) was present in the root and 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) was detected in both root and epicotyl. Phenylacetic acid, IAA and IPA were measured quantitatively in the three organs by GC-MS-single ion monitoring, using deuterated internal standards. Levels of IAA were found to range from 13 to 115 pmol g(-1) FW, while amounts of PAA were considerably higher (347-451 pmol g(-1) FW) and the level of IPA was quite low (5 pmol g(-1) FW). On a molar basis the PAA:IAA ratio in the whole seedling was approx. 15:1.

  13. Breeding of a protein pea ideotype for Finnish conditions

    Simo Hovinen


    Full Text Available The characteristics of protein pea (Pisum sativum L. adapted to cultivation in Finnish conditions were specified. Ideotypes for pure and mixed stands were defined separately. Factors affecting seed yield, protein yield and protein content were determined. Efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation in the varieties was evaluated at two nitrogen application levels, 16 and 80 kg/ha. Selection methods for increasing protein content were discussed. The commercial varieties bred during the programme were presented. The effect of the gene af on different characteristics of the pea was the central object of the studies. The ideotype of peas for cultivation in Finland has to be of the afila-type. This concerns cultivation in both pure and mixed stands. Afila-peas gave seed yields and protein yields as high as the leafed ones. The lodging of afila-peas throughout the generative growth phase was less than that of the conventional leaf types. In mixed cropping the most suitable afila-peas generally formed almost completely unlodged stands together with cereals. The best seed yields were given by the varieties with a stem height of 61 to 94 cm. Due to competition, the corresponding height in mixed stands ranged from 80 to 100 cm. For the same reason, varieties to be used in mixed stands must possess a fairly large seed size and fast growth rate after emergence. The optimum flowering period lasted from 19 to 28 days. The varieties must be early, with a growing time from 91 to 101 days. Late varieties are not adapted to northern conditions, giving low yields and poor quality. The mean yield of the varieties was 4500 kg/ha in pure stands. The high nitrogen application level of 80 kg/ha did not increase pea yield in comparison with the 16 kg/ha level. In contrast, it enhanced the protein content by 1 % and the protein yield slightly. In mixed stands the mean total yield was 4700kg/ha. The hectare yields of crude protein reached levels of 990 and 900 kg

  14. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka


    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  15. Photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue and red light: effects on hydraulic and cell wall properties

    Kigel, J.; Cosgrove, D. J.


    The underlying mechanism of photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue (BL) and red light (RL) was studied in etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska). Brief BL irradiations resulted in fast transient inhibition of elongation, while a delayed (lag approximately 60 minutes) but prolonged inhibition was observed after brief RL. Possible changes in the hydraulic and wall properties of the growing cells during photoinhibition were examined. Cell sap osmotic pressure was unaffected by BL and RL, but both irradiations increased turgor pressure by approximately 0.05 megapascal (pressure-probe technique). Cell wall yielding was analyzed by in vivo stress relaxation (pressure-block technique). BL and RL reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 38 and 54%, while the final amount of relaxation was decreased by 48 and 10%, respectively. These results indicate that RL inhibits elongation mainly by lowering the wall yield coefficient, while most of the inhibitory effect of BL was due to an increase of the yield threshold. Mechanical extensibility of cell walls (Instron technique) was decreased by BL and RL, mainly due to a reduction in the plastic component of extensibility. Thus, photoinhibitions of elongation by both BL and RL are achieved through changes in cell wall properties, and are not due to effects on the hydraulic properties of the cell.

  16. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.


    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding topoisomerase II in pea and analysis of its expression in relation to cell proliferation.

    Reddy, M K; Nair, S; Tewari, K K; Mudgil, Y; Yadav, B S; Sopory, S K


    We have isolated and sequenced four overlapping cDNA clones to identify the full-length cDNA for topoisomerase II (PsTopII) from pea. Using degenerate primers, based on the conserved amino acid sequences of other eukaryotic type II topoisomerases, a 680 bp fragment was PCR-amplified with pea cDNA as template. This fragment was used as a probe to screen an oligo-dT-primed pea cDNA library. A partial cDNA clone was isolated that was truncated at the 3' end. RACE-PCR was employed to isolate the remaining portion of the gene. The total size of PsTopII is 4639 bp with an open reading frame of 4392 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a strong homology to other eukaryotic topoisomerase II (topo II) at the N-terminus end. The topo II transcript was abundant in proliferative tissues. We also show that the level of topo II transcripts could be stimulated by exogenous application of growth factors that induced proliferation in vitro cultures. Light irradiation to etiolated tissue strongly stimulated the expression of topo II. These results suggest that topo II gene expression is up-regulated in response to light and hormones and correlates with cell proliferation. Besides, we have also isolated and analysed the 5'-flanking region of the pea TopII gene. This is first report on the isolation of a putative promoter for topoisomerase II from plants.

  18. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...



    Dec 3, 2008 ... canned food. Sugar rate of pea grains is high. Dry pea grains are broken and used to make soup. On the other hand, the pea grains are used in animal feed. Some pea varieties are used for the purpose of green forage production, dry forage and green manure produc- tion. These varieties are called 'feed ...

  19. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    The research objectives were: to evaluate the quality of a pea snack prepared using four different methods of cooking, namely, frying, baking, steaming and microwave; to determine the effect of blending dried green pea with chickpea dhal on the quality of a fried pea snack. Green pea and chickpea snacks were prepared ...




    Full Text Available Morphological characters such as main stem length (cm, number of branches per plant, leaf length (cm, number of leaves per main stem, number of leaflets per leaf, diameter of main stem (mm, pods / main stem and seeds / pod as well as agricultural herbage yield (t ha-1, dry matter yield (t ha-1, seed yield (t ha-1, crude protein (% were investigated in Trakya, during the 1999-2002. The maximum main stem length (124.375 cm, leaf length (24.808 cm, number of pods per main stem (16.526, herbage yield (27.881 t ha-1, dry matter yield (7.319 t ha-1 and seed yield (2.590 t ha-1 were determined from the 16-K and 16-DY field pea lines. K line has given higher values than four lines for the number of branches per plant (5.567. Main stem diameter ranged from 3.077 to 4.300 mm. It’s found that the 23.025 leaves/main stem, 6.833 leaflets/leaf, 7.692 seeds/pod and 17.550% crude protein from the field pea lines.

  1. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin


    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A protochlorophyllide light-harvesting complex involved in de-etiolation of higher plants

    Reinbothe, C.; Lebedev, N.; Reinbothe, S.


    When etiolated angiosperm seedlings break through the soil after germination, they are immediately exposed to sunlight, but at this stage they are unable to perform photosynthesis1. In the absence of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, two other porphyrin species cooperate as the basic light-harvesting structure of etiolated plants. Protochlorophyllide a and protochlorophyllide b (ref. 2) form supramolecular complexes with NADPH and two closely related NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins—PORA and PORB (ref. 3)—in the prolamellar body of etioplasts. Here we report that these light-harvesting POR–protochlorophyllide complexes, named LHPP, are essential for the establishment of the photosynthetic apparatus and also confer photoprotection on the plant. They collect sunlight for rapid chlorophyll a biosynthesis and, simultaneously, dissipate excess light energy in the bulk of non-photoreducible protochlorophyllide b. Based on this dual function, it seems that LHPP provides the link between skotomorphogenesis and photosynthesis that is required for efficient de-etiolation


    V. S. Anokhina


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the presence in genomes of pea hybrid materials of the DNA regions complementary to the primers that are associated with the biochemical characteristics and resistance to powdery mildew.

  4. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.


    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  5. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils


    ... Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To... meeting the needs in today's marketing environment. DATES: GIPSA will consider comments received by..., DC, 20250-3604. Email comments to: [email protected] Fax: (202) 690-2173. Internet: Go to http...

  6. Effects of a concentrate of pea antinutritional factors on pea protein digestibility in piglets

    Guen, M.P. Le; Huisman, J.; Guéguen, J.; Beelen, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.


    Four experiments were designed to investigate the apparent ileal digestibility of raw pea (Pisum sativum) and two of its components - an isolate of its proteins and a concentrate of its proteinaceous antinutritional factors (ANFs). Three varieties of peas were used: spring varieties Finale and

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Carica papaya embryogenic callus upon De-etiolated 1 (DET1 gene suppression

    Diyana Jamaluddin


    Full Text Available Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1 can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2,3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3′ mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression.

  8. Growth Protocols for Etiolated Soybeans Germinated within BRIC-60 Canisters Under Spaceflight Conditions

    Levine, H. G.; Sharek, J. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V. I.; Martynenko, O. I.; Piastuch, W. C.

    As part of the GENEX (Gene Expression) spaceflight experiment, protocols were developed to optimize the inflight germination and subsequent growth of 192 soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) seeds during STS-87. We describe a method which provided uniform growth and development of etiolated seedlings while eliminating root and shoot restrictions for short-term (4-7 day) experiments. Final seedling growth morphologies and the gaseous CO2 and ethylene levels present both on the last day in space and at the time of recovery within the spaceflight and ground control BRIC-60 canisters are presented

  9. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.


    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  10. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    Yagoub, Yagoub Magboul


    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  11. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.


    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  12. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system


    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  13. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka


    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  14. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  15. Jasmonic acid protects etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana against herbivorous arthropods.

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane


    Seed predators can cause mass ingestion of larger seed populations. As well, herbivorous arthropods attempt to attack etiolated seedlings and chose the apical hook for ingestion, aimed at dropping the cotyledons for later consumption. Etiolated seedlings, as we show here, have established an efficient mechanism of protecting their Achilles' heel against these predators, however. Evidence is provided for a role of jasmonic acid (JA) in this largely uncharacterized plant-herbivore interaction during skotomorphogenesis and that this comprises the temporally and spatially tightly controlled synthesis of a cysteine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz family. Interestingly, the same Kunitz protease inhibitor was found to be expressed in flowers of Arabidopsis where endogenous JA levels are high for fertility. Because both the apical hook and inflorescences were preferred isopod targets in JA-deficient plants that could be rescued by exogenously administered JA, our data identify a JA-dependent mechanism of plant arthropod deterrence that is recalled in different organs and at quite different times of plant development.

  16. Effect of Hypergravity on the Level of Heat Shock Proteins 70 and 90 in Pea Seedlings

    Kozeko, Liudmyla; Kordyum, Elizabeth


    Exposure to hypergravity induces significant changes in gene expression of plants which are indicative of stress conditions. A substantial part of the general stress response is up-regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsp) which function as molecular chaperones. The objective of this research was to test the possible changes in the Hsp70 and Hsp90 level in response to short-term hypergravity exposure. In this study 5-day-old etiolated pea seedlings were exposed to centrifuge-induced hypergravity (3-14 g) for 15 min and 1 h and a part of the seedlings was sampled at 1.5 and 24 h after the exposures. Western blot analysis showed time-dependent changes in Hsp70 and Hsp90 levels: an increase under hypergravity and a tendency towards recovery of the normal content during re-adaptation. The quantity and time of their expression was correlated with the g-force level. These data suggest that short-term hypergravity acts as a stress which could increase the risk of protein denaturation and aggregation. Molecular chaperons induced during the stress may have an essential role in counteracting this risk.

  17. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Nikolova, I


    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  18. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  19. Number and Effectiveness of Pea Rhizobia in Danish Soils

    Engvild, K.C.


    Most of 44 Danish soils tested contain between 1000 and 10 000 pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) per gram. Pea rhizobia were not detected in acid moor and forest soils. Only one case of failed nodulation in peas in the field has been noted, in spots in a reclaimed sandy heath m...

  20. Biological characterization and variability of the nucleocapsid protein gene of Groundnut bud necrosis virus isolates infecting pea from India

    Mohammad AKRAM


    Full Text Available A disease of pea characterized by browning in veins, leaves and stems, mostly in growing tips, and brown circular spots on pods, was recorded in four districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The causal agent of this disease was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers pair HRP 26/HRP 28 and identified as Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV on the basis of nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. Virus isolates from Bareilly (BRY, Kanpur (KNP, Udham Singh Nagar (USN and Shahjahanpur (SJP were designated as GBNV-[Pea_BRY], GBNV-[Pea_KNP], GBNV-[Pea_USN] and GBNV-[Pea_SJP] and their NP genes sequenced. The sequence data of each isolate were deposited at NCBI database (JF281101-JF281104. The complete nucleotide sequence of the NP genes of all the GBNV isolates had a single open reading frame of 831 nucleotides and 276 amino acids. The isolates had among them 2% variability at amino acid level and 2‒3 variability at nucleotide level, but had variability with other GBNV isolates of fabaceous hosts in the range of 0‒6% at amino acid level and 1‒8% at nucleotide level. Though this variation in nucleotide sequences of GBNV isolates from fabaceous hosts is within the limits of species demarcation for tospoviruses, formation of a separate cluster within the GBNV isolates indicates the possibility of distinct variants in GBNV.

  1. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    Urbinato, D.


    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  2. Pea yield and its components in different crop rotations

    Seibutis, Vytautas; Deveikytė, Irena


    The effects of the crop rotations (2-4 course) differing in duration on the formation of pea productivity elements and the yield were investigated in stationary field experiments in Dotnuva during 1997-2004. Averaged experimental data showed that the highest pea yield (3.70 t ha-1) was recorded in the three-course crop rotation (sugar beet-spring barley-pea), in the four-course (pea-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley) and two-course (pea-winter wheat) crop rotations the grain yield consist...

  3. Spatio-temporal changes in endogenous abscisic acid contents during etiolated growth and photomorphogenesis in tomato seedlings

    Humplík, Jan; Turečková, Veronika; Fellner, Martin; Bergougnoux, V.


    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), č. článku e1039213. ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis seedlings * blue-light * phytochromes * germination * metabolism * dormancy * barley * seeds * abscisic acid * blue-light * etiolated growth * photomorphogenesis * tomato Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Yi-Xiao Li


    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  5. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T


    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  6. Pea and pea-grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows

    Rondahl, Tomas


    In this review the use of pea and pea/grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows is discussed. An introductory discussion concerns the ensilage process and protein degradation and effects of different silage additives. To minimise protein loss, prewilting time should be kept short. An acid additive will reduce respiration and thereby reduce protein degradation. The main part of the review discusses nutritional and botanical changes during development as well as results from bo...

  7. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K


    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  8. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E


    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Onl...

  9. Pea Streak Virus Recorded in Europe

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Bečková, M.; Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel


    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 164-166 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pea streak virus * alfalfa * carlavirus * partial sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  10. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van


    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  11. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006


    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  12. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.


    ... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas... two or more, of the following safe and suitable optional ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial... “early June” shall precede or follow the name in the case of smooth-skin or substantially smooth-skin...

  13. Changes in the state of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings

    Dilova, S.


    Changes in the metabolism of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings have been studied. The experiments were carried out with six-day-old etiolated plants, having a well-developed first leaf, grown on 1/2 Knop nutrient solution. The plants were illuminated with light, 10 000 lux intensity. Samples for analysis were taken at nil, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours. The extraction of the pigments was effected with the aid of the fractionation method according to Chernomorski and Sapozhnikov. The specific radioactivity of the individual carotenoid pigments was measured. To this end the plants were placed on a solution of sodium acetate ( 14 C) for 18 hours before illumination. The radiochemical purification of the pigments was carried out on an aluminium oxide column, after their chromatographic separation on paper. The results obtained from the experiments show that the illumination of the plants leads to a 2.4-fold increase in the total amount of carotenoids. The amount of the carotene increases approximately about 8 times over a 24-hour period and that of the xanthophylles - almost two times. A rhythm is observed in the formation of lutein and violaxanthin, which is discussed in connection with the participation of these pigments in the formation and the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. The data on the changes in the state of the individual pigments indicate differences in accordance with their nature. The distinct manifestation of the heterogeneity of the carotene is observed in the case where the photosynthesis apparatus is fully formed. Obviously, the manifestation of the heterogeneity of that pigment is related to the formation of chloroplast and changes in the environment. Data on changes in the specific radioactivity of the easily-extractable fractions of the lutein and the violaxanthin show that the newly-synthesized molecules are more easily extractable. (author)

  14. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.


    The invertase (EC purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  15. The pea SAD short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase: quinone reduction, tissue distribution, and heterologous expression.

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Åke


    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level.

  16. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.)

    U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi


    Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...

  17. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min


    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types....

  18. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith


    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  19. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Nadim eTAYEH


    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  20. Apoplastic domains and sub-domains in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    Epel, B. L.; Bandurski, R. S.


    Light Green, an apoplastic probe, was applied to the cut mesocotyl base or to the cut coleoptile apex of etiolated seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen. Probe transport was measured and its tissue distribution determined. In the mesocotyl, there is an apoplastic barrier between cortex and stele. This barrier creates two apoplastic domains which are non-communicating. A kinetic barrier exists between the apoplast of the mesocotyl stele and that of the coleoptile. This kinetic barrier is not absolute and there is limited communication between the apoplasts of the two regions. This kinetic barrier effectively creates two sub-domains. In the coleoptile, there is communication between the apoplast of the vascular strands and that of the surrounding cortical tissue. No apoplastic communication was observed between the coleoptile cortex and the mesocotyl cortex. Thus, the apoplastic space of the coleoptile cortex is a sub-domain of the integrated coleoptile domain and is separate from that of the apoplastic domain of the mesocotyl cortex.

  1. Modulation of the nitrate reductase transcript by cytokinin and abscisic acid in etiolated barley seedlings

    Lu, Jia-ling; Enl, J.R.; Chen, Chong-maw


    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the hormonal modulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) on the level of NR poly(A)RNA was studied in etiolated barley seedlings using a 32 P-labelled NR cDNA as a probe. Enhancement of NR activity by 2 x 10 -5 M BA was measurable only after 60 minutes of exposure of the seedlings to light, while a significant stimulatory effect on the transcript level could by clearly detected within 15 minutes. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly(A)RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of BA applied to the seedlings. The stimulatory effects seen for BA were nullified by ABA. The counteractive effects of ABA on BA were dose-responsive, with greater inhibition at higher concentrations of ABA. Evidence suggests that the interaction of BA and ABA on NR activity is at the transcriptional level, however, is also possible that interactions occur at the postranscriptional level as well

  2. Enterobacterias como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea en la comunidad

    Carlos Agudelo


    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar, a nivel de la comunidad, los enteropatógenos bacterianos que producen diarrea en niños menores de 10 años, tomamos muestras de heces de 204 pacientes con cuadro diarreico de 1 a 7 días de evolución y de un grupo control, sin diarrea, conformado por 48 niños. Evaluamos también la recuperación de los microorganismos empleando o no medio de Cary-Blair como medio de transporte e identificamos las categorías de Escherichia coli aisladas empleando pruebas biológicas e inmunológicas. Se destacaron como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea E. coli (58,8%, E. coli enterotoxigénica, productora de toxina labil (ECET-TL (5,1%, Salmonella enteritidis (6,9% y Shigella sonnei (5,9%. Cuando no se usó el medio de transporte de Cary-Blair la sensibilidad en la recuperación de los microorganismos fue del 37%. Se destaca la importancia de determinar la frecuencia real de las categorías de E. coli en nuestro medio.

  3. Mechanism of blue-light-induced plasma-membrane depolarization in etiolated cucumber hypocotyls

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.


    A large, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane precedes the rapid blue-light (BL)-induced growth suppression in etiolated seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. The mechanism of this voltage transient was investigated by applying inhibitors of ion channels and the plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase, by manipulating extracellular ion concentrations, and by measuring cell input resistance and ATP levels. The depolarizing phase was not affected by Ca(2+)-channel blockers (verapamil, La3+) or by reducing extracellular free Ca2+ by treatment with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). However, these treatments did reduce the rate of repolarization, indicating an inward movement of Ca2+ is involved. No effects of the K(+)-channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA+) were detected. Vanadate and KCN, used to inhibit the H(+)-ATPase, reduced or completely inhibited the BL-induced depolarization. Levels of ATP increased by 11-26% after 1-2 min of BL. Input resistance of trichrome cells, measured with double-barreled microelectrodes, remained constant during the onset of the depolarization but decreased as the membrane voltage became more positive than -90 mV. The results indicate that the depolarization mechanism initially involves inactivation of the H(+)-ATPase with subsequent transient activation of one or more types of ion channels.

  4. The role of strigolactones in photomorphogenesis of pea is limited to adventitious rooting.

    Urquhart, Shelley; Foo, Eloise; Reid, James B


    The recently discovered group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, have been implicated in regulating photomorphogenesis. We examined this extensively in our strigolactone synthesis and response mutants and could find no evidence to support a major role for strigolactone signaling in classic seedling photomorphogenesis (e.g. elongation and leaf expansion) in pea (Pisum sativum), consistent with two recent independent reports in Arabidopsis. However, we did find a novel effect of strigolactones on adventitious rooting in darkness. Strigolactone-deficient mutants, Psccd8 and Psccd7, produced significantly fewer adventitious roots than comparable wild-type seedlings when grown in the dark, but not when grown in the light. This observation in dark-grown plants did not appear to be due to indirect effects of other factors (e.g. humidity) as the constitutively de-etiolated mutant, lip1, also displayed reduced rooting in the dark. This role for strigolactones did not involve the MAX2 F-Box strigolactone response pathway as Psmax2 f-box mutants did not show a reduction in adventitious rooting in the dark compared with wild-type plants. The auxin-deficient mutant bushy also reduced adventitious rooting in the dark, as did decapitation of wild-type plants. Rooting was restored by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to decapitated plants, suggesting a role for auxin in the rooting response. However, auxin measurements showed no accumulation of IAA in the epicotyls of wild-type plants compared with the strigolactone synthesis mutant Psccd8, suggesting that changes in the gross auxin level in the epicotyl are not mediating this response to strigolactone deficiency. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne


    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  6. Decrease of H1 histone and changes in chromatin structure and transcription in pea seedlings after γ-irradiation

    Bagi, G.; Hidvegi, E.J.


    Seeds and seedlings of pea have been irradiated between zero to 300 Gy doses of 60 Co gamma-irradiation and examinations were carried out on the chromatin of shoots of 1-week-old etiolated seedlings. There was only a slight change in the gross composition of chromatin after irradiation (in the mass ratios of DNA:RNA:histone:non-histone proteins). Separation of histones, however, showed that after 300 Gy irradiation the quantity of H1 histones decreased by 33% after seed irradiation and 43% after seedling irradiation. The ratio of H1 subfractions also changed. Enzymes DNAase II and micrococcal nuclease digested the chromatin of the irradiated sample 30% faster than the unirradiated one. Transcription kinetics of chromatin showed a gradual decrease of Ksub(m) value on increasing doses of irradiation. There was, however, no difference in the rate of transcription of DNAs, isolated from the chromatin of the control and irradiated samples. Protease and RNAase activity of whole shoots showed enhancement after irradiation. These data suggest that irradiation of either seeds or seedlings results in loosening of the seedling chromatin structure, while there is no change in basic nucleosomal structure. The specific degradation or dissociation of histone H1, localized in the internucleosomal region may be responsible for these changes in the higher order structure of chromatin. This may explain the easier accessibility of chromatin to DNAase II after irradiation and the more tightly bound RNA polymerase, exhibited in decreasing Ksub(m) values. (Auth.)

  7. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...

  8. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  9. Functional analysis of mildly refined fractions from yellow pea

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.


    Dry fractionation offers an attractive route to sustainably produce protein-enriched plant-based ingredients. For example, fine milling of peas followed by air classification separates starch granules from the protein matrix. Unlike conventional wet isolates, dry-enriched pea fractions consist of a

  10. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Sesequent Gel Formation

    Munialo, C.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.


    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  11. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J


    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  12. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Subsequent Gel Formation

    Munialo, XC.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, E. van der; Jongh, H.H.J de


    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  13. Dry fractionation for production of functional pea protein concentrates

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Vissers, A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.


    Dry milling in combination with air classification was evaluated as an alternative to conventional wet extraction of protein from yellow field peas (Pisum sativum). Major advantages of dry fractionation are retention of native functionality of proteins and its lower energy and water use. Peas were

  14. The Pisum Genus: Getting out of Pea Soup!

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has long been a model for plant genetics and is a widely grown pulse crop producing protein-rich seeds in a sustainable manner. However, many questions remain open about (sub)species relationships in the Pisumgenus. The ongoing pea genome sequencing project and the recent geno...

  15. KASP assays for powdery mildew resistance breeding in pea

    Powdery mildew of pea, caused by Erysiphe pisi DC, is a serious production constraint to pea (Pisum sativum L.) production in the U.S. and elsewhere. Utilization of genetic resistance to powdery mildew using er1 has been an effective strategy to manage this disease. This gene, er1, conferring powde...

  16. Revoluntionary Faith and Religious Disillusionment in Enrico Pea's ...

    Questa tragedia segna anche un momento cruciale di transizione nella produzione letteraria di Pea e, pur mostrando chiaramente l'influenza delle sue precedenti affinità con il Marxismo e con il movimento anarchico, guarda già in avanti con il profondo interesse e rispetto di Pea per le proprie radici cattoliche che si ...

  17. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas


    ... available for public inspection in the above office during regular business hours (7 CFR 1.27(b)). Please... the fundamental starting point to define commodity quality in the domestic and global marketplace... for whole dry peas, split peas, and lentils in today's marketing environment. According to information...

  18. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.


    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  19. Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop ...

    Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop/livestock integrated farming system in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... Pigeon pea plots with row lengths averaging 11 m and a planting geometry of 80 cm W 50 cm, were either pruned at 60 or 100 cm above ground level or not ...

  20. The effect of Orobanche crenata infection severity in faba bean, field pea, and grass pea productivity.

    Monica Fernandez-Aparicio


    Full Text Available Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops i.e. faba bean, field pea and grass pea. Regression functions modelled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2 and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The proportion of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than 4 parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size

  1. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity.

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego


    Broomrape weeds ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  2. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Weeden, Norman F.


    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  3. Influence of UV-A or UV-B light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in etiolated tomato cotyledons

    Migge, A.; Carrayol, E.; Hirel, B.; Lohmann, M.; Meya, G.; Becker, T.W.


    The influence of ultraviolet A (UV-A) or B (UV-B) light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT, EC was examined in etiolated cotyledons of tomato (Lycopersicon escu- lentum L.). The Fd-GOGAT activity increased upon illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons with UV-A or UV-B light. This stimulation of Fd-GOGAT activity was correlated with an increase in both the Fd-GOGAT transcript level and the Fd-GOGAT protein abundance. These results suggest that UV-A or UV-B light stimulates the de novo synthesis of Fd-GOGAT in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Both UV-A and UV-B light failed to influence the activity of NADH-GOGAT (EC in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Taken together, our data indicate that the tomato genes encoding Fd- or NADH-dependent glutamate synthase are regulated differently by UV-A or UV-B light. No difference with respect to both the Fd-GOGAT transcript and protein abundance was found between cotyledons of tomato seedlings grown with either nitrate or ammonium as the sole N-source in the dark or in white light. In addition, the increase in the Fd-GOGAT protein pool induced by white light in etiolated nitrate-grown tomato seedling cotyledons was similar to that induced by white light in etiolated ammonium-grown tomato seedling cotyledons. These results show that the tomato Fd-GOGAT protein level does not depend strongly on the nature of the nitrogen source and that there appears to be no major stimulatory effect on the Fd-GOGAT protein pool produced by nitrate during the illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons

  4. UV-B induction of NADP-malic enzyme in etiolated and green maize seedlings

    Drincovich, M.F.; Casati, P.; Andreo, C.S.; Donahue, R.; Edwards, G.E.


    The effect of treatment of etiolated maize seedlings with UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm), on the activity and quantity of NADP-malic enzyme (NADPME) and on RNA levels was determined. Under low levels of PAR (14 µmol m –2 s –1 ), exposure to UV-B radiation (9 µmol m –2 s –1 ) but not UV-A radiation (11 µmol m –2 s –1 ) for 6–24 h caused a marked increase in the activity of the enzyme similar to that observed under high PAR (300 µmol m –2 s –1 ) in the absence of UV-B. Western blot analysis indicated there was a specific increase of the photosynthetically active isoform of the enzyme. This increase was also measured at the RNA level by dot blot analysis, indicating that the induction is displayed at the level of NADP-ME transcription. UV-B treatment of green leaves after a 12 h dark period also caused an increase in the activity and level of NADP-ME. The UV-B induction of NADP-ME synthesis may reflect a mechanism for induction of photosynthetic processes in C4 photosynthesis. Alternatively, the relatively low intensity of UV-B radiation present under full sunlight might provide a signal that facilitates repair of UV-B-induced damage through the increased activity of different enzymes such as NADP-ME. It is speculated that the reducing power and pyruvate generated by activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration in cellular repair processes and as substrates for the fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair. (author)

  5. Dry pea seed quality depending on seed moisture at harvest and cultivar

    Milošević Branko


    Full Text Available The effect of seed moisture content at harvest on the most important parameters of dry pea was examined. The seed moisture content, germination energy, germination, proportion of abnormal seedlings and 1000-seed weight were analyzed in three dry pea cultivars (Jezero, Javor and NS-Junior and at eight harvest stages. At the first harvest stage, seed moisture content was 20.44%, while at the eighth stage it was 11.26%. The best seed quality, with germination energy of 81.70% and germination of 90.11%, was at the sixth harvest time when seed moisture content was 12.92%. The poorest seed quality one was at the first harvest stage, with germination energy of 68.55% and germination of 78.56%. Cultivar Jezero, with shorter growing season, determinant stem growth and uniform maturity, had the highest germination energy (82.00%, germination (92.21% and percent of abnormal seedlings (1.96%. Cultivar NS Junior, with the longest growing season, indeterminant stem growth and non-uniform maturity, had the lowest germination energy (70.39% and germination (76.54%, and the highest percent of abnormal seedlings (3.58%.

  6. Uptake and distribution of /sup 232/U in peas and barley

    Schreckhise, R G; Cline, J F [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)


    The uptake of /sup 232/U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for /sup 232/U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of /sup 232/U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10/sup -4/ while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10/sup -3/. The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10/sup -4/, 3.3 x 10/sup -3/ and 1.7 x 10/sup -2/, respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man.

  7. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A


    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at

  8. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.


    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  9. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Jolana Karovičová


    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  10. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by the pea crop

    Jensen, E.S.


    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field and pot experiments using the 15 N isotope dilution technique and spring barley as a non-fixing reference crop. Barley, although not ideal, seemed to be a suitable reference for pea in the 15 N-technique. Maximum N 2 fixation activity of 10 kg N fixed per ha per day was reached around the flat pod growth stage, and the activity decreased rapidly during pod-filling. The pea crop fixed between 100 and 250 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to from 45 to 80 per cent of total crop N. The amount of symbiotically fixed N 2 depended on the climatic conditions in the experimental year, the level of soil mineral N and the pea cultivar. Field-grown pea took up 60 to 70 per cent of the N-fertilizer supplied. The supply of 50 kg NO 3 -N ha -1 inhibited the N 2 fixation approximately 15 per cent. Small amounts of fertilizer N, supplied at sowing (starter-N), slightly stimulated the vegetative growth of pea, but the yields of seed dry matter and protein were not significantly influenced. In the present field experiments the environmental conditions, especially the distribution of rainfall during the growth season, seemed to be more important in determining the protein and dry matter yield of the dry pea crop, than the ability of pea to fix nitrogen symbiotically. However, fertilizer N supplied to pot-grown pea plants at the flat pod growth stage or as split applications significantly increased the yield of seed dry matter and protein. (author)

  11. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang


    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. REPRESSOR OF ULTRAVIOLET-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS function allows efficient phototropin mediated ultraviolet-B phototropism in etiolated seedlings.

    Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Schumacher, Paolo; Poelman, Dirk; Fankhauser, Christian; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip


    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a part of the solar radiation which has significant effects on plant morphology, even at low doses. In Arabidopsis, many of these morphological changes have been attributed to a specific UV-B receptor, UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Recent findings showed that next to phototropin regulated phototropism, UVR8 mediated signaling is able of inducing directional bending towards UV-B light in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis, in a phototropin independent manner. In this study, kinetic analysis of phototropic bending was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each of these pathways in UV-B mediated phototropism. Diminishing UV-B light intensity favors the importance of phototropins. Molecular and genetic analyses suggest that UV-B is capable of inducing phototropin signaling relying on phototropin kinase activity and regulation of NPH3. Moreover, enhanced UVR8 responses in the UV-B hypersensitive rup1rup2 mutants interferes with the fast phototropin mediated phototropism. Together the data suggest that phototropins are the most important receptors for UV-B induced phototropism in etiolated seedlings, and a RUP mediated negative feedback pathway prevents UVR8 signaling to interfere with the phototropin dependent response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Or mutation leads to photo-oxidative stress responses in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) seedlings during de-etiolation.

    Men, Xiao; Dong, Kang


    The Orange (Or) gene is a gene mutation that can increase carotenoid content in plant tissues normally devoid of pigments. It affects plastid division and is involved in the differentiation of proplastids or non-colored plastids into chromoplasts. In this study, the de-etiolation process of the wild type (WT) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Or mutant seedlings was investigated. We analyzed pigment content, plastid development, transcript abundance and protein levels of genes involved in the de-etiolation process. The results showed that Or can increase the carotenoid content in green tissues, although not as effectively as in non-green tissues, and this effect might be caused by the changes in biosynthetic pathway genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There was no significant difference in the plastid development process between the two lines. However, the increased content of antheraxanthin and anthocyanin, and higher expression levels of violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (VDE) suggested a stress situation leading to photoinhibition and enhanced photoprotection in the Or mutant. The up-regulated expression levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced genes, ZAT10 for salt tolerance zinc finger protein and ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2), suggested the existence of photo-oxidative stress in the Or mutant. In summary, abovementioned findings provide additional insight into the functions of the Or gene in different tissues and at different developmental stages.

  14. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    Niemi, K.J.


    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  15. Lodging resistant pea line derived after mutagenic treatment

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.


    Line 1/502 is a new lodging resistant pea ( Pisum sativum L.) developed for the Bulgarian field pea industry. This line is a direct chlorophyll mutant, which originates after treatment of the initial line, cultivar Auralia, with 150 Gy 60 Co γ - radiation. In regional evaluation trials conducted in Sofia over seven successive seasons 1/502 has revealed improved standing ability that most probably is a result from modification of the architecture of the plants appearing in reduction of plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the mutant line were reported. The upright plant habit and resistance to lodging is especially beneficial for production of high quality peas because pods are held above the soil surface during crop development and during maturity which aids in keeping the peas clean and free of pathogens that can cause discoloration and rotting. (authors)

  16. Effect of Pigeon Pea Hedgerow Alley Management on the Growth ...

    year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...

  17. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    Fadl, F.A.M.


    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  18. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era

    Smýkal, P.; Aubert, G.; Burstin, J.; Coyne, C.J.; Ellis, N.T.H.; Flavell, A.J.; Ford, R.; Hýbl, M.; Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; McPhee, K.E.; Redden, R.J.; Rubiales, D.; Weller, J.L.; Warkentin, T.D.


    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-115 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : breeding * germplasm * genetic diversity * pea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Robert J. Redden


    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  20. Ly α and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wofford, Aida, E-mail: [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Astronomy (Mexico)


    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Ly α escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly α and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . We extract the spatial profiles of Ly α emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly α emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Ly α spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high- z LAEs probably have larger Ly α sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly α photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Ly α line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Ly α line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Ly α and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low- z and high- z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Ly α light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Ly α to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  1. PEA: an integrated R toolkit for plant epitranscriptome analysis.

    Zhai, Jingjing; Song, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Tang, Yunjia; Ma, Chuang


    The epitranscriptome, also known as chemical modifications of RNA (CMRs), is a newly discovered layer of gene regulation, the biological importance of which emerged through analysis of only a small fraction of CMRs detected by high-throughput sequencing technologies. Understanding of the epitranscriptome is hampered by the absence of computational tools for the systematic analysis of epitranscriptome sequencing data. In addition, no tools have yet been designed for accurate prediction of CMRs in plants, or to extend epitranscriptome analysis from a fraction of the transcriptome to its entirety. Here, we introduce PEA, an integrated R toolkit to facilitate the analysis of plant epitranscriptome data. The PEA toolkit contains a comprehensive collection of functions required for read mapping, CMR calling, motif scanning and discovery, and gene functional enrichment analysis. PEA also takes advantage of machine learning technologies for transcriptome-scale CMR prediction, with high prediction accuracy, using the Positive Samples Only Learning algorithm, which addresses the two-class classification problem by using only positive samples (CMRs), in the absence of negative samples (non-CMRs). Hence PEA is a versatile epitranscriptome analysis pipeline covering CMR calling, prediction, and annotation, and we describe its application to predict N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Experimental results demonstrate that the toolkit achieved 71.6% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity, which is superior to existing m6A predictors. PEA is potentially broadly applicable to the in-depth study of epitranscriptomics. PEA Docker image is available at, source codes and user manual are available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. The Pea SAD Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase: Quinone Reduction, Tissue Distribution, and Heterologous Expression1[W][OA

    Scherbak, Nikolai; Ala-Häivälä, Anneli; Brosché, Mikael; Böwer, Nathalie; Strid, Hilja; Gittins, John R.; Grahn, Elin; Eriksson, Leif A.; Strid, Åke


    The pea (Pisum sativum) tetrameric short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase-like protein (SAD) family consists of at least three highly similar members (SAD-A, -B, and -C). According to mRNA data, environmental stimuli induce SAD expression. The aim of this study was to characterize the SAD proteins by examining their catalytic function, distribution in pea, and induction in different tissues. In enzyme activity assays using a range of potential substrates, the SAD-C enzyme was shown to reduce one- or two-ring-membered quinones lacking long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. Immunological assays using a specific antiserum against the protein demonstrated that different tissues and cell types contain small amounts of SAD protein that was predominantly located within epidermal or subepidermal cells and around vascular tissue. Particularly high local concentrations were observed in the protoderm of the seed cotyledonary axis. Two bow-shaped rows of cells in the ovary and the placental surface facing the ovule also exhibited considerable SAD staining. Ultraviolet-B irradiation led to increased staining in epidermal and subepidermal cells of leaves and stems. The different localization patterns of SAD suggest functions both in development and in responses to environmental stimuli. Finally, the pea SAD-C promoter was shown to confer heterologous wound-induced expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which confirmed that the inducibility of its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:21343423




    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Trakia University - Stara Zagora to establish the effect of some growth retardants on morphological and productive parameters in spring pea for grain variety Bogatir. Three combined preparations: Trisalvit (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride + chlorophenoxyacetic acid +salicylic acid at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1; SM-21 (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1 and PNSA-44 (phenylphthalamic acid + naphthaleneacetic acid + chlorophenoxyacetic acid at doses of 200 and 300 сmз*ha-1 were applied in the early growth phase of the plant up to a height of 15-20 cm. The study showed that the greatest reduction in the stem height (by 12.8% compared to untreated plants was achieved by applying SM-21 (400 сmз*ha-1. The application of growth regulators Trisalvit and SM-21 had no appreciable effect on the production of spring pea grain. Maximum values of yield structure components (number of pods and grain per plant, grain mass per plant and mass of 1000 grain and the yield were obtained after application of PNSA-44 (300 сmз*ha-1 - up to 5.6% (117.2 kg*ha-1 more grain than the control. The investigation of the influence of tested factors (retardant, dose and year demonstrated that the conditions of the year as a factor had the strongest effect on plant height and grain yield.

  4. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 1. Effects of Tl(I) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Poetsch, U; Austenfeld, F A


    The effects of TlNO/sub 3/ and Tl(I)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of TlNO/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(I)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. With increasing concentration of TlNO/sub 3/ dry matter production of pea plants was lowered and the Tl content of each organ was increased. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. The increased Tl contents were accompanied by depressed Mn, Zn, and Cu contents of the roots and depressed Mn contents of the stems, but increased Fe contents of the stems. Substitution of TlNO/sub 3/ by Tl(I)EDTA resulted in a stronger growth inhibition of the pea plants, and higher Tl contents of each organ. The highest Tl content was found within the stems. Tl(I)EDTA depressed Mn in the roots, but increased Fe and Mn in the stems, and Fe, Zn and Cu in the leaves. The increases may due to concentration by growth inhibition. The growth of the field bean was not effected by TlNO/sub 3/ nor by Tl(I)EDTA. The field bean contained most of the Tl within the roots and translocated only relatively small amounts to the shoots. This pattern was independent of the Tl compound. Increasing concentrations of TlNO/sub 3/ resulted in depressed Mn and Zn contents of the roots, and Mn contents of the stems. Chelation of Tl(I) resulted in a decrease of the Tl content of each organ. Tl(I)EDTA depressed only the Mn content of the roots.

  5. Uptake pathways of fluorescent indicators by pea seed and seedlings and their potential as anti-counterfeiting labeling for plant seeds

    Lin, C.; Guan, Y. J.; Fu, H.; Hu, J.; Tian, Y. X.


    The present study investigates the effects of seed soaking in varying concentration of rhodamine B (RB) or safranine T (ST) solutions on germination and seedling growth of pea seeds. The fluorescence in pea seedling at different developmental stages was observed. The results indicate that there were no adverse effects of seed soaking in RB (0.1mg/ml) and ST (0.5, 0.3, 0.1mg/ml) solutions on germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll contents. The seeds treated with RB showed bright red and orange fluorescence under green (546 nm) and blue (495 nm) light excitation, respectively while no red or orange color was observed in the control seeds. In addition, the vascular bundles of stem, seedling roots and aerial parts of seedlings treated with RB all emitted brilliant fluorescence for a longer time as compared with that treated with ST. It can be concluded that pea seed labeled with RB by seed soaking at appropriate concentration could be used as a potential anti-counterfeiting technique in pea seeds. (author)

  6. Effect of abscisic acid and blue radiation on photosynthesis and growth of pea plants

    Siedlecka, M.; Romanowska, E.


    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the net photosynthetic rate (PN), the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities, the chlorophyll (Chl) content and growth of pea plants (Pisum sativum) grown under ''white'' (WR) or blue radiation (BR), were investigated. BR as compared to WR enhanced PN, the activities of examined enzymes, and Chl content. In spite of higher PN of the plants grown under BR, dry matter of their shoots was lower in comparison with WR. ABA-treated plants grown under both WR and BR showed reduction in PN. ABA had no effect on the activities of both RuBPC and PEPC and the Chl content. Independent on the radiation quality, ABA reduced stem elongation, but did not affect the biomass of whole shoots

  7. Increased germination and growth rates of pea and Zucchini seed by FSG plasma

    Khatami, Shohreh; Ahmadinia, Arash


    Recently, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) with the unique bio-disinfection features is used in various fields of industry, medicine, and agriculture. The main objectives of this work were to design FSG plasma (a semi-automatic device) and investigate the effect of the cold plasma in the enhancement of the Pea and Zucchini seed germination. Plasma irradiation time was studied to obtain a proper condition for the germination enhancement of seeds. The growth rate was calculated by measuring length of root and stem and dry weight of plants treated by plasma. To investigate drought resistance of plants, all treated and untreated samples were kept in darkness without water for 48 h. From the experimental results, it could be confirmed both drought resistance and germination of seedlings increased after plasma was applied to seeds at 30 s, while seeds treated whiten 60 s showed a decrease in both germination rate and seedling growth.

  8. Modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo feminino

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes


    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo foi construir um modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo feminino. Participaram 1.358 adolescentes de quatro cidades. Foram avaliados os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares, insatisfação corporal, pressões midiáticas, autoestima, estado de humor, sintomas depressivos e perfeccionismo por intermédio de escalas psicométricas. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC e o percentual de gordura (%G. O modelo de equação estrutural explanou 76% da variância dos comportamento de risco (F(9, 1.351 = 74,50; p = 0,001. Os achados indicaram que a insatisfação corporal mediou a relação entre as pressões midiáticas, autoestima, estado de humor, IMC, %G e os comportamentos de risco (F(9, 1.351 = 59,89; p = 0,001. Vale destacar que embora os sintomas depressivos não tenham se relacionado com a insatisfação corporal, o modelo indicou relação direta com os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares (F(2, 1.356 = 23,98; p = 0,001. Concluiu-se que somente o perfeccionismo não aderiu ao modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiras.

  9. Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat

    Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.


    The UV-laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence-emission spectra were used to characterize the pigment status of etiolated leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during a 48 h greening period under white light conditions. Upon UV-light excitation (337 nm) leaves not only show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm), but also in the blue and green regions between 400 to 570 nm with maxima or shoulders near 450 nm (blue) and 530 nm (green). During greening of etiolated leaves the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 strongly correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of the chlorophylls to the carotenoids (a+b/x+c). The ratio of the blue to the green fluorescence F450/F530 was also correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of chlorophylls to total carotenoids (a+b/x+c). Consequently, there also existed a correlation between the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 and the ratio of the blue to green fluorescence F450/F530. In contrast, the ratios of the blue to red fluorescences F450/F690 and F450/F735 did not show clear relations to the pigment content of the investigated plants. The particular shape of the UV-laser-induced-fluorescence emission spectra of wheat leaves as well as the dependencies of the fluorescence ratios on the pigment content are due to a partial and differential reabsorption of the emitted fluorescences by the photosynthetic pigments

  10. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.


    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  11. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    Chiung-Chih eChu


    Full Text Available Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that preferred Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import.

  12. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso


    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. PEA3activates CXCL12transcription in MCF-7breast cancer cells%PEA3 activates CXCL12 transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    CHEN Li; CHEN Bo-bin; LI Jun-jie; JIN Wei; SHAO Zhi-min


    Objective To explore the activity of PEA3 ( polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 ) on CXCL12 (Chemokine CXC motif ligand 12) transcription and to reveal the role of PEA3 involved in CXCL12-mediated metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Methods Methods such as cell transfection, ChIP assay (chromatin immunoprecipitation ), and siRNA (small interfering RNA) were applied to demonstrate and confirm the interaction between PEA3 and CXCL12. Results Over-expression of PEA3 could increase the CXCL12 mRNA level and the CXCL12 promoter activity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ChIP assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCL12 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector. PEA3 siRNA decreased CXCL12 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCL12 promoter in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions PEA3 could activate CXCL12 promoter transcription. It may be a potential mechanism of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis regarding of PEA3 and CXCL12.

  14. Protein nativity explains emulsifying properties of aqueous extracted protein components from yellow pea

    Geerts, Marlies E.J.; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Padt, van der Albert


    In this paper, the emulsifying properties of a protein-enriched fraction from pea are unravelled. The emulsifying properties of mildly fractionated protein fractions from yellow pea and compared to those of commercial pea protein isolate. The emulsion stability of an oil-in-water emulsions were

  15. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea

    Edwards, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Zeeman, S.; Smith, A.; Martin, C.


    Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be

  16. Stem Cells

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  17. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. IV. Flavonoids and Contact Coiling

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.


    Pea tendrils contain high concentrations of flavonoids, mainly quercetin-triglucosyl-p-coumarate (QGC). QGC is most abundant near the highly responsive apex of the tendril, and least abundant at the base. After mechanical stimulation, and during coiling of the tendril, the QGC titer drops to about 30% of its original value. The kinetics of flavonoid disappearance are significantly correlated with the kinetics of coiling. Aqueous extracts of unstimulated pea tendrils or 10 μm QGC inhibit contact coiling of excised tendrils. Extracts of coiled tendrils do not. The evidence indicates a possible regulatory role for flavonoids in contact coiling. PMID:16656581

  18. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Na eLiu


    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  19. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.


    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  20. Protein Kinase B/Akt Binds and Phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, Stabilizing Its Antiapoptotic Action

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco


    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser116. In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser116 PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser116. In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser116→Gly (PEDS116→G) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also i...

  1. A brief review on the early distribution of pea (Pisum sativum L. in Europe

    Ljuština Marija


    Full Text Available Pea was a part of the everyday diet of the European hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in pea are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Pea seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals and lentil, pea has definitely become associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Pea entered Europe in its southeast regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that pea had been present in nearly all regions of Europe. Most of European peoples have their own words denoting pea, meaning that it preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages.

  2. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Maiza Benedicto


    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  3. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  4. The rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    Frings, J.F.J.


    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with

  5. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...



    Jul 6, 2011 ... Mycoflora of pea seeds and the effectiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum on important seed-borne pathogens ... seed germination and promoted the plants growth under controlled and ..... 27. Table 3. Summary of fungal inoculation test. .... and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum.

  6. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija


    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.


    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth

  8. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.


    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during

  9. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin


    N. A. Samarin


    Full Text Available The characteristics of seven pea varieties of different groups of ripening are described. These cultivars provide the sustainable row material input in canning factories of Krasnodar region. In bogharic agriculture it takes 24,26 days. When using the irrigation system and different time of sowing it takes 35,40 days.

  11. Symbiotic effectiveness of pea-rhizobia associations and the ...

    Selected strains were isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) plants in the Loess Plateau of China. Analyses focused on the nodule number, nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, nitrogenase activity, total N accumulation of per plant and seed yield.

  12. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.172 Canned dry...

  13. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  14. Effect of Blue Light on Endogenous Isopentenyladenine and Endoreduplication during Photomorphogenesis and De-Etiolation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Seedlings

    Bergougnoux, Véronique; Zalabák, David; Jandová, Michaela; Novák, Ondřej; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Fellner, Martin


    Light is one of the most important factor influencing plant growth and development all through their life cycle. One of the well-known light-regulated processes is de-etiolation, i.e. the switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. The hormones cytokinins (CKs) play an important role during the establishment of photomorphogenesis as exogenous CKs induced photomorphogenesis of dark-grown seedlings. Most of the studies are conducted on the plant model Arabidopsis, but no or few information are available for important crop species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In our study, we analyzed for the first time the endogenous CKs content in tomato hypocotyls during skotomorphogenesis, photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation. For this purpose, two tomato genotypes were used: cv. Rutgers (wild-type; WT) and its corresponding mutant (7B-1) affected in its responses to blue light (BL). Using physiological and molecular approaches, we identified that the skotomorphogenesis is characterized by an endoreduplication-mediated cell expansion, which is inhibited upon BL exposure as seen by the accumulation of trancripts encoding CycD3, key regulators of the cell cycle. Our study showed for the first time that iP (isopentenyladenine) is the CK accumulated in the tomato hypocotyl upon BL exposure, suggesting its specific role in photomorphogenesis. This result was supported by physiological experiments and gene expression data. We propose a common model to explain the role and the relationship between CKs, namely iP, and endoreduplication during de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis. PMID:23049779

  15. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    Reinecke, D.


    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O 2 , and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14 C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  16. Effect of pea, pea hulls, faba beans and faba bean hulls on the ileal microbial composition in weaned piglets

    Meulen, van der J.; Panneman, H.; Jansman, A.J.M.


    Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract,

  17. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.


    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  18. Effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on anti-nutritional factors, protein denaturation and functional properties in raw pea and pea protein isolate

    Tolman, G.H.


    The effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on several nutritionally relevant mainly protein-related parameters in raw peas (var. Solara) and ultra-filtrated pea protein isolate was examined. Of all test samples, water absorptive capacity (WAC), weight loss and protein loss owing to the processing

  19. Photosynthetic alterations of pea leaves infected systemically by pea enation mosaic virus: A coordinated decrease in efficiencies of CO(2) assimilation and photosystem II photochemistry

    Kyseláková, H.; Prokopová, J.; Nauš, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.


    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2011), s. 1279-1289 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * Pea enation mosaic virus * Pea * Photosynthesis * Photosystem II * Senescence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2011

  20. Effect of single varied doses of UV-C radiation on photosynthesis, traspiration and chlorophyll content in the leaves of two varieties of faba bean and pea

    Olszewski, J.; Pszczolkowska, A.


    The effect of single, varied (75, 120 and 165 min) UV-C radiation on photosynthesis and transpiration in leaves of two morphotypes of faba bean and pea was determined in a pot experiment. The SPAD leaf greenness index, which characterises the a and b chlorophyll contents (as well as changes in its content caused by radiation) were analysed. The experimental results indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis and transpiration in faba bean leaves was higher in the plants treated with the UV-C radiation. In addition, the intensity of photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content were higher in the Neptun variety than in the self-terminating faba bean variety. The Rola pea variety plants showed a significant decrease in photsynthesis intensity under radiation in the 3rd leaf phase and a slight decrease in later developmental phases. Moreover, transpiration was found to decrease at the beginning of the vegetation. In the case of the Ramrod variety, rather ambiguous results were obtained. The chlorophyll content in both pea varieties was high in the 3rd proper leaf phase and in the Rola plants it increased with increasing radiation doses in the stem extension phase


    Grzegorz Pączka


    Full Text Available This study determined the possibility of using the vermicompost produced from kitchen waste (by Eisenia fetida earthworms to grow sugar peas. Its influence on the dynamics of sprouting of peas and their growth to 21st day was investigated in a pot experiment. Four combinations were realised (control – standard garden soil; (50W – its mixture with 50% of vermicompost; (25W and (10W – with 25% and 10% of vermicompost addition respectively (n=5. Vermicompost from kitchen waste turned out to be useful in the cultivation of peas. No significant differences in the impact of all the analysed substrates on the sprouting of this plant were found. A 10% vermicompost addition (10W was shown to be the most favourable substrate. Its positive influence was shown in the impact on the increase of total average mass (by 33%; p<0.001 and height of the plants (by 12%; p<0.05 and average mass (by 39%; p<0.001 and length (by 12%; p<0.05 of stems.

  2. Therapeutic molecules for multiple human diseases identified from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp. through GC–MS and molecular docking

    Deepu Mathew


    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism behind the therapeutic potential of pigeon pea over the human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, breast cancer, type II diabetes, malaria, measles and sickle cell disease were revealed through docking of GC–MS identified phyto-compound ligands with candidate disease proteins. Of the 242 ligands, three dimensional structures of 47 compounds had to be drawn using ChemSketch and the remaining structures were retrieved from PubChem and docked with the active sites of candidate proteins. The molecules identified through docking were further subjected to ADMET analysis and promising drug candidates were identified for each disease. This paper presents a precise account of the chemoprofile of pigeon pea leaves, stems and seeds, interaction of these molecules with target proteins and suggests 26 highly potential molecules which are drug candidates for multiple human diseases. Pigeon pea seeds are especially proven as invaluable source for therapeutic molecules. Keywords: Breast cancer, Drug discovery, Herbal medicine, In silico, Malaria, Measles, Phyto-compounds, Rheumatoid arthritis, Sickle cell disease, Type II diabetes

  3. Evaluation of Pigeon Pea Lines for Biological Soil Decompaction

    Rodolfo Godoy


    Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.


    Carmen Lucia Navarro V


    Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.

  5. Achievements of nuclear applications in chick-pea breeding

    Kharwal, M.C.


    Due to narrow and limited genetic variability available in chick-pea, this crop is ideally suited for genetic improvement through mutation breeding. Thus, the use of nuclear tools for regenerating some of the lost useful variability in this crop particularly for an improved plant type of increased yield and disease resistance appears to offer greater scope and promise. Practical results already achieved through the use of nuclear tools which fulfill these expectations to a large extent are confirmed by the extensive studies on mutation breeding in chick-pea crop carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan and at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

  6. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh


    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  7. Perfil etiológico das meningites bacterianas em crianças Etiological profile of bacterial meningitis in children

    Orlando C. Mantese


    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar o perfil etiológico e alguns aspectos epidemiológicos das crianças com meningite bacteriana, internadas em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: foram seguidas, prospectivamente, as crianças internadas com meningite bacteriana, diagnosticada segundo os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais habituais. Foram excluídos os casos de meningite pós-trauma, de meningite na vigência de derivação liquórica, ou de defeitos congênitos do tubo neural, e de meningite tuberculosa. Resultados: foram analisadas 415 crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana, no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, no período de 01/01/1987 a 31/01/2001. O agente etiológico foi identificado em 315 pacientes (75,9%, sendo de modo definitivo em 289 (69,3% e presuntivo, por intermédio da bacterioscopia, em outros 26 (6,6%. Os agentes mais comumente identificados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b (54,2%, o meningococo (20,6% e o pneumococo (18,1% dos 315 pacientes. O tratamento antimicrobiano prévio, detectado em 47,2% dos casos, causou uma diminuição significante no rendimento das culturas de sangue (de 50,8% para 38,7% e de liquor (71,7% para 57,6%. Houve um predomínio do acometimento de crianças com idade até 48 meses pelo Haemophilus influenzae b, particularmente em relação ao meningococo. A letalidade geral foi de 10,1%, com diferença significante entre a letalidade do pneumococo, de 17,5%, e a do meningococo, de 4,6%. Conclusões: as crianças afetadas por Haemophilus influenzae b e por pneumococo foram mais jovens que aquelas com meningite por meningococo. A hemocultura e a cultura de liquor continuam sendo importantes recursos laboratoriais para o diagnóstico etiológico da meningite bacteriana, apesar do impacto negativo causado em seu rendimento pelo tratamento antibiótico prévio. Os agentes mais comumente isolados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b, o meningococo e o pneumococo. A

  8. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Petr Mares


    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  9. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates

    Adenekan, Monilola K.; Fadimu, Gbemisola J.; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A.; Oke, Emmanuel K.


    Abstract In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%...

  10. Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding

    Sergey Vasilevich Bobkov


    Full Text Available Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589 × Р. sativum (Aest. Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.

  11. Investigation of pea seeds treated by 137Cs

    Lepold, J.; Soos, T.


    Two types of pea seeds were treated by 137 Cs. Radiation doses of 10 and 15 gray, resp. were applied at a dose rate of 480 gray per hour. Both the rate of sprouting and the number of plants per m 2 of the irradiated seeds exceeded the corresponding parameters of the control. The total quantity of the crop and its content of protein and water were higher, too. (L.E.)

  12. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-


    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  13. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R


    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Grigori Ivanov


    Full Text Available This article presented the results of productivity and quality of the green mass of pea-wheat mixes grown in conditions of organic farming. Are explored 5 wheat varieties - Sadovo 1, Geia 1, Guinness, Farmer, Liusil and 4 varieties of winter peas -Mir, Vesela, №11, L12AB, at different ratio between them - 50:50 and 30:70%. The selection of varieties is made based on previous studies of their complex characteristics – ripening, yield, chemistry (Angelova S., T.Georgieva, M.Sabeva, 2011. Setting up and raising the experimental mixture of seeds has been made in a medium free of organic and mineral fertilizers. We have studied the changes in green mass yield and the biochemistry of surface biomass. The cultivation of pea–wheat mixtures under conditions of organic farming leads to increased yields of green mass in comparison with the self-seeding of wheat and peas. According to the results obtained at early ripening and the highest crude protein content average of three years is the mixture Sadovo1–Mir 30:70%. The most productive is the mixture Sadovo1-Mir 50-50%.

  15. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.


    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  16. Performance of Garden Pea Genotypes in Eastern Hills of Nepal

    Krishna Poudel


    Full Text Available Garden pea (Pisum sativum L is an important winter legume used as fresh vegetables and other drier food products. Despite of its importance as cash crop in many parts of Nepal, much study on various aspects for enhancing production and productivity has yet to be done. Therefore, to evaluate the production performance different genotypes of garden pea in eastern hills agro-ecological conditions present experiments were carried out consecutively for two years (2015 and 2016 at Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas. The experiment comprised of 11 different genotypes of garden pea including a check variety Arkel. The production performance was evaluated in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The seeds were sown at 50 × 10 cm spacing during first week of October for two years. The result showed that DGP-05 genotype had earliest 104 days after sowing. The DGP-08 genotype showed 13 which were the maximum numbers of pods per plant (13, while DGP-01 showed 8 numbers of seeds as the maximum per pod. The DGP-03 genotype had the longest pod of 9.78 cm among others. The highest fresh pod yield of 18.14 t/ha was achieved from genotype DGP-09 followed by Arkel with (16.32 t/ha.

  17. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L


    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Saris, Wim H M


    Exposing the intestine to proteins or tastants, particularly sweet, affects satiety hormone release. There are indications that each sweetener has different effects on this release, and that combining sweeteners with other nutrients might exert synergistic effects on hormone release. STC-1 cells were incubated with acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. After a 2-h incubation period, cholecystokinin(CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Using Ussing chamber technology, the mucosal side of human duodenal biopsies was exposed to sucrose, sucralose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. CCK and GLP-1 levels were measured in basolateral secretions. In STC-1 cells, exposure to aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with sucralose increased CCK levels, whereas GLP-1 levels increased after addition of all test products. Addition of sucrose and sucralose to human duodenal biopsies did not affect CCK and GLP-1 release; addition of pea stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Combining pea with sucrose and sucralose induced even higher levels of CCK and GLP-1. Synchronous addition of pea and sucralose to enteroendocrine cells induced higher levels of CCK and GLP-1 than addition of each compound alone. This study shows that combinations of dietary compounds synergize to enhance satiety hormone release. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler


    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  20. The effect of Normast (PEA) in neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede


    Introduction: Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury represent significant problems. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid that is produced in many cells in the body, and it is thought to potentiate the body's own cannabis-like substances (endocannabinoids). PEA is suggested...... to reduce pain and inflammation but randomized controlled trials are lacking. Normast is a medical supplement which contains (PEA) approved for use in Denmark. The primary aim is to investigate the effect of Normast (PEA) on neuropathic pain, and secondary to study the effect of Normast on spasticity...

  1. UV-B inhibition of hypocotyl growth in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is a consequence of cell cycle arrest initiated by photodimer accumulation

    Biever, Jessica J.; Brinkman, Doug; Gardner, Gary


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important constituent of sunlight that determines plant morphology and growth. It induces photomorphogenic responses but also causes damage to DNA. Arabidopsis mutants of the endonucleases that function in nucleotide excision repair, xpf-3 and uvr1-1, showed hypersensitivity to UV-B (280–320nm) in terms of inhibition of hypocotyl growth. SOG1 is a transcription factor that functions in the DNA damage signalling response after γ-irradiation. xpf mutants that carry the sog1-1 mutation showed hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B irradiation similar to the wild type. A DNA replication inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU), also inhibited hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings, but xpf-3 was not hypersensitive to HU. UV-B irradiation induced accumulation of the G2/M-specific cell cycle reporter construct CYCB1;1-GUS in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings that was consistent with the expected accumulation of photodimers and coincided with the time course of hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B treatment. Etiolated mutants of UVR8, a recently described UV-B photoreceptor gene, irradiated with UV-B showed inhibition of hypocotyl growth that was not different from that of the wild type, but they lacked UV-B-specific expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), as expected from previous reports. CHS expression after UV-B irradiation was not different in xpf-3 compared with the wild type, nor was it altered after HU treatment. These results suggest that hypocotyl growth inhibition by UV-B light in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, a photomorphogenic response, is dictated by signals originating from UV-B absorption by DNA that lead to cell cycle arrest. This process occurs distinct from UVR8 and its signalling pathway responsible for CHS induction. PMID:24591052

  2. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.


