Lauesen, Linne Marie
by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. The conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses...
..., this article offers material on some important issues - in the context of forensic psychology - such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology...
Kitchener, Karen S., Ed.
Elaborates issues surrounding ethical decision making in counseling and mental health professions. Articles covering implications for training, ethical counseling of adolescents and the elderly, and reviews of research on counselor ethics are included. (BH)
West, Dana R.
Students and their parents/guardians rely on school counselors to provide counseling services based on ethically sound principles. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence about what influences a school counselor's ethical decision making. Ethical decision making for this study was defined as the degree to which decisions pertaining to…
Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J
Increasing interest in empirical ethics has enhanced understanding of healthcare professionals' ethical problems and attendant decision-making. A four-stage decision-making model involving ethical attention, reasoning, intention and action offers further insights into how more than reasoning alone may contribute to decision-making. To explore how the four-stage model can increase understanding of decision-making in healthcare and describe the decision-making of an under-researched professional group. 23 purposively sampled UK community pharmacists were asked, in semi-structured interviews, to describe ethical problems in their work and how they were resolved. Framework analysis of transcribed interviews utilised the four decision-making stages, together with constant comparative methods and deviant-case analysis. Pharmacists were often inattentive and constructed problems in legal terms. Ethical reasoning was limited, but examples of appeals to consequences, the golden rule, religious faith and common-sense experience emerged. Ethical intention was compromised by frequent concern about legal prosecution. Ethical inaction was common, typified by pharmacists' failure to report healthcare professionals' bad practices, and ethical passivity emerged to describe these negative examples of the four decision-making stages. Pharmacists occasionally described more ethically active decision-making, but this often involved ethical uncertainty. The four decision-making stages are a useful tool in considering how healthcare professionals try to resolve ethical problems in practice. They reveal processes often ignored in normative theories, and their recognition and the emergence of ethical passivity indicates the complexity of decision-making in practice. Ethical passivity may be deleterious to patients' welfare, and concerns emerge about improving pharmacists' ethical training and promoting ethical awareness and responsibility.
Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey
Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.
Leliveld, Marijke Christina
This dissertation sheds more light on ethics in economic decision-making. Over the course of nine experiments, I studied (a) when people adhere to ethical standards like the do-no-harm principle, and (b) how people respond to situations in which ethical standards are violated by studying not only
Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara
Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…
Simmonds, Anne H
Nurses are confronted daily with making ethical decisions in practice, in which the "right" or best course of action must be determined. However, for intrapartum nurses, the seemingly ordinary nature of ethical issues means that these concerns may be viewed merely as clinical or logistical problems to be solved, leaving the ethical dimensions obscured. This has consequences not only for women and the provision of safe, family-centered maternity care but also for the quality of nurses' work environments and degree of moral distress experienced. This article explores ethical aspects of intrapartum nursing by applying ethical principles and moral reasoning to an "everyday" situation encountered by intrapartum nurses in practice. Implications for practice and the development of healthy moral communities are considered.
Celia Deane-Drummond's case for wisdom as an approach to ethical decision making and her doubts about case-oriented methodology are critiqued with reference to the SRT Project's Engineering Genesis study. Its approach is explored in practical decisions on various real life examples of genetic modification in crops and animals. It involved both intrinsic and consequential approaches, and identified key value positions behind different policies and stakeholders. The paper also clarifies the rel...
Full Text Available Celia Deane-Drummond's case for wisdom as an approach to ethical decision making and her doubts about case-oriented methodology are critiqued with reference to the SRT Project's Engineering Genesis study. Its approach is explored in practical decisions on various real life examples of genetic modification in crops and animals. It involved both intrinsic and consequential approaches, and identified key value positions behind different policies and stakeholders. The paper also clarifies the relationship between reactive (cost-benefit and precautionary risk assessment, explaining their strengths and limitations, and the role of underlying values in both forms of risk decision making.
Robson, Maggie; Cook, Peter; Hunt, Kathy; Alred, Geof; Robson, Dave
Explores the process of ethical decision-making in counseling research and examines to what extent decision-making is based on intuitive thinking. Reviews and considers several models of ethical problem solving. Argues that ethical decisions are reached through intuition, informed by ethical principles, codes of practice, and reference to the laws…
James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby
This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…
Baker, Diane F.
Researchers in behavioral ethics seek to understand how individuals respond to the ethical dilemmas in their lives. In any given situation, multiple social and psychological variables interact to influence ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to explore how one such variable, empathy, affects the ethical decision-making process…
There is a tendency for physicians to approach ethical problems in a manner similar to that in which they approach medical problems. Instead of disease categories (such as congestive heart failure or diarrhea), the physician substitutes moral quandaries (such as euthanasia or abortion). The goal is to learn what the "right" rules are for this particular problem at this particular moment. Although this method has important practical and instructive value, it can produce an empirical attitude toward ethics akin to that found in students who strive to learn medicine solely by algorithms. Using theoretical models as a center for discussion, this article has attempted to approach medical ethics as a decision-making process derived from the physician-patient relationship model in use. What is the type of physician-patient relationship that forms the soundest base for making ethical decisions? It must be realized that the contractual relationship cannot be ignored, for in our consumer-oriented society it will surely remain as a protection for the patient against the incompetent or immoral physician. It should not become the sole guide of physician behavior, however, lest we be satisfied with mediocre behavior as the maximal standard. Likewise, although technical competence is required for one to make the right and good decision, it is insufficient alone as a guide for moral behavior. Given the medically correct facts, a multitude of responses are available which necessitate a moral choice. Physicians need a guiding principle that goes beyond any aesthetic code of behavior, or protection of self-interest, and which enables them to deal with all the unexpected ethical questions faced in providing care to patients. Moral principles such as truth-telling, promise-keeping, and protecting the patient when he is vulnerable, help the physician to act in a moral manner, but lack the encompassing nature of the covenantal promise. The covenantal model includes a donative element
Conn, James H.; Gerdes, Daniel A.
Discusses ethical decision making within American sports, explaining its evolution from nobility and virtue to win at all costs. Presents various views and perspectives on ethics. Also describes how established codes of ethics can assist interscholastic athletic programs, how professionals can establish an ethical workplace, and how decisions can…
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.
Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…
Ethical decisions made by social workers are shaped by the decision maker and the process used to resolve ethical dilemmas. Although systematic guidelines for resolving ethical dilemmas offer social workers a logical approach to the decision-making sequence, it is inevitable that discretionary judgments will condition the ultimate choice of action. Social workers are influenced by professional roles, practice experiences, individualized perspectives, personal preferences, motivations, and attitudes. Through reflective self-awareness social workers can recognize their value preferences and be alert to the ways in which these values unknowingly influence the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Understanding which values or ethical principles were given priority from among competing alternatives can inform social workers about their value patterning. This article challenges social workers to view current ethical decisions as linked to other ethical decisions they have made in the past or will make in the future. An approach to developing keener insight into value patterning is presented.
Hadjistavropoulos, T; Malloy, D C
This paper proposes a theoretical augmentation of the seven-step decision-making model outlined in the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. We propose that teleological, deontological, and existential ethical perspectives should be taken into account in the decision-making process. We also consider the influence of individual, issue-specific, significant-other, situational, and external factors on ethical decision-making. This theoretical analysis demonstrates the richness and complexity of ethical decision-making.
This paper analyses the role of traditional moral theories in managers’ moral decision making using the multidimensional ethics scale (MES) developed and refined by Reidenbach and Robin (1988, 1990). This study extends their work by examining the applicability of the scale to subjects from India, other than the country in which the scale was developed. The research question is: what kind of ethical dimensions do Indian managers reveal when they are making moral decisions. Factor analysis is d...
Kert, Serhat Bahadir; Uz, Cigdem; Gecu, Zeynep
This study examined the effectiveness of an electronic performance support system (EPSS) on computer ethics education and the ethical decision-making processes. There were five different phases to this ten month study: (1) Writing computer ethics scenarios, (2) Designing a decision-making framework (3) Developing EPSS software (4) Using EPSS in a…
Cherry, J Bradley C; Bruce, Jared M; Lusk, Jayson L; Crespi, John M; Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S
For consumers today, the perceived ethicality of a food's production method can be as important a purchasing consideration as its price. Still, few studies have examined how, neurofunctionally, consumers are making ethical, food-related decisions. We examined how consumers' ethical concern about a food's production method may relate to how, neurofunctionally, they make decisions whether to purchase that food. Forty-six participants completed a measure of the extent to which they took ethical concern into consideration when making food-related decisions. They then underwent a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while performing a food-related decision-making (FRDM) task. During this task, they made 56 decisions whether to purchase a food based on either its price (i.e., high or low, the "price condition") or production method (i.e., with or without the use of cages, the "production method condition"), but not both. For 23 randomly selected participants, we performed an exploratory, whole-brain correlation between ethical concern and differential neurofunctional activity in the price and production method conditions. Ethical concern correlated negatively and significantly with differential neurofunctional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). For the remaining 23 participants, we performed a confirmatory, region-of-interest (ROI) correlation between the same variables, using an 8-mm3 volume situated in the left dlPFC. Again, the variables correlated negatively and significantly. This suggests, when making ethical, food-related decisions, the more consumers take ethical concern into consideration, the less they may rely on neurofunctional activity in the left dlPFC, possibly because making these decisions is more routine for them, and therefore a more perfunctory process requiring fewer cognitive resources.
Lambie, Glenn W.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Ieva, Kara P.
Counselors are required to have high levels of social-cognitive development, significant knowledge regarding ethical and legal practice, and sound ethical decision-making processes to provide effective and ethical services to their clients. This study investigated the effect of two counseling ethics courses on 64 master's-level counselor education…
The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to...
Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen
approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of ethical decision making involved in recycling. The model is based on Jones' issue-contingent model......Although recycling is often experienced as a moral dilemma, studies that systematically approach this issue from an ethical perspective are scarce. Moreover, previous studies have explored recycling by mainly using single ethical constructs, such as moral norms, values or obligations, rarely...... and its key concept, that is, moral intensity, which we extend by adding altruism as an important personality trait that influences pro-social behaviour. The data were collected from a sample of 367 adult consumers, representative of the Slovenian population by gender and age. The hypotheses were tested...
Layse Kelle Silva
Full Text Available Objective. To determine ethical implications for nursing practice at the point of decision making by nursing professors in practice area. Methodology. A qualitative method was adopted, with use of semistructured interviews with sixteen nursing professors who delivered care at a teaching hospital in Salvador, Bahia, from May to June 2011. The methodological reference used was the discourse of the collective subject (DCS by Lefévre and Lefévre. Results. In response to DCSs, the following subjects appeared: "Ethics is fundamental and of vital importance in the decision making process," "searching for knowledge and research to identify problems and solutions, including alternatives and support for decisions," and "to act in the best way." Conclusion. Professors who provide education about patient care also delivered care. They have the responsibility to consider the ethical implications of decision making because they stimulate fundamental reflection and could positively influence future nursing professionals.
Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H
This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s
Full Text Available The question to be addressed in this paper is : How can the ethics of justice and the ethics of care be used complementary to each other in ethical decision making within the health care team? Various arguments are presented that justify the reasons that the ethics of justice and the ethics of care should be used complementary to each other for effective ethical decision making within the health care team. The objective is to explore and describe the compatibility of the ethics of justice and the ethics of care from two perspectives: firstly an analysis of the characteristics of the two ethical theories, and secondly the scientific-philosophical viewpoints of these theories. The two theories are incompatible when viewed from these perspectives. For a probable solution to this incompatibility arguments are presented from the perspectives of reflection and virtue-based ethics.
Ersdal, Gerhard [University of Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)
In decision-making under uncertainty there are two main questions that need to be evaluated: (i) What are the future consequences and associated uncertainties of an action, and (ii) what is a good (or right) decision or action. Philosophically these issues are categorized as epistemic questions (i.e. questions of knowledge) and ethical questions (i.e. questions of moral and norms). This paper discusses the second issue, and evaluates different risk management approaches for establishing good decisions, using different ethical theories as a basis. These theories include the utilitarian ethics of Bentley and Mills, and deontological ethics of Kant, Rawls and Habermas. The risk management approaches include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), minimum safety criterion, the ALARP principle and the precautionary principle.
Lampe, Judith R.; Walsh, Sharon K.
Many indicators point to a crisis of confidence and credibility in the role of the teacher as a professional and moral leader. In response, many educational researchers are recommending that reflective teachers examine the moral and ethical issues embedded in their everyday thinking and behavior. A study was conducted, therefore, to identify and…
Lauesen, Linne Marie
Stakeholder management has for the last three decades been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models instead of the staticism that characterizes some models....... management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses and its stakeholders....
Price, Sandra J.
By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)
French, Jennifer A.
One-hundred and eleven graduate students enrolled in a clinical psychology training program (PsyD) participated in a research study that examined the ethical decision-making processes and factors that have been proposed to influence behavior (Smith, McGuire, Abbott, & Blau, 1991). Using a two-part questionnaire, data regarding the ethical…
Cottone, R. Rocco
Examines social constructivism as an intellectual movement in the mental health field that directs a social consensual interpretation of reality. Presents a social constructivism approach to counseling which redefines the ethical decision-making process as an interactive rather than individual or intrapsychic process. Explores how the process…
Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Nikravesh, Mansoure; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Ethical caring is an essential in nursing practice. Nurses are confronted with complex situations in which they are expected to autonomously make decisions in delivering good care to patients. Although a wide range of studies have examined ethical behavior of nurses, there are still many issues requiring further investigation. The aim of this article is to describe the ethical behavior of nurses in decision-making in patients' care in Iran. This study was conducted through grounded theory method. Participants were 17 Iranian nurses, employed in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences hospitals. Unstructured, semi-structured, and in-depth interviews were used for data gathering. Interviews were transcribed and coded according to Strauss and Corbin method in open, axial, and selective coding. Nurses showed three major approaches in ethical behavior: Beyond the legal duty and protection of the patients, which includes dedication and full availability to nurses' job and the client, spending time for the patients and delayed exit from the workplace, and arbitrary practice; legal duty and the protection of patients and nurses, which includes caretaking for the patient, responding to the client, and implementing the physician's prescription; and below the legal duty and the protection of one's self, that is, finding evidence and having witness in case of false documentation, and shortcoming, negligence, and mistake. Because of the importance of the ethical behavior of nurses in decision-making, it is necessary to find ways to promote moral reasoning and moral development of nurses. Empowerment of nurses, nurse educators, and nursing students to acquire knowledge and develop ethical behavior skills is important.
S. P. Giles
Full Text Available Ethical decision-making presupposes the possession of a free will. Central to a discussion on reformed ethics is the question of the bounds of freedom of the will. The reformed tradition, along with the wider Christian tradition, affirms that the will is not free in the Pelagian sense of being absolutely free, but is constrained by the effects of humanity’s fall from original righteousness. This ariticle considers the nature and extent to which the will is considered free, or no longer free at all. The question posed here, within the reformed theoretic ethical framework, is whether the will is so vitiated that a person is in- capable of any effective choice of action or inaction in the face of any moral dilemma, or does fallen humanity still possess some ability to make a free choice, albeit under conditions of impaired freedom of the will?
Mendoza, Mary Elizabeth
In the course of their work, sign language interpreters are faced with ethical dilemmas that require prioritizing competing moral beliefs and views on professional practice. There are several decision-making models, however, little research has been done on how sign language interpreters learn to identify and make ethical decisions. Through surveys and interviews on ethical decision-making, this study investigates how expert and novice interpreters discuss their ethical decision-making proces...
Cherkowski, Sabre; Walker, Keith D.; Kutsyuruba, Benjamin
This descriptive study provides a rich portrait of moral agency and ethical decision-making processes among a sample of Canadian school principals. Using an ethical responsibility framework linking moral agency and transformational leadership, the researchers found that (1) modeling moral agency is important for encouraging others to engage their…
Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.
Ethical decision-making in school administration has received considerable attention in educational leadership literature. However, most research has focused on principals working in secondary school settings while studies that explore ethical reasoning processes of academic deans have been significantly few. This qualitative study aims to…
Miller, Keith W; Wolf, Marty J; Grodzinsky, Frances
In this paper we address the question of when a researcher is justified in describing his or her artificial agent as demonstrating ethical decision-making. The paper is motivated by the amount of research being done that attempts to imbue artificial agents with expertise in ethical decision-making. It seems clear that computing systems make decisions, in that they make choices between different options; and there is scholarship in philosophy that addresses the distinction between ethical decision-making and general decision-making. Essentially, the qualitative difference between ethical decisions and general decisions is that ethical decisions must be part of the process of developing ethical expertise within an agent. We use this distinction in examining publicity surrounding a particular experiment in which a simulated robot attempted to safeguard simulated humans from falling into a hole. We conclude that any suggestions that this simulated robot was making ethical decisions were misleading.
D. de Cremer (David); D.M. Mayer (David); M. Schminke (Marshall)
textabstractBehavioral ethics is an emerging field that takes an empirical, social scientific approach to the study of business ethics. In this special issue, we include six articles that fall within the domain of behavioral ethics and that focus on three themes—moral awareness, ethical decision
Zydziunaite, V; Lepaite, D; Suominen, T
The overlooked aspect in Lithuania is the dearth of leaders among head nurses, who bear the responsibility for decisions in ethical dilemmas. Understanding the application of leadership styles is fundamental to ensuring head nurses' abilities to influence outcomes for healthcare providers and patients. To identify the leadership styles applied by head nurses in decision making in ethical dilemmas on hospital wards. The data were collected by questionnaires completed by head nurses (n = 278) working in five major state-funded hospitals in each of the five regions of Lithuania. The data were analysed using SPSS 16.0, calculating descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Head nurses apply democratic, affiliative, transformational and sustainable leadership styles when resolving ethical dilemmas. The application of leadership styles is associated not only with specific situations, but also with certain background factors, such as years of experience in a head nurse's position, ward specialization and the incidence of ethical dilemmas. Nurses having been in a head nurse's position over 10 years use primitive leadership styles, notably bureaucratic leadership, more often than do those head nurses with only a few years of experience in such a position. The results highlight the need for head nurses to reflect on their practices and to find new ways of learning from practice, colleagues and patients. Head nurses' managerial decisions due to their 'executive power' can turn into a new state-of-the-art leadership in nursing. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.
Moss, Alvin H
When the US Congress created the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program in 1972, it gave physicians the responsibility of determining which patients were "appropriate" for dialysis. Congress provided no guidance on who should be selected or how. Only five years later, Dr. Belding Scribner, the father of chronic dialysis, noted that there was a need for a "deselection committee" because virtually all criteria for dialysis patient selection had been slackened, if not abandoned. In 1991, the Institute of Medicine Committee to Study the Medicare ESRD Program recommended the development of a clinical practice guideline because they noted there were "an increasing number of [dialysis] patients with limited survival possibilities and relatively poor quality of life." In 2000, the Renal Physicians Association and the American Society of Nephrology heeded the Institute of Medicine committee's recommendation and published Shared Decision-Making in the Appropriate Initiation of and Withdrawal from Dialysis. In 2010, prompted by a substantial body of new research evidence, the Renal Physicians Association published a second edition of this clinical practice guideline. This article describes the application of the ethical principles of respect for patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and professional integrity, and the ethical process of shared decision-making in making decisions about starting, withholding, continuing, and stopping dialysis with patients and families. It urges examination of medical indications and identifies appropriate limits to shared decision-making when the burdens of dialysis can be predicted to substantially outweigh the benefits.
Wood, J. Luke; Hilton, Adriel A.
This article encourages community college leaders to employ ethical paradigms when constructing and considering alternative courses of action in decision-making processes. The authors discuss four previously articulated paradigms (e.g., ethic of justice, ethic of critique, ethic of care, and ethic of the profession) and propose an additional…
Stephanus J. Myburgh
Full Text Available Given the many approaches regarding the use of the Bible, the ethical work in biblical interpretation and the work of being concerned with an ethical issue affecting the Christian as a moral agent cannot be separated from one another. This article deals with that affinity between the approach of the interpreter as moral agent, using the Bible in his or her ethical decision-making and aspects that constitute fundamental starting points for him or her in this ethical decision-making, with regard to the liberation of prejudices as that which makes understanding for moral action possible. It is maintained in the article that prejudices that are conformable to the ways in which responsibility should qualify Christian ethics in general make for responsible use of the Bible in Christian ethical decision-making. Prejudices (pre-understanding that are grounded in an ethics of responsibility allow for the interpreter to adhere to the truth claim of a text, which can only be had from hermeneutical work that promotes prejudices in an intentional and critical way as the link between past text and current interpreter.�--- Abstract translated into Sipedi ---Khuet�o ya dikakanyo t�a mosekaseki e le tiro ya maitshwaro mo go t�eeng diphetho ka maitshwaro a malebaSenaganwaGe re �edit�e ditsela t�a go fapana t�a ka fao Bibele e �omi�wago ka gona, mo�omo wa maitshwaro a maleba tlhathollong le tshekakong ya Bibele le mo�omo wa go tshwenyega ka taba ya maitshwaro a maleba ao a huet�ago Mokriste bjalo ka moemedi wa maitshwaro di ka se aroganywe. Pampiri ye e tlo swaragana le tswalano magareng ga mosekaseki bjalo ka moemedi wa maitshwaro, a diri�a Bibele mo go t�eeng diphetho t�a maitshwaro a maleba le mafapa ao a bopago motheo wa mathomo fao go t�ewago diphetho t�a maitshwaro a maleba, mabapi le tokologo ya maitshwaro a botse e le seo se kgonagat�ago kwe�i�o ya tiro ya maitshwaro. Mo pampiring ye re t�ea gore maitshwaro a
Thirty-two hospital social workers, fourteen of them directors of social work services and eighteen direct practitioners, were interviewed about their perception of the factors influencing social workers' contribution to the resolution of ethical dilemmas in general hospitals in Israel. Findings revealed that while ethical decision-making in hospitals is an interdisciplinary process, social workers' contribution to the process is affected by rivalry between social workers and other members of the health team, personality differences, type of ward and the nature of the ethical dilemma. Participants of the study had quite a clear perception of their role and of the unique knowledge-base social work can offer, including knowledge of the individual and family life course, understanding and skills in coping with diseases, and systems thinking. In order to increase their influence in ethical decision-making, the hospital social workers felt they must put more effort into developing their relationships with the other professionals involved in ethical decision-making both by making themselves more indispensable and by making their contribution explicit through greater documentation of their activities. The findings also implied that in order to gain more power and be accepted as equal partners in multidisciplinary teams, hospital social workers should improve their communication skills when interacting with representatives of other heath care professions.
Sabre Lynn Cherkowski
Full Text Available This descriptive study provides a rich portrait of moral agency and ethical decision-making processes among a sample of Canadian school principals. Using an ethical responsibility framework linking moral agency and transformational leadership, the researchers found that 1 modeling moral agency is important for encouraging others to engage their own moral agency in the best interests of all children; 2 despite efforts to engage in collaborative decision-making, principals are often faced with the reality that they are the ones to absorb the cost of decisions; and 3 moral agents need to become wide-awake to the ethical issues and challenges that permeate their day-to-day work lives.
Bero, Bridget; Kuhlman, Alana
In order to fulfill ABET requirements, Northern Arizona University's Civil and Environmental engineering programs incorporate professional ethics in several of its engineering courses. This paper discusses an ethics module in a 3rd year engineering design course that focuses on the design process and technical writing. Engineering students early in their student careers generally possess good black/white critical thinking skills on technical issues. Engineering design is the first time students are exposed to "grey" or multiple possible solution technical problems. To identify and solve these problems, the engineering design process is used. Ethical problems are also "grey" problems and present similar challenges to students. Students need a practical tool for solving these ethical problems. The step-wise engineering design process was used as a model to demonstrate a similar process for ethical situations. The ethical decision making process of Martin and Schinzinger was adapted for parallelism to the design process and presented to students as a step-wise technique for identification of the pertinent ethical issues, relevant moral theories, possible outcomes and a final decision. Students had greatest difficulty identifying the broader, global issues presented in an ethical situation, but by the end of the module, were better able to not only identify the broader issues, but also to more comprehensively assess specific issues, generate solutions and a desired response to the issue.
Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian
Health technology assessment (HTA) is the multidisciplinary study of the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technologies. It supports health-policy decisions by providing a joint knowledge base for decision-makers. To increase its policy relevance, HTA tries to extend...... beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology...... to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs...
Hauck, Jessica; Ling, Thomson
Although art therapists have discussed the importance of taking a positive stance in terms of ethical decision making (Hinz, 2011), an ethical decision-making model applicable for the field of art therapy has yet to emerge. As the field of art therapy continues to grow, an accessible, theoretically grounded, and logical decision-making model is…
Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.
When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a…
DANIELA LIVIA DOLTU
This article aims to explore the relationship between morality and organizational culture with reference to the process of ethical decision making and to the cooperation between philosopher and psychologist for the improvement of ethical climate within a public institution. Firstly, we introduce the notion of organizational culture emphasizing the importance of moral values and their role in building a true ethical climate. Secondly, we focus on the study of ethical decision making. The proce...
Saarni, Samuli I; Hofmann, Bjørn; Lampe, Kristian; Lühmann, Dagmar; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Velasco-Garrido, Marcial; Autti-Rämö, Ilona
Health technology assessment (HTA) is the multidisciplinary study of the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technologies. It supports health-policy decisions by providing a joint knowledge base for decision-makers. To increase its policy relevance, HTA tries to extend beyond effectiveness and costs to also considering the social, organizational and ethical implications of technologies. However, a commonly accepted method for analysing the ethical aspects of health technologies is lacking. This paper describes a model for ethical analysis of health technology that is easy and flexible to use in different organizational settings and cultures. The model is part of the EUnetHTA project, which focuses on the transferability of HTAs between countries. The EUnetHTA ethics model is based on the insight that the whole HTA process is value laden. It is not sufficient to only analyse the ethical consequences of a technology, but also the ethical issues of the whole HTA process must be considered. Selection of assessment topics, methods and outcomes is essentially a value-laden decision. Health technologies may challenge moral or cultural values and beliefs, and their implementation may also have significant impact on people other than the patient. These are essential considerations for health policy. The ethics model is structured around key ethical questions rather than philosophical theories, to be applicable to different cultures and usable by non-philosophers. Integrating ethical considerations into HTA can improve the relevance of technology assessments for health care and health policy in both developed and developing countries.
Coverston, C; Rogers, S
We are living in an era, sometimes referred to as "postmodern," exemplified by complex change related to vast increases in information and technology and exposure to diverse people and ideas. Society as a whole is experiencing dissonance in solving ethical dilemmas, and nurses' ethical dilemmas are never far removed from the social context in which nurses practice. This article explores aspects of postmodernism that complicate ethical decision making. It is hoped that this discussion may aid nurses in understanding how world values, especially those of postmodernism, complicate ethical decision making in health care. Suggestions melding aspects of the postmodern with traditional approaches to ethical decision making are presented.
Reliance on moral principles and professional codes has given nurses direction for ethical decision-making. However, rational models do not capture the emotion and reality of human choice. Intuitive response must be considered. Supporting intuition as an important ethical decision-making tool for nurses, the aim of this study was to determine relationships between intuition, years of worked nursing experience, and perceived ethical decision-making ability. A secondary aim explored the relationships between rational thought to years of worked nursing experience and perceived ethical decision-making ability. A non-experimental, correlational research design was used. The Rational Experiential Inventory measured intuition and rational thought. The Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale measured perceived ethical decision-making ability. Pearson's r was the statistical method used to analyze three primary and two secondary research questions. A sample of 182 emergency nurses was recruited electronically through the Emergency Nurses Association. Participants were self-selected. Approval to conduct this study was obtained by the Adelphi University Institutional Review Board. A relationship between intuition and perceived ethical decision-making ability (r = .252, p = .001) was a significant finding in this study. This study is one of the first of this nature to make a connection between intuition and nurses' ethical decision-making ability. This investigation contributes to a broader understanding of the different thought processes used by emergency nurses to make ethical decisions. © The Author(s) 2016.
Matusek, Jill Anne; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty
Ethical dilemmas frequently arise in the treatment of clients with eating disorders, and clinicians regularly encounter an array of ethical challenges related to whether or not overt and covert coercive tactics should be implemented. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of perplexing ethical questions relevant to medical, nutritional and psychological treatment of clients with eating disorders including imposed treatment, enforced feeding, the duty to protect minors and adults, the determination of competence and capacity among medically comprised clients, and the effectiveness of coercive treatment for clients with eating disorders. The processes of ethical decision-making in terms of ethical principles, professional codes of conduct, the existing empirical literature and the use of a decision-making framework are explored. Taking a collaborative and client-sensitive approach, the authors outline and apply an integrative ethical decision-making model to facilitate clinicians' decision-making process. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
marketing. Journal of Business Research, 19, (2), 83-107. Dursun, S., Morrow, R. O., & Beauchamp, D. L. J., (2004). Defence ethics survey report... ethical decision making in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 49, (3), 87-96. Ferrell , O. C., Gresham, L. G., & Fraedrich, J. (1989). A synthesis of... Ethical principles for decision makers: A longitudinal survey. Journal of Business Ethics , 8, (4), 805-815. Library of Congress. (1998a). Religion and
Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl
The present study extends understanding of the self-regulatory aspects of ethical decision making by integrating and exploring relationships among counterfactual thinking, attribution, anticipatory emotions, and ethical decision-making constructs and processes. Specifically, we examine the effects of a manipulation designed to stimulate a…
Kreitler, Crystal Mata; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Rodarte, Allen M.; Piñón DuMond, Rebecca
Numerous examples of unethical organizational decision-making highlighted in the media have led many to question the general moral perception and ethical judgments of individuals. The present study examined two forms of a straightforward ethical decision-making (EDM) tool (ACED IT cognitive map) that could be a relatively simple instrument for…
Rottig, Daniel; Heischmidt, Kenneth A.
Based on three independent samples from Germany and the United States, this exploratory, cross-cultural study examines empirically the importance of ethical training for the improvement of ethical decision-making. The results of the study reveal a significant difference in the use of corporate codes of conduct and ethical training, as well as…
Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.
Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…
RPA Field Simulations: Dilemma -Training for Legal and Ethical Decision-Making Professor Wilbur Scott Dept of...composite scenarios were developed incorporating best features, i.e., “ ethically challenging” moments: wicked dilemmas * cadets were...Impact on Ethics and Law of Armed Conflicts” University of Zurich 6-7 November 2015 BACKGROUND 4th year cadets in Behavioral
Johnson, Robert L.; Liu, Jin; Burgess, Yin
In this mixed-methods study we investigated the development of a generalized ethics decision-making model that can be applied in considering ethical dilemmas related to student assessment. For the study, we developed five scenarios that describe ethical dilemmas associated with student assessment. Survey participants (i.e., educators) completed an…
Torabi, Mohammad; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan
Due to the stressful nature of prehospital emergency providers' duties, as well as difficulties such as distance to information resources and insufficient time to analyze situations, ethical decision-making in prehospital services is a daily challenge. This study aimed to describe the experiences of Iranian prehospital emergency personnel in the field of ethical decision-making. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews (n = 15) in Iran and analyzed using the content analysis approach. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accordance with the principles of research ethics and national rules and regulations relating to informed consent and confidentiality. The results obtained were categorized into three main categories that included "assessment of the scene atmosphere, assessment of patients' condition and their family, and predicting outcomes of decision-making." The central category was "field assessment," which demonstrated the strategy of ethical decision-making by prehospital providers when facing ethical conflicts. Although findings showed that the majority of prehospital providers make ethical decisions based on the patients' benefit, they also consider consequences of their decisions in dealing with personal and professional threats. This article identifies and describes a number of ethical values of prehospital providers and discusses how the values may be considered by paramedics when facing ethical conflicts.
Francis, Perry C.
Mental health professionals are faced with increasingly complex ethical decisions that are impacted by culture, personal and professional values, and the contexts in which they and their clients inhabit. This article presents the reasons for developing and implementing multiple ethical decision making models and reviews four models that address…
said, “Well drive by and take out whatever you need but leave it in (CANADIAN CITY 2).” And I said, “ Fuck you.” You know, that’s the sort of treatment...is the way they write up the loyalty part of it, where it’s loyalty to “the system”. What that’s saying is, “Shut the fuck up and tow the party...I just said, “ Fuck it”…So, that was an ethical decision for me in the first instance. I am a professional, I eat, sleep and breathe the profession
Fleischmann, Kenneth R.
The biggest challenge facing computer security researchers and professionals is not learning how to make ethical decisions; rather it is learning how to recognize ethical decisions. All too often, technology development suffers from what Langdon Winner terms technological somnambulism - we sleepwalk through our technology design, following past precedents without a second thought, and fail to consider the perspectives of other stakeholders . Computer security research and practice involves a number of opportunities for ethical decisions. For example, decisions about whether or not to automatically provide security updates involve tradeoffs related to caring versus user autonomy. Decisions about online voting include tradeoffs between convenience and security. Finally, decisions about routinely screening e-mails for spam involve tradeoffs of efficiency and privacy. It is critical that these and other decisions facing computer security researchers and professionals are confronted head on as value-laden design decisions, and that computer security researchers and professionals consider the perspectives of various stakeholders in making these decisions.
Antes, Alison L; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D
To examine the effects that existing courses on the responsible conduct of research (RCR) have on ethical decision making by assessing the ethicality of decisions made in response to ethical problems and the underlying processes involved in ethical decision making. These processes included how an individual thinks through ethical problems (i.e., meta-cognitive reasoning strategies) and the emphasis placed on social dimensions of ethical problems (i.e., social-behavioral responses). In 2005-2007, recruitment announcements were made, stating that a nationwide, online study was being conducted to examine the impact of RCR instruction on the ethical decision making of scientists. Recruitment yielded contacts with over 200 RCR faculty at 21 research universities and medical schools; 40 (20%) RCR instructors enrolled their courses in the current study. From those courses, 173 participants completed an ethical decision-making measure. A mixed pattern of effects emerged. The ethicality of decisions did not improve as a result of RCR instruction and even decreased for decisions pertaining to business aspects of research, such as contract bidding. Course participants improved on some meta-cognitive reasoning strategies, such as awareness of the situation and consideration of personal motivations, but declined for seeking help and considering others' perspectives. Participants also increased their endorsement of detrimental social-behavioral responses, such as deception, retaliation, and avoidance of personal responsibility. These findings indicated that RCR instruction may not be as effective as intended and, in fact, may even be harmful. Harmful effects might result if instruction leads students to overstress avoidance of ethical problems, be overconfident in their ability to handle ethical problems, or overemphasize their ethical nature. Future research must examine these and other possible obstacles to effective RCR instruction.
Zydziūnaite, Vilma; Suominen, Tarja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Lepaite, Daiva
The objective was to describe the research methods and research focuses on ethical dilemmas concerning decision-making within health care leadership. The search was conducted on Medline and PubMed databases (1998-2008). The systematic review included 21 selected articles. The ethical dilemmas concerning decision-making within health care leadership are related to three levels: institutional (particular organization), political and local interface (local governmental structure), and national (professional expertise and system). The terms that are used as adequate to the term of "ethical dilemma" are the following: "continuous balancing," "result of resource allocation," "gap between professional obligations and possibilities," "ethically controversial situation," "concern about interactions," "ethical difficulty," "outcome of medical choices," "concern about society access to health care resources," "ethically difficult/challenging situation," "(the consequence of) ethical concern/ethical issue." In qualitative studies, a semi-structured interview and qualitative content analysis are the most commonly applied methods; in quantitative studies, questionnaire surveys are employed. In the research literature, there is a lack of specification according to professional qualification of health care professionals concerning ethical dilemmas by decision-making within health care management/administration. The research on ethical dilemmas in health care leadership, management, and administration should integrate data about levels at which ethical dilemmas occur and investigate ethical dilemmas as complex phenomena because those are attached to decision-making and specific nuances of health care management/administration. In this article, the presented scientific problem requires extensive scientific discussions and research on ethical dilemmas concerning decision-making within health care leadership at various levels.
Arar, Khalid; Haj, Ibrahim; Abramovitz, Ruth; Oplatka, Izhar
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate ethical leadership in the context of the Arab educational system in Israel. It questions the relations of ethical leadership dimensions with decision making as well as background characteristics of the educational leaders. Design/methodology/approach: Arab educational leaders (n=150) from…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Catalanotto, Frank A; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse
This study reports and compares dental student and dental faculty scores to national norms for the Defining Issues Test 2, a measure of ethical decision-making competency. The findings showed that dental students and faculty tend to make decisions that promote self-interest, paralleling the ethical orientation of business professionals. Differences associated with gender, language, and norms from previous studies were observed. The findings underscore the importance of raising dental faculty and student awareness of their own ethical decision-making approaches. More importantly, the findings highlight the need to ensure that dental faculty have both the knowledge and skills to train dental students about the central role that ethical decision-making must play in patient care.
Overstreet, Charles William
A study compared the decision making process of large and small advertising agencies to determine if the size of the agency, in terms of gross annual billing, had any effect on adherence to the rules set forth in the American Association of Advertising's Standards of Practice. Forty agency employees, 20 from agencies with billings less than $2.5…
The making of decisions pertaining to health and personal issues is dependent on the ability of the patient to function in various areas. The concept of competence is viewed differently from the clinical as opposed to the legal viewpoint. Some jurisdictions have introduced into legislation more specific legal guidelines for ...
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Brand, Ralf
athletes were low to very low, indicating vehement rejections of doping. The results of our experiment showed that the ethical training led to an attenuation of these rejections. No intervention effect was found in the standard education group. The observed slight increase in the doping attitude score......This article examines whether a training program in ethical decision making can change young athletes’ doping attitudes. Fifty-two young elite athletes were randomly assigned to either an ethical decision-making training group or a standard-knowledge-based educational program group. Another 17...... young elite athletes were recruited for no-treatment control purposes. The ethical decision-making training comprised six 30-min online sessions in which the participants had to work through 18 ethical dilemmas related to doping. The standard-knowledge-based educational program was also conducted in six...
Loyens, Kim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370525086; Maesschalck, Jeroen
Much research has been done on the way in which individuals in organizations deal with their discretion. This article focuses on the literature on street-level bureaucracy and the literature on ethical decision making. Despite their shared attempt to explain individual behavior and decision making,
The nature, methodology, importance and implications of an ethical analysis of value issues pertaining to public decision-making is not evident. In this paper I would like to address these issues by posing the following questions: - Why is it important to focus on values in any process of public decision-making? - What is the ...
Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry
School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…
Cottone, R. Rocco
A social constructivism model of ethical decision-making is summarized and related to the Canadian Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Social constructivism is described as an intellectual movement that allows for a biological and social conception of human understanding, thereby superceding or displacing psychological theory. The theoretical…
Chevalier, Nancy E.; Lyon, Mark A.
Invesitgated 50 practicing school psychologists' preferred resolutions to ethical dilemmas. Results indicated general lack of consistency in both actions taken to resolve ethical dilemmas and reasons chosen to support such actions, regardless of respondents' sex, years of experience, self-reported hours of ethics training, frequency of…
Thompson, Alison K; Faith, Karen; Gibson, Jennifer L; Upshur, Ross E G
Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical framework was developed with expertise from clinical, organisational and public health ethics and validated through a stakeholder engagement process. The ethical framework includes both substantive and procedural elements for ethical pandemic influenza planning. The incorporation of ethics into pandemic planning can be helped by senior hospital administrators sponsoring its use, by having stakeholders vet the framework, and by designing or identifying decision review processes. We discuss the merits and limits of an applied ethical framework for hospital decision-making, as well as the robustness of the framework. The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the spectre of a pandemic influenza outbreak is great. Our efforts to address the normative aspects of pandemic planning in hospitals have generated interest from other hospitals and from the governmental sector. The framework will require re-evaluation and refinement and we hope that this paper will generate feedback on how to make it even more robust.
Gibson Jennifer L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical framework was developed with expertise from clinical, organisational and public health ethics and validated through a stakeholder engagement process. The ethical framework includes both substantive and procedural elements for ethical pandemic influenza planning. The incorporation of ethics into pandemic planning can be helped by senior hospital administrators sponsoring its use, by having stakeholders vet the framework, and by designing or identifying decision review processes. We discuss the merits and limits of an applied ethical framework for hospital decision-making, as well as the robustness of the framework. Summary The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the spectre of a pandemic influenza outbreak is great. Our efforts to address the normative aspects of pandemic planning in hospitals have generated interest from other hospitals and from the governmental sector. The framework will require re-evaluation and refinement and we hope that this paper will generate feedback on how to make it even more robust.
Full Text Available To date, substantial research studies have been conducted in the field of ethical decision making in many disciplines. However, ethical efforts in the context of information technology have been limited. In this research, a focus has been put on modeling ethical decision making in cyberspace with emphasis on business intelligence scenarios. The model is comprised of six exogenous and two endogenous constructs, among them seven were delicately selected from valid and empirically tested ethical models and the eighth one is developed by the authors. After pre-testing the model by experts, reliability, convergent and discriminant validities were approved. Data were collected from 188 IT personnel in the banking industry of Iran. Results revealed that the perceived importance of an IT ethical issue, ethical judgment, ethical obligation, perceived possibility of disclosure, ego strength, and locus of control directly impact ethical intention. However, no impact from law on ethical obligation and codes of ethics on ethical intention was observed. As shown, a higher possibility on acting unethically occurs when the person feels confident that his/her actions will go unnoticed.
D. Bruce Ross
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to introduce potential ethical challenges that may arise when a financial and mental health professional collaborate to provide financial therapy and recommendations on how to effectively address these concerns. The development of ethical and professional practices requires extensive dialogue from practitioners in the emerging field of financial therapy; however, it is important to first develop an awareness and sensitivity to the ethical and professional issues across disciplines. This article examines the differences and similarities between the codes of ethics of different financial and mental health disciplines, and addresses six core ethical and professional issues: dual relationships, confidentiality, collaborating with other professionals, fee management, use of technology, and attending to federal and state regulatory laws. In working through the complexity of different disciplines’ regulatory environments, a discussion of how to address these ethical questions in order to progress the financial therapy field is presented.
de Boer, Jacoba Coby; van Blijderveen, Geja; van Dijk, Gert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Williams, Monique
In neonatal intensive care, a child's death is often preceded by a medical decision. Nurses, social workers and pastors, however, are often excluded from ethical case deliberation. If multiprofessional ethical case deliberations do take place, participants may not always know how to perform to the fullest. A level-IIID neonatal intensive care unit of a paediatric teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Structured multiprofessional medical ethical decision-making (MEDM) was implemented to help overcome problems experienced. Important features were: all professionals who are directly involved with the patient contribute to MEDM; a five-step procedure is used: exploration, agreement on the ethical dilemma/investigation of solutions, analysis of solutions, decision-making, planning actions; meetings are chaired by an impartial ethicist. A 15-item questionnaire to survey staff perceptions on this intervention just before and 8 months after implementation was developed. Before and after response rates were 91/105 (87%) and 85/113 (75%). Factor analysis on the questionnaire suggested a four-factor structure: participants' role; structure of MEDM; content of ethical deliberation; and documentation of decisions/conclusions. Effect sizes were 1.67 (pethical case deliberation perceived that the process of decision-making had improved; they were more positive about the structure of meetings, their own role and, to some extent, the content of ethical deliberation. Documentation of decisions/conclusions requires further improvement.
Meyer-Zehnder, Barbara; Albisser Schleger, Heidi; Tanner, Sabine; Schnurrer, Valentin; Vogt, Deborah R; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Pargger, Hans
As the implementation of new approaches and procedures of medical ethics is as complex and resource-consuming as in other fields, strategies and activities must be carefully planned to use the available means and funds responsibly. Which facilitators and barriers influence the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model in daily routine? Up to now, there has been little examination of these factors in this field. A medical ethics decision-making model called METAP was introduced on three intensive care units and two geriatric wards. An evaluation study was performed from 7 months after deployment of the project until two and a half years. Quantitative and qualitative methods including a questionnaire, semi-structured face-to-face and group-interviews were used. Sixty-three participants from different professional groups took part in 33 face-to-face and 9 group interviews, and 122 questionnaires could be analysed. The facilitating factors most frequently mentioned were: acceptance and presence of the model, support given by the medical and nursing management, an existing or developing (explicit) ethics culture, perception of a need for a medical ethics decision-making model, and engaged staff members. Lack of presence and acceptance, insufficient time resources and staff, poor inter-professional collaboration, absence of ethical competence, and not recognizing ethical problems were identified as inhibiting the implementation of the METAP model. However, the results of the questionnaire as well as of explicit inquiry showed that the respondents stated to have had enough time and staff available to use METAP if necessary. Facilitators and barriers of the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model are quite similar to that of medical guidelines. The planning for implementing an ethics model or guideline can, therefore, benefit from the extensive literature and experience concerning the implementation of medical guidelines. Lack of time and
Hinz, Lisa D.
Ethics courses may provoke fear and uncertainty in art therapy students and practitioners if taught from a risk management perspective, which focuses on reducing therapist exposure to risk and avoiding harm to clients. In contrast, a positive ethical approach fosters empowerment, embraces limits, and enhances trust between art therapists and their…
"By drawing on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork and my field diaries in refugee decision-making in Canada, I make three arguments in this article. First, the binary of research in closed vs. open settings may have contributed to overlooking of ethical challenges of research in state organizations in democratic settings. We have to overcome this binary by opening a dialogue among ethnographers. Second, despite well-developed and diverse nature of scholarship on Research Ethics' Board'...
Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.
This article presents a seven-step framework for decision making to solve ethical issues in special education. The authors developed the framework from the existing literature and theoretical frameworks of justice, critique, care, and professionalism. The authors briefly discuss each theoretical framework and then describe the decision-making…
On the spot ethical decision-making in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear event) response: approaches to on the spot ethical decision-making for first responders to large-scale chemical incidents.
Rebera, Andrew P; Rafalowski, Chaim
First responders to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events face decisions having significant human consequences. Some operational decisions are supported by standard operating procedures, yet these may not suffice for ethical decisions. Responders will be forced to weigh their options, factoring-in contextual peculiarities; they will require guidance on how they can approach novel (indeed unique) ethical problems: they need strategies for "on the spot" ethical decision making. The primary aim of this paper is to examine how first responders should approach on the spot ethical decision-making amid the stress and uncertainty of a CBRN event. Drawing on the long-term professional CBRN experience of one of the authors, this paper sets out a series of practical ethical dilemmas potentially arising in the context of a large-scale chemical incident. We propose a broadly consequentialist approach to on the spot ethical decision-making, but one which incorporates ethical values and rights as "side-constraints".
Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E
Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training programs. Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 +/- 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) x 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 +/- 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 +/- 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 +/- 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, eta (2) = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, eta (2) = .013), relativism
Full Text Available By drawing on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork and my field diaries in refugee decision-making in Canada, I make three arguments in this article. First, the binary of research in closed vs. open settings may have contributed to overlooking of ethical challenges of research in state organizations in democratic settings. We have to overcome this binary by opening a dialogue among ethnographers. Second, despite well-developed and diverse nature of scholarship on Research Ethics' Board's (REB formal practices and their negative impact on ethnographers' research proposals, the scarcity of scholarship on "ethics in practice" or "everyday ethics" show that we seem to forget that ethnographers, after receiving research ethics approval, still have to do considerable interpretation for what "being ethical" means. Finally, paying attention to "ethically important moments" during research practice may help us bridge the gap between principles of formal ethics and ethics in practice. Using field diaries in these reflections instead of more sanitized subsequent accounts illustrates the immediacy and importance of ethical concerns during research practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150168
Ling, Dong-Lan; Yu, Hong-Jing; Guo, Hui-Ling
Truth-telling toward terminally ill patients is a challenging ethical issue in healthcare practice. However, there are no existing ethical guidelines or frameworks provided for Chinese nurses in relation to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness and the role of nurses thus is not explicit when encountering this issue. The intention of this paper is to provide ethical guidelines or strategies with regards to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness for Chinese nurses. This paper initially present a case scenario and then critically discuss the ethical issue in association with ethical principles and philosophical theories. Instead of focusing on attitudes toward truth disclosure, it aims to provide strategies regarding this issue for nurses. It highlights and discusses some of the relevant ethical assumptions around the perceived role of nurses in healthcare settings by focusing on nursing ethical virtues, nursing codes of ethics, and philosophical perspectives. And Confucian culture is discussed to explicate that deontology does not consider family-oriented care in China. Treating each family individually to explore the family's beliefs and values on this issue is essential in healthcare practice and nurses should tailor their own approach to individual needs regarding truth-telling in different situations. Moreover, the Chinese Code of Ethics should be modified to be more specific and applicable. Finally, a narrative ethics approach should be applied and teamwork between nurses, physicians and families should be established to support cancer patients and to ensure their autonomy and hope. Ethical considerations: This paper was approved by the Ethics Committee of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The authors have obtained consent to use the case study and it has been anonymised to preserve the patient's confidentiality.
This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relationship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model.
Case, Jan C.; Plaisance, Pamela M.; Renfrow, Jennifer J.; Olivier, Brandi N.
Rehabilitation practitioners are faced with a variety of complex ethical decisions in a dynamic, changing world. Attention to principle ethics, virtue ethics, critical thinking, and creativity are essential for best practice. This article presents one tool (DECK--Decision-Making that Enhances Counselor Know-How) to facilitate such ethical…
Fumagalli, Manuela; Marceglia, Sara; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Picascia, Marta; Barbieri, Sergio; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Pacchetti, Claudio; Priori, Alberto
The possibility that deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) alters patients' decisions and actions, even temporarily, raises important clinical, ethical and legal questions. Abnormal moral decision-making can lead to ethical rules violations. Previous experiments demonstrated the subthalamic (STN) activation during moral decision-making. Here we aim to study whether STN DBS can affect moral decision-making in PD patients. Eleven patients with PD and bilateral STN DBS implant performed a computerized moral task in ON and OFF stimulation conditions. A control group of PD patients without DBS implant performed the same experimental protocol. All patients underwent motor, cognitive and psychological assessments. STN stimulation was not able to modify neither reaction times nor responses to moral task both when we compared the ON and the OFF state in the same patient (reaction times, p = .416) and when we compared DBS patients with those treated only with the best medical treatment (reaction times: p = .408, responses: p = .776). Moral judgment is the result of a complex process, requiring cognitive executive functions, problem-solving, anticipations of consequences of an action, conflict processing, emotional evaluation of context and of possible outcomes, and involving different brain areas and neural circuits. Our data show that STN DBS leaves unaffected moral decisions thus implying relevant clinical and ethical implications for DBS consequences on patients' behavior, on decision-making and on judgment ability. In conclusion, the technique can be considered safe on moral behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.
Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…
Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.
To build capacity for students in educational leadership programs, we developed a teaching case study focused on managing emotion for ethical decision making in supervision of personnel. The case offers troubling encounters between a secondary assistant principal and a novice teacher, a veteran teacher, and a veteran administrator. Scenarios…
Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl; Oeding, Jill
The authors explore the influence of counterfactual thoughts in triggering the emotions of regret and disappointment in ethical decision making. Counterfactual thinking involves examining possible outcomes to events and is often explored in what-if scenarios. Findings support that subjects were able to transfer regret (but not disappointment)…
Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Gilbride, Dennis D.
A training intervention using the Intercultural Model of Ethical Decision Making was tested with a sample of 48 counselor trainees enrolled in 3 counseling courses across 2 universities. Postintervention data indicated students' scores increased significantly on 5 of 6 evaluation criteria as well as on the overall total score. Although…
DANIELA LIVIA DOLTU
Full Text Available This article aims to explore the relationship between morality and organizational culture with reference to the process of ethical decision making and to the cooperation between philosopher and psychologist for the improvement of ethical climate within a public institution. Firstly, we introduce the notion of organizational culture emphasizing the importance of moral values and their role in building a true ethical climate. Secondly, we focus on the study of ethical decision making. The process is examined from the perspective of the interaction between human personality and different elements of organizational culture. Philosophy and psychology differently approach this problem. Our intention is to bridge the gap between the two perspectives, by demonstrating their belonging to the same continuum as well as the need for knowledge from both fields in order to have a complete overview of its internal mechanisms. Deontological and utilitarian theories fail to explain by themselves the decision making process and so psychology does: moral development theories, the leadership type, and emotions have on their basis a personal moral philosophy. We will also consider the influence of social groups on individual decision making.
Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…
Yang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Wei-Pang
The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality of a moral intensity construct in four ethical accounting scenarios and how the dimensions directly affect the specific processes of moral decision making of accounting students. A survey was conducted with 233 accounting students enrolled in the school of accounting in a university of…
Cotton, Matthew [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Risk
In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the
Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola
Introduction: This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Methods: Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. Discussion: These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. Conclusion: This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context. PMID:24987575
Full Text Available Because doping is becoming more and more of a problem in elite sports, anti-doping and prevention programs are receiving more attention. However, current doping prevention programs that primarily involve pedagogical education in youths have not been shown to be very effective. In sports philosophy there is a discourse about ethics and morality in sports in connection with doping. So far, however, the aspect of ethics has been neglected in anti-doping prevention programs. This article discusses a new approach to doping prevention for young athletes and a way to improve conventional doping prevention by focusing on the process of decision-making. The article argues that ethical decision-making programs based on ethical training programs developed in business offer a large potential for prevention programs in sport. The article concludes with a presentation of training possibilities for ethical decision-making in connection with doping.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1741
Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B
The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child.
Alie, R E
In this second lesson of a five-part WMU/AHRA magazine course on ethics, Dr. Alie tackles an interesting concept--group-think. According to the author, this tendency occurs when cohesive groups lose their ability to critically evaluate alternatives in problem solving. Since groups such as committees or task forces frequently resolve issues and make policy in health care organizations, warning signs of this phenomenon are detailed as well as suggestions to help avoid the problem.
To explore the relationship between multiple variables within a model of critical thinking and moral reasoning. A quantitative descriptive correlational design using a purposive sample of 200 emergency nurses. Measured variables were accuracy in clinical decision-making, moral reasoning, perceived care environment, and demographics. Analysis was by bivariate correlation using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients, chi square and multiple linear regression analysis. The elements as identified in the integrated ethically-driven environmental model of clinical decision-making (IEDEM-CD) corrected depict moral reasoning and environment of care as factors significantly affecting accuracy in decision-making. The integrated, ethically driven environmental model of clinical decision making is a framework useful for predicting clinical decision making accuracy for emergency nurses in practice, with further implications in education, research and policy. A diagnostic and therapeutic framework for identifying and remediating individual and environmental challenges to accurate clinical decision making. © 2012, The Author. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge © 2012, NANDA International.
Mercurio, Mark R
Pregnancy in an early adolescent carries with it specific ethical considerations, in some ways different from pregnancy in an adult and from medical care of a non-pregnant adolescent. Obstetrical ethics emphasizes the right of the patient to autonomy and bodily integrity, including the right to refuse medical intervention. Pediatric ethics recognizes the right of parents, within limits, to make medical decisions for their children, and the right of a child to receive medical or surgical interventions likely to be of benefit to her, sometimes over her own objections. As the child gets older, and particularly during the years of adolescence, there is also a recognition of the right to an increasingly prominent role in decisions about her own healthcare. Pediatric obstetrical ethics, referring to ethical decisions made by, with, and for pregnant early adolescents, represents the intersection of these different cultures. Principles and approaches from both obstetrical and pediatric ethics, as well as a unified understanding of rights, obligations, and practical considerations, will be needed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wong, William; Eiser, Arnold R; Mrtek, Robert G; Heckerling, Paul S
To determine the usefulness of Q methodology to locate and describe shared subjective influences on clinical decision making among participant physicians using hypothetical cases containing common ethical issues. Qualitative study using by-person factor analysis of subjective Q sort data matrix. University medical center. Convenience sample of internal medicine attending physicians and house staff (n = 35) at one midwestern academic health sciences center. Presented with four hypothetical cases involving urgent decision making near the end of life, participants selected one of three specific clinical actions offered for each case. Immediately afterward and while considering their decision, each respondent sorted twenty-five subjective self-referent items in terms of the influence of each statement on their decision-making process. By-person factor analysis, where participants are defined as variates, yielded information about the attitudinal background the physicians brought to their consideration of each hypothetical case. We performed a second-order factor analysis on all of the subjective viewpoints to determine if a smaller core of shared attitudes existed across some or all of the four case vignettes. Factor scores for each item and post-sort comments from interviews conducted individually with each respondent guided the interpretation of ethical perspective used by these respondents in making clinical decisions about the cases. Second-order factor analysis on seventeen viewpoints used by physicians in the four hypothetical urgent decision cases revealed three moderately correlated (r2 person factor analysis are useful qualitative methodological tools to study the complex structure of subjective attitudes that influence physicians in making medical decisions. This study revealed the subjective viewpoints used by our physician participants as they made ethically challenging treatment decisions. The three second-order factors identified here are grounded in
Tveit, Anne Dorthe; Sunde, Annikken Louise
The purpose of this paper is to explore how different insights from a variety of theories might help ethical decision making in educational counselling and highlight the need for reflection. A framework for ethical decision making based on basic features of counselling, namely the interlocutors' practice or "acts", is proposed. There are…
Indhraratana, Apinya; Kaemkate, Wannee
The aim of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid tool to assess ethical decision-making ability of nursing students using rubrics. A proposed ethical decision making process, from reviewing related literature was used as a framework for developing the rubrics. Participants included purposive sample of 86 nursing students from the Royal…
Toren, Orly; Wagner, Nurith
This article considers ethical dilemmas that nurse managers may confront and suggests an ethical decision-making model that could be used as a tool for resolving such dilemmas. The focus of the article is on the question: Can nurse managers choose the ethically right solution in conflicting situations when nurses' rights collide with patients' rights to quality care in a world of cost-effective and economic constraint? Managers' responsibility is to ensure and facilitate a safe and ethical working environment in which nurses are able to give quality care to their patients. In nursing it is frequently declared that managers' main obligations are to patients' needs and their rights to receive quality care. However, managers' ethical responsibilities are not only to patients but also to the nurses working in their institution. This article describes a real (but disguised) situation from an Israeli health care context to illustrate the dilemmas that may arise. The question is posed of whether nurse managers can maintain patients' and nurses' rights and, at the same time, fulfill their obligation to the conflicting demands of the organization. The article also offers a way to solve conflict by using an ethical decision-making model.