    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  3. Strigolactones Suppress Adventitious Rooting in Arabidopsis and Pea1[C][W][OA

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B.; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne


    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation. PMID:22323776

  4. Doing the Basics Better in Africa: How School Support, Autonomy, and Accountability Improved Outcomes for Girls in PEAS Schools

    Hills, Libby


    Promoting Equality in African Schools (PEAS) seeks to expand access to sustainably delivered, quality secondary education in Africa. PEAS builds and runs chains of not-for-profit, low-cost private schools in public-private partnership with governments. External evaluation data show that PEAS schools in Uganda are delivering higher quality…

  5. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  6. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  7. Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas

    Livestock Research,


    De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek

  8. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.


    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  9. Microsynteny between pea and Medicago truncatula in the SYM2 region

    Gualtieri, G.; Kulikova, O.; Limpens, E.; Kim, D.J.; Cook, D.R.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.


    The crop legume pea (Pisum sativum) is genetically well characterized. However, due to its large genome it is not amenable to efficient positional cloning strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the model legume Medicago truncatula, which is a close relative of pea, could be used

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea

    Ahmed John, S.


    A study was undertaken in pigeon pea parents and their F 1 hybrid to analyse the pollen and seed fertility following gamma irradiation. It is found that the reduction of pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea was lesser over those of black gram and cowpea. 5 refs., 1 tab

  11. Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture ...

    Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture Media. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost.

  12. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    A. Sh. Zakirova; T. N. Manahova; A. V. Kanarskiy; Z. A. Kanarskaya


    The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  13. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    A. Sh. Zakirova


    Full Text Available The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  14. Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation

    Tzitzikas, E.


    Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble

  15. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    Hale Gregory


    Full Text Available Abstract Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning.

  16. Effect of Gamma Radiation and temperature on storage quality of Pea (Pisum sativum L)

    Islam, M.S.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Sarder, A. H.


    Effect of radiation, storage temperature and storage period of pea was investigated. During the entire storage period of 12 months, no major changes occurred in weight loss, insect infestation, moisture content, water activity (a w ) and protein content of the pea stored at room temperature (RT) and at 4 0 C. Reconstitution properties and tenderness after cooking were affected at room temperature storage. Both reconstitution properties and tenderness gradually decreased with the increase of storage period when pea was stored at RT. The initial reconstitution properties (94%) decreased to 77% at the end of 12 months and the initial tenderness (97%) decreased to 13% when pea was stored at room temperature. On the other hand the reconstitution properties and tenderness were found 92% and 83% respectively in pea stored at 4 0 C.(author)

  17. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.


    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  18. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    Jensen, E.S.


    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...... debris. Separating the root systems reduced the barley recovery of pea-derived N to about half the amount recovered in the association where root systems grew in the same compartment. The death of pea, caused by spraying with a herbicide, increased the amount of N recovered in barley, whereas shading...... the pea plant had no effect on the amount of pea-derived N taken up in barley. The N deposited up to 45 days of growth contributed


    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)


    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  20. Estiolamento na micropropagação do Abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola Etiolated in micropropagation of cv. Pérola Pineapple plant

    Maria Aparecida Moreira


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do estiolamento na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola e posterior recuperação dos brotos estiolados, realizando-se dois experimentos. No primeiro, os caules utilizados como explantes foram obtidos de brotos pré-estabelecidos in vitro, dos quais foram retiradas as folhas. O estiolamento foi induzido colocando-se os explantes em tubos de ensaio no escuro por 20, 40 e 80 dias, contendo os seguintes meios de cultura: 1 MS suplementado com 0,1 mg.L-1 de ANA e 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 2 MS suplementado com 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP e 3 MS sem reguladores de crescimento. Para número de brotos, o melhor meio foi o MS + 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se média de 10,26 brotações aos 40 dias no escuro. Para comprimento de brotos estiolados, o meio MS sem reguladores de crescimento foi significativamente melhor quando os explantes foram mantidos por 80 dias no escuro, apresentando comprimento médio de 10,86 cm. No segundo experimento, os brotos estiolados, com e sem o ápice, foram colocados horizontalmente em placas contendo meios de cultura com idêntica formulação aos descritos anteriormente. Para número total de brotos, brotações estioladas sem ápice em meio MS suplementado com 1,8mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP promoveram o melhor resultado, correspondendo a 10,61 brotações por explante.It was aimed to produce micropropagated plantlets of pineapple cv. Pérola by using the etiolated technique and subsequent recovery of etiolated shoots. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, the stalks used as explant were obtained from in vitro shoots established without leaves. The etiolation was induced by putting the explants in test tubes in the darkness for 20, 40 and 80 days with the media: 1 MS supplemented with ANA 0.1mg.L-1 and BAP 0.5mg.L-1, 2 MS supplemented with ANA 1.8mg.L-1 and BAP 2mg.L-1 and 3 MS without growth regulators. The best results for shoot number were obtained

  1. The effect of salinity and moisture stress on pea plant

    Abdalla, A.Abd-El Ghany


    Four experiments were carried out in the green house in Inchas, Atomic Energy Establishment, to study the effect os salinity and moisture stress on pea plants. Salinity experiments were conducted in 1981/1982, 1982/1983 and 1983/1984 seasons to study the effect of NaCl and/or CaC l 2 as single or mixed salts and radiation combined with salinity. Water stress studies were conducted in 1983/1984 growing season to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress on growth, yield and water use efficiency

  2. Stamina pistilloida: a new mutation induced in pea.

    Monti, L M; Devreux, M


    After diethylsulphate treatment of seeds of the pea variety 'Parvus', a new floral mutation was isolated in the second generation. This mutation, named stamina pistilloida, is characterized by a partial fusion of the androecium with the gynoecium; the two marginal stamens of the staminal column are transformed in rudimentary carpels more or less differentiated according to ecoclimatic conditions. The genetic analysis has shown the monogenic and recessive behaviour of the mutation (gene proposed stp) and its linkage with the gene oh in the chromosome II.

  3. Mutation studies in gamma-ray treated peas

    Narsinghani, V G; Kumar, S [Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Plant Breeding


    Pea Seeds (Pisum Sativum L. 2n=14) irradiated with four doses of gamma rays viz, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kR revealed a reduction in seedling height, survival percentage, pods and seed yield and pollen fertility during X/sub 1/ and X/sub 2/ generations. Chlorophyll and leaf mutations were noted. The mitotic cells indicated chromosomal aberrations which were dose dependent. In meiosis, translocated rings and chains of 4,6 and 8 chromosomes; paracentric and pericentric inversions, fragments, laggards and unequal distribution of chromosomes were observed. Besides, the frequency of aberrations were lower during X/sub 2/ as compared to X/sub 1/.

  4. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.


    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  5. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    Jensen, E.S.


    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  6. Diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias: uma visão crítica

    Rodrigues Joaquim Carlos


    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar a literatura quanto ao diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias agudas na faixa etária pediátrica. Fonte dos dados: revisão sistemática das citações do Medline e do Lilacs. Síntese dos dados: a utilização dos novos métodos diagnósticos, particularmente as técnicas imunológicas e a reação em cadeia da polimerase, de uso ainda incipiente no Brasil, tem se mostrado importante para a investigação epidemiológica e para a melhora no diagnóstico específico em termos de sensibilidade, especificidade e rapidez de resultados, com finalidade de orientação terapêutica adequada. A revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos das pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade mostrou que o Streptococcus pneumoniae continua sendo o agente bacteriano mais importante, em todas as faixas etárias, tanto nos países desenvolvidos quanto nos em desenvolvimento. A resistência desse agente à penicilina e às cefalosporinas tem aumentado progressivamente em todos os continentes e tem-se constituído em um fator de preocupação. Os agentes de pneumonias atípicas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Chlamydia pneumoniae mostram-se, atualmente, como agentes importantes de pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade, particularmente em crianças acima de 4 a 5 anos de idade, correspondendo, em países desenvolvidos, a cerca de até um terço dos casos. No entanto, ainda não está definida a sua importância epidemiológica nos países em desenvolvimento. O vírus respiratório sincicial é um agente freqüente de PAC, pode determinar quadros mais graves, particularmente nos lactentes e crianças menores, sendo muito importante a sua investigação em crianças hospitalizadas por doença do trato respiratório inferior. A utilização das novas vacinas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b tiveram um impacto importante na morbidade e mortalidade das infecções causadas por esse agentes. Conclusões: a monitoriza

  7. Strigolactones positively regulate chilling tolerance in pea and in Arabidopsis.

    Cooper, James W; Hu, Yan; Beyyoudh, Leila; Yildiz Dasgan, H; Kunert, Karl; Beveridge, Christine A; Foyer, Christine H


    Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines. However, dark chilling treatments decreased biomass (dry weight) accumulation only in rms3 and rms5 shoots. Unlike the wild type plants, chilling-induced inhibition of photosynthetic carbon assimilation was observed in the rms lines and also in max3-9, max4-1, max2-1 mutants that are defective in SL synthesis or signalling. When grown on agar plates the max mutant rosettes accumulated less biomass than the wild type. The synthetic SL, GR24 decreased leaf area in the wild type, max3-9 and max4-1 mutants but not in max2-1 in the absence of stress. Moreover, a chilling-induced decrease in leaf area was observed in all the lines in the presence of GR24. We conclude that SL plays an important role in the control of dark chilling tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  9. Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing polyphenism.

    Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Gupta, Purba; Hall, Tannice A; Brisson, Jennifer A


    The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism. Here, we analyzed ecdysone-related gene expression patterns and found that they were consistent with a down-regulation of the ecdysone pathway being involved in the production of winged offspring. We therefore predicted that reduced ecdysone signaling would result in more winged offspring. Experimental injections of ecdysone or its analog resulted in a decreased production of winged offspring. Conversely, interfering with ecdysone signaling using an ecdysone receptor antagonist or knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene with RNAi resulted in an increased production of winged offspring. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that ecdysone plays a causative role in the regulation of the proportion of winged offspring produced in response to crowding in this polyphenism. Our results also show that an environmentally regulated maternal hormone can mediate phenotype production in the next generation, as well as provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.

  10. Atomic force microscopy of pea starch: origins of image contrast.

    Ridout, Michael J; Parker, Mary L; Hedley, Cliff L; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Morris, Victor J


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the internal structure of pea starch granules. Starch granules were encased in a nonpenetrating matrix of rapid-set Araldite. Images were obtained of the internal structure of starch exposed by cutting the face of the block and of starch in sections collected on water. These images have been obtained without staining, or either chemical or enzymatic treatment of the granule. It has been demonstrated that contrast in the AFM images is due to localized absorption of water within specific regions of the exposed fragments of the starch granules. These regions swell, becoming "softer" and higher than surrounding regions. The images obtained confirm the "blocklet model" of starch granule architecture. By using topographic, error signal and force modulation imaging modes on samples of the wild-type pea starch and the high amylose r near-isogenic mutant, it has been possible to demonstrate differing structures within granules of different origin. These architectural changes provide a basis for explaining the changed appearance and functionality of the r mutant. The growth-ring structure of the granule is suggested to arise from localized "defects" in blocklet distribution within the granule. It is proposed that these defects are partially crystalline regions devoid of amylose.

  11. Mechanisms of protection of pea plants by polysaccharides extracted from a strain of Rhizobium against Orobanche crenata

    Khairi, Hanene; Temani, Randa


    The Broomrape causes notable damage on the leguminous crops and became major factor limiting production of pea in the Mediterranean region. The effect of the polysaccharides extracted from P.SOM Rhizobium strain on the development of Orobanche crenata on pea was studied. The results showed that the lipopolysaccharides significantly reduce the infestation of pea by O. crenata. This limitation of infestation results from the reduction of seeds germination rates of the parasite resulting in reduction of the tubercles number on pea roots. Moreover, necrosis of orobanche before or after attachment on pea roots treated by LPS can explain this reduction of parasitism. A correlation was observed between the reduction of pea infection by the broomrape and the activation phenolic compounds pathway. This activation resulted to increase of two enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) activities these enzymes are implicated in plant defense. The results of our study showed that the LPS seem implied in the induction of pea resistance against the broomrape.

  12. PEA3 activates CXCR4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Shengmei Gu; Li Chen; Qi Hong; Tingting Yan; Zhigang Zhuang; Qiaoqiao wang; Wei Jin; Hua Zhu; Jiong Wu


    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been shown to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including lung,breast,kidney,and prostate tumors.In this study,we found that overexpression of ets variant gene 4 (PEA3) could elevate CXCR4 mRNA level and CXCR4 promoter activity in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.PEA3 promoted CXCR4 expression and breast cancer metastasis.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCR4 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector.PEA3 siRNA attenuated CXCR4 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCR4 promoter in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.These results indicated that PEA3 could activate CXCR4 promoter transcription and promote breast cancer metastasis.

  13. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia


    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (pPea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (ppea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (ppea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes.

  14. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia.

    Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N


    This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO.

  15. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Vladimir A. Zhukov


    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  16. Types of Stem Cells

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  17. The occurrence of gibberellin-binding protein(s) in pea

    Liu, Z.H.


    In vitro gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from epicotyls of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress No. 9) and tall pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were investigated using ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in a DEAE filter paper assay at 0-3 C. The binding obtained is saturable, reversible, and temperature labile in dwarf pea, and has a half-life of dissociation of 5-6 min. By varying the concentration of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in the incubation medium the Kd was estimated to be 120-140 nM in dwarf pea and 70 nM in tall pea. The number of binding sites (n) was estimated to be 0.66 and 0.43 pmole mg{sup {minus}1} soluble protein in dwarf pea and in tall pea, respectively. In competition binding assays, biologically active GAs, such as GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 4} could reduce the level of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding much more than the biologically inactive GA{sub 4} methyl ester and epi-GA{sub 4}. Changes in gibberellin-binding protein(s) were studied during seed germination. While the Kd of the binding protein(s) for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} remained the same, there was a marked increase in the number of binding sites from 24 h soaked seed to 8-day old seedlings. Also, the Kd and the number of binding sites in the GA-responsive apical part and in the nonresponsive basal part in the epicotyl were similar. The effect of light on gibberellin-binding protein in dwarf pea was also studied. The GA-binding protein in dwarf pea was partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.

  18. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Gordana Županac


    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  19. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G


    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  20. Phytotoxicity of thallium (Tl) in culture solution. Pt. 2. Effects of Tl(III) on the growth and heavy metal contents of pea and field bean plants

    Pieper, B; Austenfeld, F A


    The effects of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and Tl(III)EDTA on growth and heavy metal contents of pea plants and field bean plants were compared in hydroponic culture experiments. In the presence of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, the essential heavy metals were available to the plants in their ionic forms. When Tl(III)EDTA was present the essential heavy metals were available as chelated complexes. Dry matter production of the pea plants was inhibited to a greater extent by Tl(III)EDTA than by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The distribution of Tl within the plant was unaffected by the accompanying anion, however an increase of the Tl content of the stems and the leaves was observed in the presence of Tl(III)EDTA. The micronutrients exhibited different interactions with Tl(III). In the presence of increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ the Mn content of each organ and the Zn content of the roots were lowered, but the Zn content of the stems was increased. Increasing concentrations of Tl(III)EDTA resulted only in a decrease of the Mn content of the roots, but in an increase of the contents of Fe and Mn within the stems, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu within the leaves. The increases may be due to concentration by growth inhibition. In contrast to pea plants, growth of field bean plants was inhibited only by Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. The field bean plants retained most of the Tl within the roots independent of the Tl compound in the solution. Chelation of Tl(III) resulted in higher Tl contents of both the roots and the stems, but equal or reduced Tl contents of the leaves. Whereas increasing concentrations of Tl(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ reduced the Mn content of each organ as well as the Zn content of the roots and the leaves, Tl(III)EDTA only reduced the Mn content of the roots.

  1. Interactive effects of temperature and UVB radiation on methane emissions from different organs of pea plants grown in hydroponic system.

    Abdulmajeed, Awatif M; Derby, Samantha R; Strickland, Samantha K; Qaderi, Mirwais M


    There is no information on variation of methane (CH 4 ) emissions from plant organs exposed to multiple environmental factors. We investigated the interactive effects of temperature and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on CH 4 emissions from different organs of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. UT234 Lincoln). Plants were grown hydroponically under two temperatures (22/18°C and 28/24°C; 16h day/8h night) and two levels of UVB radiation [0 and 5kJm -2 d -1 ] in controlled-environment growth chambers for ten days, after two weeks of initial growth under ambient temperatures. Methane emission, dry mass, growth index, electrical conductivity (EC), pectin, total chlorophyll content, gas exchange and flavonoids were measured in the appropriate plant organs - leaf, stem and root. Higher temperatures increased CH 4 emissions, leaf mass ratio, and shoot: root mass ratio. Neither temperature nor UVB had significant effects on leaf, stem, root and total dry mass, EC, pectin, total chlorophyll, as well as specific leaf mass. Among plant organs, there were differences in CH 4 , EC, pectin and total chlorophyll. Methane and EC were highest for the stem and lowest for the leaf; leaf had highest, but stem had lowest, pectin content; total chlorophyll was highest in the leaf but lowest in the root. Higher temperatures decreased leaf flavonoids, net carbon dioxide assimilation, and water use efficiency. Overall, environmental stressors increased aerobic CH 4 emission rates, which varied with plant organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PEA-15 Induces Autophagy in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and is Associated with Prolonged Overall Survival

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Rosen, Daniel; Wei, Caimiao; Kazansky, Anna; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kondo, Seiji; Liu, Jinsong; Ueno, Naoto T.


    Phospho-enriched protein in astrocytes (PEA-15) is a 15-kDa phosphoprotein that slows cell proliferation by binding to and sequestering extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting ERK-dependent transcription and proliferation. In previous studies of E1A human gene therapy for ovarian cancer, we discovered that PEA-15 induced the antitumor effect of E1A by sequestering activated ERK in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of PEA-15 ...

  3. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry


    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  4. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per


    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  5. Resistance to rusts (uromyces pisi and u. viciae-fabae) in pea

    Barilli, Eleonora; Sillero, Josefina C.; Prats, Elena; Rubiales, Diego


    Pea is the second most important food legume crop in the world. Rust is a pea disease widely distributed, particularly in regions with warm, humid weather. Pea rust can be incited by Uromyces viciae-fabae and by U. pisi. U. viciae-fabae prevails in tropical and subtropical regions such as India and China, while U. pisi prevails in temperate regions. Chemical control of rust is possible, but the use of host plant resistance is the most desired means of rust control. In this paper we revise and...

  6. Ultraviolet radiation induces stress in etiolated Landoltia punctata, as evidenced by the presence of alanine, a universal stress signal: a ¹⁵N NMR study.

    Monselise, E B-I; Levkovitz, A; Kost, D


    Analysis with (15) N NMR revealed that alanine, a universal cellular stress signal, accumulates in etiolated duckweed plants exposed to 15-min pulsed UV light, but not in the absence of UV irradiation. The addition of 10 mm vitamin C, a radical scavenger, reduced alanine levels to zero, indicating the involvement of free radicals. Free D-alanine was detected in (15) N NMR analysis of the chiral amino acid content, using D-tartaric acid as solvent. The accumulation of D-alanine under stress conditions presents a new perspective on the biochemical processes taking place in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. A broncofibroscopia no diagnóstico etiológico de afecções pulmonares em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida

    Silva R.M. da


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da broncofibroscopia no diagnóstico etiológico de pneumopatias em pacientes positivos ao vírus da imunodeficência humana. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo analisa um grupo de 49 pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, admitidos no Hospital Nereu Ramos - Florianópolis -SC. Foram selecionados pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios com lesão simples ao exame radiográfico do tórax, sem diagnóstico etiológico confirmado por exame de escarro. Tais pacientes foram submetidos à broncofibroscopia com realização de lavado broncoalveolar, escovado brônquico e biópsia pulmonar transbrônquica. As amostras foram analisados com bacterioscopia pelo Gram, pesquisa de BAAR, citomegalovírus, P. carinii e outros fungos. RESULTADOS: A broncofibroscopia foi efetiva na realização do diagnóstico etiológico em 71,43% dos casos. A biópsia pulmonar transbrônquica foi a técnica com maior positividade, firmando o diagnóstico em 59,18% dos casos. A técnica com menor positividade foi o escovado brônquico, com diagnóstico em 4,08% dos casos. O agente etiológico mais freqüente foi o P. carinii (42,8%, seguido pelo M. tuberculosis (22,86%. Nenhuma complicação foi observada nos procedimentos realizados. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos no presente estudo que neste grupo de pacientes a broncofibroscopia foi um procedimento seguro e efetivo para o diagnóstico etiológico de afecções pulmonares.

  8. Development of pea protein-based bioplastics with antimicrobial properties.

    Perez-Puyana, Víctor; Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio


    In the present work, bioplastics from renewable polymers were studied in order to reduce the huge generation of plastic wastes, causing an environmental problem that continues owing to the increasing demand for plastic products. Bioplastics with much better antimicrobial properties, in particular against Gram-positive bacteria, were obtained with the addition of nisin to the initial protein/plasticizer mixture. However, the addition of nisin produces more rigid but less deformable bioplastics (higher Young's modulus but lower strain at break). The results obtained are useful to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of pea protein-based bioplastics by adding nisin and make them suitable as potential candidates to replace conventional plastics in food packaging. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    Gomez Pando, L.; Torres Aranda, M.; Romero Loli, M.


    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  10. Xyloglucan galactosyl- and fucosyltransferase activity from pea epicotyl microsomes

    Faik, A.; Chileshe, C.; Sterling, J.; Maclachlan, G.


    Microsomal membranes from growing tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyls were incubated with the substrate UDP-[14C]galactose (Gal) with or without tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) as a potential galactosyl acceptor. Added tamarind seed XG enhanced incorporation of [14C]Gal into high-molecular-weight products (eluted from columns of Sepharose CL-6B in the void volume) that were trichloroacetic acid-soluble but insoluble in 67% ethanol. These products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to fragments comparable in size to XG subunit oligosaccharides. XG-dependent galactosyltransferase activity could be solubilized, along with XG fucosyltransferase, by the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1 propanesulfonate. When this enzyme was incubated with tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed XG or nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) seed XG that had been partially degalactosylated with an XG-specific beta-galactosidase, the rates of Gal transfer increased and fucose transfer decreased compared with controls with native XG. The reaction products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to 14C fragments that were analyzed by gel-filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation with pulsed amperometric detection. The major components were XG subunits, namely one of the two possible monogalactosyl octasaccharides (-XXLG-) and digalactosyl nonasaccharide (-XLLG-), whether the predominant octasaccharide in the acceptor was XXLG (as in tamarind seed XG) or XLXG (as in nasturtium seed XG). It is concluded that the first xylosylglucose from the reducing end of the subunits was the Gal acceptor locus preferred by the solubilized pea transferase. These observations are incorporated into a model for the biosynthesis of cell wall XGs

  11. Stem cells

    Jukes, Jojanneke; Both, Sanne; Post, Janine; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Marcel; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.


    This chapter defines stem cells and their properties. It identifies the major differences between embryonic and adult stem cells. Stem cells can be defined by two properties: the ability to make identical copies of themselves and the ability to form other cell types of the body. These properties are

  12. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah


    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)

  13. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania


    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  14. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants

    Bavi, K.; Kholdebarin, B.


    n this study the effects of different cadmium chloride concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mu M) on some physiological and biochemical processes including seed germination, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, protein content and peroxidase activity in peas (Cicer arietinum cv. pars) were investigated. Cadmium did not have any significant effect on the rate of pea seed germination. However, it affected the subsequent growth rate in these plants. Higher cadmium concentrations specially at 50 and 100 mu M reduced plant growth significantly. Leaf chlorosis, wilting and leaf abscission were observed in plants treated with cadmium. Protein content in pea roots reduced significantly in the presence of high cadmium concentrations. Low concentrations of CdCl/sub 2/ resulted in higher peroxidase activity both in roots and shoots of pea plants. (author)

  15. Competition for and utilisation of sulfur in sole and intercrops of pea and barley

    Andersen, Mette Klindt; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh


    gave barley a growth and nutrient use advantage compared to pea (REIc values importance of initial size differences decreased relative to the effect of species identity in determining the competitive strength of the two species and by the end...

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour.

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T


    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.

  17. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    Jensen, E.S.


    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  18. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.


    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  19. Efficient in vitro import of a cytosolic heat shock protein into pea chloroplasts

    Lubben, Thomas H.; Keegstra, Kenneth


    In order to further our understanding of the targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins into intracellular organelles, we have investigated the import of chimeric precursor proteins into pea chloroplasts. Two different chimeric precursor proteins were produced by in vitro expression of chimeric genes. One chimeric precursor contained the transit peptide of the small subunit of soybean ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the mature peptide of the same protein from pea. The second contained th...

  20. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K


    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  1. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł


    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  2. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J


    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  3. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna


    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (Ppea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  4. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Joost Overduin


    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  5. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D


    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R 2 = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  6. The ERK MAP kinase-PEA3/ETV4-MMP-1 axis is operative in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    Keld, Richard


    Abstract Background Many members of the ETS-domain transcription factor family are important drivers of tumourigenesis. In this context, their activation by Ras-ERK pathway signaling is particularly relevant to the tumourigenic properties of many ETS-domain transcription factors. The PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors have been implicated in tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Results Here, we have studied the expression of the PEA3 subfamily members PEA3\\/ETV4 and ER81\\/ETV1 in oesophageal adenocarcinomas and determined their role in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell function. PEA3 plays an important role in controlling both the proliferation and invasive properties of OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells. A key target gene is MMP-1. The ERK MAP kinase pathway activates PEA3 subfamily members and also plays a role in these PEA3 controlled events, establishing the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis as important in OE33 cells. PEA3 subfamily members are upregulated in human adenocarcinomas and expression correlates with MMP-1 expression and late stage metastatic disease. Enhanced ERK signaling is also more prevalent in late stage oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Conclusions This study shows that the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis is upregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells and is a potentially important driver of the metastatic progression of oesophageal adenocarcinomas.

  7. Genetic variation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) demonstrates the importance of root but not shoot C/N ratios in the control of plant morphology and reveals a unique relationship between shoot length and nodulation intensity.

    Ludidi, Ndiko N; Pellny, Till K; Kiddle, Guy; Dutilleul, Christelle; Groten, Karin; VAN Heerden, Philippus D R; Dutt, Som; Powers, Stephen J; Römer, Peter; Foyer, Christine H


    Nodule numbers are regulated through systemic auto-regulatory signals produced by shoots and roots. The relative effects of shoot and root genotype on nodule numbers together with relationships to organ biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status, and related parameters were measured in pea (Pisum sativum) exploiting natural genetic variation in maturity and apparent nodulation intensity. Reciprocal grafting experiments between the early (Athos), intermediate (Phönix) and late (S00182) maturity phenotypes were performed and Pearson's correlation coefficients for the parameters were calculated. No significant correlations were found between shoot C/N ratios and plant morphology parameters, but the root C/N ratio showed a strong correlation with root fresh and dry weights as well as with shoot fresh weight with less significant interactions with leaf number. Hence, the root C/N ratio rather than shoot C/N had a predominant influence on plant morphology when pea plants are grown under conditions of symbiotic nitrogen supply. The only phenotypic characteristic that showed a statistically significant correlation with nodulation intensity was shoot length, which accounted for 68.5% of the variation. A strong linear relationship was demonstrated between shoot length and nodule numbers. Hence, pea nodule numbers are controlled by factors related to shoot extension, but not by shoot or root biomass accumulation, total C or total N. The relationship between shoot length and nodule numbers persisted under field conditions. These results suggest that stem height could be used as a breeding marker for the selection of pea cultivars with high nodule numbers and high seed N contents.

  8. Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

    Burstin, Judith; Salloignon, Pauline; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chauveau, Aurélie; Pont, Caroline; Aubert, Grégoire; Delaitre, Catherine; Truntzer, Caroline; Duc, Gérard


    Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection. A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted. The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being

  9. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P


    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas


    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  11. Características clínicas y diagnóstico etiológico de las uveítis virales

    Adrianne Mayuli Suñet Álvarez

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las uveítis virales según su etiología. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo transversal, que determinó el diagnóstico clínico y etiológico, según la reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR de 10 ojos de pacientes atendidos en la consulta de uveítis, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología «Ramón Pando Ferrer», de mayo a noviembre del 2010. Se utilizó una muestra de fluidos intraoculares tomada a los pacientes. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, color de piel, antecedentes personales generales u oculares, clasificación anatómica y patológica de la uveítis, curso evolutivo, bilateralidad, agudeza visual y presión intraocular iniciales y finales respectivamente, hallazgos al fondo de ojo y resultados de la PCR. La información fue procesada y los resultados expuestos en tablas. Resultados: la edad promedio de los pacientes estudiados fue de 34,5 años, que presentaron en su mayoría episodios de uveítis anteriores unilaterales. La agudeza visual mejor corregida final mejoró con respecto a la inicial en el grupo de estudio, aunque la presión intraocular se mantuvo elevada sin lograr controlarla. El virus más hallado fue el Herpes simple. Conclusiones: los virus son responsables de producir inflamaciones oculares de presentación variada, lo que en ocasiones retrasa el diagnóstico, empeorando el pronóstico visual. En estos casos el método de PCR ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para establecer el diagnóstico etiológico.

  12. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation

    Agnieszka Woźniak


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects, on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA and abscisic acid (ABA was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead and biotic factor (aphid infestation on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis.

  13. Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins.

    Krenz, Björn; Schießl, Ingrid; Greiner, Eva; Krapp, Susanna


    Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein-protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.

  14. Application of fast neutrons in the mutagenesis of peas

    Huczkowski, J.; Kubajak, A.


    Air dry seeds of two varieties of peas were irradiated with fast neutrons of average energy of 5,6 MeV obtained in the U-120 cyclotron at the Cracow Institute of Nuclear Physics. The doses varied from 60 to 1600 rads. It was found that even very low doses (less than 100 rads) cause a conspicuous delay of germination; a significant decrease of seedling height was only observed at doses higher than 200 rads. In the 170-620 rad range seedling height diminished lineraly with increase of dose. On the basis of the greenhouse experiment five doses were chosen for field experiments: 200, 300, 500, 800 and 1000 rads. It was found that a dose of about 500 rads was the maximum that could be applied for breeding purposes: the survival and fertility rate at that dose was about 40% of the control, doses of 800 to 900 rads caused full mortality. The M2 seeds were sown in the greenhouse and the frequency of chlorophyl mutations was examined in generation M2. It was found to be very high: for doses of 200 t0 300 rads the mutations ocurred in about 4% of M2 seedlings. (author)

  15. Induced mutations in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.)

    Potdukhe, N.R.; Narkhede, M.N.


    Seeds of pigeon pea cv.ICPL-87119 were treated separately with gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA). Physical and chemical mutagens were found effective in affecting the germination and survival of plants in M 1 , M 2 and M 3 generations. However, reduction in survival was more pronounced in M 1 as compared to M 2 and M 3 generation and was increased as the dose or concentration increased. The survival of plants was comparatively affected more than germination of seeds due to the fact that the seedlings failed to grow after primary leaf stage due to shoot and root damage. Seedling damage and reduction in pollen fertility revealed linear trend with increase in dosage of three mutagens. As regards the pollen diameter of both fertile and sterile pollen reduction was more pronounced in EMS and sodium azide as compared to gamma rays. Among the mutagens, sodium azide was the most effective and EMS the least in causing irregularities. The meiotic cell division in the PMC's of morphological variant viz., simple leaf mutant, robust leaf mutant, dwarf and bushy mutant, xantha, branchless, uniculm and bunchy flowered mutant etc. isolated in M 2 generation. (author)


    Tihomir Čupić


    Full Text Available The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002. Six (five foreign and one inland cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process, Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978 and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966. According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2 di=0.010 and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2 di =0.160. Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2 di =0.034 was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments.

  17. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.


    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  18. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.