Martínez de Anguita, Pablo; Alonso, Enrique; Martín, María Angeles
This article develops a decision-making framework for environmental management that integrates technical, economic, political and legal, and ethical decision levels. It attempts to show how these decision levels can be ordained, integrated and interconnected and postulates a hierarchic concentric sphere system that proposes an environmental management model for long-term solutions. This model can be used as a check list for environmental management decision-making and also as a guide for environmental conflict resolution where environmental problems necessitate several levels of decision making. It integrates various environmental ethical positions and evaluates political decisions into a comprehensive, broadly applicable multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this decision-making model is to interconnect into a simplified sequence different levels of environmental management processes in order to account for sustainability, efficacy, efficiency and the acceptability of environmental management processes in the long term. This is done by observing when an environmental problem needs to be solved within a certain sphere of solutions and when it requires wider frameworks, how these can be established and how this process proves that solidarity is the widest and most reasonable sphere.
Medeiros, Kelsey E; Gibson, Carter; Mecca, Jensen T; Giorgini, Vincent; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D
Ethical dilemmas are inherently ambiguous, complex, and ill-defined. Additionally, these dilemmas involve multiple stakeholders. These characteristics may induce political behavior as a resolution tactic. Thus, the goal of the present effort was to investigate perspectives on politics among researchers in an ethical decision-making context. A qualitative analysis of interviews with university faculty members revealed that faculty members' perspectives on political behavior in an ethical decision-making context fall into a number of categories, including positive, negative, and realistic views of political activity. The implications of these varying perspectives on ethical decision making are discussed.
Malloy, D C; Williams, J; Hadjistavropoulos, T; Krishnan, B; Jeyaraj, M; McCarthy, E F; Murakami, M; Paholpak, S; Mafukidze, J; Hillis, B
Through discourse with international groups of physicians, we conducted a cross-cultural analysis of the types of ethical dilemmas physicians face. Qualitative analysis was used to categorise the dilemmas into seven themes, which we compared among the physicians by country of practice. These themes were a-theoretically-driven and grounded heavily within the text. We then subjected the dilemmas to an analysis of moral intensity, which represents an important (albeit novel within healthcare research) theoretical perspective of ethical decision making. These constructs (ie, culture and moral intensity) represent salient determinants of ethical behaviour and our cross-cultural sample afforded us the opportunity to consider both the pragmatic aspects of culture, as they are perceived by physicians, as well as the theory-driven concept of moral intensity. By examining both culture and moral intensity, we hope to better elucidate the complexities of ethical decision-making determinants among physicians in their daily practice. Doing so may potentially have practical implications for ethics training of medical students and foreign physicians.
Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T
Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.
Perry, Joshua E; Moore, Ilene N; Barry, Bruce; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Carrico, Amanda R
Writing in 1999, legal ethics scholar Brad Wendel noted that "[v]ery little empirical work has been done on the moral decision making of lawyers." Indeed, since the mid-1990s, few empirical studies have attempted to explore how attorneys deliberate about ethical dilemmas they encounter in their practice. Moreover, while past research has explored some of the ethical issues confronting lawyers practicing in certain specific areas of practice, no published data exists probing the moral mind of health care lawyers. As signaled by the creation of a regular column "devoted to ethical issues arising in the practice of health law" in the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, the time to address the empirical gap in the professional ethics literature is now. Accordingly, this article presents data collected from 120 health care lawyers. Presenting this population with a number of hypothetical scenarios relating to how they would respond when confronting an ethical dilemma without an obvious solution or when facing a situation in which their personal values were in tension with their professional obligations, this article represents a first step toward better understanding how lawyers who practice in health care settings understand and resolve the moral discomfort they encounter in their professional lives.
Suzuki, Chisato; Ota, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Masami
Information sharing is one of the most important means of public health nurses collaborating with other healthcare professionals and community members. There are complicated ethical issues in the process. To describe the ethical dilemmas associated with client information sharing that Japanese public health nurses experience in daily practice and to clarify their decision-making process to resolve these dilemmas. Data were collected using a three-phase consensus method consisting of semi-structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires and a group interview. We surveyed administrative public health nurses in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 administrative public health nurses, and the self-administered questionnaires were sent to all 899 administrative public health nurses. The group interview was carried out with eight administrative public health nurses. Ethical approval was granted by the ethics committee of the School of Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan (8-158, 9-130). Information-sharing ethical dilemmas occurred most often when clients' decisions did not coincide with the nurses' own professional assessments, particularly when they faced clinical issues that were inherently ambiguous. In their decision-making processes, nurses prioritised 'protection of health and life'. These findings suggest that, above all, they sought to address urgent risks to clients' lives while upholding the principle of client autonomy as much as possible. In such cases, the nurses made decisions regarding whether to share information about the client depending on the individual situation. Public health nurses should protect the client's health while taking into consideration their relationship with the client. © The Author(s) 2014.
Alexandre André Feil
Full Text Available The central objective of this study is to identify and analyze the intervening variables that influence ethical decision making of accounting professionals, in a region in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The methodology is quantitative and descriptive exploratory. The technical procedures include the use of questionnaires with response linked to Likert scale, comprising a sample unit of 122 professional accounting, and analysis occurs through non-parametric statistics, such as logistic regression and Spearman correlation. The results reveal that the accounting professionals who agree fully with the importance of the Counter Code of Professional Ethics (CEPC as a guide to conduct 59% and stick to it in decision making in 63.9%. The logistic regression model predicted that professionals meet the CEPC and do not meet respectively with a certainty of 87.5% and 100%. The attitudes towards CEPC these accounting professionals can be explained by the importance and use this as a guide of conduct, with a 95.5% prediction sure. The intervening variables that were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 in the CEPC compliance relating to religiosity, relevance and assistance that the code provides the professional conduct. It follows that the ethical decision making of the accounting professional is influenced by their religion and relevance and assistance that the CEPC provides for this professional.
Nicolini, Marie; Vandenberghe, Joris; Gastmans, Chris
In the era of deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric patients, steady or even increasing rates of compulsory commitment to care (CCC) are an intriguing phenomenon to analyse. From a clinical, legal and ethical perspective, CCC continues to be a controversial practice in psychiatry, and perhaps even more so when applied to patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD). Several reasons make it controversial. The lack of consensus about the benefits of CCC and professional disagreement about what mental illness and autonomy mean in the case of SUD make it difficult to apply ethically sound clinical decision-making in CCC. Also, the medico-legal framework underlying CCC use sometimes appears to foster the use of reductionist clinical evaluation. Layered on top of these issues is how stakeholders view coercion. There is a discrepancy between clinicians' and patients' perception of coercion, which leads to clinician-patient differences on whether CCC is necessary. Moreover, the way in which the evaluation is typically carried out influences patients' perception of coercion and subsequently their motivation for participating fully in treatment. In this article, we explore the value of care ethics, often applied to care practices such as nursing, when applied to more procedural medical practices, such as decision-making regarding CCC. The care-ethical approach views decision-making as part of a dynamic care process, within which the lived experience, interpretative dialogue and promotion of dignity are core features. Embracing this new framework means a paradigm shift in when the therapeutic relationship begins, namely, investing in it occurs while conducting an evaluation for a possible CCC procedure. Unlike in current typical evaluations, early cultivation of the therapeutic relationship enables the patient to participate in the definition of his needs, reduces perceived coercion and negative emotions and enhances treatment motivation. Finally, implications of this
Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi
Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from...... December 2011 to November 2012, issues of decision-making on embryo transfer, fetal reduction, and mode of delivery were identified. Interviews were carried out with doctors in eighteen ART clinics, agents from four agencies, and fourteen surrogates. In aiming to fulfil the commissioning parents’ demands......, doctors were willing to go to the greatest extent possible in their medical practice. Autonomy and decision-making regarding choice of the number of embryos to transfer and the mode of delivery lay neither with commissioning parents nor surrogate mothers but mostly with doctors. In order to ensure higher...
Dahnke, Michael D
Ethical decision making is complex and difficult. For this reason, many professions compose ethical codes to aid their practitioners, to aid those in the profession in dealing with perplexing situations that inevitably arise. The American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics is of course one such code. It outlines the important general values, duties, and responsibilities that flow from the specific role of being a nurse. The relationship of the individual practitioner to the code, however, is an aspect of professional moral life that requires interpretation and may not always be well understood. A historical and theoretical analysis of the ANA Code can provide for an understanding as to how it is to be used not as a substitute for moral thinking but as an aid to moral thinking.
McCoy, E.D.; Berry, K.
Relocation is an increasingly prominent conservation tool for a variety of wildlife, but the technique also is controversial, even among conservation practitioners. An organized framework for addressing the moral dilemmas often accompanying conservation actions such as relocation has been lacking. Ecological ethics may provide such a framework and appears to be an important step forward in aiding ecological researchers and biodiversity managers to make difficult moral choices. A specific application of this framework can make the reasoning process more transparent and give more emphasis to the strong sentiments about non-human organisms held by many potential users. Providing an example of the application of the framework may also increase the appeal of the reasoning process to ecological researchers and biodiversity managers. Relocation as a conservation action can be accompanied by a variety of moral dilemmas that reflect the interconnection of values, ethical positions, and conservation decisions. A model that is designed to address moral dilemmas arising from relocation of humans provides/demonstrates/illustrates a possible way to apply the ecological ethics framework and to involve practicing conservationists in the overall decision-making process. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Richmond, Kelly Ann
This research is designed to gain an understanding of how accounting students respond to realistic, business ethical dilemmas. Prior research suggests that accounting students exhibit lower levels of ethical reasoning compared to other business and non-business majors. This study uses the Defining Issues Test, Version 2 (Rest, et al., 1999) to measure accounting studentsâ ethical reasoning processes. The Mach IV scale (Christie and Geis, 1970) is used to measure moral behavior. Eight ethi...
Decisions in public health, or in individual health care, are taken by people (individuals or collective) for other people (individuals or collective). Human values, that is to say what is connected to Ethics, should be to the fore, de jure. Too often, under the pretext that they refer to subjectivity, they appear only after very many technical considerations. The latter, in a scientist society, are supposed to deserve a claim to objectivity, this being of course illusory. The author, placing himself in the line of Levinas, Ricoeur, and also of Kant, for whom the "What must I do?" is the most fundamental question any human being has to face, develops four reasons which plead for the pre-eminence of ethics as the foundation of decisions in a policy for public health. 1) He reminds us the intangible values, which are on one side uniqueness and universality of mankind, and on the other side the singularity of the human person. 2) He insists on the ethical wreck which threatens the whole health- and healthcare systems. 3) He sets out some results of modern neurophysiological research (AR Damasio's work), joining an intuition of Aristoteles: the decision making process implies two phases: deliberation the aim of which is to list the different possible actions to undertake, then the choice between those actions. Damasio shows that the lack of emotions inhibits the choice, especially when decision implies human values. 4) Finally, he insists, after E. Morin, on the practical and theoretical difficulties in taking a "good" decision, and on what Morin calls "ecology of action". The results of a decision may completely escape from the decision-makers aims, very often for unexpected social and psychological reasons.
Field, Robert I; Caplan, Arthur L
Evidence-based decision making (EBDM) is a tool to assess the value of medical interventions by weighing costs and health outcomes that has increasingly been applied to vaccines. However, many of the ethical considerations that support EBDM when used to evaluate therapeutic care do not readily translate to prevention. This mismatch can result in policy decisions that produce unanticipated negative consequences, including public resistance. In its emphasis on quantifiable outcomes, EBDM invokes the ethical principle of rule-utilitarianism, which values the optimal long-run balance of benefit over harm. Vaccines raise a number of competing ethical concerns in ways that individual medical treatments do not. They rely on widespread compliance for effectiveness, which can limit individual autonomy, emphasize population over individual effects, which can obscure the imperative of beneficence to help the vulnerable, require a just allocation process within populations, and sometimes challenge strong social norms. For EBDM to effectively guide vaccine policy makers, such as the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in the United States, an ethical foundation is needed that systematically considers all relevant values and transparently places vaccination recommendations in the context of social norms and individual concerns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Timothy; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Bore, Samuel; Simpson, Chris
School counselors frequently face ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas often involve relationships with principals, parents, and other stakeholders. School counselors may confront complex ethical issues involving confidentiality, student safety, parental rights,and social media. The American School Counselor Association recommends following an ethical…
Spector, J. Michael
This special issue of "ETR&D" is devoted to ethics in the broad domain of educational technology. Many ethical issues arise involving the study and use of educational technologies. A well-known issue involves the digital divide and the degree to which the introduction of new technologies is increasing the digital divide and…
Pratt, Cornelius B.
Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)
Robbins, Steven; Trabichet, Luc
The belief that educational leaders need to be ethical decision-makers is recent. Thomas and Bainbridge suggest that an educational leader needs to develop technical competency in ethical leadership. Yet few leaders in schools have been trained in conflict resolution of an ethical nature and little importance has been given to this within existing…
Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun
As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from December 2011 to November 2012, issues of decision-making on embryo transfer, fetal reduction, and mode of delivery were identified. Interviews were carried out with doctors in eighteen ART clinics, agents from four agencies, and fourteen surrogates. In aiming to fulfil the commissioning parents' demands, doctors were willing to go to the greatest extent possible in their medical practice. Autonomy and decision-making regarding choice of the number of embryos to transfer and the mode of delivery lay neither with commissioning parents nor surrogate mothers but mostly with doctors. In order to ensure higher success rates, surrogates faced the risk of multiple pregnancy and fetal reduction with little information regarding the risks involved. In the globalized market of commercial surrogacy in India, and with clinics compromising on ethics, there is an urgent need for formulation of regulative law for the clinical practice and maintenance of principles of reproductive ethics in order to ensure that the interests of surrogate mothers are safeguarded.
Goksoy, Asli; Alayoglu, Nihat
Ethics in decision making has been an issue for academics, practitioners, and governmental regulators for decades. In the last decade, numerous scandals and consequently many corporate crises in the global business world have added credence to the criticisms of business ethics. Therefore, it is vital to understand the factors affecting employees'…
Kiehl, Ermalynn M
The incidence of plagiarism, intentional or unintentional, in the professional nursing arena has increased in recent years, as has the occurrence of plagiarism among nursing students. Strategies for cheating have become very sophisticated with the use of aids such as personal digital assistants, camera phones, and instant messaging. Cheating on written papers has also increased. The Internet provides students with ready-made research and academic papers, and access to Web sites on a plethora of topics. In this article, I describe my experience with plagiarism of ethics papers during students' final semester before graduation. How I discovered the plagiarized work and used the A-B-C-D-E ethical decision-making model in determining the student consequences for the event are presented.
Grigorovich, Alisa; Kontos, Pia
Sexuality and intimacy are universal needs that transcend age, cognitive decline, and disability; sexuality is a fundamental aspect of the human experience. However, supporting sexuality in long-term residential care presents ethical challenges as this setting is both a home environment for residents and a workplace for health practitioners. This is particularly complex in the case of residents with dementia given the need to balance protection from harm and freedom of self-determination. Despite such complexity, this challenge has received limited critical theoretical attention. The dominant approach advocated to guide ethical reasoning is the bioethical four principles approach. However, the application of this approach in the context of dementia and long-term care may set the bar for practitioners' interference excessively high, restricting assentual (i.e., voluntary) sexual expression. Furthermore, it privileges cognitive and impartial decision-making, while disregarding performative, embodied, and relational aspects of ethical reasoning. With an interest in addressing these limitations, we explicate an alternative ethic of embodied relational sexuality that is grounded in a model of citizenship that recognizes relationality and the agential status of embodied self-expression. This alternative ethic broadens ethical reasoning from the exclusive duty to protect individuals from harm associated with sexual expression, to the duty to also uphold and support their rights to experience the benefits of sexual expression (e.g., pleasure, intimacy). As such it has the potential to inform the development of policies, organizational guidelines, and professional curricula to support the sexuality of persons with dementia, and thereby ensure more humane practices in long-term residential care settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel
The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.
Brown, Todd A.; Sautter, John A.; Littvay, Levente; Sautter, Alberta C.; Bearnes, Brennen
Many studies have reported that business students have been more apt to act in self-interested ways when compared to their counterparts in other academic fields. Beginning with the premise that ethical behavior derives in part from personality characteristics, the authors tested whether (a) measures of an empathetic or narcissistic personality…
Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus
The purpose of this study is two-fold. Firstly, using the P-score from the Defining Issues Test (DIT) as a proxy for ethical decision making ability, this study investigates whether work experience influences the perceptions about prescriptive and deliberative moral reasoning. Secondly, this study...... investigates the order effects of presentation of dilemmas on ethical decision making ability of novice and experienced accounting students. Rest (1979, 1983, 1991) categorizes moral reasoning into prescriptive reasoning i.e. consideration of what should ideally be done to resolve a particular ethical dilemma...... that novice accounting students cannot differentiate between these two types of reasoning, but would exhibit order effects while making ethical decisions. One hundred forty graduate accounting students from universities in Denmark respond to an audit-specific DIT instrument, measuring prescriptive...
Cerminara, Kathy L
The previous two articles in this series explored the historical and theoretical development of medical decision making from initial reliance on medical beneficence to a more recent emphasis on patient autonomy. The law of withholding and withdrawal of treatment has much in common with medical ethics. It is based on concerns about patient autonomy expressed by courts, legislatures, and the executive branch of the government. Legally, the patient's right of self-determination has been based on a variety of sources ranging from state and federal constitutions to the common law of torts and from cases to statutes and regulations. Understanding the various sources of the law, the distinctions among those sources, and the interaction of the branches of government in this context assists in understanding the law itself. In our federalist system of government, significant legal variations can exist among the states, but although technically valid, excessive concern about compliance with the precise contours of each state's statute when surrogate decision makers are engaging in bedside deliberations is unnecessary. Regardless of source or precise legal contours, the overall goal, which neither the physician nor the patient's surrogate or proxy decision makers should forget, is to honor what the patient would want to have done. Physicians and attorneys will agree on that as a matter of both ethics and the law.
In recent years, various authors have proposed that the concept of equipoise be abandoned since it conflates the practice of clinical care with clinical research. At the same time, the equipoise opponents acknowledge the necessity of clinical research if there are unresolved uncertainties about the effects of proposed healthcare interventions. Since equipoise represents just one measure of uncertainty, proposals to abandon equipoise while maintaining a requirement for addressing uncertainties are contradictory and ultimately not valid. As acknowledgment and articulation of uncertainties represent key scientific and moral requirements for human experimentation, the concept of equipoise remains the most useful framework to link the theory of human experimentation with the theory of rational choice. In this paper, I show how uncertainty (equipoise) is at the intersection between epistemology, decision-making and ethics of clinical research. In particular, I show how our formulation of responses to uncertainties of hoped-for benefits and unknown harms of testing is a function of the way humans cognitively process information. This approach is based on the view that considerations of ethics and rationality cannot be separated. I analyze the response to uncertainties as it relates to the dual-processing theory, which postulates that rational approach to (clinical research) decision-making depends both on analytical, deliberative processes embodied in scientific method (system II) and “good” human intuition (system I). Ultimately, our choices can only become wiser if we understand a close and intertwined relationship between irreducible uncertainty, inevitable errors, and unavoidable injustice. PMID:21817885
In recent years, various authors have proposed that the concept of equipoise be abandoned because it conflates the practice of clinical care with clinical research. At the same time, the equipoise opponents acknowledge the necessity of clinical research if there are unresolved uncertainties about the effects of proposed healthcare interventions. As equipoise represents just 1 measure of uncertainty, proposals to abandon equipoise while maintaining a requirement for addressing uncertainties are contradictory and ultimately not valid. As acknowledgment and articulation of uncertainties represent key scientific and moral requirements for human experimentation, the concept of equipoise remains the most useful framework to link the theory of human experimentation with the theory of rational choice. In this article, I show how uncertainty (equipoise) is at the intersection between epistemology, decision making and ethics of clinical research. In particular, I show how our formulation of responses to uncertainties of hoped-for benefits and unknown harms of testing is a function of the way humans cognitively process information. This approach is based on the view that considerations of ethics and rationality cannot be separated. I analyze the response to uncertainties as it relates to the dual-processing theory, which postulates that rational approach to (clinical research) decision making depends both on analytical, deliberative processes embodied in scientific method (system II), and good human intuition (system I). Ultimately, our choices can only become wiser if we understand a close and intertwined relationship between irreducible uncertainty, inevitable errors and unavoidable injustice.
Hilbig, Benjamin E; Thielmann, Isabel
Most approaches to dishonest behavior emphasize the importance of corresponding payoffs, typically implying that dishonesty might increase with increasing incentives. However, prior evidence does not appear to confirm this intuition. However, extant findings are based on relatively small payoffs, the potential effects of which are solely analyzed across participants. In two experiments, we used different multi-trial die-rolling paradigms designed to investigate dishonesty at the individual level (i.e., within participants) and as a function of the payoffs at stake - implementing substantial incentives exceeding 100€. Results show that incentive sizes indeed matter for ethical decision making, though primarily for two subsets of "corruptible individuals" (who cheat more the more they are offered) and "small sinners" (who tend to cheat less as the potential payoffs increase). Others ("brazen liars") are willing to cheat for practically any non-zero incentive whereas still others ("honest individuals") do not cheat at all, even for large payoffs. By implication, the influence of payoff magnitude on ethical decision making is often obscured when analyzed across participants and with insufficiently tempting payoffs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K
This paper begins by reviewing dominant themes in current teaching of professional ethics in engineering education. In contrast to more traditional approaches that simulate ethical practice by using ethical theories to reason through micro-level ethical dilemmas, this paper proposes a pragmatic approach to ethics that places more emphasis on the practical plausibility of ethical decision-making. In addition to the quality of ethical justification, the value of a moral action also depends on its effectiveness in solving an ethical dilemma, cultivating healthy working relationships, negotiating existing organizational cultures, and achieving contextual plausibility in everyday professional practice. This paper uses a cross-cultural ethics scenario to further elaborate how a pragmatic approach can help us rethink ethical reasoning, as well as ethics instruction and assessment. This paper is expected to be of interest to educators eager to improve the ability of engineers and other professional students to effectively and appropriately deal with the kinds of everyday ethical issues they will likely face in their careers.
Medical ethical analysis remains dominated by the principlist account first proposed by Beauchamp and Childress. This paper argues that the principlist model is unreflective of how ethical decisions are taken in clinical practice. Two kinds of medical ethical decisions are distinguished: biosocial ethics and clinical ethics. It is argued that principlism is an inappropriate model for clinical ethics as it is neither sufficiently action-guiding nor does it emphasise the professional integrity of the clinician. An alternative model is proposed for decision making in the realm of clinical ethics.
Foster, Larry W; McLellan, Linda J
A large number of Americans would rather rely on family and friends more than their physicians about end-of-life care and decisions. Moving beyond traditional clinical ethics and its dyadic focus on the physician-patient relationship, this article presents an approach to ethical decision-making at the end of life that is more inclusive of the patient's family and has the potential to advance social work practice in end-of-life care. Initial attention is given to how psychosocial and bioethical perspectives and practices interact to shape understanding of moral issues in end-of-life decisions. Morally relevant principles are then adapted from contextual therapy as being useful for including more of a family focus and viewing ethical decision-making at the end of life as a family process. Specifically, focus is on exploring the ethical dynamics of family systems that impact the decision-making process and translating psychosocial insight into ethical discussions that are supportive of families. The case of a patient with sudden and unexpected brain death and without advance directives demonstrates one family's unresolved grief and illustrates how its members were helped to reason morally about end-of-life choices. Contributions of a social worker and bioethicist are illustrated.
Edwards, Kyle T
In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magdalena C. de Lange
Full Text Available This article outlined a model for guidance in ‘doing’ bioethics in a Reformed context. The proposed model suggested that in order to arrive at responsible ethical decisions, one must refer to both contextual elements and theory. The theoretical grounding for this model was based on the integration of a deontological and virtue ethics approach, arguing that virtue enables persons to know and desire the right moral ends and motivates them to carry out appropriate action toward achieving these ends. An integrative model opens up the possibility whereby bioethics as a systematic tool provides the individual decision-maker with the critical-reflective skills and justification for the ultimate choice that is lacking in the general decision-making processes. This could lead to clearer thinking and increased confidence in the justification of decisions within the Reformed tradition. The proposed hermeneutical perspective on ethical decision-making represents a shift in views about the nature of knowledge and the process of how we come to know. The key to this hermeneutical approach is to acknowledge the dialectic between the universal and the subjectivity of human relations. Working in specific religious communities, one needs to take cognisance of the fact that knowledge is situated in the context of human relationships in which the interpreter participates when articulating the meaning of bioethical experiences. Another aspect that is anticipated lies in the realisation that people struggling with bioethical dilemmas should not be viewed as isolated individuals, but as members of a broader faith community.‘n Geïntegreerde etiese benadering tot bioetiese besluitneming: Voorgestelde model vir predikante. Hierdie artikel het ‘n model geskets wat moontlike riglyne aantoon vir die beoefening van bioetiek binne ‘n Gereformeerde konteks. Die voorgestelde model argumenteer dat verwysing na beide kontekstuele elemente en teorie
Full Text Available Corporate events in the past decades have contributed to a continued interest in the ethicaldecision-making of individuals in accounting. Much of the research in ethics and educationhave relied on the assumption that the individual’s level of ethical development is related tohis/her ethical behavior. Adapting a simplified version of Thorne’s (2000prescriptive/deliberative reasoning in a cheat-to-gain business scenario, a survey of accountingstudents suggest that ethical development may not be related to behavior. In addition,consistent with Thorne (2001, results suggest that even if individuals may ‘know what to do’for the ideal ethical decision, they may not always actually choose that path or ‘doing whatthey know’.
Ali Reza Salar
Full Text Available The nursing occupation is considered among those sciences which have had and will also have numerous ethical and exemplary aspects. The results of the studies performed regarding ethics indicate the weak nature of the nurses’ ethical decision making. Therefore, it was felt that there is a need to perform a study aiming at the ethical sensitivity level in decision making of the nurses working in training hospitals belonging to Zahedan medical sciences universities. The current study is a descriptive-analytical research performed on 140 nurses who were selected based on a randomized clustering method. To collect the information there was made use of a questionnaire comprising of two parts, the first part of which is related to the demographic characteristics and the second part pertains to a standard questionnaire of nurses’ ethical sensitivity in decision making. Finally after the questionnaires were collected they were analyzed by the use of SPSS 19 and descriptive statistics, Pierson correlation test, variance analysis and independent t-test. Nurses’ average age was 28.56 ± 6.48 and of the total population 123 individuals were women of whom 68 people had participated in ethics seminars and 53 of them were single. The overall ethical sensitivity mean among the nurses was 59.82 ± 17.50 which was ranked as intermediate according to the classification of the questionnaire, and in each of the dimensions of the ethical sensitivity the following scores were obtained respectively, in respect for the help-seeker independence the score was 10.71 ± 4.00, in the dimension if ethical problems and challenges the score obtained was 11.35 ± 4.21, in the dimension of application of the ethical concepts in decision making the score was 12.49 ± 3.82 and in the dimension of honesty and benevolence the obtained score was 4.73 ± 1.70, the professional knowledge dimension scored 13.49 ± 4.50 and the dimension of awareness of the nurses’ treating style
Syed Afzal Moshadi Shah
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of moral intensity on self-conscious emotions and neutralization techniques in the context of ethical decision making among consumers. A sample of 388 shopping mall retail consumers was recruited through self-administered survey technique. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, correlation was carried out in SPSS whereas the measurement model and structural relationships were estimated using AMOS. Results indicate that moral intensity positively influences consumer’s self-consciousness, neutralization techniques and behavioural intention. Self-consciousness negatively influence consumer’s defence mechanism i.e. neutralization techniques. Neither self-consciousness nor neutralization techniques is found to have an impact on consumers’ behavioural intention. Only self-consciousness is found to complementary mediate the relationship of moral intensity and neutralization. The limitations associated with field survey and crosssectional research design are inevitable. The study offers some relevant practical implications for government, marketing professionals and academia. The study is among the pioneer studies that theoretically links and empirically examines Issue Contingent Model, theory of neutralization and self-consciousness. The study develops and tested an Urdu language version of the questionnaire for retail consumers.
Burg, S. van der
Making better choices about future technologies that are being researched or developed is an important motivator behind lay ethics interventions. However, in practice, they do not always succeed to serve that goal. Especially authors who have noted that lay ethicists sometimes take recourse to
Yeung, Fanny P. F.; Keup, Jennifer R.
It is important to understand how students' changing belief structures influence their values and behaviors, including their ethical beliefs and decision-making patterns. As such, this study will address the following research questions: (1) what are students' ethical beliefs and their perceptions of students' ethical behaviors; and (2) how do…
Yeung, Fanny P.F.; Keup, Jennifer R.
It is important to understand how students' changing belief structures influence their values and behaviors, including their ethical beliefs and decision-making patterns. As such, this study will address the following research questions: 1) what are students' ethical beliefs and their perceptions of students' ethical behaviors; and 2) how do…
Full Text Available Mary Ellen Purkis1, Elizabeth Borycki1,2, Craig Kuziemsky3, Fraser Black4, Denise Cloutier-Fisher5, Lee Ann Fox6, Patricia MacKenzie7, Ann Syme1,8, Coby Tschanz1,41School of Nursing, 2School of Health Information Science, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia; 3Telfer School of Management, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario; 4Victoria Hospice Society, Victoria, British Columbia; 5Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia; 6Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario; 7School of Social Work, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia; 8British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, CanadaBackground: Each year more than 240,000 Canadians die from terminal and chronic illnesses. It is estimated that 62% of those deaths require palliative care. Palliative care is a specialized domain of health professional team practice that requires discipline-specific knowledge, skills, judgment, and expertise in order to address patient hopes, wishes, symptoms, and suffering. With the emergence of palliative care as a specialized area of interdisciplinary practice, new practice models have also emerged, eg, the Latimer ethical decision-making model for palliative care. The purpose of this research was to undertake a descriptive ethnographic field study of palliative care team practices to understand better the interdisciplinary team communication and the issues that arise when members of different health professions work together as a team.Methods: Study data were collected by observing and videotaping palliative care team meetings. Data were then analyzed using direct content analysis.Results: The study findings substantiated many of the team practice concepts outlined in Latimer's model. Palliative care teams engage in a number of processes that address patient symptoms, suffering, hopes, and plans. However, several new findings also emerged from the data that were
As the principal decision-makers in retirement funds, trustees have a number of duties placed upon them including a duty of care, a duty of impartiality, a duty to avoid and manage conflicts of interest, a duty to act in accordance with the purpose of the fund and a duty of accountability. Decision-making by trustees and the ...
Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…
Rimon-Zarfaty, Nitzan; Jotkowitz, Alan
The Israeli law of abortions (1977) legally authorises hospital committees to decide upon women's requests for selective abortion. One of the law's clauses determines that abortions can be approved in cases of an embryopathy. However, the law does not provide any clear definitions of those fetal 'physical or mental defects' in terms of severity and/or likelihood, which remain open to interpretation by the committee members. This paper aimed to determine which ethical methodologies are used by committee members and advisors as they face the dilemma of abortion approval due to mild to moderate possible embryopathy. Twenty interviews demonstrated that they use mainly a combination of deontology and a contextual-relational model. Their ethical considerations are both contextual such as the family's/woman's relational network and are influenced by the ethical principles of autonomy and in cases of late abortions the value of life. The findings reveal a paradoxical picture: on the one hand, committee members hold liberal perceptions and in practice abortion requests are very seldom rejected. On the other hand, the Israeli abortion law and practice of abortion committees is still problematical from liberal and feminist rights perspectives. This paradox is discussed further by reflecting upon the relevant theory as well as the Israeli context. The paper concludes by suggesting that within the specific Israeli sociopolitical climate the requirement for committee approval of what should be a private decision might be necessary in order to placate religious or other opposition to abortion.
Teixeira, Carla; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Fonseca, António M; Carvalho, Ana Sofia
Ethical decision making in intensive care is a demanding task. The need to proceed to ethical decision is considered to be a stress factor that may lead to burnout. The aim of this study is to explore the ethical problems that may increase burnout levels among physicians and nurses working in Portuguese intensive care units (ICUs). A quantitative, multicentre, correlational study was conducted among 300 professionals. The most crucial ethical decisions made by professionals working in ICU were related to communication, withholding or withdrawing treatments and terminal sedation. A positive relation was found between ethical decision making and burnout in nurses, namely, between burnout and the need to withdraw treatments (p=0.032), to withhold treatments (p=0.002) and to proceed to terminal sedation (p=0.005). This did not apply to physicians. Emotional exhaustion was the burnout subdimension most affected by the ethical decision. The nurses' lack of involvement in ethical decision making was identified as a risk factor. Nevertheless, in comparison with nurses (6%), it was the physicians (34%) who more keenly felt the need to proceed to ethical decisions in ICU. Ethical problems were reported at different levels by physicians and nurses. The type of ethical decisions made by nurses working in Portuguese ICUs had an impact on burnout levels. This did not apply to physicians. This study highlights the need for education in the field of ethics in ICUs and the need to foster inter-disciplinary discussion so as to encourage ethical team deliberation in order to prevent burnout.
This article examines the work that goes in to ‘making room’ for ethics, literally and figuratively. It follows the activities of a capacity building Asia-Pacific NGO in training and recognising ethics review committees, using multi-sited field materials collected over 12 months between 2009......’ negotiated during a review of the committee’s work: what does the implementation of standards in the area of ethics look like? I then discuss what standards of ethics practice mean for more fraught questions of the universal in bioethics. Rather than regarding ethics systems as backgrounds to global health...
Kaufert, Joseph; Schwartz, Karen; Wiebe, Rhonda; Derksen, Jim; Lutfiyya, Zana M; Richert, Dean
The objectives of this article are, first, to document a unique process of research knowledge translation (KT), which the authors describe as the creation of "ethical safe space," and, second, to document the narratives of forum participants and describe their interaction in a dialogue about vulnerability, the authority of physicians, and the perspective of people with disabilities on the policy. Narrative data from qualitative interviews with individual key informants and focus groups were used to identify speakers with specific expertise on policy, disability perspectives, and bioethical issues, who were invited to participate in the Forum on Ethical Safe Space. The planning workgroup adopted a model for enabling representative participation in the public forum designed to reduce the impact of physical, sensory, financial, language, and professional status barriers. Using the transcripts and keynote speakers' printed texts, primary themes and patterns of interaction were identified reflecting the alternative perspectives. Through the development of a workshop on ethical, legal, and disability-related implications of professional policy guidelines developed by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Manitoba, we provided a qualitative analysis of the discourse involving experts and disability community members supporting alternative positions on the impact of the policy statement, and discuss ethical, legal, and disability rights issues identified in the public debate. Contested policy and ethical frameworks for making decisions about withdrawing and withholding life supporting treatment may influence both the perspectives of palliative care providers and patients referred to palliative care facilities. An innovative model for KT using a public forum that enabled stakeholders with conflicting perspectives to engage with ethical and professional policy issues asserting the physician's authority in contested decisions involving withdrawing or withholding life
Engineering designers must make evidence-based decisions when applying the practical tools and techniques of their discipline to human problems. Information literacy provides a structure for determining information gaps, locating appropriate and relevant information, applying that information effectively, and documenting and managing the knowledge…
Kuhl, D R; Wilensky, P
Those who provide care for the dying seek to address issues of pain and suffering in the context of the psychological, spiritual, mental, and physical complexities of the individual experiencing a terminal illness. People who are dying are still living. They have the right to be in control of their lives. The staff (caregivers) also have an integrity which must be preserved. They too must be connected to the decision-making process. The reality of palliative care brings up unresolved psychological issues, often turbulent personal issues, for all involved in the process. This can cause extra unnecessary pain and suffering for all concerned. It is essential that a real (unflinching) and an ethical relationship between the patient and the staff be maintained and valued as these issues are confronted and resolved. This relationship will be subject to group process influences, which must be recognized and embraced. Avoidance of these issues can lead to unfairness, misunderstanding, shame, and lasting resentment among the caregivers, as well as to tragic consequences for the patient and the family. The purpose of this article is to describe a decision-making process in palliative care that includes the use of ethical principles as well as features of group process. The ethical grid was adapted and developed from the work of Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade. The features of group process are based on theories of group work as defined by Trotzer; Johnson and Johnson; Gladding; Bion; Yalom; and Amundson, Borgen, Westwood and Pallard.
Langlais, Philip J
Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions.
Goetghebeur, Mireille M; Wagner, Monika; Khoury, Hanane; Rindress, Donna; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Deal, Cheri
To test and further develop a healthcare policy and clinical decision support framework using growth hormone (GH) for Turner syndrome (TS) as a complex case study. The EVIDEM framework was further developed to complement the multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) Value Matrix, that includes 15 quantifiable components of decision clustered in four domains (quality of evidence, disease, intervention and economics), with a qualitative tool including six ethical and health system-related components of decision. An extensive review of the literature was performed to develop a health technology assessment report (HTA) tailored to each component of decision, and content was validated by experts. A panel of representative stakeholders then estimated the MCDA value of GH for TS in Canada by assigning weights and scores to each MCDA component of decision and then considered the impact of non-quantifiable components of decision. Applying the framework revealed significant data gaps and the importance of aligning research questions with data needs to truly inform decision. Panelists estimated the value of GH for TS at 41% of maximum value on the MCDA scale, with good agreement at the individual level (retest value 40%; ICC: 0.687) and large variation across panelists. Main contributors to this panel specific value were "Improvement of efficacy", "Disease severity" and "Quality of evidence". Ethical considerations on utility, efficiency and fairness as well as potential misuse of GH had mixed effects on the perceived value of the treatment. This framework is proposed as a pragmatic step beyond the current cost-effectiveness model, combining HTA, MCDA, values and ethics. It supports systematic consideration of all components of decision and available evidence for greater transparency. Further testing and validation is needed to build up MCDA approaches combined with pragmatic HTA in healthcare decision-making.
Professional Ethics . JSCOPE 2000, Springfield, VA. Velasquez , Manuel G. 1992. Business ethics concepts and cases. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall...1995. Business Ethics . 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Drisko, Melville A. 1977. An analysis of professional military ethics : Their...Press. Hoffman, W. Michael, and Robert E. Frederick. 1995. Business ethics : Readings and cases in corporate morality. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw
Nelson, Johnathan; Smith, Lola B.; Hunt, Clifford Steven
Many academicians are asking the following question: "Are we ill-preparing our business students if we fail to offer future business professionals the opportunity to engage in a greater understanding of the ethical decision making process?" The authors provide a current review of the literature on the state of ethics education in…
J. de Boer (Coby)
markdownabstractAbstract This thesis assesses the effectiveness of structured multi-professional medical ethical decision-making in diminishing problems experienced around medical ethical decisionmaking in the Erasmus MC NICU. Besides, it gives an overview of the patients discussed from 2009 to
Hawthorne, Mark D.
Notes that applying abstract ethical principles to the practical business of building a code of applied ethics for a technical communication department teaches students that they share certain unarticulated or unconscious values that they can translate into ethical principles. Suggests that combining abstract theory with practical policy writing…
Joynt, Gavin M; Lipman, Jeffrey; Hartog, Christiane; Guidet, Bertrand; Paruk, Fathima; Feldman, Charles; Kissoon, Niranjan; Sprung, Charles L
When terminal illness exists, it is common clinical practice worldwide to withhold (WH) or withdraw (WD) life-sustaining treatments. Systematic documentation of professional opinion and perceived practice similarities and differences may allow recommendations to be developed. Speakers from invited faculty of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine Congress that took place in Durban (2013), with an interest in ethics, were approached to participate in an ethics round table. Key domains of health care professional end-of-life decision making were defined, explored by discussion, and then questions related to current practice and opinion developed and subsequently answered by round-table participants to establish the presence or absence of agreement. Agreement was established for the desirability for early goal-of-care discussions and discussions between health care professionals to establish health care provider consensus and confirmation of the grounds for WH/WD, before holding formal WH/WD discussions with patients/surrogates. Nurse and other health care professional involvement were common in most but not all countries/regions. Principles and practical triggers for initiating discussions on WH/WD, such as multiorgan failure, predicted short-term survival, and predicted poor neurologic outcome, were identified. There was majority agreement for many but not all statements describing health care professional end-of-life decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article examines the work that goes in to ‘making room’ for ethics, literally and figuratively. It follows the activities of a capacity building Asia-Pacific NGO in training and recognising ethics review committees, using multi-sited field materials collected over 12 months between 2009...... and 2010. Two queries drive this article: First, how are spaces made for ethical review –politically, infrastructurally, materially – as committee members campaign for attention to ethics and access to resources in which to conduct their meetings? Second, how are the limits of ‘local circumstance...... projects, this article’s STS and ethnographic approach reveals ethical review as a site of contested standardisation....
Meltzer, Ellen C; Ivascu, Natalia S; Stark, Meredith; Orfanos, Alexander V; Acres, Cathleen A; Christos, Paul J; Mangione, Thomas; Fins, Joseph J
Although patients exercise greater autonomy than in the past, and shared decision making is promoted as the preferred model for doctor-patient engagement, tensions still exist in clinical practice about the primary locus of decision-making authority for complex, scarce, and resource-intensive medical therapies: patients and their surrogates, or physicians. We assessed physicians' attitudes toward decisional authority for adult venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), hypothesizing they would favor a medical locus. A survey of resident/fellow physicians and internal medicine attendings at an academic medical center, May to August 2013. We used a 24-item, internet-based survey assessing physician-respondents' demographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitudes regarding decisional authority for adult VA-ECMO. Qualitative narratives were also collected. A total of 179 physicians completed the survey (15 percent response rate); 48 percent attendings and 52 percent residents/fellows. Only 32 percent of the respondents indicated that a surrogate's consent should be required to discontinue VA-ECMO; 56 percent felt that physicians should have the right to discontinue VA-ECMO over a surrogate's objection. Those who self-reported as "knowledgeable" about VA-ECMO, compared to those who did not, more frequently replied that there should not be presumed consent for VA-ECMO (47.6 percent versus 33.3 percent, p = 0.007), that physicians should have the right to discontinue VA-ECMO over a surrogate's objection (76.2 percent versus 50 percent, p = 0.02) and that, given its cost, the use of VA-ECMO should be restricted (81.0 percent versus 54.4 percent, p = 0.005). Surveyed physicians, especially those who self-reported as knowledgeable about VA-ECMO and/or were specialists in pulmonary/critical care, favored a medical locus of decisional authority for VA-ECMO. VA-ECMO is complex, and the data may (1) reflect physicians' hesitance to cede authority to presumably
Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Cartier, Jean Charles; Calvino-Gunther, Silvia; Carron, Pierre Louis; Baro, Patrice; Palacin, Pedro; Vialtel, Paul
Since dialysis withdrawal in maintenance dialysis patients with limited life expectancy results always in short-term death, nephrologists need a referenced process to make their decision. This study reviews 8 years of operation of an Ethics Committee in Nephrology (ECN). The ECN, within a multidisciplinary team, once a month explores cases reported by caregivers when maintaining dialysis seems not to be in the patient's best interest. Discussion is required when the vital prognosis is engaged by the evolution of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) or the occurrence of an acute medical event. Data are analyzed using a discussion guide. The informed decision is completed with an appropriated palliative care project involving the patient, and recorded in their file. Since 2006, the ECN has deliberated yearly for 10 sessions on 6-18 cases, concerning 380 identified maintenance dialysis patients. Characteristics of the population, cases, sessions and proposals are recorded and analyzed. The only variable associated with dialysis withdrawal was having at least one new comorbid condition. End of life is supported with the help of the palliative care team in the hospital or exceptionally at home. The ECN, through a multidisciplinary deliberation and resolution process, proposes an ethical shared-decision-making model ensuring that dialysis withdrawal follows professional guidelines, and is registered as a method for evaluating professional practice (EPP). Annual activity reports are submitted to the Hospital's Medical Evaluation and Quality Unit. Benefits are individual and collective for patients, relatives and caregivers. Prospects for reducing non-implemented decisions and identifying cases earlier would improve the Committee effectiveness. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.
Dittrich, David; Leder, Felix; Werner, Tillmann
It is becoming more common for researchers to find themselves in a position of being able to take over control of a malicious botnet. If this happens, should they use this knowledge to clean up all the infected hosts? How would this affect not only the owners and operators of the zombie computers, but also other researchers, law enforcement agents serving justice, or even the criminals themselves? What dire circumstances would change the calculus about what is or is not appropriate action to take? We review two case studies of long-lived malicious botnets that present serious challenges to researchers and responders and use them to illuminate many ethical issues regarding aggressive mitigation. We make no judgments about the questions raised, instead laying out the pros and cons of possible choices and allowing workshop attendees to consider how and where they would draw lines. By this, we hope to expose where there is clear community consensus as well as where controversy or uncertainty exists.
Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E
Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important...
2000. A cover letter attached to the five page questionnaire explained the nature and scope of the study, informed the providers of voluntary ... euthanasia , rather than the application of ethics (theories, principles, concepts, rules) to clinical practice (Msyer, Kerridge & Mitchell, 1995). Not
Shepard, Nicole G.
Colleges and other not-for-profit institutions have been experiencing increasing fiscal concerns because of the American economic downturn that began in 2008. As a result, fraudulent activity is becoming more of an issue. This study focused on the annual auditor's report and its relationship to the ethical relativism of financial managers. In…
Foster, Ryan D.; Ray, Dee C.
Publishing research is imperative to both counselor educators and students in counseling programs. Furthermore, faculty-student publication collaborations can often be a mutually beneficial professional endeavor. However, determining order of authorship can be a complex ethical issue. The authors review prior research to illustrate the…
Rashid, George J.
Counselor Educators are interested in assessing and promoting the professional and personal development of those in the counseling profession, including their ego and ethical development. While there has been much research concerning such development, there is insufficient research concerning the level of personal development of Counselor…
Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah
This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…
Braye, Suzy; Orr, David; Preston-Shoot, Michael
Self-neglect, in which an individual does not attend to their hygiene, health or home surroundings, is one of the most challenging aspects of adult social care practice. In England, its inclusion within the remit of adult safeguarding, as a result of changes in adult social care law introduced under the Care Act 2014, has thrown into relief the ethical dilemmas arising from tensions between respect for autonomy on the one hand and the exercise of a protective duty of care on the other. This p...
Bolt, Ineke; van den Hoven, Mariëtte; Blom, Lyda; Bouvy, Marcel
In daily practice, pharmacists are regularly confronted with moral problems in which deciding what to do is not always a straightforward decision. In this contribution we show how the use of a specific method for moral deliberation can (in retrospect or prospective) aid moral judgements. We use the
Harati, Lina Wagih
Leadership is a multifaceted skill as it requires the alignment of body, spirit and mind (Brown & Moshavi, 2005). Furthermore, it is a combination of behavior, actions and interaction between leaders and followers. It is characterized by the leaders' decisions' ability to influence followers' performance and achievement through their…
Ida Isnawati; Ali Saukah
This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered...
Pochard, F; Azoulay, E; Chevret, S; Lemaire, F; Hubert, P; Canoui, P; Grassin, M; Zittoun, R; le Gall, J R; Dhainaut, J F; Schlemmer, B
Anxiety and depression may have a major impact on a person's ability to make decisions. Characterization of symptoms that reflect anxiety and depression in family members visiting intensive care patients should be of major relevance to the ethics of involving family members in decision-making, particularly about end-of-life issues. Prospective multicenter study. Forty-three French intensive care units (37 adult and six pediatric); each unit included 15 patients admitted for longer than 2 days. Six hundred thirty-seven patients and 920 family members. Intensive care unit characteristics and data on the patient and family members were collected. Family members completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to allow evaluation of the prevalence and potential factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Of 920 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires that were completed by family members, all items were completed in 836 questionnaires, which formed the basis for this study. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members was 69.1% and 35.4%, respectively. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were present in 72.7% of family members and 84% of spouses. Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety in a multivariate model included patient-related factors (absence of chronic disease), family-related factors (spouse, female gender, desire for professional psychological help, help being received by general practitioner), and caregiver-related factors (absence of regular physician and nurse meetings, absence of a room used only for meetings with family members). The multivariate model also identified three groups of factors associated with symptoms of depression: patient-related (age), family-related (spouse, female gender, not of French descent), and caregiver-related (no waiting room, perceived contradictions in the information provided by caregivers). More than two-thirds of family members visiting patients in the intensive
Gillam, Lynn; Sullivan, Jane
It is now ethical orthodoxy that parents should be involved in the decision-making about their children's health care. This extends to decisions about whether to continue or to limit life-sustaining medical treatment for a child with a life-limiting or life-threatening condition. What remains contested and uncertain is the extent and nature of parental involvement, especially in this emotionally charged situation. In particular, should it be the parents, who are the ultimate decision-makers, taking final responsibility, should it be a shared decision, or should it be a medical decision that parents are simply asked to consent to? One approach to this issue is to consider the in-principle ethical arguments and weigh their merits. The two key principles here are parental rights and authority, and the best interests of child, and the contested issue is what to do if these appear to clash. Another approach is to consider the principles in the practical clinical context. What would be the implications and consequences of adopting the model of parents as final decision-makers? Are parents able to carry out this role, and do they really want it? What is the effect on parents of taking this role? Answers to these questions could modify the in-principle ethical position. In this paper, we review the empirical evidence currently available on these questions, in relation to parents of infants and young children. Overall, the literature suggests that parents do want to be involved and do not suffer adverse psychological consequences from their involvement. However, the crucial ethical implication of the evidence is that the level and nature of parental involvement in decision-making should be negotiated with the parents in each case, because parents have a range of different views about taking final responsibility for decisions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.
We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891
Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali
This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…
Leonardo Yuji Tamura
Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.
Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky
Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis
Roman, Gabriel; Enache, Angela; Pârvu, Andrada; Gramma, Rodica; Moisa, Ştefana Maria; Dumitraş, Silvia; Ioan, Beatrice
Medical communication in Western-oriented countries is dominated by concepts of shared decision-making and patient autonomy. In interactions with Roma patients, these behavioral patterns rarely seem to be achieved because the culture and ethnicity have often been shown as barriers in establishing an effective and satisfying doctor-patient relationship. The study aims to explore the Roma's beliefs and experiences related to autonomy and decision-making process in the case of a disease with poor prognosis. Forty-eight Roma people from two Romanian counties participated in semi-structured interviews, conducted by a research team from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi. Participants were recruited among the chronically ill patients and caregivers. The Roma community opposes informing the terminal patients about their condition, the "silence conspiracy" being widely practiced. The family fully undertakes the right of decision making, thus minimizing the patient's autonomy. We identified ethical dilemmas concerning autonomy, lack of patients' real decision-making power, and paternalistic attitudes exerted firstly by the family and, on demand, by the physician. Instead, the Roma patient benefits from a very active support network, being accompanied at the hospital by numerous relatives. The patient's right to make autonomous decisions promoted in the Western countries and stipulated by the Romanian law has diminished value in the Roma community. For the Roma, the understanding of dignity is not simply individual and personal, but it is closely related to their cultural particularities. Ignoring their cultural values could create conflicts between healthcare providers and community.
This article adds to the growing body of literature on the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) in social work. Specifically, it examines a 9-hour EBP educational model designed to prepare MSW students for appropriate decision-making strategies in working with multicultural client populations. The model places emphasis on identification and…
Full Text Available In the world, healthcare costs have been on the rise and getting larger share in the economic pie. Since we have limited resources, allocation of resources becomes more of an issue. Cancer is one of most leading causes of death in the world and each year, money spent on cancer treatment goes up. However, today new cancer drugs and treatment only provide narrow benefit with very high costs. Therefore, only limited number of people enjoys getting the treatment and fewer treatment or drugs are reimbursed. In addition, many countries do not have a standard to decide whether a cancer drug or a treatment will be covered. Considering both economic efficiency (cost-effectiveness analysis and ethical issues together during the decision process is of great importance so as to distribute health resources fairly and maximize health benefits.
Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.
Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such
Drake, Madeline; Cox, Peter
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a group of progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by destruction of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. In this case report we outline the medical and ethical issues involved in a 7-year-old boy with SMA type 2 who experienced acute respiratory failure. A review of the literature was conducted focusing particularly on the pathology, presentation, and outcomes of SMA and end-of-life decision-making in pediatrics. In a world where 40%-60% of deaths in pediatric intensive care units are a result of withdrawal or limitation of life-sustaining treatment, end-of-life decision-making has become an integral and difficult part of pediatric practice. Limitation or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in a cognitively normal child with SMA poses a significant medical and ethical dilemma. This difficult decision is influenced by confluence of parental, doctor, social, cultural, moral, religious, legal, and economic factors and more recently the media.
Ahmad M. Kabil
Full Text Available Decision makers have considerable autonomy on how they make decisions and what type of support they receive. This situation places the DSS analyst in a different relationship with the client than his colleagues who support regular MIS applications. This paper addresses an ethical dilemma in “Inverse Decision Support,” when the analyst supports a decision maker who requires justification for a preconceived selection that does not correspond to the best option that resulted from the professional resolution of the problem. An extended application of the AHP model is proposed for evaluating the ethical responsibility in selecting a suboptimal alternative. The extended application is consistent with the Inverse Decision Theory that is used extensively in medical decision making. A survey of decision analysts is used to assess their perspective of using the proposed extended application. The results show that 80% of the respondents felt that the proposed extended application is useful in business practices. 14% of them expanded the usability of the extended application to academic teaching of the ethics theory. The extended application is considered more usable in a country with a higher Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (TICPI than in a country with a lower one.
Davenport, Thomas H
Traditionally, decision making in organizations has rarely been the focus of systematic analysis. That may account for the astounding number of recent poor calls, such as decisions to invest in and securitize subprime mortgage loans or to hedge risk with credit default swaps. Business books are rich with insights about the decision process, but organizations have been slow to adopt their recommendations. It's time to focus on decision making, Davenport says, and he proposes four steps: (1) List and prioritize the decisions that must be made; (2) assess the factors that go into each, such as who plays what role, how often the decision must be made, and what information is available to support it; (3) design the roles, processes, systems, and behaviors your organization needs; and (4) institutionalize decision tools and assistance. The Educational Testing Service and The Stanley Works, among others, have succeeded in improving their decisions. ETS established a centralized deliberative body to make evidence-based decisions about new-product offerings, and Stanley has a Pricing Center of Excellence with internal consultants dedicated to its various business units. Leaders should bring multiple perspectives to their decision making, beware of analytical models that managers don't understand, be clear about their assumptions, practice "model management," and--because only people can revise decision criteria over time--cultivate human backups.
Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)
The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication
Jain, Lakhmi C
The present "Volume 1: Techniques and Applications" of the "Handbook on Decision Making" presents a useful collection of AI techniques, as well as other complementary methodologies, that are useful for the design and development of intelligent decision support systems. Application examples of how these intelligent decision support systems can be utilized to help tackle a variety of real-world problems in different domains, such as business, management, manufacturing, transportation and food industries, and biomedicine, are presented. The handbook includes twenty condensed c
Stokman, Frans N.; Assen, Marcel A.L.M. van; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van
This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision
Baldwin, Grover H.
The use of quantitative decision making tools provides the decision maker with a range of alternatives among which to decide, permits acceptance and use of the optimal solution, and decreases risk. Training line administrators in the use of these tools can help school business officials obtain reliable information upon which to base district…
Jonassen, David H.
Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…
Meer, van Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A.M.
Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased
Dunger, Christine; Schnell, Martin W; Bausewein, Claudia
Decision-making (DM) in healthcare can be understood as an interactive process addressing decision makers' reasoning as well as their visible behaviour after the decision is made. Other key elements of DM are ethical aspects and the role as well as the treatment options of the examined professions. Nurses' DM to choose interventions in situations of severe breathlessness is such interactions. They are also ethically relevant regarding the vulnerability of affected patients and possible restrictions or treatment options. The study aims to explore which factors influence nurses' DM to use nursing interventions in situations where patients suffer from severe breathlessness. Qualitative study including nurses in German hospital wards and hospices. A triangulation of different methods of data collection-participant observation and qualitative expert interviews-and analysis merge in a reflexive grounded theory approach which integrates Goffman's framework analysis. It allows an analysis of nurses' self-statements about DM, their behaviour in relevant clinical situations and its influences. Data collection and analysis will be examined simultaneously. Informed consent will be gained from all participants and the institutional stakeholders. Ongoing consent has to be ensured since observations will take place in healthcare institutions and many patients will be highly vulnerable. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Witten/Herdecke University Ethics Committee, Witten, Germany. Results of the study will be published at congresses and in journal papers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S
A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.
Critical thinking is characterized by risk or uncertainty. Ethical thinking determines if an individual will conform to accepted cultural or professional standards of conduct. Both of these skills are desirable, but have attributes that people tend to resist or avoid. This presentation briefly examines the cognitive nature and development of these two skills. Various outcomes and consequences are illustrated when different ethics and critical thinking strategies are employed to solve the same problem. Further discussion around: why are these skills important, and what particular traits directly impact geosciences? How can educators integrate ethical and critical thinking skills into formal or informal teaching environments? What are the benefits to geoscience and society with individuals who are engaged as ethical and critical thinkers? Do we as geoscientists, have a responsibility to advocate in promoting the development of positive critical and ethical thinking abilities?
Stokman, Frans N.; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van
This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision setting,consisting of a list of stakeholders with their capabilities, positions, and salience on each of the issues; (3) computer simulation. The computer simulation models incorporate only the main processe...
Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David
Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process. The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider: · how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions; · how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available; ...
Higgins, Guy; Freedman, Jennifer
The most critical activity during emergencies or crises is making decisions about what to do next. This paper provides insights into the challenges that people face in making decisions at any time, but particularly during emergencies and crises. It also introduces the reader to the concept of different sense-making/decision-making domains, the human behaviours that can adversely affect decision making - decision derailers - and ways in which emergency responders can leverage this knowledge to make better decisions. While the literature on decision making is extensive, this paper is focused on those aspects that apply particularly to decision making in emergencies or times of crisis.
Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul
Strategic decision making remains a focal point in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices effectively under turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. Hence...
HENDRIKS, M. M. W. B.; de Boer, J. H.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.
Interest is growing in multicriteria decision making (MCDM) techniques and a large number of these techniques are now available. The purpose of this tutorial is to give a theoretical description of some of the MCDM techniques. Besides this we will give an overview of the differences and similarities
Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher
It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...
Full Text Available Each of us makes a number of decisions, from the less important to those with far-reaching consequences. As members of different groups, we are also actors of group decision making. In order to make a rational decision, a choice-making procedure must satisfy a number of assumptions (conditions of rationality. In addition, when it comes to group decisions, those procedures should also be “fair.” However, it is not possible to define a procedure of choice-making that would transform individual orders of alternatives based on preferences of perfectly rational individuals into a single social order and still meet conditions of rationality and ethics. The theory of deliberative democracy appeared in response to the impossibility of Social Choice theory. The basic assumption of deliberative democracy is that individuals adjust their preferences taking into account interests of the community. They are open for discussion with other group members and are willing to change their attitudes in order to achieve common interests. Ideally, group members come to an agreement during public discussion (deliberation. Still, this concept cannot completely overcome all the difficulties posed by the theory of social choice. Specifically, there is no solution for strategic and manipulative behavior of individuals. Also, the concept of deliberative democracy faces certain problems particular to this approach, such as, to name but a few, problems with the establishment of equality of participants in the debate and their motivation, as well as problems with the organization of public hearings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU
Managers take decisions which, by their application, can generate effects and consequences on their members, on the organization and on society. Ethical standards can lead to benefits for different managers, depending on their attitude towards them. Ethical standards are active filters, which are designed to monitor and determine those actions which are in accordance with ethical conduct of managers. In the management literature can be found many “guidebooks” for ethical behavior that manager...
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.
Richardson, Jeff; McKie, John
Economics is commonly defined in terms of the relationship between people's unlimited wants and society's scarce resources. The definition implies a central role for an understanding of what people want, i.e. their objectives. This, in turn, suggests an important role for both empirical research into people's objectives and debate about the acceptability of the objectives. In contrast with this expectation, economics has avoided these issues by the adoption of an orthodoxy that imposes objectives. However evidence suggests, at least in the health sector, that people do not have the simple objectives assumed by economic theory. Amartya Sen has advocated a shift from a focus on "utility" to a focus on "capabilities" and "functionings" as a way of overcoming the shortcomings of welfarism. However, the practicality of Sen's account is threatened by the range of possible "functionings", by the lack of guidance about how they should be weighted, and by suspicions that they do not capture the full range of objectives people appear to value. We argue that "empirical ethics", an emerging approach in the health sector, provides important lessons on overcoming these problems. Moreover, it is an ethically defensible methodology, and yields practical results that can assist policy makers in the allocation of resources.
B. Wierenga (Berend)
textabstractWhile a whole range of factors influences the outcomes of a marketing policy, it is managerial decision-making that can really make a difference. A clearer understanding of how marketers make decisions should therefore improve their quality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background End stage dementia is a particularly difficult aspect of care for patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. In care institutions, caregivers and family are concerned by treatment decision-making for an acute life threatening complication occurring in Alzheimer patients at the end of life. How should the best treatment pathway be decided: to treat or not to treat? Which arguments are used for decision-making? These are mainly ethical questions which are currently difficult to express and investigate. Methods/Design Cross sectional multicentre study of clinical cases involving 67 health centres (university hospitals, general hospitals, local hospitals and homes for the elderly in the east of France. The method was based on the "card sorting" technique, with a set of 36 cards, each labelled with a different item relating to arguments for treatment decision-making. For each clinical case, medical staff and carers expressed in a meeting the pieces of information which they believed had been taken into account in the decision. Each participant received a card game, selected fewer than ten and ranked them according to the importance they attached to each one. All selected cards were then put on the table anonymously for participants, respecting the order of importance of the cards in each pile. Lastly, all games were photographed together in order to analyse occurrence and order frequencies. The cards were then classified on the table by frequency to open the discussion. Discussion time, which was conducted by the head carer of the department, concerned the clinical situation of the patient based on the shared responses. Discussion During team meetings, the "card sorting" method was quickly adopted by professionals as a tool to assist with discussion beyond the context of the study. The participants were not compelled to mention their feelings in relation to a case, and it is significant that the anonymity which we
Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H
Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit
Rogers, Violet; Smith, Aileen
The increased focus on ethical decision making in the accounting profession has resulted in greater attention being paid to the education of future accountants. Texas is one of the states that requires a State Board approved university course in Accounting Ethics to be on the transcript of prospective CPA candidates. This study reports on research…
This paper seeks to investigate the extent of influence of corporate (or organisational) responsibility on university students' career decision-making. It reports on a pilot study conducted at the University of Sydney which aims to: explore students' ethical, professional and social understanding regarding corporate responsibility; determine the…
Lusby, Linda A.
This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…
The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a procedure for establishing priorities in multi-criteria decision making problems. Here we discuss the Logarithmic Least Squares (LLS) method for the AHP and group-AHP, which provides an exact and unique solution for the priority vector. Also, we show that for the group-AHP, the LLS method is equivalent with the minimization of the weighted sum of generalized Kullback-Leibler divergences, between the group-priority vector and the priority vector of each expert.
Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack
Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research.Method:Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights f...
Celuch, Kevin; Dill, Andy
The moral conduct of organizations is ultimately dependent on the discrete actions of individuals. The authors address the scholarly and managerial imperative of how individuals combine various cognitions in their ethical decision making. The study extends the understanding of ethical decision making by exploring relationships among Theory of…
Few topics in pediatric bioethics are as vexing as decision-making. Decision-making in pediatrics presents challenges for children, parents, and physicians alike. The related, yet distinct, concepts of assent and consent are central to pediatric decision-making. Although informed consent is largely regarded as a worthwhile adult principle, assent has been, and continues to be, mired in debate. Controversial subjects include a meaningful definition of assent; how old children should be to assent; who should be included in the assent process; parental permission; how to resolve disputes between children and their parents; the relationship between assent and consent; the quantity and quality of information to disclose to children and their families; how much and what information children desire and need; the necessity and methods for assessing both children's understanding of disclosed information and of the assent process itself; reconciling ethical and legal attitudes toward assent; and finally, an effective, practical, and realistically applicable decision-making model.
... provider. This will help you and your provider communicate openly and build a relationship of ... A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
Harmon, Joel I.
The use of computerized decision support systems in higher education for making tactical institutional decisions is reviewed, with attention to the kind of administrative problems that lie somewhere between programmed to nonprogrammed decisions and require a combination of computer support and administrative judgment. (MSE)
Hartley, Catherine A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.
While the everyday decision-making of clinically anxious individuals is clearly influenced by their excessive fear and worry, the relationship between anxiety and decision-making remains relatively unexplored in neuroeconomic studies. In this review, we attempt to explore the role of anxiety in decision-making using a neuroeconomic approach. We first review the neural systems mediating fear and anxiety, which overlap with a network of brain regions implicated in studies of economic decision-m...
Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen
Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
David Molero López-Barajas
Full Text Available We show, in this work, a study based on the analysis of handball referees’ decisions making from the marks got in the spanish adaptation of Decision Making Questionnaire dealing with the following factors: stress in making decisions, quick decision with uncertainty and determination in the commitment of decisions making. We found significant differences in the three factors considered in function of the category of referees but not in terms of their age. With the data are collected and analyzed future lines of action considered in which the basis for this group tutoring
Feldman, M. S.; Sarbaugh-Thompson, M.
Electronic communication can either facilitate or sabotage decision-making contexts. This article formulates recommendations about when and how to use electronic communication to enhance decision making and describes various decision contexts. Solutions to communication problems such as groupthink, social deadlock, bureaucratic isolation from…
Strech, Daniel; Hurst, Samia; Danis, Marion
Background Decisions about the allocation and rationing of medical interventions likely occur in all health care systems worldwide. So far very little attention has been given to the question of what role ethics consultation and ethics committees could or should play in questions of allocation at the hospital level. Objectives and Methods This article argues for the need for ethics consultation in rationing decisions using empirical data about the status quo and the inherent nature of bedside rationing. Subsequently, it introduces a 4-stage process for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions with systematic reference to core elements of procedural justice. Results Qualitative and quantitative findings show a significant demand for ethics consultation expressed directly by doctors, as well as additional indirect evidence of such a need as indicated by ethically challenging circumstances of inconsistent and structurally disadvantaging rationing decisions. To address this need, we suggest 4 stages for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions we recommend: (1) training, (2) identifying actual scarcity-related problems at clinics, (3) supporting decision-making, and (4) evaluation. Conclusion This process of ethics consultation regarding rationing decisions would facilitate the achievement of several practical goals: (i) encouragement of an awareness and understanding of ethical problems in bedside rationing, (ii) encouragement of achieving efficiency along with rationing, (iii) reinforcement of consistency in inter- and intraindvidual decision-making, (iv) encouragement of explicit reflection and justification of the prioritization criteria taken into consideration, (v) improvement in internal (in-house) and external transparency, and (vi) prevention of the misuse of the corresponding consulting structures. PMID:20706163
Hartley, Catherine A; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Although the everyday decision-making of clinically anxious individuals is clearly influenced by their excessive fear and worry, the relationship between anxiety and decision-making remains relatively unexplored in neuroeconomic studies. In this review, we attempt to explore the role of anxiety in decision-making with a neuroeconomic approach. We first review the neural systems mediating fear and anxiety, which overlap with a network of brain regions implicated in studies of economic decision-making. We then discuss the potential influence of cognitive biases associated with anxiety upon economic choice, focusing on a set of decision-making biases involving choice in the face of potential aversive outcomes. We propose that the neural circuitry supporting fear learning and regulation may mediate the influence of anxiety upon choice and suggest that techniques for altering fear and anxiety may also change decisions. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...
decision theory to specific medical diagnostic or treatment problems. Giaugue and Peebles (1974) discuss analysis of the treatment of strep throat and...for Streptococcal Sore Throat and Rheumatic Fever", Technical Report, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif., 93940 7- Giaugue, W.C: "A Utility...Sore Throat ang Rheumatic £ever - a Decision THeoLelic 22£roa>cH, Uoctoral THeslsJ Barvard~ Business 5cKool7 Boston, Bass., 1972. 3. Raiffa, H
Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead Making the decision to breastfeed YouTube embed ...
G. J. Rossouw
Business Ethics is a truly interdisciplinary field of study. The specific issue of moral decision-making within the field of business ethics testifies to this. Recently some have made important contributions in this regard - contributions in which they emphasised that moral theory is not sufficient for moral decision-making. What is needed besides moral theory is problem-solving ability. In this article the same point is argued, but from a philosophical perspective. It is further indicated th...
Black, Betty S.; Wechsler, Malory; Fogarty, Linda
Objectives This study examined the decision-making process used by individuals asked to participate in dementia research and their opinions on how future proxy research decisions would or should be made, including participants’ preferred ethical standards for decision-making. Design Cross-sectional qualitative methods. Setting University research institutions. Participants Informants were 39 of 46 cognitively impaired individuals (i.e., subjects) who were asked to join one of six dementia studies and 46 study partners or surrogate decision-makers. Measurements Semi-structured individual interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for content analysis. Results Within dyads, subjects and surrogates often differed in their perspectives on how decisions were made regarding whether to join a study, and no single method was identified as a predominant approach. While there was only fair agreement within dyads on who ultimately made the decision, subjects and surrogates most often said it was the subject. For future proxy research decisions, subjects and surrogates most often preferred the ethical standard of best interests and least often favored substituted judgment. However, many participants preferred a combination of best interests and substituted judgment or a more complex approach that also considers the interests of others. Conclusions Individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment can and do engage to some extent in the decision-making process for dementia research and can discuss their opinions on how they would want such decisions made for them in the future. These findings support the recommended approach for obtaining proxy consent and subject assent if the individual lacks consent capacity. PMID:23498382
Christopher A. Dieckmann, PE, CSEP-Acq
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy and other customers who have direct contracts with the Laboratory. The people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure at the laboratory require continual investment to maintain and improve the laboratory’s capabilities. With ever tightening federal and customer budgets, the ability to direct investments into the people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure which are most closely aligned with the laboratory’s mission and customers’ goals grows increasingly more important. The ability to justify those investment decisions based on objective criteria that can withstand political, managerial and technical criticism also becomes increasingly more important. The Systems Engineering tools of decision analysis, risk management and roadmapping, when properly applied to such problems, can provide defensible decisions.
Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo
We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....
Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.
We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.
Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.
Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision-making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision-making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision-making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision-making in health and disease. PMID:24908481
A M Kustubayeva
Full Text Available The results of the experimental research of the connection between the efficiency of decision making and emotional intelligence are presented in the article. The empirical data indicate that the ability to regulate emotion is an important indicator of the efficiency of decision making in the conditions of psychological experiment.
Lobanova, E. N.; Zmitrovich, A. I.; Voshevoz, A. A.; Krivko-Krasko, A. V.
In this article we consider concepts and components of the Financial Decision Making System that is being developed in the Institute of Business and Management Technology, BSU. Such system can be successfully used either for training experts in financial analytics and financial management or for financial managers and financial directors in an enterprise for the effective financial decision making.
This thesis consists of three distinct papers related to the analysis of collective decision making. In the first paper I employ a mechanism-design approach to analyze a public procurement problem. In the second and third paper I analyze collective decision making in the form of voting.
Klinker, JoAnn Franklin; Hoover, J. Duane; Valle, Fernando; Hardin, Fred
Experience in problem-based learning, authentic experiences, on-the-job decision making, and critical reflection on decisions made formed the conceptual framework of an internship to develop democratic leadership as a professional ethic in interns. Interns in an on-the-job guided internship examined decisions over a 13-week period as they…
Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn
An interactive decision support tool based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can help health professionals integrate the principlist (principle-based) and casuist (case-based) approaches to ethical decision making in both their training and practice. MCDA can incorporate generic ethical...
Kreitler, Crystal M.; Dansereau, Donald F.; Barth, Timothy M.; Ito, Sachiyo
Previous studies have demonstrated that many college students, specifically those high on extraversion are prone to risky and sometimes unethical decision-making. The present study examined the impact of a decision-making "tool" that incorporated the use of standard ethical perspectives on students' attitudes and intentions. This "fill in the…
Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)
The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that
Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.
Bastons, Miquel; Armengou, Jaume
There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them. Based on this double perspective, sustainability is explored as a method for decision-making which both expands the assessment of the consequences, and also provides an objective criterion for such assessment. It will be argued that the idea of sustainability, seen from this perspective, brings to decision-making two qualities which had been partially lost: realism and impartiality. In turn, the criteria for realism and impartiality in decision-making can be used to identify the limitations of some partial approaches to sustainability, which suffer from insufficient realism (emotional altruism), insufficient impartiality (tactical altruism) or both phenomena at once (egoism). The article concludes by demonstrating how realism and impartiality provide the basis for a new form of sustainable decision-making (ethical sustainability), which is dependent on the development of two moral virtues, prudence and benevolence, and which brings practical effectiveness and ethical sense to the concept of sustainability.
Medicine is incorporating genetic services into all avenues of health-care, ranging from the rarest to the most common diseases. Cognitive theories of decision-making still dominate professionals' understanding of patient decision-making about how to use genetic information and whether to have testing. I discovered a conceptual model of decision-making while carrying out a phenomenological-hermeneutic descriptive study of a convenience sample of 12 couples who were interviewed while deciding whether to undergo prenatal genetic testing. Thirty-two interviews were conducted with 12 men and 12 women separately. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and all data were analyzed using three levels of coding that were sorted into 30 categories and then abstracted into three emergent meta-themes that described men's and women's attempts to make sense and find meaning in how to best use prenatal genetic technology. Their descriptions of how they thought about, communicated, and coped with their decision were so detailed it was possible to discern nine different types of thinking they engaged in while deciding to accept or decline testing. They believed that decision-making is a process of working through your own personal style of thinking. This might include only one or any combination of the following types of thinking: analytical, ethical, moral, reflective, practical, hypothetical, judgmental, scary, and second sight, as described in detail by these 12 couples.
Full Text Available ... Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead Making the decision ...
Perez Bernabeu Elena
Full Text Available Decision making is one of the important tasks of every manager. The process of taking decisions has to be based on knowledge. For optimizing this process some software solutions has been created. In this article we tried to summarize some of the features which exists in some software applications.
Marewski, Julian N; Gigerenzer, Gerd
Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care.
Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd
Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307
Swindell, J S; McGuire, Amy L; Halpern, Scott D
Physicians frequently encounter patients who make decisions that contravene their long-term goals. Behavioral economists have shown that irrationalities and self-thwarting tendencies pervade human decision making, and they have identified a number of specific heuristics (rules of thumb) and biases that help explain why patients sometimes make such counterproductive decisions. In this essay, we use clinical examples to describe the many ways in which these heuristics and biases influence patients' decisions. We argue that physicians should develop their understanding of these potentially counterproductive decisional biases and, in many cases, use this knowledge to rebias their patients in ways that promote patients' health or other values. Using knowledge of decision-making psychology to persuade patients to engage in healthy behaviors or to make treatment decisions that foster their long-term goals is ethically justified by physicians' duties to promote their patients' interests and will often enhance, rather than limit, their patients' autonomy. We describe techniques that physicians may use to frame health decisions to patients in ways that are more likely to motivate patients to make choices that are less biased and more conducive to their long-term goals. Marketers have been using these methods for decades to get patients to engage in unhealthy behaviors; employers and policy makers are beginning to consider the use of similar approaches to influence healthy choices. It is time for clinicians also to make use of behavioral psychology in their interactions with patients.
The computer revolution has had an enormous effect on all aspects of the practice of medicine, yet little thought has been given to the role of social media in identifying treatment choices for incompetent patients. We are currently living in the "Internet age" and many people have integrated social media into all aspects of their lives. As use becomes more prevalent, and as users age, social media are more likely to be viewed as a source of information regarding medical care preferences. This article explores the ethical and legal issues raised by the use of social media in surrogate decision making.
Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III
Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.
Full Text Available One of the leading descriptive theories of decision-making under risk, Tversky & Kahneman's Prospect theory, reveals that normative explanation of decisionmaking, based only on principle of maximizing outcomes expected utility, is unsustainable. It also underlines the effect of alternative factors on decision-making. Framing effect relates to an influence that verbal formulation of outcomes has on choosing between certain and risky outcomes; in negative frame people tend to be risk seeking, whereas in positive frame people express risk averse tendencies. Individual decisions are not based on objective probabilities of outcomes, but on subjective probabilities that depend on outcome desirability. Unrealistically pessimistic subjects assign lower probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes, while unrealistically optimistic subjects assign higher probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes. Experiment was conducted in order to test the presumption that there's a relation between unrealistic optimism and decision-making under risk. We expected optimists to be risk seeking, and pessimist to be risk averse. We also expected such cognitive tendencies, if they should become manifest, to be framing effect resistant. Unrealistic optimism scale was applied, followed by the questionnaire composed of tasks of decision-making under risk. Results within the whole sample, and results of afterwards extracted groups of pessimists and optimists both revealed dominant risk seeking tendency that is resistant to the influence of subjective probabilities as well as to the influence of frame in which the outcome is presented.
Stephanie Ying-Fen Chen
Full Text Available Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of what categories are and are not relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use was and was not appropriate.
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.
Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn; Alias, Fadhlina
End-of-life decision-making is an area of medical practice in which ethical dilemmas and legal interventions have become increasingly prevalent. Decisions are no longer confined to clinical assessments; rather, they involve wider considerations such as a patient's religious and cultural beliefs, financial constraints, and the wishes and needs of family members. These decisions affect everyone concerned, including members of the community as a whole. Therefore it is imperative that clear ethical codes and legal standards are developed to help guide the medical profession on the best possible course of action for patients. This article considers the relevant ethical, codes and legal provisions in Malaysia governing certain aspects of end-of-life decision-making. It highlights the lack of judicial decisions in this area as well as the limitations with the Malaysian regulatory system. The article recommends the development of comprehensive ethical codes and legal standards to guide end-of-life decision-making in Malaysia.
Schraagen, J.M.; Militello, L.; Ormerod, T.; Lipshitz, R.
This book presents the latest work in the area of naturalistic decision making (NDM) and its extension into the area of macrocognition. It contains 18 chapters relating research centered on the study of expertise in naturalistic settings, written by international experts in NDM and cognitive systems
Full Text Available ... Health Skip Navigation En Español Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics Printables and Shareables Blog ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead Making the decision ...
Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott
We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].
Full Text Available ... Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead Making the decision to breastfeed YouTube embed video: YouTube embed ... and players A federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of ...
Full Text Available ... eating well Overcoming challenges Addressing breastfeeding myths Finding support Fitting it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe to It's Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Planning ahead Making the decision ...
Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on
Full Text Available Culture is one of the most important determinants of business managers’ ethical behaviors. Cross-Cultural studies reveal that culture influences individuals’ ethical perceptions, attitudes and behaviors. Based on the studies evaluating the relationship between ethical attitudes and cultural typology devised by Hofstede, this study tries to ascertain the relationship between Turkish business managers’ ethical attitudes and Turkish culture via Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. In addition to the above mentioned relationship, the relationships between ethical attitudes and some variables such as gender, age, educational level, sector and respondent’s department have been examined. This study was conducted with the managers of the companies listed on Istanbul Chamber of Industry’s 500 Major Industrialist Enterprises of Turkey in the year 2003 and important results have been attained.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III, including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect
Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana
This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their highest hedonic
Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack
, satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique......Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research...... into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research. Method: Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights for multiple person/patient-important criteria can be combined in an expected value...
Evans, J S; Over, D E; Manktelow, K I
It is argued that reasoning in the real world supports decision making and is aimed at the achievement of goals. A distinction is developed between two notions of rationality: rationality which is reasoning in such a way as to achieve one's goals--within cognitive constraints--and rationality which is reasoning by a process of logic. This dichotomy is related to the philosophical distinction between practical and theoretical reasoning. It is argued that logicality (rationality) does not provide a good basis for rationality and some psychological research on deductive reasoning is re-examined in this light. First, we review belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning, and argue that the phenomena do not support the interpretations of irrationality that are often placed upon them. Second, we review and discuss recent studies of deontic reasoning in the Wason selection task, which demonstrate the decision making, and rational nature of reasoning in realistic contexts. The final section of the paper examines contemporary decision theory and shows how it fails, in comparable manner to formal logic, to provide an adequate model for assessing the rationality of human reasoning and decision making.
Parsons, S; Jennings, NR
This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.
Luiz Henrique Costa Garcia
Full Text Available The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education; British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters; Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.
Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Associacao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Bruna Cortez [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)
The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)
de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique
If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...
Kerr, Norbert L; Tindale, R Scott
Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on classic topics (e.g., brainstorming, group goal setting, stress, and group performance) and relatively new areas (e.g., collective induction). Group decision making research has focused on preference combination for continuous response distributions and group information processing. New approaches (e.g., group-level signal detection) and traditional topics (e.g., groupthink) are discussed. New directions, such as nonlinear dynamic systems, evolutionary adaptation, and technological advances, should keep small group research vigorous well into the future.
Stephan, S. [Queensland Department of Mines and Energy, Qld. (Australia)
The decision making process during a mine emergency is explored. Using examples from other areas as well as mining industries, poor decision making processes are illustrated. Some decision traps discussed include group think, Abilene paradox, lack of frame control and confirmation bias. Practical techniques that a mine manager, as incident controller, can apply to improve the group decision making process are described. Techniques such as devils advocacy, dialectic decision making, scenario development and decision auditing are explained. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Strathclyde, Scotland), Crest International Workshop: Advances in the Plankton Ecosystem Model and the Evaluation of Biodiversity , Tokyo University of...February) “Collective Motion, Collective Decision-Making, and Collective Action: From Microbes to Societies,” MASpread/Rapid Trade Meeting...and Collective Action: From Microbes to Societies.” Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft Spring Meeting. Physics of Socio-Economic Systems Division
Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.
Marja-Leena Rönkkö; Jaana Lepistö
.... In this study, we examine school students’ decision making during a craft process. The study was conducted during the spring term of 2013 and examines how the students make various decisions during the craft making process...
Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.
Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity
Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio
Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…
Focuses on the use of graphic representations to enable students to improve their decision making skills in the social studies. Explores three visual aids used in assisting students with decision making: (1) the force field; (2) the decision tree; and (3) the decision making grid. (CMK)
Helin, Kaija; Lindström, Unni A
This article is intended to raise the question of whether sacrifice can be regarded stituting a deep ethical structure in the relationship between patient and carer. The significance of sacrifice in a patient-carer relationship cannot, however, be fully understood from the standpoint of the consistently utilitarian ethic that characterizes today's ethical discourse. Deontological ethics, with its universal principles, also does not provide a suitable point of departure. Ethical recommendations and codices are important and serve as general sources of knowledge when making decisions, but they should be supplemented by an ethic that takes into consideration contextual and situational factors that make every encounter between patient and carer unique. Caring science research literature presents, on the whole, general agreement on the importance of responsibility and devotian with regard to sense of duty, warmth and genuine engagement in caring. That sacrifice may also constitute an important ethical element in the patient-carer relationship is, however, a contradictory and little considered theme. Caring literature that deals with sacrifice/self-sacrifice indicates contradictory import. It is nevertheless interesting to notice that both the negative and the positive aspects bring out importance of the concept for the professional character of caring. The tradition of ideas in medieval Christian mysticism with reference to Lévinas' ethic of responsibility offers a deeper perspective in which the meaningfulness of sacrifice in the caring relationship can be sought. The theme of sacrifice is not of interest merely as a carer's ethical outlook, but sacrifice can also be understood as a potential process of transformation health. The instinctive or conscious experience of sacrifice on the part of the individual patient can, on a symbolic level, be regarded as analogous to the cultic or religious sacrifice aiming at atonement. Sacrifice appears to the patient as an act of
Distributed Decision Making and Control is a mathematical treatment of relevant problems in distributed control, decision and multiagent systems, The research reported was prompted by the recent rapid development in large-scale networked and embedded systems and communications. One of the main reasons for the growing complexity in such systems is the dynamics introduced by computation and communication delays. Reliability, predictability, and efficient utilization of processing power and network resources are central issues and the new theory and design methods presented here are needed to analyze and optimize the complex interactions that arise between controllers, plants and networks. The text also helps to meet requirements arising from industrial practice for a more systematic approach to the design of distributed control structures and corresponding information interfaces Theory for coordination of many different control units is closely related to economics and game theory network uses being dictated by...