    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid [ 14 C]-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H 2 O 2 stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed


    I. M. Costa


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the corrosion of tinplate can for peas. Firstly, the characterization of canning solution was made. The values of pH, conductivity, Brix, viscosity, density and content of Fe were, respectively, 5.88; 32.6 mS/cm; 6.6%; 3,42cP; 1.026 g/ml; 12.05 mg/kg. The corrosion rate in the cans was determined by linear polarization technique. The electrodes with and without varnish were analyzed in the first and fifth day of the experiment for the 3 parts of the can. The corrosion rate increased significantly when the coating was removed and the body showed a higher corrosion rate, reaching 1.7 mm/year in the absence of varnish. The microstructure of the samples was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The increase of iron on the surface, evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS may have contributed to the corrosion in the samples without varnish.


    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  1. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.


    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  2. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.


    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  3. Marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance of 672 worldwide pea (Pisum sativum L.) collections.

    Liu, Rong; Fang, Li; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Zhang, Hongyan; Han, Wenliang; Hua, Zeke; Hao, Junjie; Zong, Xuxiao


    Frost stress is one of the major abiotic stresses causing seedling death and yield reduction in winter pea. To improve the frost tolerance of pea, field evaluation of frost tolerance was conducted on 672 diverse pea accessions at three locations in Northern China in three growing seasons from 2013 to 2016 and marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance were performed with 267 informative SSR markers in this study. Sixteen accessions were identified as the most winter-hardy for their ability to survive in all nine field experiments with a mean survival rate of 0.57, ranging from 0.41 to 0.75. Population structure analysis revealed a structured population of two sub-populations plus some admixtures in the 672 accessions. Association analysis detected seven markers that repeatedly had associations with frost tolerance in at least two different environments with two different statistical models. One of the markers is the functional marker EST1109 on LG VI which was predicted to co-localize with a gene involved in the metabolism of glycoproteins in response to chilling stress and may provide a novel mechanism of frost tolerance in pea. These winter-hardy germplasms and frost tolerance associated markers will play a vital role in marker-assisted breeding for winter-hardy pea cultivar.

  4. Biocompatibility of Poly(ester amide (PEA Microfibrils in Ocular Tissues

    Martina Kropp


    Full Text Available Drug delivery systems (DDS are able to deliver, over long periods of time, therapeutic concentrations of drugs requiring frequent administration. Two classes of DDS are available, biodegradable and non-biodegradable. The larger non-biodegradable implants ensure long-term delivery, but require surgical interventions. Biodegradable biomaterials are smaller, injectable implants, but degrade hydrolytically and release drugs in non-zero order kinetics, which is inefficient for long-term sustained drug release. Biodegradable poly(ester amides (PEAs may overcome these difficulties. To assess their ocular biocompatibility and long-term behavior, PEA fibrils were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, incubation in vitreous humor changes to PEA structure, suggests degradation by surface erosion, enabling drug release with zero order kinetics. Clinical and histological analysis of PEA fibrils implanted subconjunctivally and intravitreally showed the absence of an inflammatory response or other pathological tissue alteration. This study shows that PEA fibrils are biocompatible with ocular environment and degrade by surface erosion.

  5. STEM Education.

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee


    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.

  6. Recognition of ERK MAP kinase by PEA-15 reveals a common docking site within the death domain and death effector domain

    Hill, Justine M.; Vaidyanathan, Hema; Ramos, Joe W.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Werner, Milton H.


    PEA-15 is a multifunctional protein that modulates signaling pathways which control cell proliferation and cell death. In particular, PEA-15 regulates the actions of the ERK MAP kinase cascade by binding to ERK and altering its subcellular localization. The three-dimensional structure of PEA-15 has been determined using NMR spectroscopy and its interaction with ERK defined by characterization of mutants that modulate ERK function. PEA-15 is composed of an N-terminal death effector domain (DED...

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of roots and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercrops - a field study employing P-32 technique

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.


    was the dominant component of the pea-barley intercrop, obtaining 90% of its sole crop yield, while pea produced only 15% of the grains of a sole crop pea. Intercropping of pea and barley improved the utilization of plant growth resources (LER > 1) as compared to sole crops. Root system distribution in time...... and space can partly explain interspecific competition. The P-32 methodology proved to be a valuable tool for determining root dynamics in intercropping systems....

  8. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui


    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  9. Influence of Pea Protein Aggregates on the Structure and Stability of Pea Protein/Soybean Polysaccharide Complex Emulsions

    Baoru Yin


    Full Text Available The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS, and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  10. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping


    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  11. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey


    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  12. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...


    A. S. Shulpekov


    Full Text Available The characteristics of adaptability of 24 pea varieties to justify the use of the assortment in the technology of conveyor cultivation of raw green peas for freezing in conditions of the south-west of the CCZ is presented.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the network structure that underlines the transitioning in mechanical responses of pea protein gels

    Munialo, C.D.; Linden, van der E.; Ako, K.; Jongh, de H.H.J.


    The objective of this study was to analyze quantitatively the network structure that underlines the transitioning in the mechanical responses of heat-induced pea protein gels. To achieve this, gels were prepared from pea proteins at varying pHs from 3.0 to 4.2 at a fixed 100 mg/mL protein

  15. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the α-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van


    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  16. Effect of the combinations between pea proteins and soluble fibres on cholesterolaemia and cholesterol metabolism in rats.

    Parolini, Cinzia; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Rigamonti, Elena; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia


    Many functional foods and dietary supplements have been reported to be beneficial for the management of dyslipidaemia, one of the major risk factors for CVD. Soluble fibres and legume proteins are known to be a safe and practical approach for cholesterol reduction. The present study aimed at investigating the hypocholesterolaemic effect of the combinations of these bioactive vegetable ingredients and their possible effects on the expression of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis. A total of six groups of twelve rats each were fed, for 28 d, Nath's hypercholesterolaemic diets, differing in protein and fibre sources, being, respectively, casein and cellulose (control), pea proteins and cellulose (pea), casein and oat fibres (oat), casein and apple pectin (pectin), pea proteins and oat fibres (pea+oat) and pea proteins and apple pectin (pea+pectin). Administration of each vegetable-containing diet was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations compared with the control. The combinations (pea+oat and pea+pectin) were more efficacious than fibres alone in modulating cholesterolaemia ( - 53 and - 54%, respectively, at 28 d; Ppea proteins, a lower hepatic cholesterol content (Ppea proteins and oat fibres or apple pectin are extremely effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations in rats and affect cellular cholesterol homeostasis by up-regulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol turnover.

  17. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N


    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  18. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Keld, R


    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  19. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Schiavulli, A.; Appiano, M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.


    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew

  20. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)—‘Promiscuous’ anti-inflammatory and analgesic molecule at the interface between nutrition and pharma

    Keppel Hesselink, J.M.; Kopsky, D.J.; Witkamp, R.F.


    Palmitoylethanolamide (N-palmitoylethanolamine or PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) class of signalling molecules. Earliest reports on the anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of PEA date back to 1957 when its isolation from soy lecithin,

  1. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in production of the milk on family farms in Croatia

    Darko Uher


    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (28 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0,175 g/plant. Average pea seed yield were ranging from 1327 kg ha-1 (control up to 1825 kg ha-1 (inoculation. Average triticale grain yield were ranging from 2375 kg ha-1 (control up to 3345 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average total grain yield of winter peas in mixture triticale were ranging from 3702 kg ha-1 (control up to 5045 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. This paper and given results are a humble contribution to the research of pea growth in the Republic of Croatia.

  2. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules.

    Wiel, van de C.; Scheres, B.; Franssen, H.J.; Lierop, van M.J.; Lammeren, van A.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.


    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  3. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules

    Wiel, C. van de; Scheres, B.J.G.; Franssen, H.; Lierop, M.-J.; Lammeren, A. van; Kammen, A. van; Bisseling, T.


    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  4. Learn About Stem Cells

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe, E-mail: [Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)


    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe


    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å

  7. Polyamine Spermine Protects Young Pea Plants Against Ultraviolet-C Radiation

    Todorovska, D.; Katerova, Z.; Shopova, E.; Nikolova, A.; Georgieva, N.; Sergiev, I.


    The effects of ultraviolet-C - UV-C irradiation and polyamine spermine on the content of some stress marker and non-enzymatic antioxidants in leaves of young pea plants were investigated. UV-C irradiation led to a decrease in pea fresh weight, the content of leaf pigments and free proline, accompanied with an increase in malondialdehyde. The initial augmentation in the free thiol levels was transient in UV-C treated plants and finally a substantial decrease was found. Spermine led to a significant augmentation of free thiols and proline content along with a decline in total phenols, but these alterations diminished during the experimental period. Based on comparative analyses of the results obtained for plants treated with UV-C and polyamine, it could be concluded that preliminary application of spermine protects pea plants against irradiation, by maintaining normal plant growth, stabilizing cell membranes and activating non-enzymatic antioxidants

  8. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    Jensen, E.S.


    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  9. Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L. varieties for processing

    Jokanović Marija R.


    Full Text Available Green pea (Pisum sativum L. has a long tradition in Serbia and Montenegro as a processing crop. Short growing season, relatively simple production, pleasant taste and high nutritional value stimulate both production and consumption of peas. The objective of this paper is to present the main characteristics of two pea varieties, domestic cultivar Tamis and imported cultivar Jof and the influence of prolonged time between harvest and processing on the changes of main characteristics. Both cultivars have grains of very high quality that can be used for industrial processing as well as for garden growing (the green market. In the present paper the results of one-year study are shown: cultivar characteristics, growing season length, and physico-chemical (tenderometer value (TM, dry matter, alcohol insoluble solids (AIS, sugar and starch measurements for texture determination. According to the results, the optimal way of processing for each variety was recommended. .

  10. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad


    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  11. Deficit irrigation and organic compost improve growth and yield of quinoa and pea

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik


    Supplying organic matter under deficit irrigation conditions could be a practical solution to compensate the negative effect of water stress. For this purpose, studies in pea as a legume and quinoa as a new drought-tolerant crop were conducted in the south of Morocco between October 2011 and March...... significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased seed yield by 18 and 11% under stress conditions and by 13 and 3% under full irrigation for quinoa and by 24 and 11% under full irrigation and by 41 and 25% under water-deficit irrigation for pea. It can be concluded that organic amendment improved significantly yield...... harvested yield was affected significantly (P seed yields (3.3 t ha-1 for quinoa and 5.6 t ha-1 for pea) were recorded under full irrigation and 10 t ha-1 of compost. Results indicated that organic amendment of 10 t ha-1 and 5 t ha-1...

  12. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Anna Siczek


    Full Text Available Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides. To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M or water (control before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  13. Valor nutricional de produtos de ervilha em comparação com a ervilha fresca Nutritional value of pea products in comparison to fresh peas

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca


    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a composição centesimal e os teores de minerais, taninos e a disponibilidade de ferro e digestibilidade de proteínas em produtos de ervilha comercializados em Piracicaba/SP, em comparação com a ervilha fresca. Ocorreram alterações na composição centesimal, especialmente nas fibras, que se apresentaram em maiores quantidades na ervilha fresca. Os teores de taninos foram baixos. O teor de ferro foi maior na ervilha fresca (27,16 mg/Kg como também sua disponibilidade (28,5%, em conjunto com a sopa liofilizada (27,08%. O menor valor foi apresentado pela ervilha enlatada (14,04%, seguida pela sopa creme congelada (17,81%. Para a digestibilidade, a variação foi de 64,59 a 79,33%, sendo a proteína da sopa liofilizada a de menor digestibilidade. Foi concluído que o consumo de ervilha fresca seria o mais recomendado do ponto de vista nutricional, considerando os parâmetros analisados.The aim of this research was to evaluate the composition, amount of minerals and tannin, and iron availability in pea products sold in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo state, and compare them with fresh peas. Alterations occurred in the components of compositions, especially in fibers which presented a high quantity of fresh peas. Tannin was very low and iron was the highest in fresh peas (27.16 mg/Kg also the availability (28.5%, such as freeze drying soup (27.08%. The lowest value was for canned peas (14.04%, in sequence freezing soup (17.81%. The digestibility range from 64.59 to 79.33%, freeze drying soup presented the lowest digestibility. It was concluded that the consumption of fresh peas was the most recommended from a nutritional point of view, when the analysed parameters were considered.

  14. Extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms in aposymbiotic pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Nakabachi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Kudo, Toshiaki


    Aposymbiotic pea aphids, which were deprived of their intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera, exhibit growth retardation and no fecundity. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed that these aposymbiotic aphids, when reared on broad bean plants, accumulated a large amount of histamine. To assess the possibility of extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms other than Buchnera, we enumerated eubacteria and fungi in aphids using the real-time quantitative PCR method that targets genes encoding small-subunit rRNAs. The result showed that these microorganisms were extremely abundant in the aposymbiotic aphids reared on plants. Microbial communities in aposymbiotic aphids were further profiled by phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rDNAs. Of 172 nonchimeric sequences of fungal 18S rDNAs, 138 (80.2%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Among them, 21 clustered within a monophyletic group consisting of insect-pathogenic fungi and yeast-like symbionts of homopteran insects. Thirty-one (18.0%), two (1.2%), and one (0.6%) clones were clustered within the Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Oomycota, respectively. Of 167 nonchimeric sequences of eubacterial 16S rDNAs, 84 (50.3%) belonged to the gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria to which most primary endosymbionts of insects and prolific histamine producers belong. Forty (24.0%), 25 (15.0%), 10 (6.0%), and five (3.0%) clones were clustered within alpha-Proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Actinobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria, respectively. Three had no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions. None of the sequences studied in this study coincided exactly with those deposited in GenBank.

  15. Cytokinins and polar transport of auxin in axillary pea buds

    Petr Kalousek


    Full Text Available The influence of cytokinin on auxin transport during release of axillary buds from apical dominance was studied. Expression of auxin-carrier coding genes PsAUX1 (AUXIN RESISTANT 1 and PsPIN1 (PIN-FORMED 1 was explored in axillary buds of the 2nd node of 7-day pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Vladan after decapitation or after exogenous application of benzyladenine (6-benzylaminopurine onto axillary buds of intact plants. Localization of the PsPIN1 protein, the key factor for polar transport of auxin in axillary buds, was visualised by immunohistochemistry. After exogenous application of cytokinin the expression of PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 rapidly increased with a simultaneous rapid decrease in PsDRM1 and PsAD1 expression – genes related to bud dormancy. The same changes in expression were observed after decapitation, however they were markedly slower. The PsPIN1 auxin efflux carrier in the inhibited axillary buds of intact plants was localised in a non-polar manner. After exogenous application of cytokinin gradual polarisation of the PsPIN1 protein occurred on the basal pole of polar auxin transport competent cells. Despite the fact that direct auxin application to buds of intact plants led to an increase in PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 expression, the buds remained dormant (non-growing what was accompanied by persistent expression of the dormancy markers PsDRM1 and PsAD1. The results indicate a possible effect of cytokinins on biosynthesis, and/or transport of auxin in axillary buds and they highlight the importance of auxin-cytokinin crosstalk in the regulation of bud outgrowth after breaking of apical dominance.

  16. Mrk 71/NGC 2366: The Nearest Green Pea Analog

    Micheva, Genoveva; Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present the remarkable discovery that the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2366 is an excellent analog of the Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which are characterized by extremely high ionization parameters. The similarities are driven predominantly by the giant H ii region Markarian 71 (Mrk 71). We compare the system with GPs in terms of morphology, excitation properties, specific star-formation rate, kinematics, absorption of low-ionization species, reddening, and chemical abundance, and find consistencies throughout. Since extreme GPs are associated with both candidate and confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters, Mrk 71/NGC 2366 is thus also a good candidate for LyC escape. The spatially resolved data for this object show a superbubble blowout generated by mechanical feedback from one of its two super star clusters (SSCs), Knot B, while the extreme ionization properties are driven by the ≲1 Myr-old, enshrouded SSC Knot A, which has ∼10 times higher ionizing luminosity. Very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}) may be present in this remarkable object. Ionization-parameter mapping indicates that the blowout region is optically thin in the LyC, and the general properties also suggest LyC escape in the line of sight. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 does differ from GPs in that it is one to two orders of magnitude less luminous. The presence of this faint GP analog and candidate LyC emitter (LCE) so close to us suggests that LCEs may be numerous and commonplace, and therefore could significantly contribute to the cosmic ionizing budget. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 offers an unprecedentedly detailed look at the viscera of a candidate LCE, and could clarify the mechanisms of LyC escape.

  17. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    Christa Nilsen

    Full Text Available From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.

  18. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi.

    Souza Filho, Pedro F; Nair, Ramkumar B; Andersson, Dan; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J


    Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield. A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications. The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

  19. Studies on the infection process by Erysiphe polygoni in resistant and susceptible peas

    Cirulli, M.; Montemurro, G.; Ciccarese, F.; Smilari, F.


    The infection of pea by Erysiphe polygoni was investigated. The susceptible cultivar ''Sprinter'' and the resistant varieties ''Stratagem Resistant'' (er 1 er 1 Er 2 Er 2 ) and ''Mexique-4'' (er 1 er 1 er 2 er 2 ) were used. Observations of germination of conidia, formation of primary appressoria, differentiation of secondary hyphae, number of secondary hyphae per conidium, and number of branches on the longest hyphae per conidium were made at different times from inoculation. The rate of conidial germination was not affected by the host genotypes. The formation of short germ tubes with primary appressoria were found to be similar on the susceptible ''Sprinter'' as well as on the ''Stratagem Resistant'' and ''Mexique-4''. No statistical difference in the growth of germ tubes with appressorium between susceptible and resistant peas was observed at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 hrs after inoculation. In resistant peas formation of primary appressoria was not followed by further mycelial growth. Conversely, in the susceptible pea, germinating conidia produced multiple germ tubes and branching hyphae. The establishment of a compatible relationship between host and pathogen appears to occur at or near the stage of formation of the primary appressorium. Most conidia on the leaves formed primary appressoria as early as 2 hrs after inoculation. The Course of the host/pathogen relationship is apparently decided at a very early stage after pathogen contact with the host, such as the length of the longest hyphae, number of germ tubes per conidium and branching of the longest, and the difference in the macroscopic fungal fructification. E. polygoni activity in susceptible pea is evidently influenced by temperature whereas the gene action of the genetic factors remains unaffected in resistant pea

  20. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Georgieva, N.; Nikolova, I.; Delchev, G.


    The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides), applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide) and Biofa (foliar fertilizer), as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination) were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage) or twice (at budding and flowering stages). The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively). These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators), which provides good insect control and high prod. (Author)

  1. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya


    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  2. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.


    To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d. In the expand......To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d...

  3. Size measuring techniques as tool to monitor pea proteins intramolecular crosslinking by transglutaminase treatment.

    Djoullah, Attaf; Krechiche, Ghali; Husson, Florence; Saurel, Rémi


    In this work, techniques for monitoring the intramolecular transglutaminase cross-links of pea proteins, based on protein size determination, were developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of transglutaminase-treated low concentration (0.01% w/w) pea albumin samples, compared to the untreated one (control), showed a higher electrophoretic migration of the major albumin fraction band (26 kDa), reflecting a decrease in protein size. This protein size decrease was confirmed, after DEAE column purification, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) where the hydrodynamic radius of treated samples appears to be reduced compared to the control one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.


    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  5. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.


    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  6. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress



    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  7. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    E. Badini


    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  8. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.


    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  9. Simple Identification of the Neutral Chlorinated Auxin in Pea by Thin Layer Chromatography

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen


    to small volumes and chromatographed in CHCl3 or CCl4 solvent systems separating the chlorinated auxin from indoleacetonitrile and the methyl or ethyl esters of indoleacetic acid. Colour reaction was carried out with some of the Salkowski FeCl3 sprays of which Ehmann's FeCl3/dimethylaminobenzaldehyde......One of the neutral chlorinated auxins of immature pea seeds was readily identified by thin layer procedures simple enough to serve in student's laboratory courses. 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was extracted from 50 g of commercial, frozen peas by either water or acetone, concentrated...

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T


    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in c...

  11. Nutrient composition, functional, and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweetpotato flour blends.

    Ohizua, Ehimen R; Adeola, Abiodun A; Idowu, Micheal A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Afolabi, T Adeniyi; Ishola, Raphael O; Ayansina, Simeon O; Oyekale, Tolulope O; Falomo, Ayorinde


    This study investigated some quality attributes of unripe cooking banana (UBF), pigeon pea (PPF), and sweetpotato (SPF) flour blends. Simplex centroid mixture design was used to obtain 17 blends from the flours. The nutrient composition, color, and functional properties of the blends were evaluated using standard methods. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. There were significant ( p  pigeon pea-sweetpotato flour blends are desirable for alleviating malnutrition in Nigeria and developing new food formulations.

  12. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Jin Tong; Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas


    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphologi...

  13. Isolation and expression of a pea vicilin cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Watson, M D; Lambert, N; Delauney, A; Yarwood, J N; Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Wright, D J; Boulter, D


    A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence for vicilin from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was isolated. It specifies a 50,000-Mr protein that in pea is neither post-translationally processed nor glycosylated. The cDNA clone was expressed in yeast from a 2 micron plasmid by using the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter and initiator codon. The resultant fusion protein, which contains the first 16 amino acid residues of phosphoglycerate kinase in addition to the vicilin sequence, was puri...

  14. Propagação vegetativa de abacateiro por estaquia Vegetative propagation of avocado, by stem cuttings

    Samar Velho da Silveira


    Full Text Available Visando a propagar vegetativamente o abacateiro (Persea sp. por meio de estacas, estiolaram-se ramos em mudas das cultivares Ouro Verde e Baronesa. Após a obtenção destas mudas por garfagem de fenda cheia, podou-se a parte aérea das mesmas 10 cm acima do ponto de enxertia. Metade das mudas foi colocada em câmara escura, coberta com polietileno preto, visando a forçar brotação estiolada, enquanto a outra metade foi posta a brotar em casa de vegetação, anelando-se a base de todos os ramos estiolados e não estiolados. Um mês após a poda das mudas, confeccionaram-se estacas, tanto de ramos estiolados quanto de não estiolados, com 20cm de comprimento e quatro folhas maduras, que foram tratadas com solução de 2000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 10 segundos e colocadas, individualmente, em vasos plásticos pretos de 500 ml, contendo casca de arroz carbonizada como substrato. Após dois meses, estas foram repicadas para sacos de polietileno com capacidade para cinco litros. No momento do transplante, a taxa de enraizamento das estacas estioladas e não estioladas foi de 62,5% e 12,5%, respectivamente, para a cultivar Ouro Verde. A cultivar Baronesa não enraizou em nenhum caso. Após o transplante, as percentagens de enraizamento mantiveram-se as mesmas para a cultivar Ouro Verde, aumentando, contudo, o número de raízes por estaca. Já, para a cultivar Baronesa, as estacas não estioladas passaram a apresentar 12,5% de enraizamento, enquanto as estioladas continuaram com 0%.With the objetive to propagate avocados vegetatively by means of stem cuttings, branches of cultivars Ouro Verde and Baronesa were forced to etiolate. Grafted avocado plants were prunned 10 cm above of the grafting point. Half of those plants were covered with black polyethylene and placed in a darkroom. The other half of those plants were transfered to a greenhouse. The branches formed were girdled at the base. One month after the plants had been

  15. STEM Education

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  16. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    O. E. Kosterin


    Full Text Available This is an English translation of a paper published in Russian (but with proper Latin formulations at taxonomical novelties to make them validly published on March 15, 2017 in Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Vol. 22 (2: 158-169. The Abyssinian pea (Pisum abyssinicum A. Br., concerned in this review, is known from Ethiopia and Yemen, where it is cultivated along with the common pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum. The continuously reproduced notion of its possible spontaneous occurrence in the wild ascends to suppositions made in the XIX century and is not based on any actual data. P. abyssinicum is of practical interest owing to its extra early ripening and resistance to bacterial blight. Morphologically it is very similar to P. sativum but its crossability with it is bad as either seed or pollen parent. Traditionally this reproductive barrier was associated with karyological differences. The Abyssinian pea karyotype is variable as 1–2 reciprocal translocations were reported. At the same time there are accessions not differing from the standard karyotype of P. sativum with respect to reciprocal translocations, yet their crossability with the latter is very low and the pollen fertility of F1 and F2 hybrids is lowered. Data were reported on influence of the region of Linkage Group III, containing a gene known to participate in the conflict of nucleus and plastids in remote crosses of peas, on the pollen fertility of hybrids with abyssinian pea. With their karyological variability, the known accessions of the Abyssinian pea are very close to each other genetically, as they diverged just about 4 000 years ago. The presence of alleles of molecular markers common with Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Smith on the one hand and with P. sativum L. subsp. elatius (Bieb. Schmalh. on the other hand evidences in favour of an old hypotheses by L.I. Govorov that the Abyssinian pea originated from their spontaneous hybrid. This spontaneous cross may

  17. Space-time analysis of gravitropism in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls using bioluminescence imaging of the IAA19 promoter fusion with a destabilized luciferase reporter.

    Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Matsuzaki, Jun; Satoh, Soichirou; Shimizu, Hisayo


    Imaging analysis was carried out during the gravitropic response of etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls, using an IAA19 promoter fusion of destabilized luciferase as a probe. From the bright-field images we obtained the local deflection angle to the vertical, A, local curvature, C, and the partial derivative of C with respect to time, [Formula: see text]. These were determined every 19.9 µm along the curvilinear length of the hypocotyl, at ~10 min intervals over a period of ~6 h after turning hypocotyls through 90° to the horizontal. Similarly from the luminescence images we measured the luminescence intensity of the convex and concave flanks of the hypocotyl as well as along the median of the hypocotyl, to determine differential expression of auxin-inducible IAA19. Comparison of these parameters as a function of time and curvilinear length shows that the gravitropic response is composed of three successive elements: the first and second curving responses and a decurving response (autostraightening). The maximum of the first curving response occurs when A is 76° along the entire length of the hypocotyl, suggesting that A is the sole determinant in this response; in contrast, the decurving response is a function of both A and C, as predicted by the newly-proposed graviproprioception model (Bastien et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:755-760, 2013). Further, differential expression of IAA19, with higher expression in the convex flank, is observed at A = 44°, and follows the Sachs' sine law. This also suggests that IAA19 is not involved in the first curving response. In summary, the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis hypocotyls consists of multiple elements that are each determined by separate principles.

  18. Study of cell-differentiation and assembly of photosynthetic proteins during greening of etiolated Zea mays leaves using confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperature.

    Shibata, Yutaka; Katoh, Wataru; Tahara, Yukari


    Fluorescence microspectroscopy observations were used to study the processes of cell differentiation and assemblies of photosynthesis proteins in Zea mays leaves under the greening process. The observations were done at 78K by setting the sample in a cryostat to avoid any undesired progress of the greening process during the measurements. The lateral and axial spatial resolutions of the system were 0.64μm and 4.4μm, respectively. The study revealed the spatial distributions of protochlorophyllide (PChld) in both the 632-nm-emitting and 655-nm-emitting forms within etiolated Zea mays leaves. The sizes of the fluorescence spots attributed to the former were larger than those of the latter, validating the assignment of the former and latter to the prothylakoid and prolamellar bodies, respectively. In vivo microspectroscopy observations of mature Zea mays leaves confirmed the different photosystem II (PS I)/photosystem I (PS II) ratio between the bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (MS) cells, which is specific for C4-plants. The BS cells in Zea mays leaves 1h after the initiation of the greening process tended to show fluorescence spectra at shorter wavelength side (at around 679nm) than the MS cells (at around 682nm). The 679-nm-emitting chlorophyll-a form observed mainly in the BS cells was attributed to putative precursor complexes to PS I. The BS cells under 3-h greening showed higher relative intensities of the PS I fluorescence band at around 735nm, suggesting the reduced PS II amount in the BS cells in this greening stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Faba Bean: Transcriptome Analysis from Etiolated Seedling and Developing Seed Coat of Key Cultivars for Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins, Phytate, Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides, Vicine, and Convicine

    Heather Ray


    Full Text Available Faba bean ( L. has been little examined from a genetic or genomic perspective despite its status as an established food and forage crop with some key pharmaceutical factors such as vicine and convicine (VC, which provoke severe haemolysis in genetically susceptible humans. We developed next-generation sequencing libraries to maximize information to elucidate the VC pathway or relevant markers as well as other genes of interest for the species. One selected cultivar, A01155, lacks synthesis of the favism-provoking factors, VC, and is low in tannin, while two cultivars, SSNS-1 and CDC Fatima, are wild-type for these factors. Tissues (5- to 6-d-old root and etiolated shoot and developing seed coat were selected to maximize the utility and breadth of the gene expression profile. Approximately 1.2 × 10 expressed transcripts were sequenced and assembled into contigs. The synthetic pathways for phosphatidylinositol or phytate, the raffinose family oligosaccharides, and proanthocyanidin were examined and found to contain nearly a full complement of the synthetic genes for these pathways. A severe deficiency in anthocyanidin reductase expression was found in the low-tannin cultivar A01155. Approximately 5300 variants, including 234 variants specific to one of the three cultivars, were identified. Differences in expression and variants potentially related to VC synthesis were analyzed using strategies exploiting differences in expression between cultivars and tissues. These sequences should be of high utility for marker-assisted selection for the key traits vicine, convicine, and proanthocyanidin, and should contribute to the scant genetic maps available for this species.

  20. Evaluation of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer

    Seyfollah fallah


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer at Shahrekord University research farm during 1390 - 1391. Intercropping and sole cropping treatments (100% canola; 66% canola + 33% pea, 50% canola + 50% pea; 33% canola + 66% pea; 100% pea were evaluated as the first factor and nitrogen rates (100% need; 75% need and 50% need as the second factor in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The calculated competitive indices were included land equivalent ratio (LER, relative crowding coefficient (K, aggressively (A, the system production index (SPI, actual yield loss (AYL, competitive ratio (CR and economy indices included monetary advantage index (MAI, and the intercropping advantage (IA. Results showed that all the competitive and economic indices had the highest amount in 50 and 75% of nitrogen requirement. The amounts of AYLt and SPI and economic indices (MAI and IA were positive for all intercropping ratios. Also, LERt and Kt for all intercropping ratio were greater than one, that indicating the superiority of intercropping over sole cropping any of the two plants. The positive values aggressively index and the greater than one values competitive ratio for canola, indicated canola was superior competitor in compared to pea. In conclusion, the evaluation of competitive and economic indices appropriately describes intercropping advantage of canola with pea in reduced nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  1. Influence of grinding on the nutritive value of peas for ruminants: comparison between in vitro and in situ approaches

    Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Maaroufi, Chiraze; Chapoutot, Patrick; Peyronnet, Corinne; Sauvant, Daniel


    In ruminant nutrition, peas are characterized by high protein solubility and degradability, which impair its protein value estimated by the official in situ method. Grinding can be used as a technological treatment of pea seeds to modify their nutritional value. The aim of this study was to compare the in situ method with an in vitro method on the same pea either in a coarse pea flour form (PCF) or in a ground pea fine flour form (PFF) to understand the effect of grinding. Both forms were also reground (GPCF and GPFF). PCF presented a lower rate of in vitro degradation than PFF, and more stable fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia, soluble carbohydrates) even if gas production was higher for the PCF after 48 h of incubation. In situ dry matter and protein degradation were lower for PCF than those for PFF; these differences were more marked than with the in vitro method. Reground peas were very similar to PFF. The values for pea protein digestible in the intestine (PDI) were higher for PCF than those for PFF. This study points out the high sensitivity of the in situ method to grinding. The study needs to be validated by in vivo measurements. PMID:25473488

  2. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching


    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Bao-Hong Lee


    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  4. Pea mutant risnod27 as reference line for field assessment of impact of symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    Biedermannová, E.; Novák, Karel; Vondrys, J.


    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2002), s. 2051-2066 ISSN 0190-4167 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/00/0937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : pea mutant * symbiotic nodules Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2002

  5. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  6. Pea DNA topoisomerase I is phosphorylated and stimulated by casein kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar


    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.


    ... phytosanitary certificate of inspection issued by the national plant protection organization of Kenya bearing... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319.56-45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  8. A pea chloroplast translation elongation factor that is regulated by abiotic factors

    Singh, B.N.; Mishra, R.N.; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Goswami, Mamta; Nair, Suresh; Sopory, S.K.; Reddy, M.K.


    We report the cloning and characterization of both the cDNA (tufA) and genomic clones encoding for a chloroplast translation elongation factor (EF-Tu) from pea. The analysis of the deduced amino acids of the cDNA clone reveals the presence of putative transit peptide sequence and four GTP binding domains and two EF-Tu signature motifs in the mature polypeptide region. Using in vivo immunostaining followed by confocal microscopy pea EF-Tu was localized to chloroplast. The steady state transcript level of pea tufA was high in leaves and not detectable in roots. The expression of this gene is stimulated by light. The differential expression of this gene in response to various abiotic stresses showed that it is down-regulated in response to salinity and ABA and up-regulated in response to low temperature and salicylic acid treatment. These results indicate that regulation of pea tufA may have an important role in plant adaptation to environmental stresses

  9. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G


    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids.

    Hendry, Tory A; Clark, Kelley J; Baltrus, David A


    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction.

  11. Translocation of metals in pea plants grown on various amendment of electroplating industrial sludge.

    Bose, Sutapa; Chandrayan, Sudarshana; Rai, Vivek; Bhattacharyya, A K; Ramanathan, A L


    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to observe the effects of acidic sludge addition to the soils on bioavailability and uptake of heavy metals in different parts of pea plant as well as its influence on the growth of that plant. It is observed from our result the abundances of total and bio-available heavy metals in sludge vary as follows: Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Cu>Pb>Zn>Cd and Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. Sludge applications increased both the total metals, DTPA-extractable metals and total N in the soils. On the other hand lime application has decreased the bioavailability of heavy metals with no change in total N in sludge amended soils. Organic carbon showed positive correlation with all metals except Zn, Cr and Pb. CEC also showed a strong positive correlation (R(2)>0.7) with the low translocation efficiency of pea plants. The value of translocation factor from shoot to seed was found to be smaller than root to shoot of pea plants. Our study thus shows that pea plants were found to be well adapted to the soil amended with 10% sludge with 0.5% lime treatment, minimizing most of the all metal uptake in the shoot of that plant. So, on the basis of the present study, possible treatment may be recommended for the secure disposal of acidic electroplating sludge.

  12. Genotype × Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Lines

    G. B. Polignano


    performance of lines in each year. The analyses used arranged the lines into groups that were differentiable in terms of performances and stability. Our results provide useful information to aid the choice of grass pea lines in the Mediterranean marginal areas.

  13. Synergistic enhancement in the co-gelation of salt-soluble pea proteins and whey proteins.

    Wong, Douglas; Vasanthan, Thava; Ozimek, Lech


    This paper investigated the enhancement of thermal gelation properties when salt-soluble pea proteins were co-gelated with whey proteins in NaCl solutions, using different blend ratios, total protein concentrations, pH, and salt concentrations. Results showed that the thermal co-gelation of pea/whey proteins blended in ratio of 2:8 in NaCl solutions showed synergistic enhancement in storage modulus, gel hardness, paste viscosity and minimum gelation concentrations. The highest synergistic enhancement was observed at pH 6.0 as compared with pH 4.0 and 8.0, and at the lower total protein concentration of 10% as compared with 16% and 22% (w/v), as well as in lower NaCl concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% as compared with 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 3.0% (w/v). The least gelation concentrations were also lower in the different pea/whey protein blend ratios than in pure pea or whey proteins, when dissolved in 1.0% or 2.5% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L


    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Profile and functional properties of seed proteins from six pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes.

    Barac, Miroljub; Cabrilo, Slavica; Pesic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Sladjana; Zilic, Sladjana; Macej, Ognjen; Ristic, Nikola


    Extractability, extractable protein compositions, technological-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum) proteins from six genotypes grown in Serbia were investigated. Also, the relationship between these characteristics was presented. Investigated genotypes showed significant differences in storage protein content, composition and extractability. The ratio of vicilin:legumin concentrations, as well as the ratio of vicilin + convicilin: Legumin concentrations were positively correlated with extractability. Our data suggest that the higher level of vicilin and/or a lower level of legumin have a positive influence on protein extractability. The emulsion activity index (EAI) was strongly and positively correlated with the solubility, while no significant correlation was found between emulsion stability (ESI) and solubility, nor between foaming properties and solubility. No association was evident between ESI and EAI. A moderate positive correlation between emulsion stability and foam capacity was observed. Proteins from the investigated genotypes expressed significantly different emulsifying properties and foam capacity at different pH values, whereas low foam stability was detected. It appears that genotype has considerable influence on content, composition and technological-functional properties of pea bean proteins. This fact can be very useful for food scientists in efforts to improve the quality of peas and pea protein products.

  16. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector

    Juliette Doumayrou


    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus–vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum, and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  17. Flavour aspects of pea and its protein preparations in relation to novel protein foods

    Heng, L.


    This research is part of the multidisciplinary program, PROFETAS (PROtein Foods Environment Technology And Society), which aimed to feasibly shift from animal proteins to pea proteins for the development of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) with desirable flavour. The aim of this research is to investigate

  18. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector.

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Sheber, Melissa; Bonning, Bryony C; Miller, W Allen


    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus-vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP) are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus , Luteoviridae ) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus , Tombusviridae ) are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum , and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  19. Design of a supply chain network for pea-based novel protein foods

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.


    This paper presents an operations research technique that can be used for supply chain design and applies it to create a supply network with a goal to manufacture a pea-based NPF as cheaply as possible. The current food production and consumption pattern has a strong impact on the environment and

  20. Effect of extrusion, espansion and toasting on the nutritional value of peas, faba beans and lupins

    Filippo Rossi


    Full Text Available An assessment was made of the effect that different treatments (toasting, expansion, extrusion have on the nutritionalvalue of protein plants (pea, faba bean, lupin. In a randomized block design, feeds were screened for enzymaticdigestibility of starch and protein, N solubility and in vitro protein degradability. Expansion and extrusion cause increasedstarch enzymatic degradability while toasting produced virtually no effects. In peas this value increased from 11.80% inmeal to 39.70% in the extruded product; 85.37% is the percentage for the expanded product, while 10.90% is the starchdigestibility value for toasted peas. In faba beans the extrusion process increased starch digestibility from 11.39% to85.05%, while in extruded lupins a complete starch hydrolysis was obtained, while in the meal the polysaccharide digestionwas 54.48%.The expansion and extrusion processes significantly decreased rumen degradability during the first 8 hours of incubation.Toasted peas had lower degradability if compared with controls but not with the other treatments. The onlypotentially alternative source to soybean is the extruded faba bean. In spite of its lower protein content, this feed ischaracterized by a considerably lower in vitro protein degradability than soybean. This implies that the digestible foodprotein content is comparable (124.90 g/kg DM to that of soybean (109.78 g/kg DM and definitely higher than thatof all other protein plants.

  1. Molecular aspects of the nitrogen fixing system in pea root nodules

    Bisseling, T.


    The author considers symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Pisum sativum and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Some general aspects of nodule formation and the regulation of the proteins nitrogenase and leghemoglobin (Lb) have been studied. Synthesis of these proteins was studied by 35 SO 4 labelling of intact pea plants. The sequence of appearance of the proteins was determined with specific radioimmunoassays for each protein. (Auth.)

  2. Use of peas in organic buffalo farming: effects on nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Felicia Masucci


    Full Text Available Twenty lactating buffalo cows, organically farmed, were used to examine the effects of including peas in total mixed ration. Two concentrates were formulated to contain, as the main protein sources, either 350 g/kg of soybean cake (CC or 450 g/kg of peas (ExpC. Cows were blocked into two groups according to parity and previous milk yield and were assigned to one of two dietary treatments: one group was fed a diet with 6 kg/d of CC, whereas the treatment group was fed diet in which 3 kg/d of CC were replaced by an equal quantity of ExpC. Digestibility of the diets and milk yield of the cows were measured. The experimental period covered the whole lactation period. No differences were observed between groups for milk yield and composition, and for digestibility. The main hypothesis tested, that the replacement of soybean cake with peas in buffalo diet would not affect milk yield and composition,was confirmed. This suggested that the partial substitution of soybean cake with peas in diet for buffalo cows can be possible without affect performances.

  3. Stability of pea DDMP saponin and the mechanism of its decomposition

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Hoppe, K.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; DeCroos, K.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    DDMP saponin can be converted to saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one). The stability of DDMP saponin from pea was investigated under various conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration, pH). DDMP saponin in water was observed to be unstable

  4. Seventeen years of research on genetics of resistance to Aphanomyces root rot of pea

    Aphanomyces root rot, caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, is a major soil borne disease of pea in many countries. Genetic resistance is considered to be a main way to control the disease. Since 2000, INRA has engaged a long-term research program to study genetic resistance to A. euteiches ...

  5. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids

    Hendry, Tory A.; Clark, Kelley J.; Baltrus, David A.


    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction. PMID:26998321

  6. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe


    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Development and evaluation of chicken nuggets with partial replacement of meat and fat by pea fibre

    Yana Jorge POLIZER


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a chicken nugget formulation with partial substitution of the meat or fat by pea fibre. Three formulations were developed: Control (C – commercial formulation, Fibre Less Meat (FLM – reduction of 10% of meat and addition of 2% of pea fibre and Fibre Less Fat (FLF – reduction of 10% of fat and addition of 2% pea fibre. The products were characterized for their pH value, instrumental colour, texture, cooking loss (frying, proximate composition, and sensory properties (acceptance test. The control treatment presented lower (p0.05 amongst the treatments. The texture analysis showed no significant differences amongst the treatments for elasticity and cohesiveness, although the FLF batch was firmer than the others (p0.05 amongst the three treatments for aroma, texture, flavour or overall acceptability. One can conclude that it is possible to partially replace meat and fat by pea fibre in chicken nuggets, without compromising most of the physicochemical characteristics and without altering the sensory acceptance.

  8. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar


    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.


    ZIA-UL-HAQ, M.; ALI KHAN, B.; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; AHMED, S.; QAYUM, M.; Ahmad, S.


    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2012), s. 707-711 ISSN 0001-6837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : platelet aggregation * Garden pea * Desi chickpea Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2012

  10. Improving quality of an innovative pea puree by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Klug, Tâmmila Venzke; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Gómez, Perla A; Collado, Elena; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco


    The food industry is continuously innovating to fulfill consumer demand for new, healthy, ready-to-eat products. Pea purees could satisfy this trend by increasing the intake of legumes, which are an important source of nutrients. Moreover, sensorial properties like viscosity could be improved by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). In this study the effect of a boiling treatment (10 min) followed by HHP at 550 kPa (0, 5 or 10 min) on the rheological properties, associated with enzymatic activity and particle size, as well as on the microbial and sensory quality of a pea-based puree stored for 36 days at 5 °C, has been assessed. The particle size of pea puree decreased after all processing treatments, but increased during storage in HHP-treated samples. Conversely, boiling treatment showed an increase in polygalacturonase activity at the end of the storage period, with a decrease in particle size, viscosity and stability. However, 5 min of 550 kPa HHP showed the highest mean particle size, mean surface diameter and viscosity regarding the remaining treatments. The microbial load remained low during storage. HHP treatment can be used by the food industry to improve the rheological properties, viscosity and stability of pea purees. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin


    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  12. Predation determines different selective pressure on pea aphid host races in a complex agricultural mosaic.

    Adalbert Balog

    Full Text Available Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR and alfalfa race (AR pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean, whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants.

  13. Variations in Cooking time with Some physico-chemical properties of stored pea dry seeds

    Ahmed, H. S.


    Cooking time is one of the most important aspects of food quality. Correlation of cooking time with certain quality attributes of stored pea dry seeds were investigated to verify previous findings in faba bean concerning the relationship between cooking time and these characters. Moreover, the study aimed at finding out indices for selection of early cooking pea types. Accordingly, the time when 50% of pea dry seeds considered cooked was determined for six pea genotypes grown at shambat in the season 1999/2000. This parameter revealed significant variance and wide range of variability (84.33-115.33 min) indicating various degrees of seed hardness. Similarly, marked differences in 100-seed weight, test a, cotyledon, moisture, ash and potassium content were recorded due to genotypes. Cooking time showed significant positive correlations (r = 0.892,<0.0001 and r = 0.504, P< 0.0310) with seed weight and cotyledon percentage, respectively, and significant negative correlations (r = - 0.907, P< 0.0001 and r = - 0.505, P=0.0313) with ash and test a percentages, respectively. (Author)

  14. Cytokinin profiling of long-term in vitro pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoot cultures

    Plačková, Lenka; Hrdlička, Jakub; Smýkalová, I.; Cvečková, M.; Novák, Ondřej; Griga, M.; Doležal, Karel


    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2015), s. 125-132 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytokinins * Pea * Quantification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.333, year: 2015

  15. Auxin Does Not Alter the Permeability of Pea Segments to Tritium-labeled Water.

    Dowler, M J; Rayle, D L


    The possibility of an auxin effect on the permeability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ev. Alaska) segments to tritium-labeled water has been investigated by three separate laboratories, and the combined results are presented. We were unable to obtain any indication of a rapid effect of indoleacetic acid on the efflux of (3)HHO when pea segments previously "loaded" for 90 minutes with (3)HHO were transferred to unlabeled aqueous medium with indoleacetic acid. We were able to confirm that segments pretreated with (3)HHO plus indoleacetic acid for 60 to 90 minutes can show an enhanced (3)HHO release as compared with minus indoleacetic acid controls. However, this phenomenon appears to be due to an increased uptake of (3)HHO during the prolonged indoleacetic acid pretreatment, and therefore we conclude that auxin does not alter the permeability of pea segments to (3)HHO in either short term or long term tests. We confirm previous reports that the uptake of (3)HHO in pea segments proceeds largely through the cut surfaces, and that the cuticle is a potent barrier to (3)HHO flux.

  16. Quality evaluation of cassava-pigeon pea composite flour and the ...

    Cassava flour (CF) and pigeon pea flours (PF) were respectively produced and blended in the ratios of 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20. The flour blends were subjected to proximate, functional and anti-nutrient analysis after which they were used to produce cookies. The sensory and physical characteristics were ...

  17. Peasüüdistaja : Kosovo albaanlased lõikasid serbia vangidelt neerud / Krister Paris

    Paris, Krister, 1977-


    Endise ÜRO tribunali peasüüdistaja Carla del Ponte raamatust "Jaht. Mina ja sõjakurjategijad", milles autor süüdistab Kosovo albaanlasi võigastes veretöödes. Vt. samas: Raamat aitab võimule radikaalid

  18. “Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: A food-based ...

    Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: A food-based dietary guideline. ... Legumes are rich and economical sources of good-quality protein, slow-release carbohydrates, dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides), various vitamins and minerals and non-nutritive components which may have several beneficial ...

  19. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera midgut digestive physiology after ingestion of pigeon pea inducible leucine aminopeptidase.

    Purushottam R Lomate

    Full Text Available Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.

  20. Identification of Ononitol and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol in Pea Root Nodules

    Skøt, Leif; Egsgaard, Helge


    Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) and O-methyl-scyllo-inositol were identified in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules formed by twoRhizobium leguminosarum strains. Ononitol was the major soluble carbohydrate in nodules formed by strain 1045 while O-methyl-scyllo-inositol and two unidentified com...

  1. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Skøt, Leif


    The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...

  2. Rhizoplane colonisation of peas by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae and a deleterious Pseudomonas putida

    Berggren, I.; Alstrom, S.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Martensson, A.M.


    Pseudomonas putida strain angstrom 313, a deleterious rhizosphere bacterium, reduced pea nitrogen content when inoculated alone or in combination with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae on plants in the presence of soil under greenhouse conditions. When plants were grown gnotobiotically in liquid

  3. Modelling the drying kinetics of green peas in a solar dryer and under open sun

    Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM CET Bahal, Haryana–127028 (India); Varun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, (H.P.)–177005 (India); Sharma, Naveen [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IITR, (U.K.)–247667 (India)


    The drying kinetics of green peas was investigated in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun. The entire drying process took place exclusively in falling rate period. The constant rate period was absent from the drying curves. The rehydration capacity was also determined for peas dried in solar dryer and under open sun. The rehydration capacity of solar dried peas was found higher than open sun dried peas. The drying data obtained from experiments were fitted to eight different mathematical models. The performance of these models was examined by comparing the coefficient of correlation (R2), sum of squares error (SSE), mean squared error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values of moisture ratios. Among these models, the thin layer drying model developed by Page showed good agreement with the data obtained from experiments for bottom tray. The Midilli et al. model has shown better fit to the experimental data for top tray and open sun than other models.




    Full Text Available Pigeon pea is an important protein source grown in several tropical and sub - tropical countries, and is considered a multi - purpose plant that is resistant to the conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado. Among the possible uses for cowpea, its use as a green manure, increasing soil nitrogen content through the association with diazotrophic bacteria, generically known as rhizobia, is noteworthy. The present work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Rhizobium strains isolated from cowpea plants in the development of pigeon peas cultured in Red Latosol. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of inoculation with four Rhizobium strains (MT8, MT15, MT16, and MT23 and one commercial inoculant comprising Bradyrhizobium spp. strains BR 2801 and BR 2003. There were two controls, one absolute (without inoculation or nitrogen fertilization and the other with nitrogen fertilization. Each experimental plot consisted of an 8 - dm 3 vase containing three plants. Analyzed variables included plant height, SPAD index, number and dry weight of nodules, and shoot and root dry masses. Pigeon peas responded significantly to inoculation treatment, since all the plants inoculated with Rhizobium strains isolated from cowpea strains showed results similar to plants in the nitrogen control and commercial inoculant treatments. This demonstrates a favorable plant – bacteria interaction, which can be utilized as an alternative nitrogen source for pigeon peas.

  5. Green Pea and Garlic Puree Model Food Development for Thermal Pasteurization Process Quality Evaluation.

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Liu, Fang


    Development and selection of model foods is a critical part of microwave thermal process development, simulation validation, and optimization. Previously developed model foods for pasteurization process evaluation utilized Maillard reaction products as the time-temperature integrators, which resulted in similar temperature sensitivity among the models. The aim of this research was to develop additional model foods based on different time-temperature integrators, determine their dielectric properties and color change kinetics, and validate the optimal model food in hot water and microwave-assisted pasteurization processes. Color, quantified using a * value, was selected as the time-temperature indicator for green pea and garlic puree model foods. Results showed 915 MHz microwaves had a greater penetration depth into the green pea model food than the garlic. a * value reaction rates for the green pea model were approximately 4 times slower than in the garlic model food; slower reaction rates were preferred for the application of model food in this study, that is quality evaluation for a target process of 90 °C for 10 min at the cold spot. Pasteurization validation used the green pea model food and results showed that there were quantifiable differences between the color of the unheated control, hot water pasteurization, and microwave-assisted thermal pasteurization system. Both model foods developed in this research could be utilized for quality assessment and optimization of various thermal pasteurization processes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Pea-root exudates and their effect upon root-nodule bacteria

    Egeraat, van A.W.S.M.


    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the exudation (mechanism, sites) of various compounds by roots of pea seedlings in relation to the growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    Chapter 1 gives a survey of the literature pertaining to plant-root

  7. Molecular characterization of pea enation mosaic virus and bean leafroll virus from the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Vemulapati, B; Druffel, K L; Eigenbrode, S D; Karasev, A; Pappu, H R


    The family Luteoviridae consists of eight viruses assigned to three different genera, Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. The complete genomic sequences of pea enation mosaic virus (genus Enamovirus) and bean leafroll virus (genus Luteovirus) from the Pacific Northwest, USA, were determined. Annotation, sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes together with those of known polero- and enamoviruses were conducted.

  8. Chloroindolyl-3-acetic Acid and its Methyl Ester Incorporation of 36Cl in Immature Seeds of Pea and Barley

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen


    Immature seeds of pea and barley were harvested on plants grown in solutions containing 36Cl−, but no other chlorides. Autoradiography of two-dimensional thin layer chromatograms (silicagel) of butanol extracts of freeze-dried seeds showed the presence in both species of several radioactive...... compounds besides Cl−. One compound, present in pea and probably in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4- and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid methyl esters. Another, detected in pea, but probably not in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4-and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acids....

  9. Model system evaluation of the effects of pea and pH on the emulsion properties of beef

    Kurt, Ş.; Ceylan, H. G.


    The effects of dried ground pea (0 - 1%) and pH (4.80 - 7.20) on the emulsion properties of beef were investigated using the model system. The study was designed according to the central composite rotatable design using the Response Surface Methodology. Pea had significant effects on emulsion activity and stability. The effects of pH on emulsion capacity, stability, activity, density, viscosity and apparent yield stress were significant. In addition, the interaction of both factors (pea and p...

  10. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)) in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Fusco, Roberta; Cordaro, Marika; Siracusa, Rosalba; Crupi, Rosalia; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore


    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic condition characterized by progressive scarring of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)), an endogenous fatty acid amide, in mice subjected to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was induced in male mice by a single intratracheal administration of saline with bleomycin sulphate (1mg/kg body weight) in a volume of 100μL. PEA-um(®) was injected intraperitoneally at 1, 3 or 10mg/kg 1h after bleomycin instillation and daily thereafter. Animals were sacrificed after 7 and 21days by pentobarbitone overdose. One cohort of mice was sacrificed after seven days of bleomycin administration, followed by bronchoalveloar lavage and determination of myeloperoxidase activity, lung edema and histopathology features. In the 21-day cohort, mortality was assessed daily, and surviving mice were sacrificed followed by the above analyses together with immunohistochemical localization of CD8, tumor necrosis factor-α, CD4, interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and basic fibroblast growth factor. Compared to bleomycin-treated mice, animals that received also PEA-um(®) (3 or 10mg/kg) had significantly decreased weight loss, mortality, inflammation, lung damage at the histological level, and lung fibrosis at 7 and 21days. PEA-um(®) (1mg/kg) did not significantly inhibit the inflammation response and lung fibrosis. This study demonstrates that PEA-um(®) (3 and 10mg/kg) reduces the extent of lung inflammation in a mouse model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibody expressing pea seeds as fodder for prevention of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens

    Macek Jeanette


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coccidiosis caused by protozoans of genus Eimeria is a chicken parasitic disease of great economical importance. Conventional disease control strategies depend on vaccination and prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs. Alternative solution to prevent and treat coccidiosis could be provided by passive immunization using orally delivered neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the possibility to mitigate the parasitic infection by feeding poultry with antibody expressing transgenic crop seeds. Results Using the phage display antibody library, we generated a panel of anti-Eimeria scFv antibody fragments with high sporozoite-neutralizing activity. These antibodies were expressed either transiently in agrobacteria-infiltrated tobacco leaves or stably in seeds of transgenic pea plants. Comparison of the scFv antibodies purified either from tobacco leaves or from the pea seeds demonstrated no difference in their antigen-binding activity and molecular form compositions. Force-feeding experiments demonstrated that oral delivery of flour prepared from the transgenic pea seeds had higher parasite neutralizing activity in vivo than the purified antibody fragments isolated from tobacco. The pea seed content was found to protect antibodies against degradation by gastrointestinal proteases (>100-fold gain in stability. Ad libitum feeding of chickens demonstrated that the transgenic seeds were well consumed and not shunned. Furthermore, feeding poultry with shred prepared from the antibody expressing pea seeds led to significant mitigation of infection caused both by high and low challenge doses of Eimeria oocysts. Conclusion The results suggest that our strategy offers a general approach to control parasitic infections in production animals using cost-effective antibody expression in crop seeds affordable for the animal health market.

  12. Effects of long-term reduced tillage on weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Andrzej Woźniak


    Full Text Available The study evaluated weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivated under conditions of conventional (CT, reduced (RT and herbicide tillage (HT. It demonstrated the highest weed density per m2 in plots with the herbicide (HT and reduced (RT systems and significantly lower weed infestation in plots cultivated in the conventional system (CT. In addition, more weeds occurred at the third leaf stage (13/14 in BBCH scale than at the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH of pea. The highest biomass was produced by weeds in the herbicide system (HT, a lower one – in the reduced system (RT, and the lowest one – in the conventional system (CT. The air-dry weight of weeds depended also on pea development stage. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the air-dry weight of weeds was significantly higher than at the third leaf stage (13/14 BBCH. The tillage system was also observed to influence the species composition of weeds. This trait was also affected by the period of weed infestation assessment. At the third leaf stage of pea (13/14 BBCH, there occurred 26 weed species, including 24 annual ones. The most abundant species included: Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Med., Matricaria inodora L., Thlaspi arvense L., and Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the pea crop was colonized by 24 weed species, including 3 perennial ones. At this stage the predominant species included: Avena fatua L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Papaver rhoeas L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.B., Matricaria inodora L., and Galeopsis tetrahit L.

  13. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki


    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase.


    Nanko Popov


    Full Text Available The effect of two substances with regulatory effect – RENI and RENI A on the quality and productivity of peas were studied. The experimental work was carried out in 2005-2006 on the territory of the town of Alexandroupolis, Greece. Wrinkled-seed garden peas of Vyatovo cultivar was an object of the study. The experiment was set by the plot method in four repetitions, the plot area being 6,4 m2. The plants were grown by the technology adopted for pea production. The experimental variants were the following: 1. Control; 2. Treated with RENI; 3. Treated with RENI A. Pre-sowing treatment with nitrogen at the rate of 3,3 kg/da, applied as ammonium nitrate and with phosphorus (P2O5 at the rate of 5 kg/da, applied as triple superphosphate was carried out. Treatment with RENI substances was conducted at the stage of bud formation and at the beginning of flowering. The applied rate of 200 ml/da was determined in our previous studies. It was found out that treatment with RENI had a positive effect on the dry matter accumulation and the carbohydrate exchange dynamics in peas of Vyatovo cultivar. Thus, the unfavourable environmental conditions could be compensated and a produce of better technological features and taste qualities could be obtained. Treatment with RENI brought about the improvement of the biological value of the proteins by increasing the total amount of the essential amino acids and changing the ratio between essential and total amino acids in favour of the essential ones. Treatment with RENI increased the molybdenum content in the pea grain and it is a prerequisite for replacing the presowing treatment with molybdenum chemicals.

  15. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates.

    Adenekan, Monilola K; Fadimu, Gbemisola J; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A; Oke, Emmanuel K


    In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water-extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.25%, ash 0.05%, and crude fiber 0.05%. The methanol-extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 7.87%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.17%, and ash 0.13%, while crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The composition of the ammonium sulfate-extracted protein isolate was moisture 7.73%, protein 91.73%, fat 0.36, ash 0.13%, and crude fiber 0.67%. The acetone-extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 8.03%, protein 91.50%, ash 0.67%, and fat 0.30%, but crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The isolate precipitated with ammonium sulfate displayed the highest foaming capacity (37.63%) and foaming stability (55.75%). Isolates precipitated with methanol and acetone had the highest water absorption capacity (160%). Pigeon pea protein isolates extracted with methanol and ammonium sulfate had the highest oil absorption capacity of 145%. Protein isolates recovered through acetone and methanol had the highest emulsifying capacity of 2.23% and emulsifying stability of 91.47%, respectively. The proximate composition of the recovered protein isolates were of high purity. This shows the efficiency of the extraction techniques. The isolates had desirable solubility index. All the isolation techniques brought significant impact on the characteristics of the isolated pigeon pea protein.

  16. Stem Cell Basics

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  17. Stem Cells

    Sommerlund, Julie


    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  18. Estrategia para mejorar el acceso al tratamiento etiológico para la enfermedad de Chagas en el primer nivel de atención en Argentina

    Karen Klein


    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Mejorar la distribución del tratamiento etiológico para la enfermedad de Chagas mediante la identificación de barreras para su descentralización al primer nivel de atención en Argentina. Métodos Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo, de carácter exploratorio y descriptivo, en base a entrevistas semiestructuradas a actores clave pertenecientes al Programa Nacional de Chagas y miembros de los equipos de salud del primer nivel de atención con el objetivo de identificar barreras para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas en diferentes niveles (administrativo, efectores de salud y comunidad que podrían afectar una estrategia descentralizada de distribución. Además, se implementó un piloto de descentralización en diez centros de atención primaria en una provincia argentina. Resultados Se realizaron 22 entrevistas semiestructuradas con responsables de programas y profesionales de la salud. Los principales obstáculos hallados fueron la falta de búsqueda sistemática de casos, la poca articulación entre los niveles de atención y los actores del sistema de salud, la falta de capacitación del equipo de salud respecto al tratamiento, el seguimiento de los pacientes y las barreras asociadas a los pacientes. Se llevó a cabo un programa piloto de descentralización y se evaluaron estrategias para optimizar la intervención a gran escala. Conclusiones Los resultados permitieron mejorar la implementación del plan de descentralización del tratamiento a través de una mejor articulación interprogramática, la capitalización de herramientas de monitoreo y de comunicación ya existentes, y la sensibilización de los equipos de salud. Además, se formularon recomendaciones tendientes a mejorar el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas.

  19. Hemiparetic cerebral palsy: etiological risk factors and neuroimaging Paralisia cerebral hemiparética: fatores de risco etiológico e neuroimagem

    Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga Piovesana


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper, which was conducted on 175 children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (H-CP, was to verify the etiological risk period for this disease. Etiological risk factors (ERF were detected through anamnesis: 23% in the prenatal period, 18% in the perinatal period and 59% of the patients the period was undefined (ERF in the prenatal and perinatal period was 41% and no ERF was 18% of the cases. The computerized tomographic scan (CT and MRI were performed on all the patients, who were then classified according to their etiopathogenic data: CT1= normal (18%; CT 2= unilateral ventricular enlargement (25%; CT 3= cortical/ subcortical cavities (28%; CT4= hemispheric atrophy and other findings (14%; CT 5= malformations (15%. CT 5 was associated with physical malformations beyond the central nervous system and with prenatal ERF's , while CT 2 was associated with the perinatal ERF's, mainly in premature births. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 57 patients and demonstrated a good degree of concordance with the CT. Etiology remained undefined in only 37% of the cases after neuroimaging was related to ERF. A high perinatal RF frequency (59% was observed and emphasized the need for special care during this period.Foram estudadas 175 crianças com paralisia cerebral hemiparética (PC-H para elucidar o período de risco etiológico. Através da anamnese constataram-se fatores de risco para etiologia (FRE pré-natal em 23%, perinatal em18% e período indefinido em 59% dos pacientes (com FRE pré e perinatal 41% e sem FRE 18%. A tomografia computadorizada (TC foi realizada em todos os sujeitos e classificada de acordo com dados etiopatogênicos em: TC1= normal (18%; TC2= alargamento ventricular unilateral (25%; TC3= cavidades córtico-subcorticais (28%; TC4= atrofia hemisférica e outros achados (14%; TC5= malformações (15%. A TC5 se associada a malformações físicas fora do sistema nervoso central e aos FRE pré-natais e a TC2 aos

  20. Why STEM?

    Mitts, Charles R.


    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  1. Development of cookies made with cocoyam, fermented sorghum and germinated pigeon pea flour blends using response surface methodology.