Cranston, Jerome A.; Kusanovich, Kristin A.
This article considers the implications and effectiveness of a performing arts-based pedagogy in the professional development of school leaders. It reports on the findings from a study that exposed educational leaders to methods of dramatic analysis as a means of reflecting on the ethical dilemmas found in personnel management. Through the dynamic…
Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine
Respect for autonomy is a key principle in bioethics. However, respecting autonomy in practice is complex because most people define themselves and make decisions influenced by a complex network of social relationships. The extent to which individual autonomy operates for each partner within the context of decision-making within marital or similar relationships is largely unexplored. This paper explores issues related to decision-making by couples (couples' joint decision-making) for health care and the circumstances under which such a practice should be respected as compatible with autonomous decision-making. We discuss the concept of autonomy as it applies to persons and to actions, human interdependency and gender roles in decision-making, the dynamics and outcomes of couples' joint decision-making, and the ethics of couples' joint decision-making. We believe that the extent to which couples' joint decision-making might be deemed ethically acceptable will vary depending on the context. Given that in many traditional marriages the woman is the less dominant partner, we consider a spectrum of scenarios of couples' joint decision-making about a woman's own health care that move from those that are acceptably autonomous to those that are not consistent with respecting the woman's autonomous decision-making. To the extent that there is evidence that both members of a couple understand a decision, intend it, and that neither completely controls the other, couples' joint decision-making should be viewed as consistent with the principle of respect for the woman's autonomy. At the other end of the spectrum are decisions made by the man without the woman's input, representing domination of one partner by the other. We recommend viewing the dynamics of couples' joint decision-making as existing on a continuum of degrees of autonomy. This continuum-based perspective implies that couples' joint decision-making should not be taken at face value but should be assessed against
Uspanov, Zholdybai T.; Turabayeva, Dana S.
The article considers the psychological peculiarities of judge professional activity and decision-making, judge's mental set and requirements to ethical and moral requirements and quality. Moreover, this work offers original job analysis and competency model of judge professional activity. The authors have studied the problems concerning the…
Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Sabina E [Albuquerque, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM
A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.
McGrath, Michael Robert
Institutional strategic decisions require the participation of every individual with a significant stake in the solution, and group decision support systems are being developed to respond to the political and consensual problems of collective decision-making. (MSE)
Craft, Jana L.
Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…
Kaufman, Sharon R.
Life-extending interventions for older persons are changing medical knowledge and societal expectations about longevity. Today’s consciousness about growing older is partly shaped by a new form of ethics, constituted by and enabled through the routines and institutions that comprise ordinary clinical care. Unlike bioethics, whose emphasis is on clinical decision-making in individual situations, this new form of ethics is exceptionally diffuse and can be characterized as an ethical field. It i...
Full Text Available Business Ethics is a truly interdisciplinary field of study. The specific issue of moral decision-making within the field of business ethics testifies to this. Recently some have made important contributions in this regard - contributions in which they emphasised that moral theory is not sufficient for moral decision-making. What is needed besides moral theory is problem-solving ability. In this article the same point is argued, but from a philosophical perspective. It is further indicated that problem-solving ability entails more than merely a strategy fo r making moral decisions. It should also include the development of the thinking skills which are demanded by the strategy chosen fo r problem resolution.
Gartlehner, Gerald; Matyas, Nina
Shared decision making in medicine has become a widely promoted approach. The goal is for patients and physicians to reach a mutual, informed decision by taking into consideration scientific evidence, clinical experience, and the patient's personal values or preferences. Shared decision making, however, is not a straightforward process. In practice, it might fall short of what it promises and might even be misused to whitewash monetary motives. In this article, which summarizes a presentation given at the 17(th) Annual Conference of the German Network Evidence-based Medicine on March 4(th), 2016 in Cologne, Germany, we discuss three contextual factors that in our opinion can have a tremendous impact on any informed decision making: 1) opinions and convictions of physicians or other clinicians; 2) uncertainty of the evidence regarding benefits and harms; 3) uncertainty of patients about their own values and preferences. But despite barriers and shortcomings, modern medicine currently does not have an alternative to shared decision making. Shared decision making has become a central theme in good quality health care because it has a strong ethical component. Advocates of shared decision making, however, must realize that not all patients prefer to participate in decision making. For those who do, however, we must ensure that shared decisions can be made in a neutral environment as free of biases and conflicts of interest as possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Wolgast, Kelly A
Decision-making is the mainstay of military leadership and command. Due to the changed nature of the current military environment, military commanders can no longer rely solely on the traditional Military Decision-making Process (MDMP...
Antonides, G.; Kroft, M.
The behavioral economic study of fairness was applied to household decision making. A sample of household partners judged the fairness of a number of hypothetical decisions of a household partner, varying in the context of the decision. Decisions made by the partner to make a large personal
The author, as a UN Commander in Bosnia in the early 1990s, faced what he believed to be an ethically insoluble dilemma entangled in the Wicked Problem of Bosnia’s civil war. Bosnia’s civil war was a Wicked Problem constructed by history, the warring factions and the UN’s policy of neutrality. The moral uncertainty of leading in Bosnia’s Wicked Problem generated a tendency to construct Tame Problems enabling forthright action guided by deontological principles of moral certainty. The reality ...
Full Text Available The article shows the stages of development of the theory and practice of decision-making. Emphasis is placed on the contemporary culture of decision-making. At the base of the current trends is the transition from intuition and experience in decision-making to analytics. Modern business intelligence means the development of the culture of work with big data.
The article shows the stages of development of the theory and practice of decision-making. Emphasis is placed on the contemporary culture of decision-making. At the base of the current trends is the transition from intuition and experience in decision-making to analytics. Modern business intelligence means the development of the culture of work with big data.
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.
Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…
Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.
The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…
Seidl, C.; Traub, S.
This paper investigates the existence of an editing phase and studies the com- pliance of subjects' behaviour with the most popular multiattribute decision rules. We observed that our data comply well with the existence of an editing phase, at least if we allow for a natural error rate of some 25%.
Hermans, Caroline M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Erickson, Jon D.; Messner, Frank; Ring, Irene
Environmental decision making involving multiple stakeholders can benefit from the use of a formal process to structure stakeholder interactions, leading to more successful outcomes than traditional discursive decision processes. There are many tools available to handle complex decision making. Here we illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) outranking tool (PROMETHEE) to facilitate decision making at the watershed scale, involving multiple stakeholders, multiple criteria, and multiple objectives. We compare various MCDA methods and their theoretical underpinnings, examining methods that most realistically model complex decision problems in ways that are understandable and transparent to stakeholders.
Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision- Making The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful...feedback when training rapid decision-making. More specifically, EEG will allow us to provide online feedback about the neural decision processes...Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision-Making Report Title The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.
Yeaworth, R C
Many decisions which were once outside our control are now becoming matters of choice. Amniocentesis can detect severe birth defects and severely defective or crippled persons can be kept alive for long periods of time. Most people believe in adequate medical care and education for those born with physical and/or mental handicaps; the problems arise when the attempt to attain 1 valued goal conflicts with attaining others. There are insufficient resources to attain all goals. Physicians and nurses traditionally value individual human life while ignoring the family and broader society. The question raised now concerns the allocation of resources to individuals with terminal illness or life of limited quality vs. spending on public health measures that might preserve more lives. What part should societal coercion or societal persuasion play in handling cases of pregnancy at high risk of a deformed or retarded fetus, or extraordinary care of a severely deformed child? It is imperative for nurses to take an informed stand on such ethical issues. Many of the decisions to be made have greater bearing on the lives of women, those who will have to undergo the amniocentesis or abortion or raise the retarded child.
Jeffrey J. Bailey, Ph.D.
Full Text Available This is an empirical study comparing the susceptibility of managers and students to a decision-making bias when making judgments about ethical business practices. The managers and students read through vignettes and made judgments about how ethical they perceived the described business actions to be. Half of the participants (half of the managers and half of the students were exposed to three situations in which the actions being judged were clearly unethical. The other half of each group was exposed to situations in which the actions being judged were clearly ethical. All were exposed to the same fourth situation of a business decision. In this ambiguous situation it was not clear if the business decision being evaluated was ethical or unethical. The decision bias examined here addressed the question of ‘to what extent does exposure to prior unethical (or ethical actions influence one’s evaluation of how ethical a particular business decision is when it is not a clearly right or wrong action. The results demonstrated that students’ ethical judgments about the action in the fourth scenario (the same scenario for everyone differed depending on what they were previously exposed to. Significant assimilation effects were found in the student sample suggesting support for the perceptual readiness models. The managerial sample yielded differences in the opposite direction, one of a contrast effect, but these did not reach statistical significance. Assimilation effects occurred in the sample without domain relevant experience and contrast effects occurred with the experienced sample. Implications are discussed.
van der Linden, Willem J.
The use of Bayesian decision theory to solve problems in test-based decision making is discussed. Four basic decision problems are distinguished: (1) selection; (2) mastery; (3) placement; and (4) classification, the situation where each treatment has its own criterion. Each type of decision can be
Wulff, H R
An attempt is made to discuss some of the philosophical implications of the use of decision-analytic techniques. The probabilities of a decision analysis are subjective measures of belief, and it is concluded that clinicians base their subjective beliefs on both recorded observations and theoretical knowledge. The clinical decision maker also evaluates the consequences of his actions, and therefore clinical decision theory transcends medical science. A number of different schools of normative ethics are mentioned to illustrate the complexity of everyday decision making. The philosophical terminology is useful for the analysis of clinical problems, and it is argued that clinical decision making has both a teleological and a deontological component. The results of decision-analytic studies depend on such factors as the wealth of the country, the organization of the health service, and cultural norms.
Full Text Available Making patients protagonists of decisions about their care is a primacy in the 21st century medical ethics. Precisely, to favor shared treatment decisions potentially enables patients’ autonomy and self-determination, and protects patients’ rights to make decisions about their own future care. To fully accomplish this goal, medicine should take into account the complexity of the healthcare decision making processes: patients may experience dilemmas when having to take decisions that not only concern their patient role/identity but also involve the psychosocial impact of treatments on their overall life quality. A deeper understanding of the patients’ expected role in the decision making process across their illness journey may favor the optimal implementation of this practice into the day-to-day medical agenda. In this paper, authors discuss the value of assuming the Patient Health Engagement Model to sustain successful pathways for effective medical decision making throughout the patient’s illness course. This model and its relational implication for the clinical encounter might be the base for an innovative “patient-doctor relational agenda” able to sustain an “engagement-sensitive” medical decision making.
Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn
An interactive decision support tool based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can help health professionals integrate the principlist (principle-based) and casuist (case-based) approaches to ethical decision making in both their training and practice. MCDA can incorporate generic ethical...... of each option, as a contribution to enhanced deliberation. As proof of concept and method an exemplar aid adds veracity and confidentiality to beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice, as the criteria, with case-based reasoning supplying the necessary inputs for the decision of whether a nurse...
Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus
We report findings from an analysis of 234 firm boundary decisions that a manufacturing firm has made during a 10 year period. Extensive interviews with all major decision makers located both at the headquarters and subsidiaries allow us to examine (a) who was involved in each boundary decision...
Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Muehlschlegel, Susanne
Shared decision making is a collaborative decision-making process between health care providers and patients or their surrogates, taking into account the best scientific evidence available while considering the patient's values, goals, and preferences. Decision aids are tools enabling SDM. This article discusses shared decision making in general and in the intensive care unit in particular and facilitators and barriers for the creation and implementation of International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration-compliant decision aids for the intensive care unit and neuro-intensive care unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Decision-making has evolved recently thanks to the introduction of information and communication technologies in many organizations, which has led to new kinds of decision-making processes, called "collaborative decision-making", at the organizational and cognitive levels. This book looks at the development of the decision-making process in organizations. Decision-aiding and its paradigm of problem solving are defined, showing how decision-makers now need to work in a cooperative way. Definitions of cooperation and associated concepts such as collaboration and coordination are given and a framework of cooperative decision support systems is presented, including intelligent DSS, cooperative knowledge-based systems, workflow, group support systems, collaborative engineering, integrating with a collaborative decision-making model in part or being part of global projects. Several models and experimental studies are also included showing that these new processes have to be supported by new types of tools, several ...
Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
Many engineering companies experience new challenges when globalising product development. Global product development (GPD) is a relatively nascent research area, and previous research reveals the need for decision support frameworks. This research investigates how decisions are made when companies...... outsource or offshore product development tasks, and how these decisions can be improved. A brief literature review on existing research on GPD and decision making is given, followed by two case studies, where implications of decisions are investigated. The findings point towards further studies required...... for creating a decision support framework for managers to make better decisions in the future....
Romious, Tamar S.; Thompson, Randall; Thompson, Elizabeth
We recruited 15 MBA professionals in the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area to explore experiences and perceptions of classroom ethics training and ethical experiences in the workplace. Telephone interviews were conducted using open-ended questions to collect data that were uploaded to NVivo 10 for qualitative analysis. As a result of the data…
Full Text Available (INTJ) on the Myers-Briggs personality type indicators, and who then proceeded to explain their decision-making behaviour in the light of this. The Recognition-Primed Decision Model was supported in the sense that decision-making was seen by DM2, DM3...
Delegating decision making to those closest to implementation can result in better decisions, more support for improvement initiatives, and increased student performance. Shared decision making depends on capable school leadership, a professional community, instructional guidance mechanisms, knowledge and skills, information sharing, power, and…
Hagmayer, Y.; Witteman, C.L.M.
Normative causal decision theories argue that people should use their causal knowledge in decision making. Based on these ideas, we argue that causal knowledge and reasoning may support and thereby potentially improve decision making based on expected outcomes, narratives, and even cues. We will
Ko, C-H; Wang, P-W; Liu, T-L; Chen, C-S; Yen, C-F; Yen, J-Y
Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD. We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews. The results demonstrated that the participants in both groups tend to make more risky choices in advantage trials where their expected value (EV) was more favorable than those of the riskless choice. The tendency to make a risky choice in advantage trials was stronger among IGD group than that among controls. Participants of both groups made more risky choices in the loss domain, a risky option to loss more versus sure loss option, than they did in the gain domain, a risky option to gain more versus sure gain. Furthermore, the participants with IGD made more risky choices in the gain domain than did the controls. Participants with IGD showed higher and lower preferences for intuitive and deliberative decision-making styles, respectively, than controls and their preferences for intuition and deliberation were positively and negatively associated with IGD severity, respectively. These results suggested that individuals with IGD have elevated EV sensitivity for decision-making. However, they demonstrated risky preferences in the gain domain and preferred an intuitive rather than deliberative decision-making style. This might explain why they continue Internet gaming despite negative consequences. Thus, therapists should focus more on decision-making
Colclough, Yoshiko Yamashita; Brown, Gary M
This study explored American Indians' end-of-life experiences in treatment decision making. Scarce knowledge about this population's perspective regarding end-of-life treatments has resulted in health care providers (HCPs) functioning at less than optimum levels. Using a community-based participatory research approach, open-ended interview data were collected and analyzed using a grounded theory method. Patient and family participants generally stated that the physicians made the treatment decisions for them, while HCPs believed that patients participated in informed autonomous treatment decision making. Both parties (HCPs and patients and families) were not aware of American Indian's psychological aspect that interfered with the exercise of the right of informed consent. This additional understanding would benefit them in order to result in ethically and legally sound practice of patient's autonomous treatment decision making. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available environment made up of many domains, actors, resources, asset pools, factors and performance criteria. In his talk, Velthausz will discuss the ability to make and implement sound planning and operational decisions based on better informed decision...
present a five-step process for making an ethical decision ( Velasquez , Moberg, Meyer, Shanks, McLean, DeCosse, Andre, and Hanson, 2009). This...reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Ethics , 17, 1825. Civil engineering body of knowledge for the 21st century...philosophies. Journal of Business Ethics , 11(5), 461. Forsyth, D. R. (2014a). Ethics position questionnaire. Retrieved from https
Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)
The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.
Whitty-Rogers, Joanne; Alex, Marion; MacDonald, Cathy; Pierrynowski Gallant, Donna; Austin, Wendy
Traditionally, physicians and parents made decisions about children's health care based on western practices. More recently, with legal and ethical development of informed consent and recognition for decision making, children are becoming active participants in their care. The extent to which this is happening is however blurred by lack of clarity about what children - of diverse levels of cognitive development - are capable of understanding. Moreover, when there are multiple surrogate decision makers, parental and professional conflict can arise concerning children's 'best interest'. Giving children a voice and offering choice promotes their dignity and quality of life. Nevertheless, it also presents with many challenges. Case studies using pseudonyms and changed situational identities are used in this article to illuminate the complexity of ethical challenges facing nurses in end-of-life care with children and families.
Smith, D L; Hamrick, M H; Anspaugh, D J
Teachers are usually very enthusiastic in their evaluations of decision stories. Decision Story Strategies offer a change of pace, promote student involvement and stimulate creative thinking, problem solving and everpresent creative teaching-learning opportunities. The real-life problems presented within the structure of a decision story provide meaningful learning opportunities for students. Students begin to think in a broader perspective when considering other points of view and information sources. The Decision Story Strategy used with the Decision-Making Model provides a powerful tool for health educators to develop skills for making and evaluating decisions in an interesting and meaningful context. It may not be a panacea for all health educators, but is an effective strategy for the teacher concerned with developing independent decision makers. Most importantly, students are provided opportunities to solve their present problems as well as develop decision-making skills for the future.
Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...
Weller, Joshua A.; Fisher, Philip A.
Although maltreated children involved with child welfare services are known to exhibit elevated levels of health-risking behaviors, little is known about their decision-making processes leading to these behaviors. Research findings suggest that maltreated children exhibit developmental delays in neurocognitive and emotional regulation systems that could adversely impact their abilities to make decisions under conditions of risk. Whereas prior researchers have examined risky decision making as...
Nesbitt, P.; Kennedy, Q.; Alt, JK; Fricker, RD; Whitaker, L.; Yang, J.; Appleget, JA; Huston, J.; Patton, S
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This research aims to gain insight into optimal wargaming decision-making mechanisms using neurophysiological measures by investigating whether brain activation and visual scan patterns predict attention, perception, and/or decision-making errors through human-in-the-loop wargaming simulation experiments. We investigate whether brain activity and visual scan patterns can explain optimal wargaming decision making and its devel...
Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan; Spector, J Michael
The increasingly complex environment of today's world, characterized by technological innovation and global communication, generates myriads of possible and actual interactions while limited physical and intellectual resources severely impinge on decision makers, be it in the public or private domains. At the core of the decision-making process is the need for quality information that allows the decision maker to better assess the impact of decisions in terms of outcomes, nonlinear feedback processes and time delays on the performance of the complex system invoked. This volume is a timely review on the principles underlying complex decision making, the handling of uncertainties in dynamic envrionments and of the various modeling approaches used. The book consists of five parts, each composed of several chapters: I: Complex Decision Making: Concepts, Theories and Empirical Evidence II: Tools and Techniques for Decision Making in Complex Environments and Systems III: System Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling IV:...
Van Buren, Harry J., III
Discusses three factors that have contributed to the decline of eccelsiastical influences on the ethical decisions of Christians in the workplace. Considers the components of a business-ethics curriculum. Outlines one model for both teaching theological/philosophical bases for moral action and providing support groups for business people…
Law, Elizabeth A; Bennett, Nathan J; Ives, Christopher D; Friedman, Rachel; Davis, Katrina J; Archibald, Carla; Wilson, Kerrie A
Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation. Different ethical frameworks may lead to different conceptions of equity through alternative perspectives of what is good or right. This can lead to different and potentially conflicting equity objectives in practice. We promote a more transparent, nuanced, and pluralistic conceptualization of equity in conservation decision making that particularly recognizes where multidimensional equity objectives may conflict. To help identify and mitigate ethical conflicts and avoid cases of good intentions producing bad outcomes, we encourage a more analytical incorporation of equity into conservation decision making particularly during mechanistic integration of equity objectives. We recommend that in conservation planning motivations and objectives for equity be made explicit within the problem context, methods used to incorporate equity objectives be applied with respect to stated objectives, and, should objectives dictate, evaluation of equity outcomes and adaptation of strategies be employed during policy implementation. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.
Kárný, Miroslav; Wolpert, David
This volume focuses on uncovering the fundamental forces underlying dynamic decision making among multiple interacting, imperfect and selﬁsh decision makers. The chapters are written by leading experts from different disciplines, all considering the many sources of imperfection in decision making, and always with an eye to decreasing the myriad discrepancies between theory and real world human decision making. Topics addressed include uncertainty, deliberation cost and the complexity arising from the inherent large computational scale of decision making in these systems. In particular, analyses and experiments are presented which concern: • task allocation to maximize “the wisdom of the crowd”; • design of a society of “edutainment” robots who account for one anothers’ emotional states; • recognizing and counteracting seemingly non-rational human decision making; • coping with extreme scale when learning causality in networks; • efﬁciently incorporating expert knowledge in personalized...
Reduction in prices now makes it possible for almost any institution to use computer graphics for administrative decision making and research. Current and potential uses of computer graphics in these two areas are discussed. (JN)
Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson
Public land managers must treat multiple values coincidentally in time and space, which requires the participation of multiple resource specialists and consideration of diverse clientele interests in the decision process. This implies decision making that includes multiple participants, both internally and externally. Decades of social science research on decision...
Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras; Govindan, K.; Antucheviciene, Jurgita
Formal decision-making methods can be used to help improve the overall sustainability of industries and organisations. Recently, there has been a great proliferation of works aggregating sustainability criteria by using diverse multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. A number of review...... the advantages of hybrid approaches over individual methods, and we conclude that they can assist decision-makers in handling information such as stakeholders' preferences, interconnected or contradictory criteria, and uncertain environments. The main contribution of this work is identifying hybrid approaches...... as improvements for decision-making related to sustainability issues, while also promoting future application of the approaches....
Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian
that aligns the descriptions of the economic consequences of modularization at the project and portfolio level which makes it possible to decentralize decision making while making sure that local goals are congruent with the global ones in order to avoid suboptimal behaviour. Keywords: Modularization...... which distorts the economic effects of modularization at the level of the individual product. This has the implication that decisions on modularization can only be made by top management if decision authority and relevant information are to be aligned. To overcome this problem, we suggest a solution......; Accounting; Cost allocation; Decision rule; Decentralization...
Simon, Herbert A.
Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…
Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.
Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…
Feldhaus, S. (Wissenschaftliche Redaktion Bioethik-Wirtschaftsethik, Muenchen (Germany))
Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.)
van Vliet, Hans; Tang, Anthony
Traditionally, software architecture is seen as the result of the software architecture design process, the solution, usually represented by a set of components and connectors. Recently, the why of the solution, the set of design decisions made by the software architect, is complementing or even
The thesis focuses on rationality in decisions by managers. The terms rationality, irrationality and bounded rationality are defined in the first part. The current state of knowledge on the concept of bounded rationality in decision making is then followed by a specific consideration of managerial decision making. The chosen bounded rationality effects, including heuristics, are also described. The purpose of the second part of this study is to examine experimentally the differential uses of ...
S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia)
textabstractEvery day individuals make numerous choices. What is important for making the right choice is that individuals have good information about the consequences of the different alternatives. However, investigating the full consequences of the different alternatives is complicated and
Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael
People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.
Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.
Chang, Luke J; Sanfey, Alan G
Initial explorations in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics have highlighted evidence supporting a potential dissociation between a fast automatic system and a slow deliberative controlled system. Growing research in the role of emotion in decision-making has attempted to draw parallels to the automatic system. This chapter will discuss a theoretical framework for understanding the role of emotion in decision-making and evidence supporting the underlying neural substrates. This chapter applies a conceptual framework to understanding the role of emotion in decision-making, and emphasizes a distinction between expected and immediate emotions. Expected emotions refer to anticipated emotional states associated with a given decision that are never actually experienced. Immediate emotions, however, are experienced at the time of decision, and either can occur in response to a particular decision or merely as a result of a transitory fluctuation. This chapter will review research from the neuroeconomics literature that supports a neural dissociation between these two classes of emotion and also discuss a few interpretive caveats. Several lines of research including regret, uncertainty, social decision-making, and moral decision-making have yielded evidence consistent with our formulization--expected and immediate emotions may invoke dissociable neural systems. This chapter provides a more specific conceptualization of the mediating role of emotions in the decision-making process, which has important implications for understanding the interacting neural systems underlying the interface between emotion and cognition--a topic of immediate value to anyone investigating topics within the context of social-cognitive-affective-neuroscience.
torture, but not to find ticking bombs; it is used “to punish political opponents, to intimidate their allies, or to cow a citizenry” (Amnesty...terrorists in the case of a “ ticking time bomb” scenario. Some people and groups, such as Amnesty International, take a strong position against...critical information. The classic scenario, recently articulated by Alan Dershowitz (2002), is a “ ticking time bomb,” in which a prisoner is known to
Kozar, Joy M.; Marcketti, Sara B.
The purpose of this article is to address the relationship between the purchase of counterfeit apparel goods by college students and their knowledge and concern of counterfeiting. Additionally, students' beliefs regarding the legality of manufacturing, distributing, and purchasing counterfeit goods are examined. This topic is important because…
Fortnum, Debbie; Smolonogov, Tatiana; Walker, Rachael; Kairaitis, Luke; Pugh, Debbie
For patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) a decision of whether to undertake dialysis or conservative care is a critical component of the patient journey. Shared decision making for complex decisions such as this could be enhanced by a decision aid, a practice which is well utilised in other disciplines but limited for nephrology. A multidisciplinary team in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) utilised current decision-making theory and best practice to develop the 'My Kidneys, My Choice', a decision aid for the treatment of kidney disease. A patient-centred, five-sectioned tool is now complete and freely available to all ANZ units to support the ESKD education and shared decision-making process. Distribution and education have occurred across ANZ and evaluation of the decision aid in practice is in the first phase. Development of a new tool such as an ESKD decision aid requires vision, multidisciplinary input and ongoing implementation resources. This tool is being integrated into ANZ, ESKD education practice and is promoting the philosophy of shared decision making. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren; Goldthau, Andreas
All too often, energy policy and technology discussions are limited to the domains of engineering and economics. Many energy consumers, and even analysts and policymakers, confront and frame energy and climate risks in a moral vacuum, rarely incorporating broader social justice concerns. Here, to remedy this gap, we investigate how concepts from justice and ethics can inform energy decision-making by reframing five energy problems — nuclear waste, involuntary resettlement, energy pollution, energy poverty and climate change — as pressing justice concerns. We conclude by proposing an energy justice framework centred on availability, affordability, due process, transparency and accountability, sustainability, equity and responsibility, which highlights the futurity, fairness and equity dimensions of energy production and use.
Hirshleifer, David; Jian, Ming; Zhang, Huai
In Chinese culture, certain digits are lucky and others unlucky. We test how such numerological superstition affects financial decision in the China IPO market. We find that the frequency of lucky numerical stock listing codes exceeds what would be expected by chance. Also consistent with superstition effects, newly listed firms with lucky listing codes are initially traded at a premium after controlling for known determinants of valuation multiples, the lucky number premium dissipates within...
Cara Okleshen Peters, Ph.D.
Full Text Available This paper highlights the potential of customer decision support systems (CDSS to assist students in education-related decision making. Faculty can use these resources to more effectively advise students on various elements of college life, while students can employ them to more actively participate in their own learning and improve their academic experience. This conceptual paper summarizes consumer decision support systems (CDSS concepts and presents exemplar websites students could utilize to support their education-related decision making. Finally, the authors discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks such resources engender from a student perspective and conclude with directions for future research.
Goodpaster, Kenneth E.