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C


    Cookies were produced from blends of cocoyam, fermented sorghum and germinated pigeon pea flours. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying the proportions of these components on the sensory and protein quality of the cookies. The sensory attributes studied were colour, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability while the protein quality indices were biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU). Mixture response surface methodology was used to model the sensory and protein quality with single, binary and ternary combinations of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. Results showed that BV and NPU of most of the cookies were above minimum acceptable levels. With the exception of cookies containing high levels of pigeon pea flour, cookies had acceptable sensory scores. Increase in pigeon pea flour resulted in increase in the BV and NPU. Regression equations suggested that the ternary blends produced the highest increase in all the sensory attributes (with the exception of colour).

  2. Environments of z~0.2 Star Forming Galaxies: Building on the Citizen Science Discovery of the Green Peas

    Cardamone, Carolin; Cappelluti, Nico; Powell, Meredith; Urry, Meg; Galaxy Zoo Science Team


    ‘Green Pea’ galaxies, discovered in the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project, are rare low-mass (M Green Peas and the Luminous Red Galaxies throughout the SDSS footprint, and we find that the population of Green Peas at 0.11

  3. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne


    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P pigeon pea starch respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosities increased with increasing levels of pigeon pea starch while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.

  4. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea

    Bao-Hong Lee; Yi-Syuan Lai; She-Ching Wu


    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained us...

  5. Nutritional composition and antinutritional properties of maize ogi cofermented with pigeon pea.

    Okafor, Uchechukwu I; Omemu, Adebunkola M; Obadina, Adewale O; Bankole, Mobolaji O; Adeyeye, Samuel A O


    Maize was cofermented with pigeon pea for ogi production and evaluated for nutritional (proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, and amino acid profile analyses) and antinutritional (phytate, tannin, and trypsin inhibitor activity analyses) qualities. White maize and pigeon pea were mixed at ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50, respectively, with 100:0 serving as the control. Mixtures were cofermented for 96 hr at 27°C ± 2°C and nutritional, mineral, and antinutritional qualities were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results of proximate analysis showed that the values were significantly difference at p  ≤   .05. Maize cofermented with pigeon pea at a ratio of 60:40 had the highest protein (22.79 mg/100 g), fat (19.27 mg/100 g), ash (2.98 mg/100 g), crude fiber (0.73 mg/100 g), and lowest moisture (1.98 mg/100 g) content, and was significantly ( p  ≤   .05) different from the other ratios. Of all the mixtures analyzed, 60:40 was significantly ( p  ≤   .05) different and had the highest Vitamin B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 contents. Amino acid profile results showed that maize cofermented with pigeon pea at a ratio of 60:40 showed the highest contents of lysine (93.95 mg/g), tryptophan (20.38 mg/g), isoleucine (54.78 mg/g), phenylalanine (86.23 mg/g), leucine (109.55 mg/g), and valine (68.29 mg/g), respectively, and was significantly ( p  ≤   .05) different from the other ratios. Results of antinutritional analysis showed low phytate, tannin, and trypsin inhibitor values in maize cofermented with pigeon pea at a ratio of 60:40 when compared with other ratios. The cofermented maize-pigeon pea product 60:40 had high amino acid profile than the others.

  6. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild


    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Understanding the role of H(2)O(2) during pea seed germination: a combined proteomic and hormone profiling approach.

    Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Job, Dominique; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Claudette; Hernández, José Antonio


    In a previous publication, we showed that the treatment of pea seeds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased germination performance as well as seedling growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this behaviour, we have analysed the effect of treating mature pea seeds in the presence of 20 mm H(2)O(2) on several oxidative features such as protein carbonylation, endogenous H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation levels. We report that H(2)O(2) treatment of the pea seeds increased their endogenous H(2)O(2) content and caused carbonylation of storage proteins and of several metabolic enzymes. Under the same conditions, we also monitored the expression of two MAPK genes known to be activated by H(2)O(2) in adult pea plants. The expression of one of them, PsMAPK2, largely increased upon pea seed imbibition in H(2)O(2) , whereas no change could be observed in expression of the other, PsMAPK3. The levels of several phytohormones such as 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and zeatin appeared to correlate with the measured oxidative indicators and with the expression of PsMAPK2. Globally, our results suggest a key role of H(2)O(2) in the coordination of pea seed germination, acting as a priming factor that involves specific changes at the proteome, transcriptome and hormonal levels. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves.

    Taylor, S; Hofer, J; Murfet, I


    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2-mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea-suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea.

  9. PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd


    The catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. In insects; these neuroactive substances are functionally replaced by the phenolamines octopamine and tyramine. Phenolamines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Type 1 tyramine receptors are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. In contrast; type 2 tyramine receptors are almost exclusively activated by tyramine. Functionally; activation of type 1 tyramine receptors leads to a decrease in the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP] i ) whereas type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca 2+ signals or both Ca 2+ signals and effects on [cAMP] i . Here; we report that the American cockroach ( Periplaneta americana ) expresses a second type 1 tyramine receptor (PeaTAR1B) in addition to PeaTAR1A (previously called PeaTYR1). When heterologously expressed in flpTM cells; activation of PeaTAR1B by tyramine leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in [cAMP] i . Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists. The functional characterization of two type 1 tyramine receptors from P. americana ; PeaTAR1A and PeaTAR1B; which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels; is a major step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in cockroach physiology and behavior; particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine.

  10. PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Wolfgang Blenau


    Full Text Available The catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. In insects; these neuroactive substances are functionally replaced by the phenolamines octopamine and tyramine. Phenolamines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Type 1 tyramine receptors are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. In contrast; type 2 tyramine receptors are almost exclusively activated by tyramine. Functionally; activation of type 1 tyramine receptors leads to a decrease in the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP]i whereas type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca2+ signals or both Ca2+ signals and effects on [cAMP]i. Here; we report that the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana expresses a second type 1 tyramine receptor (PeaTAR1B in addition to PeaTAR1A (previously called PeaTYR1. When heterologously expressed in flpTM cells; activation of PeaTAR1B by tyramine leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in [cAMP]i. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists. The functional characterization of two type 1 tyramine receptors from P. americana; PeaTAR1A and PeaTAR1B; which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels; is a major step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in cockroach physiology and behavior; particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine.

  11. Esquizofrenia, genética, epigênesis, ambiente: uma revisão sistemática das hipóteses etiológicas unifi cadas e do perfi l genética; e um novo algoritmo para o tratamento dos achados principais

    Machado Dias, Alvaro; Luiz Rodriguez, E. Avelino


    Contexto: la esquizofrenia es un síndrome complejo relacionado con genes y factores de riesgo no genéticos. Estudios epidemiológicos reconocidos reportan su presencia en todas las culturas y regiones geográficas. En este sentido, las Hipótesis Etiológicas Unificadas enfrentan simultáneamente el desafío de presentar los datos experimentales y demostrar que éstos dan cuenta del perfil universal del síndrome. Objetivos: revisar sistemáticamente las más prominentes Hipótesis Etiológicas Unifi - c...

  12. Feeding value of field pea as a protein source in forage-based diets fed to beef cattle.

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Encinias, A M; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S


    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of field peas as a protein source in diets for beef cattle. In the first study, 4 cultivars of field pea were incubated in situ to determine rate and extent of CP disappearance. Results indicate that field pea cultivars vary in CP content (22.6, 26.1, 22.6, and 19.4%, DM basis for Profi, Arvika, Carneval, and Trapper, respectively). Soluble protein fraction ranged from 34.9% for Trapper to 54.9% for Profi. Degradable CP fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for Trapper compared with the other cultivars, and no differences (P ≥ 0.25) were observed among Profi, Arvika, and Carneval. Rate of CP degradation differed (P ≤ 0.03) for all cultivars, with Profi being the greatest and Trapper the smallest (10.8, 10.0, 8.1, and 6.3 ± 1.4%/h for Profi, Carneval, Arvika, and Trapper, respectively). Estimated RDP was not different (P = 0.21) for all 4 cultivars. In the second study, 30 crossbred beef steers (301 ± 15 kg) were individually fed and used to evaluate effects of field pea processing (whole, rolled, or ground) on steer performance. Diets contained 40% field pea grain. Growing steers consuming whole field pea had greater ADG (P = 0.08) than those consuming processed field pea (1.69, 1.52, and 1.63 ± 0.05 kg/d, for whole, rolled, and ground, respectively). However, DMI (kg/d and as % of BW) and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.24). In the third study, 35 individually fed gestating beef cows (694 ± 17 kg) were used to evaluate the use of field pea as a protein supplement for medium quality grass hay (9.3% CP). Treatments consisted of whole field peas at 1) 0 g (CON), 2) 680 g (FP680), 3) 1,360 g (FP1360), and 4) 2,040 g (FP2040), and 5) 1,360 g of 74% barley and 26% canola meal (BCM). Total intake (forage + supplement) of gestating beef cows increased with increasing field pea level (linear, P = 0.01; supplemented vs. nonsupplemented, P = 0.01). In summary, protein quantity and rate of ruminal protein degradation

  13. The pea branching RMS2 gene encodes the PsAFB4/5 auxin receptor and is involved in an auxin-strigolactone regulation loop.

    Ligerot, Yasmine; de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Waldie, Tanya; Troadec, Christelle; Citerne, Sylvie; Kadakia, Nikita; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Prigge, Michael; Aubert, Grégoire; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Leyser, Ottoline; Estelle, Mark; Debellé, Frédéric; Rameau, Catherine


    Strigolactones (SLs) are well known for their role in repressing shoot branching. In pea, increased transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes are observed in stems of highly branched SL deficient (ramosus1 (rms1) and rms5) and SL response (rms3 and rms4) mutants indicative of negative feedback control. In contrast, the highly branched rms2 mutant has reduced transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes. Grafting studies and hormone quantification led to a model where RMS2 mediates a shoot-to-root feedback signal that regulates both SL biosynthesis gene transcript levels and xylem sap levels of cytokinin exported from roots. Here we cloned RMS2 using synteny with Medicago truncatula and demonstrated that it encodes a putative auxin receptor of the AFB4/5 clade. Phenotypes similar to rms2 were found in Arabidopsis afb4/5 mutants, including increased shoot branching, low expression of SL biosynthesis genes and high auxin levels in stems. Moreover, afb4/5 and rms2 display a specific resistance to the herbicide picloram. Yeast-two-hybrid experiments supported the hypothesis that the RMS2 protein functions as an auxin receptor. SL root feeding using hydroponics repressed auxin levels in stems and down-regulated transcript levels of auxin biosynthesis genes within one hour. This auxin down-regulation was also observed in plants treated with the polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA. Together these data suggest a homeostatic feedback loop in which auxin up-regulates SL synthesis in an RMS2-dependent manner and SL down-regulates auxin synthesis in an RMS3 and RMS4-dependent manner.

  14. Comparative study of drought and salt stress effects on germination and seedling growth of pea

    Petrović Gordana


    Full Text Available Seed germination is first critical and the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of plants compromise the seedlings establishment. Salt and drought tolerance testing in initial stages of plant development is of vital importance, because the seed with more rapid germination under salt or water deficit conditions may be expected to achieve a rapid seedling establishment, resulting in higher yields. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pea seed germination and seedling growth were inhibited by the salt toxicity and osmotic effect during the seedling development, and also identification of the sensitive seedling growth parameters in response to those stresses. Based on the obtained results, pea has been presented to be more tolerant to salt than water stress during germination and early embryo growth. Investigated cultivars showed greater susceptibility to both abiotic stresses when it comes growth parameters compared to seed germination. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. TR-31022

  15. Getting Started with PEAs-Based Flapping-Wing Mechanisms for Micro Aerial Systems

    José Carlos Durán Hernández


    Full Text Available This paper introduces recent advances on flapping-wing Micro and Nano Aerial Vehicles (MAVs and NAVs based on Piezoelectric Actuators (PEA. Therefore, this work provides essential information to address the development of such bio-inspired aerial robots. PEA are commonly used in micro-robotics and precise positioning applications (e.g., micro-positioning and micro-manipulation, whereas within the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs domain, motors are the classical actuators used for rotary or fixed-wing configurations. Therefore, we consider it pertinent to provide essential information regarding the modeling and control of piezoelectric cantilever actuators to accelerate early design and development stages of aerial microrobots based on flapping-wing systems. In addition, the equations describing the aerodynamic behavior of a flapping-wing configuration are presented.

  16. Nitrogen transfer in the interface between the symbionts in pea root nodules

    Rosendahl, L.; Mouritzen, P.; Rudbeck, A.


    Transport mechanisms for transfer of nitrogen from the bacteroid side across the symbiosome membrane of pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules were identified by the use of energised bacteroid side-out symbiosome membrane vesicles. Such membrane vesicles were used to study a mechanism with high...... was not observed. The ammonium transporter has been identified as a voltage-driven channel whereas the symbiosome membrane aspartate transporter appears to be a H+/aspartate symport. The results suggest that nitrogen transfer between the symbionts in pea root nodules involves transfer of amino acids as well...... capacity for transport of ammonium and another mechanism capable of transporting aspartate. Both transport mechanisms are voltage driven and the rate of transport relates positively to the magnitude of the imposed membrane potentials. Competition for transport between ammonium and aspartate...

  17. Heterologous expression of plant cell wall glycosyltransferases in Pichia, pea and tobacco

    Petersen, Bent Larsen; Damager, Iben; Faber, Kirsten

    Cell). In the present study, Flag-tagged (MDYKDDDD) RGXT2 was expressed in Pichia pastoris as secreted soluble protein, in pea (using the Pea early browning virus as expression vector) as soluble intra-cellular protein and in tobacco as full length membrane bound protein. The amount of expressed...... to participate in plant CW biosynthesis, has been achieved in only a few cases. We have previously reported the characterisation of two highly homologous plant-specific membrane-bound GTs, which when expressed as secreted tagged soluble proteins in the baculo virus system, catalysed the transfer of xylose from...... protein was estimated using anti Flag Ab and corresponding activity monitored. Pros and cons of using the various expression systems are discussed....

  18. Homogenous 96-plex PEA immunoassay exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity, and excellent scalability

    Assarsson, Erika; Lundberg, Martin; Holmquist, Göran


    reporters, shown potential to relieve the shortcomings of antibodies and their inherent cross-reactivity in multiplex protein quantification applications. The aim of the present study was to develop a robust 96-plex immunoassay based on the proximity extension assay (PEA) for improved high throughput...... detection of protein biomarkers. This was enabled by: (1) a modified design leading to a reduced number of pipetting steps compared to the existing PEA protocol, as well as improved intra-assay precision; (2) a new enzymatic system that uses a hyper-thermostabile enzyme, Pwo, for uniting the two probes......, such as serum and plasma, and also in xenografted mice and resuspended dried blood spots, consuming only 1 µL sample per test. All-in-all, the development of the current multiplex technique is a step toward robust high throughput protein marker discovery and research....

  19. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A


    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  20. Utilization of exogenous ethanol by pea seedlings in an oxygen-free environment

    Ivanov, B.F.; Zemlyanukhin, A.A.; Salam, A.M.M.


    The authors investigated the metabolism of exogenous [2- 14 C]-ethanol in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) exposed to different gaseous media, viz.,air, helium, or CO 2 . The 14 C label from ethanol most actively entered amino acids (glutamic and aspartic acids, alanine, glycine, and serine) and organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate, and malonate). Conversion of ethanol to organic acids and separate amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid and valine) was intensified under conditions of oxygen stress. A high concentration of CO 2 stimulated transformations of ethanol into these two amino acids, but sharply inhibited overall entry of the label from exogenous ethanol into metabolites of the seedlings. Lengthening the time of exposure lowered this inhibition. Exogenous ethanol did not take part in stress accumulation of alanine in seedlings deprived of oxygen. It is concluded that ethanol participates actively in the metabolic response of pea plants to oxygen stress, and that CO 2 exerts strong modifying action on this response

  1. The effect of salinity on seed germination and growth parameters of field pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Jovičić Dušica


    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. seed contains a large amount of proteins, amino acids, sugars, carbohydrates, vitamins A and C, calcium and phosphorous, and hence it is widely used for many purposes. Although field pea has moderate requirements for its growth, it is sensitive to increased salt content in soil. This research included eight varieties (Javor, Jantar, Partner, Kristal, Pionir, Junior, Trezor, Dukat developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Sodium chloride solutions of various concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM were added in growing media to simulate saline conditions. The following were subsequently determined: seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings and 1000-seed weight. Among the analyzed varieties, variety Jantar expressed a high level of tolerance to increased salt content in growing media under laboratory conditions.

  2. Development of an efficient retrotransposon-based fingerprinting method for rapid pea variety identification.

    Smýkal, Petr


    Fast and efficient DNA fingerprinting of crop cultivars and individuals is frequently used in both theoretical population genetics and in practical breeding. Numerous DNA marker technologies exist and the ratio of speed, cost and accuracy are of importance. Therefore even in species where highly accurate and polymorphic marker systems are available, such as microsatellite SSR (simple sequence repeats), also alternative methods may be of interest. Thanks to their high abundance and ubiquity, temporary mobile retrotransposable elements come into recent focus. Their properties, such as genome wide distribution and well-defined origin of individual insertions by descent, predetermine them for use as molecular markers. In this study, several Ty3-gypsy type retrotransposons have been developed and adopted for the inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) method, which is suitable for fast and efficient pea cultivar fingerprinting. The method can easily distinguish even between genetically closely related pea cultivars and provide high polymorphic information content (PIC) in a single PCR analysis.

  3. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A


    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  4. Instrumental and sensory properties of pea protein-fortified extruded rice snacks.

    Philipp, Claudia; Buckow, Roman; Silcock, Pat; Oey, Indrawati


    Characteristic attributes of pea-protein fortified, extruded rice snacks were evaluated by mechanical, acoustic and descriptive sensory analysis. The addition of pea protein isolate (0 to 45% (w/w)) to rice flour and extruder screw speed strongly affected the expansion behaviour and therefore, textural attributes of extruded snack products. The sensory panel described the texture of highly expanded extrudates as crisp, while low expanded extrudates were perceived as hard, crunchy and non-crisp. Results of the instrumental and sensory analysis were compared and showed a high correlation between mechanical and sensory hardness (r=0.98), as well as acoustic and sensory crispness (r=0.88). However, poor and/or negative correlations between acoustic and sensory hardness and crunchiness were observed (r=-0.35 and -0.84, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum) biscuit

    H. A. Hassan; A.I. Mustafa; A.R. Ahmed


    This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI) was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum) flour (WF, extraction rate 72%), for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DP...

  6. Transcript Lifetime Is Balanced between Stabilizing Stem-Loop Structures and Degradation-Promoting Polyadenylation in Plant Mitochondria

    Kuhn, Josef; Tengler, Ulrike; Binder, Stefan


    To determine the influence of posttranscriptional modifications on 3′ end processing and RNA stability in plant mitochondria, pea atp9 and Oenothera atp1 transcripts were investigated for the presence and function of 3′ nonencoded nucleotides. A 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach initiated at oligo(dT)-adapter primers finds the expected poly(A) tails predominantly attached within the second stem or downstream of the double stem-loop structures at sites of previously mapped 3′ ends. Functional studies in a pea mitochondrial in vitro processing system reveal a rapid removal of the poly(A) tails up to termini at the stem-loop structure but little if any influence on further degradation of the RNA. In contrast 3′ poly(A) tracts at RNAs without such stem-loop structures significantly promote total degradation in vitro. To determine the in vivo identity of 3′ nonencoded nucleotides more accurately, pea atp9 transcripts were analyzed by a direct anchor primer ligation-reverse transcriptase PCR approach. This analysis identified maximally 3-nucleotide-long nonencoded extensions most frequently of adenosines combined with cytidines. Processing assays with substrates containing homopolymer stretches of different lengths showed that 10 or more adenosines accelerate RNA processivity, while 3 adenosines have no impact on RNA life span. Thus polyadenylation can generally stimulate the decay of RNAs, but processivity of degradation is almost annihilated by the stabilizing effect of the stem-loop structures. These antagonistic actions thus result in the efficient formation of 3′ processed and stable transcripts. PMID:11154261


    A. G. Besedin


    Full Text Available The early-ripening variety of garden pea ‘Kudesnik 2’ was proposed for State Commission for variety trial in 2015 and regarded to be used in the canning industry. The variety was bred at Krymsk Experimental Plant Breeding Station and considered to be used for continued conveyor-like production for further processing technology at canned-food production enterprises.

  8. The Phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937) Is a Pathogen of the Pea Aphid†

    Grenier, Anne-Marie; Duport, Gabrielle; Pagès, Sylvie; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan


    Dickeya dadantii (Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing soft rot diseases on many crops. The sequencing of its genome identified four genes encoding homologues of the Cyt family of insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, which are not present in the close relative Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum. The pathogenicity of D. dadantii was tested on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium was shown to be highly virulent for this insect, eit...

  9. Comparative study of the functional properties of three legume seed isolates: adzuki, pea and soy bean.

    Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Kostic, Aleksandar Z; Bivolarevic, Vanja


    The aim of this work was to compare functional properties including solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of native and thermally treated adzuki, soy and pea protein isolates prepared under the same conditions. These functional properties were tested at four pH values: pH 3.0, pH 5.0, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0. The lowest solubility at all pH values were obtained for isolate of adzuki whereas isolates of soybean had the highest values at almost all pHs. Thermal treatment reduced solubility of soy and pea isolates at all pH values, whereas solubility of adzuki isolate was unchanged, except at pH 8. Native isolate of adzuki had the best emulsifying properties at pH 7.0 whereas at the other pH values some of native pea and soybean protein isolates were superior. After thermal treatment, depending on tested pH and selected variety all of three species could be a good emulsifier. Native soy protein isolates formed the most stable foams at all pHs. Thermal treatment significantly improved foaming properties of adzuki isolate, whereas reduced foaming capacity of soy and pea isolates, but could improve foam stability of these isolates at specific pH. Appropriate selection of legume seed as well as variety could have great importance in achievement of desirable functional properties of final products. All three tested species could find specific application in wide range of food products.


    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K


    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast.

  11. Protein gels and emulsions from mixtures of Cape hake and pea proteins.

    Tomé, Ana Sofia; Pires, Carla; Batista, Irineu; Sousa, Isabel; Raymundo, Anabela


    Portioning of frozen fish generates by-products such as fish 'sawdust' and cut-offs which can be further processed into protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of the present work was to produce gels and emulsions using recovered Cape hake protein powder (HPP). In previous works, the structures of the gels produced by HPP were found to be strong, with a high rubbery character. In this work, the addition of commercial pea proteins (PPC) to HPP gels and emulsions was studied. Physical properties of gels and emulsions prepared with different proportions of mixtures of PPC and HPP were evaluated. In general, gels and emulsions showed high values for whiteness and, as expected, the higher content of HPP in the protein mixtures led to higher firmness values of the gels. The gel network was rapidly formed upon heating due to the fish protein macromolecules and further reinforced by the pea protein macromolecules when cooled to 5 °C. Both visco-elastic parameters, storage and loss moduli, of the produced gels increased with the HPP proportion in the protein mixtures, corresponding to more structured systems. For the emulsions, two different pH environments were studied: 3.8 and 7.0. At neutral pH a synergy was found between the vegetable and fish protein, which is not so strong when pH is lowered to 3.8, near the isoelectric point of pea proteins (pI = 4.5). This evidence was supported by the results from the texture measurements, viscosity and visco-elastic parameters. Gels made from Cape hake proteins showed a softer texture and were less rubbery with the addition of pea proteins. Emulsions stabilised by these mixtures showed slightly different behaviour when produced at pH 7.0 or pH 3.8. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of pea varieties based on correlation of quantitative traits and indices

    О. І. Присяжнюк


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate pea plants productivity and determine the degree of correlation among the main agronomic characters in pea varieties. Methods. Structural and statistical analysis. Results. Evaluation of pea samples in terms of indices of plant productivity elements level based on correlation analysis and single-factor indices appliance provided insight into the ratio of one trait share per unit of another one. It was defined that some correlations among the elements of productivity was not only moderate and weak, but they also changed their sign that could be the evidence of growth conditions influence on structural relationships bet­ween some traits and, consequently, redistribution of their contributions to the formation of variety productivity. Positive and very close relationship of many traits was revealed, particularly between plant height and the height of the plant up to the first bean, the number of nodes and the number of sterile nodes (r = 0,95–0,97. Methodological aspects of the variety model creation were considered, that may be useful not only in pea breeding but also for improving the techno­logy of its cultivation. Conclusions. Correlation relationships were established between the number of beans and the number of fruiting nodes and the number of carpophores containing 2 beans (r = 0,86–0,88, seed mass and plant mass (r = 0,81, the number of seeds per plant and plant mass and seed mass per plant (r = 0,78–0,81, the number of certified seeds and the number of seeds per plant (r = 0,84, the average number of beans per fertile node and the number of carpophores containing 2 beans (r = 0,74 that makes it possible to use them in assessing the productivity of plants.

  13. QTL analysis of frost damage in pea suggests different mechanisms involved in frost tolerance.

    Klein, Anthony; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Marget, Pascal; Jacquin, Françoise; Boucherot, Karen; Huart, Myriam; Rivière, Nathalie; Boutet, Gilles; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Burstin, Judith


    Avoidance mechanisms and intrinsic resistance are complementary strategies to improve winter frost tolerance and yield potential in field pea. The development of the winter pea crop represents a major challenge to expand plant protein production in temperate areas. Breeding winter cultivars requires the combination of freezing tolerance as well as high seed productivity and quality. In this context, we investigated the genetic determinism of winter frost tolerance and assessed its genetic relationship with yield and developmental traits. Using a newly identified source of frost resistance, we developed a population of recombinant inbred lines and evaluated it in six environments in Dijon and Clermont-Ferrand between 2005 and 2010. We developed a genetic map comprising 679 markers distributed over seven linkage groups and covering 947.1 cM. One hundred sixty-one quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining 9-71 % of the phenotypic variation were detected across the six environments for all traits measured. Two clusters of QTL mapped on the linkage groups III and one cluster on LGVI reveal the genetic links between phenology, morphology, yield-related traits and frost tolerance in winter pea. QTL clusters on LGIII highlighted major developmental gene loci (Hr and Le) and the QTL cluster on LGVI explained up to 71 % of the winter frost damage variation. This suggests that a specific architecture and flowering ideotype defines frost tolerance in winter pea. However, two consistent frost tolerance QTL on LGV were independent of phenology and morphology traits, showing that different protective mechanisms are involved in frost tolerance. Finally, these results suggest that frost tolerance can be bred independently to seed productivity and quality.

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Rosanna Scipioni


    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  15. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia

    Uchegbu, Nneka N.; Ishiwu, Charles N.


    Abstract This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan?induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28?C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl?2?picrylhy?drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of ??amylase and ??glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectro...

  16. Selecting novel material of vegetable pea for mechanical harvesting and canning

    Kaigorodova Irina M.


    Full Text Available Breeding of novel pea cultivars is of significant interest in scope of increasing food shortages. The cultivars of new generation have to be highly technological and appropriate for mechanical treatment in all stages of planting. To provide higher outcome of plant products, pea is to be harvested for prolonged seasonal period, i.e. bred for conveyor usage. In this paper we presented the results of preliminary investigation of pea germplasm collection and studies on inheritance of flowering time in a series of crosses. We evaluated all hybrid progeny for duration of vegetation, lodging resistance and seed mass. Seven maturity groups were emphasized with most of obtained lines exhibiting an average duration of vegetation period measured as number of sterile nodes (11-15 for average fraction. As a result of this survey, the prospective genotypes for breeding new forms resistant to lodging and suitable for mechanical harvest were isolated. We propose a scheme of conveyor usage of new forms for sustainable delivery of stock for conversion industry. The obtained material is recommended for further improvement as the initial material for breeding.

  17. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) beverage as an anti-diabetic functional drink

    Ariviani, S.; Affandi, D. R.; Listyaningsih, E.; Handajani, S.


    The number of patients with diabetes continues to increase. Diabetes complications might induce serious diseases such as kidney, nervous, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Diabetic complications can be prevented by keeping blood glucose and cholesterol at normal levels. This study aims to determine the potential of pigeon pea beverage for lowering glucose and total cholesterol plasma levels and increasing the antioxidant status of diabetic-hypercholesterolemia rats. The research was conducted using 18 Sprague Dawley male rats aged 3 months old with an average body weight of 154 g. The rats were divided into three groups: normal group, D-H group (diabetic-hypercholesterolemia group), and pigeon pea beverage group. The results showed that pigeon pea beverage diet showed hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities, and could improve the antioxidant status of diabetic-hypercholesterolemia rats. Plasma glucose and total cholesterol levels of diabetic-hypercholesterolemia rats decreased 33.86% and 19.78% respectively. The improvement of the plasma antioxidant status was indicated by the decrease of plasma MDA (malondialdehyde) level, reaching 37.16%. The research result provides an alternative to diabetes management by using the local bean as an anti-diabetic functional drink.

  18. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product.

    Seida, Ahmed A; El Tanbouly, Nebal D; Islam, Wafaa T; Eid, Hanaa H; El Maraghy, Shohda A; El Senousy, Amira S


    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides namely, quercetin-3-O-sophorotrioside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.

  19. [Enhanced Resistance of Pea Plants to Oxidative: Stress Caused by Paraquat during Colonization by Aerobic Methylobacteria].

    Agafonova, N V; Doronina, N Y; Trotsenko, Yu A


    The influence of colonization of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) by aerobic methylobacteria of five different species (Methylophilus flavus Ship, Methylobacterium extorquens G10, Methylobacillus arboreus Iva, Methylopila musalis MUSA, Methylopila turkiensis Sidel) on plant resistance to paraquat-induced stresses has been studied. The normal conditions of pea colonization by methylobacteria were characterized by a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases) and in the concentrations of endogenous H2O2, proline, and malonic dialdehyde, which is a product of lipid peroxidation and indicator of damage to plant cell membranes, and an increase in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (the content of chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids). In the presence of paraquat, the colonized plants had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, stable photosynthetic indices, and a less intensive accumulation of the products of lipid peroxidation as compared to noncolonized plants. Thus, colonization by methylobacteria considerably increased the adaptive protection of pea plants to the paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    Susan M. Tosh


    Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.

  1. Improving functional properties of pea protein isolate for microencapsulation of flaxseed oil.

    Bajaj, Poonam R; Bhunia, Kanishka; Kleiner, Leslie; Joyner Melito, Helen S; Smith, Denise; Ganjyal, Girish; Sablani, Shyam S


    Unhydrolysed pea protein (UN) forms very viscous emulsions when used at higher concentrations. To overcome this, UN was hydrolysed using enzymes alcalase, flavourzyme, neutrase, alcalase-flavourzyme, and neutrase-flavourzyme at 50 °C for 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, and 120 min to form hydrolysed proteins A, F, N, AF, and NF, respectively. All hydrolysed proteins had lower apparent viscosity and higher solubility than UN. Foaming capacity of A was the highest, followed by NF, N, and AF. Hydrolysed proteins N60, A60, NF60, and AF60 were prepared by hydrolysing UN for 60 min and used further for microencapsulation. At 20% oil loading (on a total solid basis), the encapsulated powder N60 had the highest microencapsulation efficiency (ME = 56.2). A decrease in ME occurred as oil loading increased to 40%. To improve the ME of N60, >90%, UN and maltodextrin were added. Flowability and particle size distribution of microencapsulated powders with >90% microencapsulation efficiency and morphology of all powders were investigated. This study identified a new way to improve pea protein functionality in emulsions, as well as a new application of hydrolysed pea protein as wall material for microencapsulation.

  2. Computer simulation of protein—carbohydrate complexes: application to arabinose-binding protein and pea lectin

    Rao, V. S. R.; Biswas, Margaret; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali; Balaji, P. V.