Examines the problems of evaluating the outcomes of college ethics courses. Three aspects of moral education which cause problems are discussed. Journal available from The Hastings Center, 360 Broadway, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 10706. (AM)
Bals, Lydia; Kneis, Kyra; Lemke, Christine
the decision making process on R&D outsourcing are lacking. To address this gap, we present a framework developed in the context of a multinational pharmaceutical company. The framework builds on general make-or-buy frameworks and incorporates specificities of the service and knowledge-driven areas...... contributes to the emerging area of research into decision making processes on outsourcing in knowledge-intensive industries....
Research in the life sciences is developing at a rapid pace, has profound implications in terms of its effects on human nature and touches upon the self-conceptions of both the individual and society. In order to determine how this research and its application in all phases of human life should be assessed on the moral level, and whether it should be subject to regulation, the involvement of all disciplines--in the natural sciences, medicine, philosophy, law and the social sciences--that can contribute knowledge for the purpose of guidance is indispensable. Political decisions should be preceded by a wide-ranging debate within society encompassing all relevant groups and the media. Alongside discourse confined to specialists and their forums, a particular part can be played by the institution of ethics committees with an interdisciplinary, pluralistic membership. Their work can contribute to the stimulation of social debate and to ensuring that it is conducted on a suitably high level. In our knowledge society, Government and Parliament lack the information necessary to guide their decisions, and therefore require external expertise to provide a solid foundation for them. In the field of bioethics, however, the relationship between advisory activity and parliamentary decision-making proves is not without problems, because, in addition to rational criteria and party-political considerations, personal moral judgements are not only unavoidable but also legitimate, though they are not always made transparent.
Full Text Available Supported decision-making is at the forefront of modern disability research. This is due to Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD, which creates a state obligation to provide support for the exercise of legal capacity. This turned the practice of supported decision-making into a human rights imperative. Government and funding agencies are increasingly focusing their attention on the area. Researchers are similarly increasing their interest in the field. The impending danger is that the rush of interest in the area will overshadow the original intention of supported decision-making: to ensure that people with cognitive disability are provided with the freedom and the tools to participate as equal citizens and for every individual to be free to direct their own life. This article explores the theoretical foundations of supported decision-making and the evolution of supported decision-making research. It explains the research that is emerging in leading jurisdictions, the United States and Australia, and its potential to transform disability services and laws related to decision-making. Finally, it identifies areas of concern in the direction of such research and provides recommendations for ensuring that supported decision-making remains protective of the rights, will and preferences of people with cognitive disability.
Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.
Ngadimon, I W; Islahudin, F; Mohamed Shah, N; Md Hatah, E; Makmor-Bakry, M
Background Shared decision-making is vital in achieving desired drug therapy goals, especially with antibiotics, in view of the potential long-term reduction in drug resistance. However, shared decision-making is rarely practiced with adolescent patients. Objectives The aim of the study was to identify the effect antibiotic education has on willingness to engage in shared decision-making among adolescents in Malaysia. Setting Participants from secondary schools in Malaysia were enrolled with ethical approval. Method The adolescents answered a validated questionnaire, which included demographics, antibiotic knowledge, attitude towards antibiotic use, and the Control Preference Scale, which measures willingness to engage in shared decision-making. Afterwards, antibiotic education was delivered to participating students. Main outcome measure Knowledge about and attitude toward antibiotics were investigated. Results A total of 510 adolescents participated in the study. Knowledge of antibiotics significantly increased post education (pre 3.2 ± 1.8 vs. post 6.8 ± 2.1, p education (χ = 36.9, df = 2, p education improves knowledge, attitude, and willingness to engage in shared decision-making among adolescents. Antibiotic education can therefore be introduced as a strategy to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Delmar, M. V.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
The target group in this paper is people concerned with mathematical economic decision theory. It is shown how the numerically effective First Order Reliability Methods (FORM) can be used in rational management decision making, where some parameters in the applied decision basis are uncertainty...... quantities. The uncertainties are taken into account consistently and the decision analysis is based on the general decision theory in combination with reliability and optimization theory. Examples are shown where the described technique is used and some general conclusion are stated....
Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael
Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subjects. Second, heuristics differ by age with older subjects relying more on suboptimal decision rules. In a heuristics validation experiment, older subjects make worse decisions than younger subjects. PMID:22544977
Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael
Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subjects. Second, heuristics differ by age with older subjects relying more on suboptimal decision rules. In a heuristics validation experiment, older subjects make worse decisions than younger subjects.
Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan
This book presents innovative theories, methodologies, and techniques in the field of risk management and decision making. It introduces new research developments and provides a comprehensive image of their potential applications to readers interested in the area. The collection includes: computational intelligence applications in decision making, multi-criteria decision making under risk, risk modelling,forecasting and evaluation, public security and community safety, risk management in supply chain and other business decision making, political risk management and disaster response systems. The book is directed to academic and applied researchers working on risk management, decision making, and management information systems.
de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Goethals, Sabine; Gastmans, Chris
In order to fully understand nurses' ethical decision-making in cases of physical restraint in acute older people care, contextual influences on the process of decision-making should be clarified. What is the influence of context on nurses' decision-making process in cases of physical restraint, and what is the impact of context on the prioritizing of ethical values when making a decision on physical restraint? A qualitative descriptive study inspired by the Grounded Theory approach was carried out. In total, 21 in-depth interviews were carried out with nurses working on acute geriatric wards in Flanders, Belgium. The research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Leuven. Relationships with nursing colleagues and the patient's family form an inter-personal network. Nurses also point to the importance of the procedural-legal context as expressed in an institutional ethics policy and procedures, or through legal requirements concerning physical restraint. Furthermore, the architectural structure of a ward, the availability of materials and alternatives for restraint use can be decisive in nurses' decision-making. All interviewed nurses highlighted the unquestionable role of the practical context of care. Context can have a guiding, supportive, or decisive role in decision-making concerning the application of physical restraint. The discussion focuses on the role of the inter-personal network of nurses on the process of decision-making. An institutional ethics policy and a value-supportive care environment can support nurses in their challenge to take ethically sound decisions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Woodhouse, C. A.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.; Garfin, G. M.; Scott, C. A.
As society is confronted with population growth, limited resources, and the impacts of climate variability and change, it is vital that institutions of higher education promote the development of professionals who can work with decision-makers to incorporate scientific information into environmental planning and management. Skills for the communication of science are essential, but equally important is the ability to understand decision-making contexts and engage with resource managers and policy makers. It is increasingly being recognized that people who understand the linkages between science and decision making are crucial if science is to better support planning and policy. A new graduate-level seminar, "Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making," is a core course for a new post-baccalaureate certificate program, Connecting Environmental Science and Decision Making at the University of Arizona. The goal of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the dynamics between scientists and decision makers that result in scientific information being incorporated into environmental planning, policy, and management decisions. Through readings from the environmental and social sciences, policy, and planning literature, the course explores concepts including scientific information supply and demand, boundary organizations, co-production of knowledge, platforms for engagement, and knowledge networks. Visiting speakers help students understand some of the challenges of incorporating scientific information into planning and decision making within institutional and political contexts. The course also includes practical aspects of two-way communication via written, oral, and graphical presentations as well as through the interview process to facilitate the transfer of scientific information to decision makers as well as to broader audiences. We aspire to help students develop techniques that improve communication and
Cara Okleshen Peters, Ph.D.; David A. Bradbard, Ph.D.; Mary C. Martin, Ph.D.
This paper highlights the potential of customer decision support systems (CDSS) to assist students in education-related decision making. Faculty can use these resources to more effectively advise students on various elements of college life, while students can employ them to more actively participate in their own learning and improve their academic experience. This conceptual paper summarizes consumer decision support systems (CDSS) concepts and presents exemplar websites students could utili...
Pauley, Keryn; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Youngson, George
Surgical research on decision making and risk management usually focuses on perioperative care, despite the magnitude and frequency of intraoperative risks. The aim of this study was to examine surgeons' intraoperative decisions and risk management strategies to explore differences in cognitive processes. Critical decision method interviews were conducted with 24 consultant surgeons who recalled cases and selected important decisions during the operations. These decision were then discussed in detail in relation to decision-making style and risk management. The key decision in each case was made using either a rapid, intuitive mode (46%) or a more deliberate comparison of alternative courses of action (50%). Decision strategy was not related to surgical approach (endoscopic vs open), context (elective vs emergency), perceived time pressure, or situational threats. Risk management involved perceiving threats and assessing impact but also indicated the role of personal risk tolerance. Surgeons described making key intraoperative decisions using either an intuitive or an analytic mode of thinking. Surgeons' risk assessment, risk tolerance, and decision strategies appear to be influenced by their personalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seyed Mohammad Seyedhosseini
Full Text Available Minimizing the total cost is absolutely the goal of each supply chain, which is most of the time pursued. In this regards, quality related costs that have significant roles are sometimes neglected. Selecting suppliers, which supply relatively high quality raw materials in a lower cost is considered as a strategic decision. Make or Buy decision can be also noticed in supplier selection process. In this paper, the supply strategy: Make or Buy decision (SS: MOB is studied in order to find which strategy (Make or Buy should be chosen to minimize the total costs of supply chain. Therefore, two separate models are generated for each strategy and several examples are solved for the respective models. Computational experiments show the efficiency of the proposed models for making decision about selecting the best strategy.
Piet, Steven James; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Dakins, Maxine Ellen
Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. “Cleanup” includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done - some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches, including: • New ways (mental model) to analyze and visualize the problem, • Awareness of the option to shift strategy or reframe from a single decision to an adaptable network of decisions, and • Improved tactical processes that account for several challenges. These include the following: • Stakeholder values are a more fundamental basis for decision making and keeping than “meeting regulations.” • Late-entry players and future generations will question decisions. • People may resist making “irreversible” decisions. • People need “compelling reasons” to take action in the face of uncertainties. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period—from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept “as is” or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: • Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? • Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? • Resources: what is available to implement
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow the search and evaluation of&nbs...
Bullen, Guy; Ouafae, Bennis; Kratz, Frédéric
International audience; This article proposes a generative approach to decision making in a complex and uncertain environment, as n alternative to normative or descriptive approaches. A simple and intuitive graphical model provides management teams with a non-restrictive framework for thinking through their decisions. The second half of the article proposes a mathematical model to estimate the multiple influences between decisions in a complex project, whether they are direct or indirect. Thi...
Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Kaplan, Brent A
As research on decision making in addiction accumulates, it is increasingly clear that decision-making processes are dysfunctional in addiction and that this dysfunction may be fundamental to the initiation and maintenance of addictive behavior. How drug-dependent individuals value and choose among drug and nondrug rewards is consistently different from non-dependent individuals. The present review focuses on the assessment of decision-making in addiction. We cover the common behavioral tasks that have shown to be fruitful in decision-making research and highlight analytical and graphical considerations, when available, to facilitate comparisons within and among studies. Delay discounting tasks, drug demand tasks, drug choice tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Identification of multiple criteria decision making / Magdalena Mißler-Behr ; Otto Opitz. - In: Conceptual and numerical analysis of data / Otto Opitz (ed.). - Berlin u.a. : Springer, 1989. - S. 407-415
Argues against the current trends in giving importance to subjective values in educational administration, particularly the argument that attention to subjective values can overcome the perceived irrelevance of scientific administration and organization theory and help administrators make better decisions. (MD)
Aalbers, H.L.; Whelan, E.; Parise, S.; Vialle, C.
The article focuses on the organizational decision-making management. Topics mentioned include the development of enterprise social software (ESS), the online corporate communities management, and the project management. Also mentioned are the importance of customer services, the bankruptcy
Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt
This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...
... to a palliative care specialist or social worker. Barrier: Disagreeing with the doctor Solution: In shared decision making, the patient and doctor are partners. And sometimes, partners disagree. Communication is critical if a disagreement occurs. If a ...
Based partly on his experience at Ravenscote County Middle School, the author illustrates the increasing inappropriateness and indefensibility of headteacher autocracy and the dividends to be reaped from full staff participation in decision making. (Editor)
To describe women's experiences during decision making about hormonal and nonhormonal therapies during the menopausal transition. Transcripts from 21 semi-structured audio taped interviews with seven peri- and postmenopausal women who had a recently visited a nurse practitioner (NP) and were making a decision about menopausal management. Decision making was a nonlinear process in which women considered available options, weighed benefits and risks and likely outcomes. Reevaluation of the decision was ongoing. Both internal and external conditions influenced their decisions. Media reports of findings from the Women's Health Initiative study may have influenced some women's perceptions of the risk of using hormones for symptom relief. Women described caring and empowering consultations with the NPs. They appreciated provision of information, adequate time spent at the visit, and decision support. NPs have a critical role to play in providing women with current research findings about hormone therapy and alternatives for symptom relief, and assisting women with understanding risks and benefits of each possible choice. Both individual and group approaches for decision support should be available to women. The approach of a collaborative partnership in decision making is a model that is congruent with nursing practice. ©2010 The Author Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Prior, Daniel W.; And Others
This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)
Hicks, George E.; DeWalt, Cassandra Sligh
According to Erlandson and Bifano (1987), teacher empowerment is a vital dimension of the school's organization. Lieberman (1989) defined teacher empowerment as "empowering teachers to participate in group decisions and to have real decision-making roles in the school community" (p. 24). Furthermore, Summers (2006) addressed the need for…
Rilling, J.K.; Sanfey, A.G.
Given that we live in highly complex social environments, many of our most important decisions are made in the context of social interactions. Simple but sophisticated tasks from a branch of experimental economics known as game theory have been used to study social decision-making in the laboratory
Bleiler-Baxter, Sarah K.; Stephens, D. Christopher; Baxter, Wesley A.; Barlow, Angela T.
The goal in this article is to support teachers in better understanding what it means to model with mathematics by focusing on three key decision-making processes: Simplification, Relationship Mapping, and Situation Analysis. The authors use the Theme Park task to help teachers develop a vision of how students engage in these three decision-making…
This paper suggests an innovative idea of using the "technology fair" as a means for promoting pre-service teachers (university students) decision-making skills. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a procedure of working with primary school children to complete and present a technology fair project, on the decision-making…
Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.
Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…
Dow, Mirah J.; Boettcher, Carrie A.; Diego, Juana F.; Karch, Marziah E.; Todd-Diaz, Ashley; Woods, Kristine M.
The purpose of this mixed methods study is to determine the effectiveness of case-based pedagogy in teaching basic principles of information ethics and ethical decision making. Study reports results of pre- and post-assessment completed by 49 library and information science (LIS) graduate students at a Midwestern university. Using Creswell's…
Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Russell, Jacob; Kim, Keumjoo; Veenhuis, Luke; Boparai, Ramnjit; Stautland, Thomas Kristoffer
A Commander's decision making style represents how he weighs his choices and evaluates possible solutions with regards to his goals. Specifically, in the naval warfare domain, it relates the way he processes a large amount of information in dynamic, uncertain environments, allocates resources, and chooses appropriate actions to pursue. In this paper, we describe an approach to capture a Commander's decision style by creating a cognitive model that captures his decisionmaking process and evaluate this model using a set of scenarios using an online naval warfare simulation game. In this model, we use the Commander's past behaviors and generalize Commander's actions across multiple problems and multiple decision making sequences in order to recommend actions to a Commander in a manner that he may have taken. Our approach builds upon the Double Transition Model to represent the Commander's focus and beliefs to estimate his cognitive state. Each cognitive state reflects a stage in a Commander's decision making process, each action reflects the tasks that he has taken to move himself closer to a final decision, and the reward reflects how close he is to achieving his goal. We then use inverse reinforcement learning to compute a reward for each of the Commander's actions. These rewards and cognitive states are used to compare between different styles of decision making. We construct a set of scenarios in the game where rational, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles will be evaluated.
Full Text Available Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005. In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT’s ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes; Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1 or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2. These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead.
The presented paper is a presentation of final results of research led throughout past years on a group of Polish and international SME’s. The essential aim was the elaboration of a decision – making model including both qualitative and quantitative factors that influence decision – making processes. Most focus has been put on geopolitical determinants of international companies’ development. In order to narrow the research field, a further limitation has been made in the type of undertaken s...
Marcel Zeelenberg; Rob M. A. Nelissen; Seger M. Breugelmans; Rik Pieters
We present a motivational account of the impact of emotion on decision making, termed the feeling-is-for-doing approach. We first describe the psychology of emotion and argue for a need to be specific when studying emotion's impact on decision making. Next we describe what our approach entails and how it relates emotion, via motivation to behavior. Then we offer two illustrations of our own research that provide support for two important elements in our reasoning. We end with specifying four ...
Background: A descriptive neuroeconomic model is aimed for relativity of the concept of economic man to empirical science.Method: A 4-level client-server-integrator model integrating the brain models of McLean and Luria is the general framework for the model of empirical findings.Results: Decision making relies on integration across brain levels of emotional intelligence (LU) and logico-matematico intelligence (RIA), respectively. The integrated decision making formula approaching zero by bot...
Pristed Nielsen, Helene
Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...
Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Burtschy, Bernard
Decision making addresses the usage of various methods to select "the best", in some way, alternative strategy (from many available) when a problem is given for solving. The authors propose the usage of neutrosophic way of thinking, called also Smarandache's logic, to select a model by experts when...... degrees of trustability, ultrastability (falsehood), and indeterminacy are used to decide. The procedures deal with multi-attribute neutrosophic decision making and a case study on e-learning software objects is presented....
Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a class of powerful machine learning models for classification and function approximation which have analogs in nature. An ANN learns to map stimuli to responses through repeated evaluation of exemplars of the mapping. This learning approach results in networks which are recognized for their noise tolerance and ability to generalize meaningful responses for novel stimuli. It is these properties of ANNs which make them appealing for applications to bioinformatics problems where interpretation of data may not always be obvious, and where the domain knowledge required for deductive techniques is incomplete or can cause a combinatorial explosion of rules. In this paper, we provide an introduction to artificial neural network theory and review some interesting recent applications to bioinformatics problems. PMID:24335433
Broche-Pérez, Y; Herrera Jiménez, L F; Omar-Martínez, E
Decision-making is the process of selecting a course of action from among 2 or more alternatives by considering the potential outcomes of selecting each option and estimating its consequences in the short, medium and long term. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has traditionally been considered the key neural structure in decision-making process. However, new studies support the hypothesis that describes a complex neural network including both cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence on the anatomical structures underlying the decision-making process, considering new findings that support the existence of a complex neural network that gives rise to this complex neuropsychological process. Current evidence shows that the cortical structures involved in decision-making include the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This process is assisted by subcortical structures including the amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum. Findings to date show that both cortical and subcortical brain regions contribute to the decision-making process. The neural basis of decision-making is a complex neural network of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections which includes subareas of the PFC, limbic structures, and the cerebellum. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Weller, Joshua A; Fisher, Philip A
Although maltreated children involved with child welfare services are known to exhibit elevated levels of health-risking behaviors, little is known about their decision-making processes leading to such tendencies. Research findings suggest that maltreated children exhibit developmental delays in neurocognitive and emotional regulation systems that could adversely impact their abilities to make decisions under conditions of risk. Whereas prior researchers have examined risky decision making as a global construct, maltreated children's decision making was examined in two contexts in the present study: potential gains and potential losses. Comparing maltreated children (n = 25) and a nonmaltreated community group (n = 112), it was found that the maltreated children showed decision-making impairments for both domains: This impairment was especially prominent in the loss domain. The maltreated children took excessive risks and were insensitive to changes in expected value. Follow-up analyses revealed that these differences were primarily associated with insensitivity to changes in outcome magnitude for the risky option. Finally, response latency analyses indicated that the maltreated children were slower to make choices, reinforcing underlying differences in decision processes between groups. These results have implications for basic and translational science.
Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.
Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases.
While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the
Decision-making during pregnancy can be ethically complex. This paper offers a framework for maternal decision-making and clinical counseling that can be used to approach such decisions in a systematic way. Three fundamental questions are addressed: (1) Who should make decisions? (2) How should decisions be made? and (3) What is the role of the clinician? The proposed framework emphasizes the decisional authority of the pregnant woman. It draws ethical support from the concept of a good parent and the requirements of parental obligations. It also describes appropriate counseling methods for clinicians in light of those parental obligations. Finally, the paper addresses how cultural differences may shape the framework's guidance of maternal decision-making during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants’ choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward, the reward value of the decision outcome, which guided the update of value for each choice, is unknown beforehand. To estimate the reward value of emotional pictures from participants’ choice data, we used reinforcement learning models that have success- fully been used in previous studies for modeling value-based decision making. Consequently, we found that the estimated reward value was asymmetric between positive and negative pictures. The negative reward value of negative pictures (relative to neutral pictures was larger in magnitude than the positive reward value of positive pictures. This asymmetry was not observed in valence for an individual picture, which was rated by the participants regarding the emotion experienced upon viewing it. These results suggest that there may be a difference between experienced emotion and the effect of the experienced emotion on subsequent behavior. Our experimental and computational paradigm provides a novel way for quantifying how and what aspects of emotional events affect human behavior. The present study is a first step toward relating a large amount of knowledge in emotion science and in taking computational approaches to value-based decision making.
The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....
Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner
Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be
This book offers an overview of the main questions arising when biomedical decision-making intersects ethical decision-making. It reports on two ethical decision-making methodologies, one addressing the patients, the other physicians. It shows how patients’ autonomous choices can be empowered by increasing awareness of ethical deliberation, and at the same time it supports healthcare professionals in developing an ethical sensitivity, which they can apply in their daily practice. The book highlights the importance and relevance of practicing bioethics in the age of personalized medicine. It presents concrete cases studies dealing with cancer and genetic diseases, where difficult decisions need to be made by all the parties involved: patients, physicians and families. Decisions concern not only diagnostic procedures and treatments, but also moral values, religious beliefs and ways of seeing life and death, thus adding further layers of complexity to biomedical decision-making. This book, which is strongly ro...
Shay, L Aubree; Lafata, Jennifer Elston
This study aims to develop a conceptual model of patient-defined SDM, and understand what leads patients to label a specific, decision-making process as shared. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 primary care patients following a recent appointment. Patients were asked about the meaning of SDM and about specific decisions that they labeled as shared. Interviews were coded using qualitative content analysis. Patients' conceptual definition of SDM included four components of an interactive exchange prior to making the decision: both doctor and patient share information, both are open-minded and respectful, patient self-advocacy, and a personalized physician recommendation. Additionally, a long-term trusting relationship helps foster SDM. In contrast, when asked about a specific decision labeled as shared, patients described a range of interactions with the only commonality being that the two parties came to a mutually agreed-upon decision. There is no one-size-fits all process that leads patients to label a decision as shared. Rather, the outcome of "agreement" may be more important than the actual decision-making process for patients to label a decision as shared. Studies are needed to better understand how longitudinal communication between patient and physicians and patient self-advocacy behaviors affect patient perceptions of SDM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Raicu, A.; Oanta, E.; Sabau, A.
Decision making process has a great influence in the development of a given project, the goal being to select an optimal choice in a given context. Because of its great importance, the decision making was studied using various science methods, finally being conceived the game theory that is considered the background for the science of logical decision making in various fields. The paper presents some basic ideas regarding the game theory in order to offer the necessary information to understand the multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems in engineering. The solution is to transform the multiple-criteria problem in a one-criterion decision problem, using the notion of utility, together with the weighting sum model or the weighting product model. The weighted importance of the criteria is computed using the so-called Step method applied to a relation of preferences between the criteria. Two relevant examples from engineering are also presented. The future directions of research consist of the use of other types of criteria, the development of computer based instruments for decision making general problems and to conceive a software module based on expert system principles to be included in the Wiki software applications for polymeric materials that are already operational.
Full Text Available Byzantine fault tolerance is of high importance in the distributed computing environment where malicious attacks and software errors are common. A Byzantine process sends arbitrary messages to every other process. An effective fuzzy decision making approach is proposed to eliminate the Byzantine behaviour of the services in the distributed environment. It is proposed to derive a fuzzy decision set in which the alternatives are ranked with grade of membership and based on that an appropriate decision can be arrived on the messages sent by the different services. A balanced decision is to be taken from the messages received across the services. To accomplish this, Hurwicz criterion is used to balance the optimistic and pessimistic views of the decision makers on different services. Grades of membership for the services are assessed using the non-functional Quality of Service parameters and have been estimated using fuzzy entropy measure which logically ranks the participant services. This approach for decision making is tested by varying the number of processes, varying the number of faulty services, varying the message values sent to different services and considering the variation in the views of the decision makers about the services. The experimental result shows that the decision reached is an enhanced one and in case of conflict, the proposed approach provides a concrete result, whereas decision taken using the Lamport’s algorithm is an arbitrary one.
In the aftermath of seismic debacles like those that toppled Enron and WorldCom, corporate boards have been shaken up and made over. More directors are independent these days, for instance, and corporations now disclose directors' salaries and committee members' names. Research shows that most of the changes are having a positive effect on companies' performance. They are primarily structural, though, and don't go to the heart of a board's work: making the choices that shape a firm's future. Which decisions boards own and how those calls are made are largely hidden from the public. As a result, boards are often unable to learn from the best governance practices of their counterparts at other companies. This article pulls back the curtain and provides an inside look. Drawing on interviews with board members and executives at 31 companies, along with a close examination of three boardroom decisions, the author identifies several formal processes that can help companies improve their decision making: creating calendars that specify when the board and the standing committees will consider key items; drafting charters that define the decisions committees are responsible for; and developing decision protocols that divvy up responsibilities between directors and executives. The author also identifies a number of informal decision-making principles: Items that are strategically significant and touch on the firm's core values should go to the board. Large decisions should be divided into small pieces, so the board can devote sufficient attention to each one. Directors must remain vigilant to ensure that their decisions are effectively implemented. The CEO and either the nonexecutive chair or the lead director should engage in ongoing dialogue regarding which decisions to take to the full board and when. And directors should challenge assumptions before making yes-or-no decisions on management proposals.
Reaby, L L
The purpose of this study was to explore the breast restoration decision-making patterns used by women who opted to have their breast cancer treated by mastectomy. Sixty-four women wearing external breast prostheses and 31 women with breast reconstructions were interviewed. Modified versions of Simon's notion of "bounded rationality" and Janis and Mann's conflict model provided the conceptual scaffolding for the study. Five breast restoration decision-making patterns emerged from the analysis of the interview data: (a) Enlightened (actively seeks information, considers positive and negative aspects, and demonstrates deliberation on the alternatives), (b) Contented (passively accepts minimum information on alternatives because of a preference toward a particular type), (c) Sideliner (uncritically adopts any alternative that is easy and simple to implement), (d) Shifter (gives over the decision to others), and (e) Panic-stricken (can make no rational decision on alternatives). In the prosthesis group, the major pattern used was the Sideliner, and in the reconstruction group it was the Contented. None of the participants used the Enlightened pattern. The data indicated that there was no evidence of active information-seeking behavior or deliberation on the alternatives as part of the women's decision-making process. The findings suggest a need for a registered nurse oncology specialist to be accessible to women during the period when decisions regarding breast restoration are made. This professional has the knowledge to interact effectively with these women and serve as their advocate during the decision-making process. Implications for professional practice and a model for competent breast restoration decision making are presented.
Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves
Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction......, the sophisticated strategy, i.e., the strategy generated by a standard rolling back of the decision tree, is likely to be dominated w.r.t. stochastic dominance. Dynamic consistency of choices remains feasible, and the decision maker can avoid dominated choices, by adopting a non-consequentialist behavior, with his...... choices in a subtree possibly depending on what happens in the rest of the tree. We propose a procedure which: (i) although adopting a non-consequentialist behavior, involves a form of rolling back of the decision tree; (ii) selects a non-dominated strategy that realizes a compromise between the decision...
Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Adegoke, Olufunke Olufunsho
End-of-life decision making is value-laden within the context of culture and bioethics. Also, ethics committee role is difficult to understand on this, thus need for ethnomethodological perspective in an expanding bioethical age. Anthropological approach was utilized to document Yoruba definition and perspective of death, cultural beliefs about end-of-life decision making, factors influencing it and ethics committee role. Interviews were conducted among selected Yoruba resident in Akinyele LGA, Oyo State, Nigeria. Content analytical approach was used for data analysis. Yoruba culture, death is socially constructed having spiritual, physical and social significance. Relationship between the dying and significant others influences decision making. Hierarchy of authority informs implementing traditional advance directive. Socialization, gender, patriarchy, religious belief and tradition are major considerations in end-of-life decision making. Awareness, resource allocation and advocacy are important ethics committees' roles. Further research into cultural diversity of end-of-life decision making will strengthen ethical practice in health care delivery.