    The CCEM method (Contact Criteria and Energy Minimisation) has been developed and applied to study protein-carbohydrate interactions. The method uses available X-ray data even on the native protein at low resolution (above 2.4 Å) to generate realistic models of a variety of proteins with various ligands. The two examples discussed in this paper are arabinose-binding protein (ABP) and pea lectin. The X-ray crystal structure data reported on ABP-β- L-arabinose complex at 2.8, 2.4 and 1.7 Å resolution differ drastically in predicting the nature of the interactions between the protein and ligand. It is shown that, using the data at 2.4 Å resolution, the CCEM method generates complexes which are as good as the higher (1.7 Å) resolution data. The CCEM method predicts some of the important hydrogen bonds between the ligand and the protein which are missing in the interpretation of the X-ray data at 2.4 Å resolution. The theoretically predicted hydrogen bonds are in good agreement with those reported at 1.7 Å resolution. Pea lectin has been solved only in the native form at 3 Å resolution. Application of the CCEM method also enables us to generate complexes of pea lectin with methyl-α- D-glucopyranoside and methyl-2,3-dimethyl-α- D-glucopyranoside which explain well the available experimental data in solution.

  3. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Ünal Geçgel


    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  4. Potential of roselle and blue pea in the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Dayang, S.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Ismail, B.


    This paper discovers the use of natural dyes from Roselle flower and Blue Pea flower which act as a sensitizer in DSSC and in addition has a potential in absorbing visible light spectrum. The dyes were extracted using distilled water (DI) and ethanol (E) extract solvent in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes with a frequency of 37 Hz by using `degas' mode at the temperature of 30°C. Absorption spectra of roselle dye and blue pea dye with different extract solvent were tested using Evolution 201 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. It was found that Roselle dye absorbs at a range of 400 nm - 620 nm and Blue Pea absorbs at the range of wavelength 500 nm - 680 nm. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional active group in extract dye. The concept of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) similar to photosynthesis process has attracted much attention since it demonstrates a great potential due to the use of low-cost materials and environmentally friendly sources of technology.

  5. Yield of Peas Treated with Compost and Chemical Fertilizer Using 15N Technique

    El-Degwy, S.M.A.


    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the yield of peas treated with organic compost and mineral N fertilizer under sandy soil conditions. The obtained results showed that all the tested vegetative growth parameters, i.e. fresh and dry weight of leaves, root and pods of pea plants, were significantly increased with increasing the levels of mineral N fertilizer from 20 up to 50 kg N ha-1 either solely or in combination with compost. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake by pea plants were ranked as follow: chemical N fertilize > compost + chemical N fertilize > compost. Organic additives either alone or in combination with chemical fertilizer had enhanced Ndff uptake by pods over aerial parts and roots while reversible trend was noticed with sole application of chemical fertilizer. Nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) and uptake by aerial parts followed by pods were enhanced by addition of organic plus chemical fertilizers comparable to sole addition of organic compost. In other term, chemical fertilizer had enhanced the portion of N derived from organic compost

  6. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    Jensen, E.S.


    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... mineralization of N was highly correlated to the concentrations of soluble C and N and the lignin:N ratio of residues. The contribution of residue-derived N to the inorganic N pool was at its maximum 30 DAI (10-55%) and declined to on average 5% after 3 years of decomposition. Residual organic labelled N...... in the top 10 cm soil declined rapidly during the initial 86 DAI for all residue types. Leaching of soluble organic materials may have contributed to this decline. At 216 DAI 72, 59 and 45% of the barley, mature pea and green pea residue N, respectively, were present in organic N-forms in the topsoil. During...

  7. Use of gamma irradiation for prolonging shelf life of Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Mehta, A.K.; Nair, Reena


    Garden pea pods of variety Arkel were irradiated with 5 doses of 60 Co gamma rays ranging from 0.5-3 kGy and stored at ambient temperature up to 9 days along with control to study the effect of radiation in prolonging shelf life of pea pods and stabilizing its market demand. Physiological weight loss percentage decrease as the doses of gamma radiation increased. Minimum weight loss was noted in pods treated with 3 kGy gamma radiation as compared to control. Decay loss percent showed inverse relation with dose of gamma radiation. The minimum decay loss was recorded in 3 kGy and the organisms identified for decay loss were Alternaria and Cladosporium species of fungi. With regard to sugar content, pea pods irradiated with 1 kGy gamma rays recorded maximum sugar content. Pods irradiated with 0.5 kGy and 1 kGy gamma rays retained their green colour for a long period (up to 9th day of storage). Based on 9 point's hedonic scale the overall acceptability for appearance, taste and texture was observed in 1 kGy treatment. (author)

  8. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V


    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  9. Effect of salinization, Rbizobium inoculation, genotypic variation and P-application on drymatter yield and utilization of P by pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens Culinaris Medic)

    Dravid, M.S.


    Irrigation with saline water significantly reduced the drymatter production and uptake of phosphorus in both pea and lentil crops. Between the two crops pea was found relativley more tolerant to a given level of salinity. Soil application of phosphate in association with rbizobium inoculated seeds enhanced drymatter production, total P uptake, P derived from fertilizer and its utilization in both the crops. Amongst the cultivars tested, KPSD-5 of pea and PL-639 of lentil extracted native soil phosphorus more efficiently while cultivar Pusa-10 of pea and cultivar PL-406 of lentil showed more affinity towards applied phosphorus. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Frequência etiológica da hipertensão pulmonar em ambulatório de referência na Bahia Frecuencia etiológica de la hipertensión pulmonar en un ambulatorio de referencia en Bahia Etiological frequency of pulmonary hypertension in a reference outpatient clinic in Bahia, Brazil

    Cesar Machado


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão pulmonar (HP resulta de diversas etiologias com possíveis influências geográficas, porém poucos trabalhos descrevem a frequência etiológica da HP, especialmente em nosso meio. Não está claro se existe associação entre etiologia e nível de pressão pulmonar ou intensidade da sintomatologia. OBJETIVO: 1 descrever a prevalência etiológica da HP na Bahia; 2 avaliar se a etiologia é fator determinante no nível de pressão pulmonar; 3 avaliar se a etiologia é fator determinante na classe funcional; 4 identificar os demais preditores do nível de pressão pulmonar e da classe funcional. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de corte transversal, em portadores de HP atendidos no Ambulatório Magalhães Neto, entre junho de 2005 e dezembro de 2007. A HP foi definida como pressão sistólica da artéria pulmonar (PSAP > 40 mmHg pelo ecocardiograma. Pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica ou doença ventricular esquerda não foram incluídos. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 48 pacientes com PSAP de 86 ± 24 mmHg. Quanto à etiologia, 42% dos pacientes foram classificados como idiopáticos, seguidos de 25% de esquistossomose, 19% de cardiopatia congênita e 10% de embolia pulmonar crônica. O maior tempo de doença prediz pressões mais elevadas em cardiopatas. Indivíduos com esquistossomose tiveram melhor desempenho funcional quando comparados aos demais (456 ± 58 vs. 299 ± 138 metros, p = 0,005. Etiologia esquistossomótica e idades menores apresentam melhor classe funcional. CONCLUSÃO: 1 Prevalece a classificação idiopática, sendo a esquistossomose a causa específica mais frequente em nosso meio; 2 pacientes com etiologia esquistossomótica e de idades menores apresentam melhor classe funcional; 3 cardiopatia congênita resulta em maior nível de pressão na artéria pulmonar, provavelmente devido ao maior tempo de doença.FUNDAMENTO: La hipertensión pulmonar (HP es la resultante de diversas etiolog

  11. Surdez súbita idiopática: aspectos etiológicos e fisiopatogênicos Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: etiopathogenic aspects

    Paulo Roberto Lazarini


    Full Text Available Vários fatores têm sido postulados como causa da surdez súbita idiopática. Por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita uma análise crítica quanto aos aspectos etiológicos e fisiopatogênicos desta manifestação clínica. Estudos atuais sugerem que os distúrbios vasculares, a ruptura de membranas da orelha interna e as doenças auto-imunes são possíveis causas, mas a afecção viral tem recebido maior atenção nos últimos anos, embora ainda pouco se conheça sobre os mecanismos da surdez súbita idiopática. Os vírus podem causar a perda súbita da audição na infecção aguda, mas a forma latente, com uma possível reativação viral, também tem sido considerada no mecanismo de agressão à cóclea. Apesar de uma alteração da viscosidade sangüínea poder explicar a perda auditiva, estudos experimentais e clínicos não mostram sinais de ossificação e de fibrose na cóclea ou de ruptura de membranas do labirinto. Estes fatos contrapõem, respectivamente, a teoria vascular e a da fístula labiríntica. A eventual presença de anticorpos contra a orelha interna sugere que a surdez súbita idiopática possa ser de natureza auto-imune, fato este também não confirmado pela falta de relação entre os aspectos clínicos e morfológicos da doença auto-imune e da perda auditiva. A surdez súbita idiopática é, ainda, um tema controverso e obscuro em diversos aspectos.Several factors have been postulated to elicit the etiology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Through a bibliographic review, we made a critical analysis of the different etiopathogenic aspects of its clinical manifestation. The most recent studies concerning the possible causes of sudden hearing loss suggest vascular disorders, rupture of the inner ear membrane and autoimmune diseases; however, viral infections have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Little is known about the mechanism of sudden hearing loss. Viruses can cause

  12. Stem cell biobanks.

    Bardelli, Silvana


    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  13. Effect of feeding soybean meal and differently processed peas on the gut mucosal immune system of broilers.

    Röhe, I; Göbel, T W; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Zentek, J


    Peas are traditionally used as a protein source for poultry. However, peas contain antinutritional factors (ANF), which are associated with the initiation of local and systemic immune reactions. The current study examined the effect of feeding raw or differently processed peas in comparison with feeding a soybean meal (SBM) based control diet (C) on the gut mucosal immune system of broilers in a 35 day feeding trial. In six replicates, a total of 360 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to four different groups receiving C, or three treatment diets containing raw, fermented, and enzymatically pre-digested peas, each supplying 30% of required crude protein. After slaughtering, jejunal samples were taken for immunohistochemical, flow cytometric, and gene expression analyses. Investigations were focused on the topological distribution of intraepithelial leukocytes (villus tip, villus mid, and crypt region) as well as on the further characterization of the different intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and concomitant pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Broilers receiving the raw or processed pea diets had higher numbers of intraepithelial CD45+ leukocytes in the tip (P = 0.004) and mid region (P pea containing diets in comparison with those fed C. The flow cytometric phenotyping showed a similar relative distribution of IEL among the feeding groups. The expression of intestinal pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was affected by feeding the different diets only to a minor extent. To conclude, feeding of diets formulated with raw and processed peas in comparison with feeding a SBM control diet initiated mucosal immune responses in the jejunum of broilers indicated by a quantitative increase of intraepithelial T cells. Further research is needed in order to ascertain the specific factors which are responsible for observed local immune reactions and how these local reactions might affect the immune status and health of broilers. © 2017 Poultry Science

  14. Influence of faba bean and peas combination on per­for­man­ce parameters of broilers

    Pavla Kratochvílová


    Full Text Available Influence of two varieties of peas and faba bean on performance was observed in grow experiment. Varieties of legumes were different in antinutritive factors levels. ZEKON (peas and MISTRAL (faba bean are low tannin varieties, GOTIK (peas and MERKUR (faba bean are traditional varieties with high level of antinutritive substances. Experiment was finished in 40 days of age. There were used 900 broilers allotted to 9 groups (100 animals in group. Peas and faba bean was dose to feed mixture on level adequate to 30 g of crude protein per kilogram of feed mixture, the rest of crude protein needed in feed mixture was covered by soya bean meal. The best results in final weight achieved group with GOTIK (2476.7 ± 270.8 g, the second was group ZEKON (2456.7 ± 247.2 g, than MISTRAL in combination with peas (2454.7 ± 268.5 g, MERKUR (2416.9 ± 266.1 g, ZEKON in combination with faba bean (2410,7 ± 297.8 g and MISTRAL group achieved 2405.6 ± 336.4 g of final weight. The rest of groups was belong 2400 g of body weight: control group 2370.1 ± 249.2 g, GOTIK in combination with peas 2302.9 ± 253.1 g and the worst result had group MERKUR in combination with peas (2258.8 ± 259.4 g. The differences were significant.

  15. Dynamic effects of adrenaline (epinephrine) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA).

    Nordseth, Trond; Olasveengen, Theresa Mariero; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Wik, Lars; Steen, Petter Andreas; Skogvoll, Eirik


    In cardiac arrest, pulseless electrical activity (PEA) is a challenging clinical syndrome. In a randomized study comparing intravenous (i.v.) access and drugs versus no i.v. access or drugs during advanced life support (ALS), adrenaline (epinephrine) improved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in patients with PEA. Originating from this study, we investigated the time-dependent effects of adrenaline on clinical state transitions in patients with initial PEA, using a non-parametric multi-state statistical model. Patients with available defibrillator recordings were included, of whom 101 received adrenaline and 73 did not. There were significantly more state transitions in the adrenaline group than in the no-adrenaline group (rate ratio = 1.6, pAdrenaline markedly increased the rate of transition from PEA to ROSC during ALS and slowed the rate of being declared dead; e.g. by 20 min 20% of patients in the adrenaline group had been declared dead and 25% had obtained ROSC, whereas 50% in the no-adrenaline group have been declared dead and 15% had obtained ROSC. The differential effect of adrenaline could be seen after approx. 10 min of ALS for most transitions. For both groups the probability of deteriorating from PEA to asystole was highest during the first 15 min. Adrenaline increased the rate of transition from PEA to ventricular fibrillation or -tachycardia (VF/VT), and from ROSC to VF/VT. Adrenaline has notable clinical effects during ALS in patients with initial PEA. The drug extends the time window for ROSC to develop, but also renders the patient more unstable. Further research should investigate the optimal dose, timing and mode of adrenaline administration during ALS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of legume defense signaling pathways by native and non-native pea aphid clones

    Carlos Sanchez-Arcos


    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races. To find out whether legume species vary in their defense responses to different pea aphid host races, we measured the amounts of salicylic acid (SA, the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, other jasmonate precursors and derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA in four different species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Pisum sativum, V. faba after infestation by native and non-native pea aphid clones of various host races. Additionally, we assessed the performance of the clones on the four plant species. On M. sativa and T. pratense, non-native clones that were barely able to survive or reproduce, triggered a strong SA and JA-Ile response, whereas infestation with native clones led to lower levels of both phytohormones. On P. sativum, non-native clones, which survived or reproduced to a certain extent, induced fluctuating SA and JA-Ile levels, whereas the native clone triggered only a weak SA and JA-Ile response. On the universal host V. faba all aphid clones triggered only low SA levels initially, but induced clone-specific patterns of SA and JA-Ile later on. The levels of the active JA-Ile conjugate and of the other JA-pathway metabolites measured showed in many cases similar patterns, suggesting that the reduction in JA signaling was due to an effect upstream of OPDA. ABA levels were downregulated in all aphid clone-plant combinations and were therefore probably not decisive factors for aphid-plant compatibility. Our results

  17. Nutritional characteristics of two pigeon pea hybrids – Liming and phosphated fertilization

    Marcia Atauri Cardelli de Lucena


    Full Text Available The use of legumes in animal production systems can be a sustainable alternative as a protein source in rotational grazing system and/or as a protein bank. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. figure as an example of success of this use on animal nutrition. The development of this species can be limited by the high acidity and low soil phosphorus content. There is a lack of scientific information on the effects of liming and phosphorus fertilization on some nutritional variables of two pigeon pea new hybrids. This study was conducted in pots containing 5 kg of soil in a greenhouse at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. There were studied two pigeon pea hybrids, H1 and H2, and the treatments involved agronomic practices: 1 No liming and without phosphorus (control, 2 Liming (L, 3 Phosphorus fertilization (P and 4 Liming plus phosphorus. Liming was proposed to increase soil base saturation to 50%, it was used dolomite lime PRNT = 90%, in an amount corresponding to 4.5 t/ha. Phosphorus fertilization (as superphosphate rate was 60 kg/ha of PO25. The experimental units were allocated according to a complete randomised block design, with five replications. We analyzed the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in pigeon pea shoot at 45 days of age. Statistical analyzes were performed using the software SISVAR, averages were compared using test for multiple comparisons Student Newman-Keuls - SNK test (P < 0.05. The H1 hybrid had the highest content of CP, by applying P, lime plus P and the control treatment compared to H2 hybrid. The association lime plus P resulted in higher content of CP mainly due to the increased availability of P for plants. Smaller values were observed for NDF in H2 with P application. Lower values of ADF were observed in H1 in both control treatment and P application. The ADF values were lower for the hybrid H2 only for the treatment lime plus P. The two

  18. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong


    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (T o ), peak (T p ), and conclusion (T c ) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M


    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  20. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis


    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. © 2016 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC oil as a fungitoxicant against storage mycoflora of pigeon pea seeds.

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, Nijendra N


    The present study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of 30 essential oils against four dominant fungi Aspergillus flavus Link., A. niger van Tieghem, A. ochraceus Wilhelm and A. terreus Thom of stored pigeon pea seeds at a concentration of 0.36 µL mL(-1). Various fungitoxic properties, such as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and fungitoxic spectrum, of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of pigeon pea seeds for 6 months was also carried out by storing 1 kg of seeds in the oil vapour. Clausena pentaphylla and Citrus limon oils were more effective against all the fungi tested, which exhibited 100% per cent mycelial inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. pentaphylla oil was determined as 0.07 µL mL(-1) against all the test fungi and was found to be more toxic than Citrus limon oil. C. pentaphylla oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against 16 other storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. C. pentaphylla oil significantly protected 1 kg seeds of pigeon pea from fungal deterioration and was superior to synthetic fumigants. The oil did not show any phytotoxicity and the protein content of the seeds was significantly retained for up to 6 months of storage. Thus, C. pentaphylla oil may be used as an effective fumigant in the ecofriendly management of storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Queratitis infecciosa no viral: factores predisponentes, agentes etiológicos y diagnóstico de laboratorio Non viral infectious keratitis: predisposing factors, etiologic agents and laboratory diagnosis

    Federico Nicola


    Full Text Available Las queratitis infecciosas poseen una elevada morbilidad, poniendo en riesgo la visión en casos graves. Dada la eficaz protección que brinda el epitelio corneal, para que ocurra una infección se requiere la presencia de factores condicionantes. El principal predisponente para las queratitis infecciosas es el uso de lentes de contacto, seguido por traumatismos y cirugías oculares y luego diversas afecciones locales o generales. Los agentes etiológicos abarcan una enorme diversidad de microorganismos, incluyendo bacterias, micobacterias, virus, hongos y parásitos. Para poder instaurar un tratamiento acotado se necesita un diagnóstico etiológico, lo que requiere una correcta toma de muestra y un exhaustivo análisis microbiológico.Infectious keratitis cause significant morbidity and, if it is not promptly and appropriately treated, can lead to severe ocular disability. Almost all cases of keratitis are associated to predisposing conditions. In occident, the main risk factor is contact lens wear, but previous ocular surgery or trauma are also important, as well as various ocular surface diseases. An enormous diversity of etiologic agents for infectious keratitis exist, including virus, bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi and parasites. This review provides literature and personal based information about main predisposing factors, etiologic agents and pathophysiology of infectious keratitis, excluding those of viral origin. Focus is made on microbiologic procedures, describing stains and media that should be used, and highlighting their utility. A special mention on particular situations is made, including laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, utility of lens cases analysis, keratitis in patients with previous treatment, as well as molecular biology techniques described in ophthalmology.

  3. Chemical composition of pea fibre isolates and their effect on the endogenous amino acid flow at the ileum of the pig

    Leterme, P.; Théwis, A.; Leeuwen, P. van; Monmart, T.; Huisman, J.


    Pea starch, hulls and cotyledon inner fibres, isolated from pea seeds, were incorporated in N-free diets, on a NDF-content basis, in order to study their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) excretion in the growing pig. Maize starch and wood cellulose were selected as references. The

  4. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang


    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Pprotein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (Pprotein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased α-helix:β-sheet ratio, with the largest (Pprotein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PED/PEA-15 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E pancreatic beta-cells via PLD-1.

    Francesca Fiory

    Full Text Available The small scaffold protein PED/PEA-15 is involved in several different physiologic and pathologic processes, such as cell proliferation and survival, diabetes and cancer. PED/PEA-15 exerts an anti-apoptotic function due to its ability to interfere with both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in different cell types. Recent evidence shows that mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 present larger pancreatic islets and increased beta-cells mass. In the present work we investigated PED/PEA-15 role in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E beta-cells. In pancreatic islets isolated from Tg(PED/PEA-15 mice hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA fragmentation was lower compared to WT islets. TUNEL analysis showed that PED/PEA-15 overexpression increases the viability of Ins-1E beta-cells and enhances their resistance to apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide exposure. The activity of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP-1 were markedly reduced in Ins-1E cells overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (Ins-1E(PED/PEA-15. In parallel, we observed a decrease of the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes Bcl-xS and Bad. In contrast, the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL was enhanced. Accordingly, DNA fragmentation was higher in control cells compared to Ins-1E(PED/PEA-15 cells. Interestingly, the preincubation with propranolol, an inhibitor of the pathway of PLD-1, a known interactor of PED/PEA-15, responsible for its deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, abolishes the antiapoptotic effects of PED/PEA-15 overexpression in Ins-1E beta-cells. The same results have been obtained by inhibiting PED/PEA-15 interaction with PLD-1 in Ins-1E(PED/PEA-15. These results show that PED/PEA-15 overexpression is sufficient to block hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E cells through a PLD-1 mediated mechanism.

  6. Antihypertensive Properties of a Pea Protein Hydrolysate during Short- and Long-Term Oral Administration to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Girgih, Abraham T; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Onuh, John O; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E


    This study investigated short-term (24 h) and long-term (5 wk) systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of a 5 kDa membrane pea protein hydrolysate permeate (PPH-5) produced through thermoase hydrolysis of pea protein isolate (PPI). Amino acid analysis showed that the PPH-5 had lower contents of sulfur-containing amino acids than the PPI. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated mainly low molecular weight (pea products decreased in the 4th and 5th wk, though SBP values of the treated rats were still lower than the untreated control. We conclude that the antihypertensive potency of PPH-5 may have been due to the presence of easily absorbed hydrophilic peptides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Diversity of Pea-Associated F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides Populations Revealed by FUM1 Sequence Analysis and Fumonisin Biosynthesis

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Wilman, Karolina; Kachlicki, Piotr


    Fusarium proliferatum and F. verticillioides are considered as minor pathogens of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Both species can survive in seed material without visible disease symptoms, but still contaminating it with fumonisins. Two populations of pea-derived F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides strains were subjected to FUM1 sequence divergence analysis, forming a distinct group when compared to the collection strains originating from different host species. Furthermore, the mycotoxigenic abilities of those strains were evaluated on the basis of in planta and in vitro fumonisin biosynthesis. No differences were observed in fumonisin B (FB) levels measured in pea seeds (maximum level reached 1.5 μg g−1); however, in rice cultures, the majority of F. proliferatum genotypes produced higher amounts of FB1–FB3 than F. verticillioides strains. PMID:23470545

  8. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops

    Jensen, E.S.


    g N-15-labeled N m(-2). The effect of intercropping on the dry matter and N yields, competition for inorganic N among the intercrop components, symbiotic fixation in pea and N transfer from pea to barley were determined. As an average of four years the grain yields were similar in monocropped pea...... only 9% of total fertilizer-N recovery in the intercrop. The amount of symbiotic N-2 fixation in the intercrop was less than expected from its composition and the fixation in monocrop. This indicates that the competition from barley had a negative effect on the fixation, perhaps via shading...... by the intercrop components, resulting in reduced competition for inorganic N, rather than a facilitative effect, in which symbiotically fixed N-2 is made available to barley....

  9. Effect of pre-sowing magnetic field treatment to garden pea (pisum sativum l.) seed on germination and seedling growth

    Iqbal, M.; Muhammad, D.; Haq, Z.U.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M.R.


    The seeds of garden pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. climax) were exposed to full-wave rectified sumusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields of strength 60 mT, 120 mT and 180 mT for 5, 10 and 15 min prior to sowing. The magnetically treated seeds were sown according to the protocol of International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Magnetically treated seed showed significant increase in germination. The emergence index, final emergence index and vigor index increased by 86.43%, 13.21% and 204.60%, respectively. It was found that exposure of 5 min for magnetic field strengths of 60 mT and 180 mT significantly enhanced the germination parameters of the pea and these treatments can be used practically to accelerate the germination in garden pea. (author)

  10. Bowman-Birk inhibitor-like protein is secreted by sprouted pea seeds in response to induced colonization by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Anuradha, Ravi; Raveendran, Muthuraj; Babu, Subramanian


    The interaction between the clinical isolate of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) SBANU8 and pea sprouts was compared with avirulent K 12. E. coli. This was carried out by repeated co-incubation with pea sprouts for 5 days, and the protein profile of the culture supernatant was analyzed by single and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of two serine protease inhibitors including a Bowman-Birk-type protein secreted by pea sprouts in response to clinical isolate. Expression of the E. coli intimin gene involved in animal host colonization and virulence was studied by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of this gene was high in SBANU8 when co-incubated with pea sprouts. The present study gives baseline data on the molecular level interactions of EPEC and pea sprouts, which are needed to design the outbreak control strategies.

  11. Pea-barley intercropping for efficient symbiotic N-2-fixation, soil N acquisition and use of other nutrients in European organic cropping systems

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per


    Complementarity in acquisition of nitrogen (N) from soil and N-2-fixation within pea and barley intercrops was studied in organic field experiments across Western Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy). Spring pea and barley were sown either as sole crops, at the recommended...... recovery was greater in the pea-barley intercrops than in the sole Crops Suggesting a high degree of complementarity over a wide range of growing conditions. Complementarity was partly attributed to greater soil mineral N acquisition by barley, forcing pea to rely more on N-2-fixation. At all sites......) in Danish and German experiments was 20% higher in the intercrop (P50B50) than in the respective sole crops, possibly influencing general crop yields and thereby competitive ability for other resources. Comparing all sites and seasons, the benefits of organic pea-barley intercropping for N acquisition were...

  12. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress.

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Sandalio, Luisa M; Romero-Puertas, María C


    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H(2)O(2) level under abiotic stress.

  13. Understanding pea resistance mechanisms in response to Fusarium oxysporum through proteomic analysis.

    Castillejo, María Ángeles; Bani, Moustafa; Rubiales, Diego


    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) is an important and destructive pathogen affecting pea crop (Pisum sativum) throughout the world. Control of this disease is achieved mainly by integration of different disease management procedures. However, the constant evolution of the pathogen drives the necessity to broaden the molecular basis of resistance to Fop. Our proteomic study was performed on pea with the aim of identifying proteins involved in different resistance mechanisms operating during F. oxysporum infection. For such purpose, we used a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis to study the root proteome of three pea genotypes showing different resistance response to Fop race 2. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 132 differential protein spots under the experimental conditions (genotypes/treatments). All of these protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis to deduce their possible functions. A total of 53 proteins were identified using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MSMS fragmentation. The following main functional categories were assigned to the identified proteins: carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleotides and aminoacid metabolism, signal transduction and cellular process, folding and degradation, redox and homeostasis, defense, biosynthetic process and transcription/translation. Results obtained in this work suggest that the most susceptible genotypes have increased levels of enzymes involved in the production of reducing power which could then be used as cofactor for enzymes of the redox reactions. This is in concordance with the fact that a ROS burst occurred in the same genotypes, as well as an increase of PR proteins. Conversely, in the resistant genotype proteins responsible to induce changes in the membrane and cell wall composition related to reinforcement were identified. Results are discussed in terms of the differential response to Fop

  14. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)


    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  15. Potency of Stem Cells

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  16. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from yellow field pea seeds.

    Ndiaye, Fatou; Vuong, Tri; Duarte, Jairo; Aluko, Rotimi E; Matar, Chantal


    Enzymatic protein hydrolysates of yellow pea seed have been shown to possess high anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities. The aim of this work was to confirm the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate of yellow field pea seeds. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of peptides from yellow field pea proteins (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated in LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 NO⁻ macrophages. The immunomodulating potential of pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) was then studied in a murine model. Pea protein hydrolysate, after a 12 h pre-treatment, showed significant inhibition of NO production by activated macrophages up to 20%. Moreover, PPH significantly inhibited their secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α- and IL-6, up to 35 and 80%, respectively. Oral administration of PPH in mice enhanced the phagocytic activity of their peritoneal macrophages and stimulated the gut mucosa immune response. The number of IgA+ cells was elevated in the small intestine lamina propria, accompanied by an increase in the number of IL-4+, IL-10+ and IFN-γ+ cells. This was correlated to up-regulation of IL-6 secretion by small intestine epithelial cells (IEC), probably responsible for B-cell terminal differentiation to IgA-secreting cells. Moreover, PPH might have increased IL-6 production in IECs via the stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, especially TLR2 and TLR4 since either anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 was able to completely abolish PPH-induced IL-6 secretion. Enzymatic protein degradation confers anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating potentials to pea proteins, and the resulted peptides could be used as an alternative therapy for the prevention of inflammatory-related diseases.

  17. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M


    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn plasticity, was pigeon pea plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain disintegration of tablet is desired. The results show that the starches could be useful in various formulations depending on the intended use of the tablets with the implication that the experimental starches can be developed for commercial purposes.

  18. Histo-chemical and biochemical analysis reveals association of er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance and redox balance in pea.

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Chand, Ramesh; Navathe, Sudhir; Sharma, Sandeep


    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is one of the important diseases responsible for heavy yield losses in pea crop worldwide. The most effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties. The resistance to powdery mildew in pea is recessive and governed by a single gene er1. The objective of present study is to investigate if er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance is associated with changes in the redox status of the pea plant. 16 pea genotypes were screened for powdery mildew resistance in field condition for two years and, also, analyzed for the presence/absence of er1 gene. Histochemical analysis with DAB and NBT staining indicates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in surrounding area of powdery mildew infection which was higher in susceptible genotypes as compared to resistant genotypes. A biochemical study revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, enzymes involved in scavenging ROS, was increased in, both, resistant and susceptible genotypes after powdery mildew infection. However, both enzymes level was always higher in resistant than susceptible genotypes throughout time course of infection. Moreover, irrespective of any treatment, the total phenol (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high and low in resistant genotypes, respectively. The powdery mildew infection elevated the MDA content but decreased the total phenol in pea genotypes. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between AUDPC and MDA; however, a negative correlation was observed between AUDPC and SOD, CAT and TP. Heritability of antioxidant was also high. The study identified few novel genotypes resistant to powdery mildew infection that carried the er1 gene and provided further clue that er1 mediated defense response utilizes antioxidant machinery to confer powdery mildew resistance in pea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sonic Hedgehog-signalling patterns the developing chicken comb as revealed by exploration of the pea-comb mutation.

    Henrik Boije

    Full Text Available The genetic basis and mechanisms behind the morphological variation observed throughout the animal kingdom is still relatively unknown. In the present work we have focused on the establishment of the chicken comb-morphology by exploring the Pea-comb mutant. The wild-type single-comb is reduced in size and distorted in the Pea-comb mutant. Pea-comb is formed by a lateral expansion of the central comb anlage into three ridges and is caused by a mutation in SOX5, which induces ectopic expression of the SOX5 transcription factor in mesenchyme under the developing comb. Analysis of differential gene expression identified decreased Sonic hedgehog (SHH receptor expression in Pea-comb mesenchyme. By experimentally blocking SHH with cyclopamine, the wild-type single-comb was transformed into a Pea-comb-like phenotype. The results show that the patterning of the chicken comb is under the control of SHH and suggest that ectopic SOX5 expression in the Pea-comb change the response of mesenchyme to SHH signalling with altered comb morphogenesis as a result. A role for the mesenchyme during comb morphogenesis is further supported by the recent finding that another comb-mutant (Rose-comb, is caused by ectopic expression of a transcription factor in comb mesenchyme. The present study does not only give knowledge about how the chicken comb is formed, it also adds to our understanding how mutations or genetic polymorphisms may contribute to inherited variations in the human face.

  20. Exploring options for managing strategies for pea-barley intercropping using a modeling approach

    Launay, M.; Brisson, N.; Satger, S.


    ) intercropping made better use of environmental resources as regards yield amount and stability than sole cropping, with a noticeable site effect, (2) pea growth in intercrops was strongly linked to soil moisture, and barley yield was determined by nitrogen uptake and light interception due to its height......, underlining the interspecific offset in the use of environmental growth resources which led to similar total grain yields whatever the pea–barley design, and (5) long-term strategies including mineralization management through organic residue supply and rotation management were very valuable, always favoring...

  1. Redox regulation of peroxiredoxin and proteinases by ascorbate and thiols during pea root nodule senescence.

    Groten, Karin; Dutilleul, Christelle; van Heerden, Philippus D R; Vanacker, Hélène; Bernard, Stéphanie; Finkemeier, Iris; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Foyer, Christine H


    Redox factors contributing to nodule senescence were studied in pea. The abundance of the nodule cytosolic peroxiredoxin but not the mitochondrial peroxiredoxin protein was modulated by ascorbate. In contrast to redox-active antioxidants such as ascorbate and cytosolic peroxiredoxin that decreased during nodule development, maximal extractable nodule proteinase activity increased progressively as the nodules aged. Cathepsin-like activities were constant throughout development but serine and cysteine proteinase activities increased during senescence. Senescence-induced cysteine proteinase activity was inhibited by cysteine, dithiotreitol, or E-64. Senescence-dependent decreases in redox-active factors, particularly ascorbate and peroxiredoxin favour decreased redox-mediated inactivation of cysteine proteinases.

  2. Variation in the protein profiles in the gamma-irradiated chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds

    Farook, S.A.F.; Nizam, Jafar


    Water soluble seed proteins from the control as well as gamma ray treated material from the M 2 generation of Chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) were separated by disc electrophoresis using 7.5 percent poly acrylamide gels. Average Rf values and percentage of similarity values were calculated. The comparisons of number and Rf values of protein bands were made to elucidate the differences in the treated material. Differences obtained in the seed protein profiles of the treated material suggest the presence of the qualitative variation in the proteins. Attempts were made to correlate the variation in the protein bands with the morphological changes in the mutants. (author)

  3. Growth, physiological, biochemical and productive changes in peas due to gamma radiation effect

    Stajkov, G.; Ivanov, K.; Antonov, M.


    Investigations concerning the mechanism of the stimulating effect of low doses of gamma radiation on peas were made in 1971-1983. Results showed that: a) gamma radiation with 1000 R enhanced the level and activity of indolyl auxines gibberellins and in the seeds, causing specific changes in catalase and peroxidase activity; b) the content of crude protein and essential aminoacids was raised; c) grain yield increased by 16% as compared to the control; d) the dose 1000 R proved to be the optimal one

  4. Fungicide application and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into field-grown peas

    Schweiger, P.F.; Spliid, N.H.; Jakobsen, I.


    The effect of two commercial fungicide formulations on phosphorus (P) uptake into peas via hyphae of a native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community was examined in the field. The fungicides contained carbendazim or a mixture of propiconazole and fenpropimorph as their active ingredients...... from overall P uptake, Fungicides were added to the soil inside the HCs at concentrations assumed to reflect their concentration in the surrounding soil. At two harvests, plant growth, total P and P-32 uptake as well as root length density and AM root colonisation were measured. Length of hyphae inside...

  5. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds.

    Dziuba, Jerzy; Szerszunowicz, Iwona; Nałęcz, Dorota; Dziuba, Marta


    Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo) were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins). Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of ~4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW) ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of ~13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for identifying pea proteins. Patterns of spots with similar isoelectric

  6. The purification and characterization of a third storage protein (convicilin) from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Tyler, M; Boulter, D


    A third storage protein, distinct from legumin and vicilin, has been purified from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.). This protein has been named 'convicilin' and is present in protein bodies isolated from pea seeds. Convicilin has a subunit mol.wt. of 71 000 and a mol.wt. in its native form of 290 000. Convicilin is antigenically dissimilar to legumin, but gives a reaction of identity with vicilin when tested against antibodies raised against both proteins. However, convicilin contains no ...

  7. Isolation and characterisation of the cDNA encoding a glycosylated accessory protein of pea chloroplast DNA polymerase.

    Gaikwad, A; Tewari, K K; Kumar, D; Chen, W; Mukherjee, S K


    The cDNA encoding p43, a DNA binding protein from pea chloroplasts (ct) that binds to cognate DNA polymerase and stimulates the polymerase activity, has been cloned and characterised. The characteristic sequence motifs of hydroxyproline-rich glyco-proteins (HRGP) are present in the cDNA corres-ponding to the N-terminal domain of the mature p43. The protein was found to be highly O-arabinosylated. Chemically deglycosylated p43 (i.e. p29) retains its binding to both DNA and pea ct-DNA polymeras...




    Full Text Available In the modern food grains are nominated as the main sources of soluble fiber in time that vegetables are the main sources of insoluble fiber, among which are the peas. The Romanian market has been flooded with a wide range of plant products frozen or preserved by sterilizing, whose culinary use is growing. But the quality of these products has decreased, the material may be affected by the storage modules to suppliers or customers and product type. Our study followed the evolution of the nutritional characteristics of three varieties of peas grown in the Galati region subjected to freezing or sterilization, and their behavior during food processing.

  9. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui


    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed.

  10. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Marta K. Kostrzewska


    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  11. The nutritional value of sorghum bicolor stem flour used for infusion drinks in nigeria

    Adetuyi, A.O.; Akpambang, V.O.E.


    The black purple sheath (stem) of Sorgum bicolor, used locally as colour additive in cooked meals and infusion drinks taken as beverages, was examined for its nutritive value. The stem made into flour, was found to be rich in energy (1121.3 kJ/100 g), and in some micronutrients (mg/100 g), such as Mg (185.33), Ca (151.70), K (138.87), Na (127.61), and Fe (10.98). High Mg content of stem may be useful for overcoming Mg deficiency. The Fe content was sufficient to meet the daily-required intake (DRI) value for human beings. The presence of Cu, Zn and Mn was also observed. The content of crude fibre (32.0%) and carbohydrates (44.50%) were useful for making the stem a fodder for animal consumption. However, the protein content of the stem was low (3.20%). The functional properties observed for the stem compared favourably with those already reported for some other plants such as pigeon pea flour, African yam bean, and wheat flour. (author)

  12. A crossing programme with mutants in peas: Utilization of a gene bank and a computer system

    Blixt, S.


    A gene bank for peas was established at Weibullsholm in 1930, comprising about 1500 lines and including a great number of spontaneous and induced mutants. A Wang 2200 computair system is used in the maintenance and utilization of the gene bank information. The system at present provides programs for establishing and maintaining data-files for lines and crosses, statistical programs for linkage calculations, and technical aids in growing and classifying the material. The system is very promising and can be handled without previous experience of computer work. This system is used in the planning of a specific plant breeding project, PMX and search for material to be used in the project. The PMX project as a whole aims at adapting the pea better to monoculture and to a highly mechanized agriculture, as well as at improving its nutritional value. The material used in the project up to now is four modern varieties, two primitive varieties, two cross-recombinants, one ecotype, three spontaneous mutants and five induced mutants. (author)

  13. Further identification of endogenous gibberellins in the shoots of pea, line G2

    Halinska, A.; Davies, P.J.; Lee, J.W.; Zhu, Yuxian


    To interpret the metabolism of radiolabeled gibberellins A 12 -aldehyde and A 12 in shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L.), the identity of the radiolabeled peaks has to be determined and the endogenous presence of the gibberellins demonstrated. High specific activity [ 14 C]GA 12 and [ 14 C]GA 12 -aldehyde were synthesized using a pumpkin endosperm enzyme preparation, and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [ 14 C]GA 12 was supplied to upper shoots of pea, line G2, to produce radiolabeled metabolites on the 13-OH pathway. Endogenous compounds copurifying with the [ 14 C]GAs on HPLC were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The endogenous presence of GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 and GA 20 was demonstrated and their HPLC peak identity ascertained. The 14 C was progressively diluted in GAs further down the pathway, proportional to the levels found in the tissue and inversely proportional to the speed of metabolism, ranging from 63% in GA 53 to 4% in GA 20 . Calculated levels of GA 20 , GA 19 , GA 44 , and GA 53 were 42, 8, 10, and 0.5 nanograms/gram, respectively

  14. Control of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene promoters from pea by UV radiation

    Pluskota, W.E.; Michalczyk, D.J.; Gorecki, R.J.


    The gene fusion system was used to study UV light-control of PS PAL1 and PS PAL2 genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of pea. The induction of pea PAL promoters was analysed in transgenic tobacco plants. Binary plasmids (derivatives of pBI101.2 vector) containing 5' regulatory fragments of PS PAL1 and PS PAL2 linked to reporter genes (GUS, LUC) were constructed. The analyses were performed with the use of single constructs (containing one variant of PS PAL promoter and one reporter gene) and dual constructs (containing both PS PAL1 and PS PAL2 promoters connected with different reporter genes). The use of dual constructs enabled the evaluation of both PS PAL promoters activity in the same plant. The analyses of in vitro grown plants have shown that both PAL promoters are strongly induced in leaves subjected to UV radiation. In some cases, the UV-stimulated expression exceeded the exposed areas. This phenomenon was observed more often in the leaves of plants containing the PS PAL1::GUS than PS PAL2::GUS construct. Removal of boxes 2, 4, 5 from PS PAL1 promoter and deletion of its 5' end region (-339 to -1394) decreases the level of gene expression but does not eliminate its responsiveness to UV

  15. Purification and properties of asparaginase from the testa of immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Chagas Eliana P.


    Full Text Available A K+-dependent asparaginase (E.C. was purified 1328-fold from the testas of immature pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., var. Bolero and characterized. Antibodies raised against purified asparaginase cross-reacted with the putative asparaginase band in Western blot analyses of semi-purified extracts. However, for crude extracts of pea testas, a cross-reaction was obtained with at least four protein bands, one of which was asparaginase protein. Affinity-purified antibodies to the four strongest bands of crude extracts were fairly specific for the bands from which they were purified, suggesting a mixture of specific antibodies. The Mr of asparaginase was 69,000 by Sephacryl S200 chromatography and also by mobility on native PAGE relative to BSA. There was no evidence for dissociation into subunits on SDS-PAGE, suggesting a monomeric protein of Mr 69,000. Other properties include an apparent Km of 2.4 mM, pI between 4.5 and 5, and competitive inhibition by aspartate and glycine.

  16. Binding of carbonyl flavours to canola, pea and wheat proteins using GC/MS approach.

    Wang, Kun; Arntfield, Susan D


    Interactions of homologous aldehydes (hexanal, heptanal, and octanal) and ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-octanone) to salt and alkaline-extracted canola and pea proteins and commercial wheat gluten were studied using GC/MS. Long-chain aldehyde flavours exhibited higher binding affinity, regardless of protein type and isolation method. Salt-extracted canola protein isolates (CPIs) revealed the highest binding capacity to all aldehydes followed by wheat gluten and salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs), while binding of ketone flavours decreased in the order: PPIs>wheat gluten>CPIs. Two aldolisation products, 2-butyl-2-octenal and 2-pentyl-2-nonenal, were detected from the interactions between CPIs with hexanal and heptanal, respectively. Protein thermal behaviour in the presence of these compounds was analysed by differential scanning calorimeter, where decreased ΔH inferred potential conformational changes due to partial denaturation of PPIs. Compared to ketones, aldehyde flavours possessed much higher "unfolding capacity" (lower ΔH), which accounted for their higher binding affinities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification and immunolocalization of an annexin-like protein in pea seedlings

    Clark, G. B.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.


    As part of a study to identify potential targets of calcium action in plant cells, a 35-kDa, annexin-like protein was purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules by a method used to purify animal annexins. This protein, called p35, binds to a phosphatidylserine affinity column in a calcium-dependent manner and binds 45Ca2+ in a dot-blot assay. Preliminary sequence data confirm a relationship for p35 with the annexin family of proteins. Polyclonal antibodies have been raised which recognize p35 in Western and dot blots. Immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques were used to study the distribution and subcellular localization of p35 in pea plumules and roots. The highest levels of immunostain were found in young developing vascular cells producing wall thickenings and in peripheral root-cap cells releasing slime. This localization in cells which are actively involved in secretion is of interest because one function suggested for the animal annexins is involvement in the mediation of exocytosis.

  18. Heat-Induced Soluble Protein Aggregates from Mixed Pea Globulins and β-Lactoglobulin.

    Chihi, Mohamed-Lazhar; Mession, Jean-luc; Sok, Nicolas; Saurel, Rémi


    The present work investigates the formation of protein aggregates (85 °C, 60 min incubation) upon heat treatment of β-lactoglobulin (βlg)-pea globulins (Glob) mixtures at pH 7.2 and 5 mM NaCl from laboratory-prepared protein isolates. Various βlg/Glob weight ratios were applied, for a total protein concentration of 2 wt % in admixture. Different analytical methods were used to determine the aggregation behavior of "mixed" aggregates, that is, surface hydrophobicity and also sulfhydryl content, protein interactions by means of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and molecule size distribution by DLS and gel filtration. The production of "mixed" thermal aggregates would involve both the formation of new disulfide bonds and noncovalent interactions between the denatured βlg and Glob subunits. The majority of "mixed" soluble aggregates displayed higher molecular weight and smaller diameter than those for Glob heated in isolation. The development of pea-whey protein "mixed" aggregates may help to design new ingredients for the control of innovative food textures.

  19. Studies on leaf mutants of Pea. (Part) I. Morphology, performance and somatic chromosomes

    Kaul, M.L.H.; Anjali, A.


    Three recessive non-allelic mutant genes alter foliar morphology of pea when present singly and in combination. Gene acacia replaces tendrils by a terminal leaflet, afila replaces leaflets by tendrils and cochleata replaces stipules by spoon shaped appendages. In combination, these genes drastically alter leaf morphology; plants can be identified only after flowering. The mutant genes influence shoot height, floral organ number, maturity period, grain yield and seed protein production; inter- and intra-genotypic variability in certain metric traits is significant. Influence of cochleata gene over floral form and function is considerable. In terms of seed yield and protein content, breeding value of all the mutants except of acacia is low because these mutant genes represent foreign untuned genes in pea genome. Segregation deficit is maximum in triple gene mutant with highly impaired fertility and low seed production. Somatic chromosome number in all the mutants and recombinants is 14; in morphology the chromosomes do not differ from the initial line, Bonneville. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Expression of ribosomal genes in pea cotyledons at the initial stages of germination

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Chumikhina, L.V.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Kretovich, V.L.


    The time of appearance of newly synthesized rRNAs and ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in the ribosomes of pea cotyledons (Pisum sativum L.) during germination was investigated. The ribosomal fraction was isolated and analyzed according to the method of germination of the embryo in the presence of labeled precursors or after pulse labeling of the embryos at different stages of germination. For the identification of newly synthesized rRNAs in the ribosomes we estimated the relative stability of labeled RNAs to the action of RNase, the sedimentation rate, the ability to be methylated in vivo in the presence of [ 14 C]CH 3 -methionine, and the localization in the subunits of dissociated ribosomes. The presence of newly synthesized r-proteins in the ribosomes was judged on the basis of the electrophoretic similarity in SDS-disc electrophoresis of labeled polypeptides of purified ribosome preparations and of genuine r-proteins, as well as according to the localization of labeled proteins in the subunits of the dissociated ribosomes. It was shown that the expression of the ribosomal genes in highly specialized cells of pea cotyledons that have completed their growth occurs at very early stages of germination

  1. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  2. Inheritance of the narrow leaf mutation in Pea (Pisum Sativum L.)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.


    Three pea mutant lines 2/111, 2/174 and 3/106 with reduced narrow oblong leaves were produced after gamma irradiation. They were characterized morphologically and for seed productivity elements. The size and shape of the stipules and the leaflets were evaluated by L/W (length/width) indices. Reciprocal crosses between mutants and normal plants were executed, and F1, F2 generations were analysed. It was established that mutants 2/111 and 3/106 have intermediate inheritance and they are allelic with each other; mutant 2/174 revealed single-gene recessive inheritance with deficiency of mutant plants. It was concluded that 2/174 was not allelic with 2/111 and 3/106. Mutants 2/111 and 3/106 exhibited a phenotype similar to previously described mutant fom (folium oblongum). Allelic test between the new mutants and these described previously was not performed. The reported here lines are utilized to increase understanding of the control of leaf development in pea. (authors)

  3. Breeding approaches for crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) management in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Rubiales, Diego; Fernández-Aparicio, Monica; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Castillejo, Mari A; Prats, Elena; Sillero, Josefina C; Rispail, Nicolas; Fondevilla, Sara


    Pea cultivation is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle East farming systems by the occurrence of Orobanche crenata Forsk. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. Most control methods are either unfeasible, uneconomical, hard to achieve or result in incomplete protection. The integration of several control measures is the most desirable strategy. [corrected] Recent developments in control are presented and re-evaluated in light of recent developments in crop breeding and molecular genetics. These developments are placed within a framework that is compatible with current agronomic practices. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The application of knowledge gained from basic genomic research and genetic engineering will contribute to more rapid pea improvement for resistance against O. crenata and/or the herbicide.

  4. Effect of genotype and environment on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the physicochemical properties of starch from, field pea and fababean.

    Hood-Niefer, Shannon D; Warkentin, Thomas D; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Vandenberg, Albert; Tyler, Robert T


    The effects of genotype and environment and their interaction on the concentrations of starch and protein in, and the amylose content and thermal and pasting properties of starch from, pea and fababean are not well known. Differences due to genotype were observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean, in the onset temperature (To) and peak temperature (Tp) of gelatinization of fababean starch, and in the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch and fababean starch. Significant two-way interactions (location × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in fababean and the amylose content, To, endothermic enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) and trough viscosity of fababean starch. Significant three-way interactions (location × year × genotype) were observed for the concentration of starch in pea and the pasting, trough, cooling and final viscosities of pea starch. Differences observed in the concentrations of starch and protein in pea and fababean were sufficient to be of practical significance to end-users, but the relatively small differences in amylose content and physicochemical properties of starch from pea and fababean were not. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Adenoviral gene transfer of PLD1-D4 enhances insulin sensitivity in mice by disrupting phospholipase D1 interaction with PED/PEA-15.

    Angela Cassese

    Full Text Available Over-expression of phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PED/PEA-15 causes insulin resistance by interacting with the D4 domain of phospholipase D1 (PLD1. Indeed, the disruption of this association restores insulin sensitivity in cultured cells over-expressing PED/PEA-15. Whether the displacement of PLD1 from PED/PEA-15 improves insulin sensitivity in vivo has not been explored yet. In this work we show that treatment with a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the human D4 cDNA (Ad-D4 restores normal glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (Tg ped/pea-15 by improving both insulin sensitivity and secretion. In skeletal muscle of these mice, D4 over-expression inhibited PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction, decreased Protein Kinase C alpha activation and restored insulin induced Protein Kinase C zeta activation, leading to amelioration of insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Interestingly, Ad-D4 administration improved insulin sensitivity also in high-fat diet treated obese C57Bl/6 mice. We conclude that PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction may represent a novel target for interventions aiming at improving glucose tolerance.

  6. The expression of heat shock proteins 70 and 90 in pea seedlings under simulated microgravity conditions

    Kozeko, L.

    Microgravity is an abnormal and so stress factor for plants. Expression of known stress-related genes is appeared to implicate in the cell response to different kinds of stress. Heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 are present in plant cells under the normal growth conditions and their quantity increases during stress. The effect of simulated microgravity on expression of HSP70 and HSP90 was studied in etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings grown on the horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) from seed germination for 3 days. Seedlings were also subjected to two other types of stressors: vertical clinorotatoin (2 rpm) and 2 h temperature elevation (40°C). HSPs' level was measured by ELISA. The quantity of both HSPs increased more than in three times in the seedlings on the horizontal clinostat in comparison with the stationary 1 g control. Vertical clinorotation also increased HSPs' level but less at about 20% than horizontal one. These effects were comparable with the influence of temperature elevation. The data presented suggest that simulated microgravity upregulate HSP70 and HSP90 expression. The increased HSPs' level might evidence the important functional role of these proteins in plant adaptation to microgravity. We are currently investigating the contribution of constitutive or inducible forms of the HSPs in this stress response.

  7. Radiation interception and use, and spectral reflectance of contrasting canopies of autumn sown faba beans and semi-leafless peas

    Ridao, E.; Oliveira, C.F.; Conde, J.R.; Minguez, M.I.


    Water deficits in faba bean produced a change in leaf angle that lowered the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted (R pi ) by the canopy, when compared to irrigated faba beans. This response was not found in a semi-leafless pea crop for its canopy structure was maintained rigid by tendrils. These contrasting behaviours were quantified by changes in photosynthetically active radiation (R p ) extinction coefficients (K). For irrigated faba beans, an average value for K of 0.78 is proposed for R p interception modelling. In the case of water stressed faba beans, the possibility of using a water stress dependent K is raised. The canopy architecture of semi-leafless peas may allow the use of one K (0.50) for the two water regimes. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) showed a two phase behaviour: before (RUEbg) and after (RUEag) the beginning of grain filling. In addition, changes in RUE were also due to water supply and affected RUEag values, although in a different way in peas than in faba beans. The reflectance properties of these canopies allowed for an evaluation of crop biomass and also enhanced their contrasting characteristics. The Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI2) was used here as a means to estimate R pi . The relationships between SAVI2 and R pi were near-linear in faba beans and linear in peas. Crop biomass was then estimated with these relationships and with the acquired information on the two phase RUE of each species and water regime. (author)

  8. Observation and modeling of the evolution of an ephemeral storm-induced inlet: Pea Island Breach, North Carolina, USA

    Velasquez Montoya, Liliana; Sciaudone, Elizabeth J.; Mitasova, Helena; Overton, Margery F.


    The Outer Banks of North Carolina is a wave-dominated barrier island system that has experienced the opening and closure of numerous inlets in the last four centuries. The most recent of those inlets formed after the breaching of Pea Island during Hurricane Irene in 2011. The Pea Island Breach experienced a rapid evolution including episodic curvature of the main channel, rotation of the ebb channel, shoaling, widening by Hurricane Sandy in 2012, and finally closing before the summer of 2013. Studying the life cycle of Pea Island Breach contributes to understanding the behavior of ephemeral inlets in breaching-prone regions. This topic has gained relevance due to rising sea levels, a phenomenon that increases the chances of ephemeral inlet formation during extreme events. This study explores the spatiotemporal effects of tides, waves, and storms on flow velocities and morphology of the breach by means of remotely sensed data, geospatial metrics, and a numerical model. The combined use of observations and results from modeling experiments allowed building a conceptual model to explain the life cycle of Pea Island Breach. Wave seasonality dominated the morphological evolution of the inlet by controlling the magnitude and direction of the longshore current that continuously built transient spits at both sides of the breach. Sensitivity analysis to external forcings indicates that ocean waves can modify water levels and velocities in the back barrier. Sound-side storm surge regulates overall growth rate, duration, and decay of peak water levels entering the inlet during extreme events.

  9. Variability within a pea core collection of LEAM and HSP22, two mitochondrial seed proteins involved in stress tolerance.

    Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Payet, Nicole; Lalanne, David; Neveu, Martine; Tolleter, Dimitri; Burstin, Judith; Macherel, David


    LEAM, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, and HSP22, a small heat shock protein, were shown to accumulate in the mitochondria during pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed development, where they are expected to contribute to desiccation tolerance. Here, their expression was examined in seeds of 89 pea genotypes by Western blot analysis. All genotypes expressed LEAM and HSP22 in similar amounts. In contrast with HSP22, LEAM displayed different isoforms according to apparent molecular mass. Each of the 89 genotypes harboured a single LEAM isoform. Genomic and RT-PCR analysis revealed four LEAM genes differing by a small variable indel in the coding region. These variations were consistent with the apparent molecular mass of each isoform. Indels, which occurred in repeated domains, did not alter the main properties of LEAM. Structural modelling indicated that the class A α-helix structure, which allows interactions with the mitochondrial inner membrane in the dry state, was preserved in all isoforms, suggesting functionality is maintained. The overall results point out the essential character of LEAM and HSP22 in pea seeds. LEAM variability is discussed in terms of pea breeding history as well as LEA gene evolution mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of arabinogalactan proteins from the root caps of pea and Brassica napus on Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore chemotaxis and germination.

    Cannesan, Marc Antoine; Durand, Caroline; Burel, Carole; Gangneux, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Laval, Karine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté


    Root tips of many plant species release a number of border, or border-like, cells that are thought to play a major role in the protection of root meristem. However, little is currently known on the structure and function of the cell wall components of such root cells. Here, we investigate the sugar composition of the cell wall of the root cap in two species: pea (Pisum sativum), which makes border cells, and Brassica napus, which makes border-like cells. We find that the cell walls are highly enriched in arabinose and galactose, two major residues of arabinogalactan proteins. We confirm the presence of arabinogalactan protein epitopes on root cap cell walls using immunofluorescence microscopy. We then focused on these proteoglycans by analyzing their carbohydrate moieties, linkages, and electrophoretic characteristics. The data reveal (1) significant structural differences between B. napus and pea root cap arabinogalactan proteins and (2) a cross-link between these proteoglycans and pectic polysaccharides. Finally, we assessed the impact of root cap arabinogalactan proteins on the behavior of zoospores of Aphanomyces euteiches, an oomycetous pathogen of pea roots. We find that although the arabinogalactan proteins of both species induce encystment and prevent germination, the effects of both species are similar. However, the arabinogalactan protein fraction from pea attracts zoospores far more effectively than that from B. napus. This suggests that root arabinogalactan proteins are involved in the control of early infection of roots and highlights a novel role for these proteoglycans in root-microbe interactions.

  11. Raapzaadeiwitconcentraat en erwteneiwitconcentraat in biologisch biggenvoer = Canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentratrate in diets for organically housed piglets

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.


    At the Experimental Farm Raalte it was investigated whether canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentrate are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for organically housed piglets. It is concluded that both protein concentrates are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for piglets. Feed intake and

  12. Selenoamino Acid-Enriched Green Pea as a Value-Added Plant Protein Source for Humans and Livestock.

    Garousi, Farzaneh; Domokos-Szabolcsy, Éva; Jánószky, Mihály; Kovács, Andrea Balláné; Veres, Szilvia; Soós, Áron; Kovács, Béla


    Selenium deficiency in various degrees affects around 15% of the world's population, contributing to a variety of health problems. In this study, we examined the accumulation and biotransformation of soil applied Se-supplementation (sodium selenite and sodium selenate forms) at different concentrations, along with growth and yield formation of green pea, in a greenhouse experiment. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated using HPLC-ICP-MS for Se-species separation in the above ground parts of green pea. Results showed 3 mg kg -1 Se IV increased green pea growth biomarkers and also caused an increase in protein content in leaves by 17%. Selenomethionine represented 65% of the total selenium content in shoots, but was lower in pods and seeds (54 and 38%, respectively). Selenomethionine was the major species in all plant parts and the only organic selenium form in the lower Se IV concentration range. Elevating the dose of Se IV (≥30 mg kg -1 ) triggered detrimental effects on growth and protein content and caused higher accumulation of inorganic Se in forms of Se VI and Se IV . Selenocysteine, another organic form of proteinogenic amino acid, was determined when Se IV (≥10 mg kg -1 ) was applied in higher concentrations. Thus, agronomic biofortification using the appropriate chemical form and concentration of Se will have positive effects on green pea growth and its enriched shoots and seeds provide a value-added protein source for livestock and humans with significant increased selenomethionine.

  13. The ability to store energy in pea protein gels is set by network dimensions smaller than 50 nm

    Munialo, C.D.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.


    The objective of this study was to identify which length scales set the ability to elastically store energy in pea protein network structures. Various network structures were obtained frompea proteins by varying the pH and salt conditions during gel formation. The coarseness of the network structure

  14. Iron and oxygen isotope signatures of the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Childress, Tristan; Simon, Adam C.; Day, Warren C.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Bindeman, Ilya N.


    New O and Fe stable isotope ratios are reported for magnetite samples from high-grade massive magnetite of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite ore deposits and these results are compared with data for other iron oxide-apatite deposits to shed light on the origin of the southeast Missouri deposits. The δ18O values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 12) and Pilot Knob (n = 3) range from 1.0 to 7.0 and 3.3 to 6.7‰, respectively. The δ56Fe values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 10) and Pilot Knob (n = 6) are 0.03 to 0.35 and 0.06 to 0.27‰, respectively. These δ18O and the δ56Fe values suggest that magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt (typical igneous δ56Fe ranges 0.06–0.49‰) and grew in equilibrium with a magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. We propose that the δ18O and δ56Fe data for the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits are consistent with the flotation model recently proposed by Knipping et al. (2015a), which invokes flotation of a magmatic magnetite-fluid suspension and offers a plausible explanation for the igneous (i.e., up to ~15.9 wt % TiO2 in magnetite) and hydrothermal features of the deposits.

  15. Conductimetric detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathover pisi in pea seeds and soft rot Erwinia spp. on potato tubers

    Fraaije, B.


    Pea bacterial blight and potato blackleg are diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi ( Psp ) and soft rot Erwinia spp., respectively. The primary source of inoculum for these bacteria is

  16. Mechanisms of photoprotection and nonphotochemical quenching in pea light-harvesting complex at 2.5 Å resolution

    Standfuss, Jörg; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Lamborghini, Matteo; Kühlbrandt, Werner


    The plant light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) collects and transmits solar energy for photosynthesis in chloroplast membranes and has essential roles in regulation of photosynthesis and in photoprotection. The 2.5 Å structure of pea LHC-II determined by X-ray crystallography of

  17. Boron, cobalt and molybdenum in the knottiness and production on pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv Bolero culture

    Oliveira Junior, A.; Teixeira, N.T.; Maluf, C.E.; Campos, M.F. de


    The test carried out to study the effect of Boron, Cobalt and Molybdenum on the knottiness and production of the pea (Pisum sativum L.)cv Bolero culture, in controlled conditions. The results showed that Boron didn't affect the knottiness and it increased the production, while, Cobalt and Molybdenum promoted significant increase in the knottiness and productivity. (author) [pt


    Nitin Verma


    Full Text Available A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundant remains which represent an inexpensive material that has been undervalued until now. Pea peel waste is one of the undervalued, unused sources of energy that can serve as a potential source for cellulase production. Batch experiments have been performed, using pea peel waste as a carbon source for cellulase production under solid state cultivation by Trichoderma reesei. It was observed that 30 oC temperature and pH 5.0 are the most favorable conditions for cellulase production by T. reesei. FPase activity significantly increases by incorporation of whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in the basal salt media used in the production study. The present study describes the utility of pea peel waste, whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in cellulase production by T. reesei. The utilization of economically cheap, pea peel waste for cellulase production could be a novel, cost effective, and valuable approach in cellulase production as well as in solid waste management.

  19. Enzymatic Activity of the Mycelium Compared with Oospore Development During Infection of Pea Roots by Aphanomyces euteiches

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren


    To describe the disease cycle of the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, enzymatic activity in the mycelium was compared with the development of oospores in pea roots. Plants were inoculated with two zoospore concentrations to achieve different disease levels. Hyphae were stained for fungal...

  20. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Maurizio Moschini


    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.