Vetter, Donald P.; And Others
This unit on decision-making and discussion skills is the second of five units in a ninth grade social studies course (course described in SO 010 891). There are two major objectives: (1) given a problem, the student will make value judgments using decision-making skills; and (2) using proper discussion techniques, the student will analyze a…
Mabel, Hilary; Rose, Susannah L; Kodish, Eric
Decisions about continuing or terminating a pregnancy touch on profound, individualized questions about bodily integrity, reproductive autonomy, deeply held values regarding one's capacity for parenthood, and, in the case of a high-risk pregnancy, the risks one is willing to take to have a baby. So far as possible, reproductive decisions are made between a patient, in some cases her partner, and her medical provider. However, this standard framework cannot be applied if the patient lacks decision-making capacity. In this essay, we discuss one such case that came before our clinical ethics team. We describe the challenges of respecting a patient's reproductive preferences when the patient cannot share what those preferences are, and we argue that decisions regarding reproductive health care should not be treated with exceptionalism. Rather, they should proceed under the normal processes of surrogate decision-making, including the application of substituted judgment. This approach enables us to take the patient's values into account when considering the questions implicated in reproductive health care, just as we do for other kinds of health care decisions in which a patient's deeply held values are salient. © 2017 The Hastings Center.
St John, C.
Scientific information about climate change and other human impacts on the environment are increasingly available and sought after (often in the form of probabilistic forecasts or technical information related to engineering solutions). However, it is increasingly apparent that there are barriers to the use of this information by decision makers - either from its lack of application altogether, its usability for people without scientific backgrounds, or its ability to inform sound decisions and widespread behavior change. While the argument has been made that an information deficit is to blame, we argue that there is also a motivation deficit contributing to a lack of understanding of information about climate change impacts and solutions. Utilizing insight from over thirty years of research in social and cognitive psychology, in addition to other social sciences, the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) seeks to understand how people make environmental decisions under conditions of uncertainty, and how these decisions can be improved. This presentation will focus specifically on recent research that has come forth since the 2009 publication of CRED's popular guide 'The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public.' Utilizing case studies from real world examples, this talk will explore how decision making can be improved through a better understanding of how people perceive and process uncertainty and risk. It will explore techniques such as choice architecture and 'nudging' behavior change, how social goals and group participation affect decision making, and how framing of environmental information influences mitigative behavior.
Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.
Structured decision making (SDM) provides a framework for making sound decisions even when faced with uncertainty, and is a transparent, defensible, and replicable method used to understand complex problems. A hallmark of SDM is the explicit incorporation of values and science, which often includes participation from multiple stakeholders, helping to garner trust and ultimately result in a decision that is more likely to be implemented. The core steps in the SDM process are used to structure thinking about natural resources management choices, and include: (1) properly defining the problem and the decision context, (2) determining the objectives that help describe the aspirations of the decision maker, (3) devising management actions or alternatives that can achieve those objectives, (4) evaluating the outcomes or consequences of each alternative on each of the objectives, (5) evaluating trade-offs, and (6) implementing the decision. Participatory modeling for SDM includes engaging stakeholders in some or all of the steps of the SDM process listed above. In addition, participatory modeling often is crucial for creating qualitative and quantitative models of how the system works, providing data for these models, and eliciting expert opinion when data are unavailable. In these ways, SDM provides a framework for decision making in natural resources management that includes participation from stakeholder groups throughout the process, including the modeling phase.
Venkatraman, Vinod; Huettel, Scott
Complex economic decisions – whether investing money for retirement or purchasing some new electronic gadget – often involve uncertainty about the likely consequences of our choices. Critical for resolving that uncertainty are strategic meta-decision processes, which allow people to simplify complex decision problems, to evaluate outcomes against a variety of contexts, and to flexibly match behavior to changes in the environment. In recent years, substantial research implicates the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in the flexible control of behavior. However, nearly all such evidence comes from paradigms involving executive function or response selection, not complex decision making. Here, we review evidence that demonstrates that the dmPFC contributes to strategic control in complex decision making. This region contains a functional topography such that the posterior dmPFC supports response-related control while the anterior dmPFC supports strategic control. Activation in the anterior dmPFC signals changes in how a decision problem is represented, which in turn can shape computational processes elsewhere in the brain. Based on these findings, we argue both for generalized contributions of the dmPFC to cognitive control, and for specific computational roles for its subregions depending upon the task demands and context. We also contend that these strategic considerations are also likely to be critical for decision making in other domains, including interpersonal interactions in social settings. PMID:22487037
McVea, John F
..., as technological progress tends to outpace moral consensus, entrepreneurs often have to make these decisions without clear guidance over the ethics of their decisions. While there are strong indications that entrepreneurs adopt distinctive cognitive approaches to problem solving under uncertainty, to date we know little about how they inco...
Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.
Risa Rumentha Simanjuntak
Full Text Available This paper aims to make a critique to a chapter in Samuelsson-Brown’s (2010 A Practical Guide for Translators. The focus is on communication with clients for successful translation negotiations and decisions need to be fairly made. Following clients’ recommendations may result in intervening translators’ professionalism and impartiality. The paper argued that balance should be maintained between considering the needs of the clients and maintaining fidelity and impartiality, including ethics and morality aspects that often intertwined with the text.
Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M
The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.
Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knoll, Melissa A Z
.... Behavioral economists and decision-making researchers, however, are interested in how people make decisions in the face of incomplete information, limited cognitive resources, and decision biases...
We examine the main theoretical models of decision making under stress and the effects of decision stress on decision making process to provide a deeper understanding of the decision making phenomenon. The literature review reveals that stress can have an impact on each stage of the decision-making process. The review also finds that decision makers could enhance their decision-making performance and prevent potential decision failures by means of adapting certain coping strategies.
Gronlund, Andreas; Minnhagen, Petter
We investigate a social system of agents faced with a binary choice. We assume there is a correct, or beneficial, outcome of this choice. Furthermore, we assume agents are influenced by others in making their decision, and that the agents can obtain information that may guide them towards making a correct decision. The dynamic model we propose is of nonequilibrium type, converging to a final decision. We run it on random graphs and scale-free networks. On random graphs, we find two distinct regions in terms of the "finalizing time" -- the time until all agents have finalized their decisions. On scale-free networks on the other hand, there does not seem to be any such distinct scaling regions.
Voglmayr, Elisabeth; Widder, Joachim
By means of a case report on a 44-year-old female patient, we show how, with changing personnel and places of care, decisions as well as the kind of decision-making during illness influence the quality of care. The patient was receiving immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation and then suffered from a carcinomatous ovary. At first she refused postoperative chemotherapy, but then returned with a very advanced state of metastatic growth. The lack of continuity, a missing overall interdisciplinary concept of medical case, as well as the failure to document decision processes and the patient's attitude to life and suffering made it difficult for the caring team to accompany her in the last weeks of life. A possible solution to such a complex problem will be the introduction of ethical case deliberation.
to address this factor explicitly is the ’ garbage can’ model of decision making (Cohen, 4 March , & Olsen , 1972). At first, the model focused largely...Learning Research and Development Center. 35 Cohen, M. D., March , J. G., & Olsen , J. P. (1972). A garbage can model of organizational choice...8217.WD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Requirement: The failure of formal models to describe decisions made in natural environments has necessitated direct field
Tiago Oliveira; Jose Carlos Montoya; Paulo Novais; Ken Satoh
If there is no knowledge about the state of the world, getting the appropriate response to an event becomes impossible. Situations of uncertainty are common in the most varied environments and have the potential to impair or even stop the decision-making process. Thus, reaching an outcome in such situations requires the development of decision frameworks that account for missing, contradictory or uncertain information.
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethics Counselor decisions. 367.16 Section 367.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... exclusion proceeding may include the imposition of appropriate conditions on the contractor in their future...
Ethical decisions in endof- life care. D Norval, E Gwyther. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
Patients with far-advanced disease are often vulnerable and anxious and the doctor, care team, patient and family may face difficult decisions regarding care. It is important that the doctor bases his/her practice on sound ethical principles, based on the four prima facie principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-malefi-.
Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel
Decision-making during food buying is a joint family activity involving both parents and children. Children manage to achieve a high degree of influence on many decisions, among other things, because they participate actively and help out doing various tasks. These decisions may turn out...... to be a choice of unhealthy food. Many decisions are made at the supermarket or other food shops, and food packaging is often used in the comparison of food products. Only rarely do families use nutritional information on food labels due to several problems in the understanding of these labels; this may result...... in difficulties in distinguishing among healthy and unhealthy food. Both parents and children being active in the decision process may lead to conflicts due to gaps in preference such as between healthy and unhealthy food. Families solve these conflicts via open communication patterns and a use of various...
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S
Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.
Lee, Daeyeol; Seo, Hyojung
Human choice behaviors during social interactions often deviate from the predictions of game theory. This might arise partly from the limitations in the cognitive abilities necessary for recursive reasoning about the behaviors of others. In addition, during iterative social interactions, choices might change dynamically as knowledge about the intentions of others and estimates for choice outcomes are incrementally updated via reinforcement learning. Some of the brain circuits utilized during social decision making might be general-purpose and contribute to isomorphic individual and social decision making. By contrast, regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and temporal parietal junction (TPJ) might be recruited for cognitive processes unique to social decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barfod, Michael Bruhn
The subject of this Ph.D. thesis entitled “Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences” is multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision support in the context of transport infrastructure assessments. Despite the fact that large amounts...... identification to the possible decision making. The process makes use of a preliminary problem structuring phase, and an intervention phase featuring the concept of a decision conference where decision-makers and multiple stakeholders have the possibility of interacting with the decision support model...... depends to a high degree on subjective preferences stated by the decision-makers as the methodology deals with impacts (or criteria) that are difficult to quantify or assign with a monetary value. As a result of this an examination process is proposed that can guide the decision-makers through...
Portera Sánchez, A
In the human brain, simple molecules and complex circuits are constantly making decisions which are indispensable for our survival and also to accomplish a variety of daily activities such as walking, memorizing, conversing, composing music, painting or poetry.... All are the result of the integration of many neural systems that perceive many and simultaneous visual, tactile, auditory and/or mental stimuli. Once synthetized, they are immediately transmitted to the corresponding executive systems, thus completing the fascinating functional loop of decision-making: a) perception of stimuli or information which originate in the environment, b) selection and elaboration of the decision which is considered more appropriate or attractive according to personal experience or intuition and c) execution. If these neural nets have been damaged or haven failed to develop the mechanisms of facilitation or inhibition that govern them become unbalanced. If inhibition is reduced, excessive and violent behaviour is expressed as in patients suffering from manic phases. Conversely, if inhibition is excessive, decision making mechanisms are not operative. In either case, behaviour is not "reasonable" and does not follow prototypical patterns. All these processes must be the consequence of a constant molecular activity full of micro-decisions whose effectiveness depends on the histological and biochemical integrity of the neurons. This microenvironment is responsible for all types of decisions of all forms of life and represents one of the fundamental successes of evolution.
Verhoef, L W
This article discusses two possible solutions to decision making about controls by users of vending machines: the 'one button to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of one button only); the 'several buttons to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of several buttons). The basis for the discussion is a field evaluation of a train ticket vending machine (TVM) that can sell 800 different types of tickets and can accept all kinds of payment. For this evaluation several hundred TVM users and ticket window users were observed and interviewed. Special attention was paid to the errors which were made.
Bayard, Sophie; Abril, Beatriz; Yu, Huan; Scholz, Sabine; Carlander, Bertrand; Dauvilliers, Yves
To investigate decision-making and addictive behaviors in narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC). NC is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce hypocretins. The hypocretin system plays a crucial role in sleep, wakefulness, and energy homeostasis, and is also involved in emotion regulation, reward processing, and addiction. Academic sleep center. 23 subject with NC and 23 matched healthy controls. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess decision making under ambiguity condition based on emotional feedback processing and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) to assess decision making under risk condition. All participants underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview and completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Patients underwent one night of polysomnography followed by an MSLT, with neuropsychological evaluation performed between MSLT sessions. NC patients had higher depressive symptoms and showed a significant lack of perseverance. One NC patient had a past history of drug dependence. NC patients also exhibited selective reduced IGT performance and normal performance on the GDT. No clinical or polysomnographic characteristics were associated with increased sensitivity to reward and/or decreased sensitivity to punishment. However, lack of perseverance in NC patients was associated with disadvantageous decision making on the IGT. We demonstrated a lack of perseverance and a selective reduced performance on decision making under ambiguity in NC in contrast to normal decision making under explicit conditions. Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy may opt for choices with higher immediate emotional valence, regardless of higher future punishment, to compensate for their reduced reactivity to emotional stimuli.
Gevarter, William B.
Models of human decision making are reviewed. Models which treat just the cognitive aspects of human behavior are included as well as models which include motivation. Both models which have associated computer programs, and those that do not, are considered. Since flow diagrams, that assist in constructing computer simulation of such models, were not generally available, such diagrams were constructed and are presented. The result provides a rich source of information, which can aid in construction of more realistic future simulations of human decision making.
The author proposes a new model for the assessment of decision-making capacity based on the principles of narrative medicine. The narrative method proposed by the author addresses the hidden power realtionships implicit in the current model of capacity assessment. Sample cases are reviewed using the traditional model in comparison with the narrative model. Narrative medicine provides an effective model for the assessment of decision-making capacity. Deficiencies in the traditional model capacity assessment can be effectively addressed using narrative strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available We present a motivational account of the impact of emotion on decision making, termed the feeling-is-for-doing approach. We first describe the psychology of emotion and argue for a need to be specific when studying emotion's impact on decision making. Next we describe what our approach entails and how it relates emotion, via motivation to behavior. Then we offer two illustrations of our own research that provide support for two important elements in our reasoning. We end with specifying four criteria that we consider to be important when studying how feeling guides our everyday doing.
Sax, Joanna K
Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.
Dshemuchadse, Maja; Scherbaum, Stefan; Goschke, Thomas
In intertemporal decision making, individuals prefer smaller rewards delivered sooner over larger rewards delivered later, often to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. This behavior has been attributed to a lack of self-control and reflection, the nonlinearity of human time perception, and several other sources.…
Background: Decision is defined as a choice that you make about something after thinking about several possibilities. Human decision making and judgment is readily observable in reality. The Personality trait that Influence Decision Making is usually missing from research of decision making. The current study is focused on the characteristics which stimulate the decision making behavior but is not concerned about what makes a decision good or bad.This study aimed to compare the differences in...
G.R. Teisman (Geert)
textabstractThis article elaborates on the question how complex decision-making can be analysed. Three conceptual models are compared: the phase model, the stream model and the rounds model. Each model is based on specific assumptions about what decision-making is and how it should be analysed. The
Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.
This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.
To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a “chicken and egg” problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning. PMID:22679418
To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a "chicken and egg" problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning.
Fischer, T; Brothers, K B; Erdmann, P; Langanke, M
Systems medicine is the name for an assemblage of scientific strategies and practices that include bioinformatics approaches to human biology (especially systems biology); "big data" statistical analysis; and medical informatics tools. Whereas personalized and precision medicine involve similar analytical methods applied to genomic and medical record data, systems medicine draws on these as well as other sources of data. Given this distinction, the clinical translation of systems medicine poses a number of important ethical and epistemological challenges for researchers working to generate systems medicine knowledge and clinicians working to apply it. This article focuses on three key challenges: First, we will discuss the conflicts in decision-making that can arise when healthcare providers committed to principles of experimental medicine or evidence-based medicine encounter individualized recommendations derived from computer algorithms. We will explore in particular whether controlled experiments, such as comparative effectiveness trials, should mediate the translation of systems medicine, or if instead individualized findings generated through "big data" approaches can be applied directly in clinical decision-making. Second, we will examine the case of the Riyadh Intensive Care Program Mortality Prediction Algorithm, pejoratively referred to as the "death computer," to demonstrate the ethical challenges that can arise when big-data-driven scoring systems are applied in clinical contexts. We argue that the uncritical use of predictive clinical algorithms, including those envisioned for systems medicine, challenge basic understandings of the doctor-patient relationship. Third, we will build on the recent discourse on secondary findings in genomics and imaging to draw attention to the important implications of secondary findings derived from the joint analysis of data from diverse sources, including data recorded by patients in an attempt to realize their
Tibor Besedeš; Cary Deck; Sudipta Sarangi; Mikhael Shor
Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked, allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subje...
Besedes, Tibor; Deck, Carey; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael
Using controlled experiments, we examine how individuals make choices when faced with multiple options. Choice tasks are designed to mimic the selection of health insurance, prescription drug, or retirement savings plans. In our experiment, available options can be objectively ranked allowing us to examine optimal decision making. First, the probability of a person selecting the optimal option declines as the number of options increases, with the decline being more pronounced for older subjec...
Human actions, emotions, and decision making are products of complex interactions between explicit and implicit processes at various levels of spatial and temporal scales. Although it may not be possible to obtain to experimental data for all the complexity of human behavioral and emotional processes in our everyday life, recent studies have investigated the effects of social contexts on actions, emotions, and decision making; these studies include those in the fields of experimental psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this paper, we review several empirical studies that exemplify how our actions, social emotions, and decision making are influenced by the presence of implicit external, rather than internal factors, particularly by presence of other individuals. The following are the main principles identified. (1) Unconscious behavioral contagion: Individuals tend to mimic others' actions. This tendency occurs unconsciously even when the observed and the to-be-executed movements are unrelated at various levels and aspects of behaviors (e. g., behavioral tempo and speed). (2) Neural substrates of social emotions: Various social emotions, including admiration, compassion, envy, and schadenfreude, are represented in neuronal networks that are similar to those of basic emotional processes. (3) Evasive nature of human decision making: Individuals tend to overrate their own subjective impression of and emotional reaction in forecasting affective reaction to events in the future, even though the predictive power of information from peer group is much larger in this regard. Individuals are seldom aware of the dissociation between their intended choice and excuted actions and are willing to give elaborate explanations for the choices they, in fact, did not make. Using these empirical examples, I will illustrate the considerable influences of implicit, unconscious processes on human actions, emotions, and decision making.
Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.
Peter H. Harasym
Full Text Available Ethical decision making is a complex process, which involves the interaction of knowledge, skills, and attitude. To enhance the teaching and learning on ethics reasoning, multiple teaching strategies have to be applied. A medical ethical reasoning (MER model served as a framework of the development of ethics reasoning and their suggested instructional strategies. Problem-based learning (PBL, being used to facilitate students' critical thinking, self-directed learning, collaboration, and communication skills, has been considered effective on ethics education, especially when incorporated with experiential experience. Unlike lecturing that mainly disseminates knowledge and activates the left brain, PBL encourages “whole-brain” learning. However, PBL has several disadvantages, such as its inefficiency, lack of adequately trained preceptors, and the in-depth, silo learning within a relatively small number of cases. Because each school tends to utilize PBL in different ways, either the curriculum designer or the learning strategy, it is important to maximize the advantages of a PBL session, PBL then becomes an ideal format for refining students' ethical decisions and behaviors.
Harasym, Peter H; Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan; Munshi, Fadi M
Ethical decision making is a complex process, which involves the interaction of knowledge, skills, and attitude. To enhance the teaching and learning on ethics reasoning, multiple teaching strategies have to be applied. A medical ethical reasoning (MER) model served as a framework of the development of ethics reasoning and their suggested instructional strategies. Problem-based learning (PBL), being used to facilitate students' critical thinking, self-directed learning, collaboration, and communication skills, has been considered effective on ethics education, especially when incorporated with experiential experience. Unlike lecturing that mainly disseminates knowledge and activates the left brain, PBL encourages "whole-brain" learning. However, PBL has several disadvantages, such as its inefficiency, lack of adequately trained preceptors, and the in-depth, silo learning within a relatively small number of cases. Because each school tends to utilize PBL in different ways, either the curriculum designer or the learning strategy, it is important to maximize the advantages of a PBL session, PBL then becomes an ideal format for refining students' ethical decisions and behaviors. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Borel, M; Veber, B; Villette-Baron, K; Hariri, S; Dureuil, B; Hervé, C
Decision-making bringing to an admission or not in intensive care is complex. The aim of this study is to analyze with an ethical point of view the making decision process leading to the refusal and its consequences. It is proposed a setting in prospect through the principles of beneficence, non-maleficience, respect for autonomy, justice, and the Leonetti law. Prospective study in surgical reanimation at the University Hospital of Rouen over 9 months (November 2007-September 2008). Systematic collection for each non-admitted patient of the general characters, the methods of decision making, immediate becoming and within 48 h Constitution of two groups: patients for whom an admission in intensive care could be an unreasonable situation of obstinacy, and patients for whom an admission in reanimation would not be about unreasonable if it occurred. One hundred and fifty situations were analyzed. The potentially unreasonable character of an admission does not involve necessarily a refusal of care in intensive care. The question of the lack of place and equity in the access to the care is real but relative according to the typology of the patients. The research of the respect of the autonomy of the patient is difficult but could be facilitated. The Leonetti law does not appear to be able to be a framework with the situation of refusal of care in intensive care. It is not a question of going towards a systematic admission in intensive care of any patient proposed, but to make sure that so if there is a refusal, it is carried out according to a step ethically acceptable.
Full Text Available Almost by definition decision-making is typical human activity, and therefore important psychological subject. The starting point of its classical conception within psychology could be traced back to economy and mathematic, with ideas of human as rational economic being, and conceptualising decision making as choice between two or more alternatives, and as such being a separate event in space and time. Already in fifties Herbert Simon challenged such a view with his concept of bounded rationality, emerging from the joint effect of internal limitations of the human mind, and the structure of external environments in which the mind operates. During the last decades with the shift to the real word situations where decisions are embedded in larger tasks, becoming so part of the study of action, the lost rational human appeared again as efficient creature in the complex environment. Gigerenzer showed how heuristics help in this process.
This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...
Weiss, Carol H.; Cambone, Joseph
The attitudes of six principals serving in shared decision-making (SDM) high schools toward SDM were studied. Although three supported SDM as a vehicle for improving education, the others supported it for its own sake, to democratize schools. Problems in instituting the reforms in these schools are discussed. (SLD)
Chang, L.J.; Sanfey, A.G.
PURPOSE: Initial explorations in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics have highlighted evidence supporting a potential dissociation between a fast automatic system and a slow deliberative controlled system. Growing research in the role of emotion in decision-making has attempted to draw parallels
Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.
It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.
Lapenta, William; Irwin, Dan
SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system for Mesoamerica that integrates satellite and other geospatial data for improved scientific knowledge and decision making by managers, researchers, students, and the general public. SERVIR addresses the nine societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This talk will provide an overview of products and services available through SERVIR.
van Ravenzwaaij, Don; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
In their influential "Psychological Review" article, Bogacz, Brown, Moehlis, Holmes, and Cohen (2006) discussed optimal decision making as accomplished by the drift diffusion model (DDM). The authors showed that neural inhibition models, such as the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA) and the feedforward inhibition model (FFI), can mimic the…
Dominika Crnjac Milić
Full Text Available This paper provides a production analysis which can help management in the decision making process. Given that certain assumptions are correct, the mathematical interpretation of the optimal resource allocation and the income maximisation of a certain economic entity can be solved.
Full Text Available An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the well-studied stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.
Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…
Being able to make decisions is important for all students. Students need to have opportunities to choose from among alternative situations. Reading, as one curriculum area, provides a plethora of opportunities to choose and to select. The philosopher John Locke believed the following facets of an individual's development were in the ensuing order…
Full Text Available Problems involving more than one criterion abound. To help in the solution of such problems, a field of management science and operations research known as multiple criteria decision making (MCDM has emerged to help solve such problems. In this paper we discuss some recent developments in this important field.
Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.
There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…
Risk is a central feature of political decision making. Prospect theory, an empirically correct theory of choice under risk that deals precisely with this condition, therefore seems to have much to offer political science. Prospect theory's central finding is that individuals' attitude toward risk
Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, John David
of this article is to show how the decision making behavior of real people in simulated corporate environments can lead to chaotic, hyperchaotic and higher-order hyperchaotic phenomena. Characteristics features of these complicated forms of behavior are analyzed with particular emphasis on an interesting form...
M. van der Ven (Myrthe)
markdownabstractThe _first aim_ of this thesis was to evaluate the added value of ultrasound in clinical decision making in patients with arthralgia, patients with psoriasis and monitoring RA patients. Our _second aim_ was to increase sensitivity of power Doppler ultrasound for MCP joints.
Pier Luigi Baldi
Full Text Available This issue deals with the partial data of a research in progress on focalization, pseudodiagnosticity and framing- effect in decision making, followed by the most important results of some experiments about the emotional aspects of the choice, and ends by stressing the potential contribution of the artificial neural networks to the medical diagnosis.
An ultrasound demonstration was conducted for participants (~ 110 people) of the Arkansas Cattle Grower’s Conference, Hope, AR. Evaluation of live animals with ultrasound technology allows beef producers the ability to make selection and management decisions. Specifically, ultrasound at the conclu...
The study examined the effect of household decision making on the use of contraceptives and fertility behaviour of ever-married men in Nigeria. Men's Recode Dataset of 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) dataset was used. A sample size of 8,981 ever married men aged 15-49 were analyzed using ...
Nielen, MMA; Veltman, DJ; de Jong, R; Mulder, G; den Boer, JA
Background: Neuro-imaging studies in OCD report the orbitofrontal cortex to be functionally abnormal. As these areas are presumed to be involved in decision making, studying this behavior in OCD may provide further insight into the cognitive deficits accompanying the disorder. Methods: Performance
Dec 1, 2017 ... Deferential vulnerability arises when individuals subordinate themselves or submit to an authority figure when making decisions about their day-to-day lives and existence within their specific environment and relationships. This customary obedience occurs in cultures where certain hierarchical systems ...
Notes that teachers make intentional decisions during interaction with children and reflect on what occurs in the environment. Focuses on teacher behavior along several continua: soft-hard, simple-complex, open-closed, intrusion-seclusion, and high versus low mobility. Illustrates theory with a transcribed observation. Adapts Jones and Prescott's…
Yurtseven, M. Kudret; Buchanan, Walter W.
Decision making in most universities is taught within the conventional OR/MS (Operations Research/Management Science) paradigm. This paradigm is known to be "hard" since it is consisted of mathematical tools, and normally suitable for solving structured problems. In complex situations the conventional OR/MS paradigm proves to be…
The study investigated the relationship of nature of science (NOS) instruction and students' decision-making (DM) related to a controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. Participants were ninth-grade students in four intact sections (two regulars and two honors) in a public high school in the Midwest. All four groups were…
Over the last decade, we have extensively examined clinical practice in the context of sociocultural, religious and ethnic diversity. Stemming mainly from data collected amongst physicians we reflect, in this paper, upon the norms and values which guide decision-making processes in tertiary pediatric hospital contexts. Clinical ethics is portrayed a neutral guide between competing choices and obligations of hospital units, healthcare professionals, and families, when there is a conflict or divergence in the perspectives concerning the progression of the clinical trajectory. We will chart the sharing/non-sharing of different voices in critical decision-making pathways of maternal-child hospital care. How do "universal" ethical principles accommodate the diversity of perspectives anchored within the ensemble of cultural, social, and religious institutions? Similarly to the image of cosmopolitan urban communities, health care settings are defined by a multiplicity of values brought forth by families and health care professionals from diverse backgrounds. Attempting to seize these logics entails a better grasp of the delicate relationship between the individual and the collective, between personal values and instituted norms, between majorities and minorities.
Lauer, E F
The way that the Christian tradition faces moral issues is being reshaped. Rather than focusing solely on Scripture and tradition as the basis for resolving ethical issues, decision makers should investigate human experience as well, some contemporary theologians recommend. In contrast to a traditional notion of natural law, which analyzes "human nature," the revisionist approach analyzes human experiences to discover what is authentic in them. This process looks not only at the physical structure of an act but also at its intentionality and its effect on the parties involved. Absolute material norms do not exist, according to the revisionist school. Instead one must examine an act's effects on a person's relationship to God, to others, to the physical world, and to oneself to determine whether it is morally right or wrong. Although this theological trend could be disconcerting to those who serve on ethics committees--since it does not rely on clear-cut rules--and may make decision making more difficult, its value lies in its potential to bring Christians closer to a divine understanding of reality.
Individual consumers are subject to different influences on how they make decisions and what decision-making style they use. Consumer decision-making styles are a mental orientation that characterises a consumer's approach to making choices. The main purpose of the study is to explore the decision-making styles of ...
Kaufman, Sharon R
Life-extending interventions for older persons are changing medical knowledge and societal expectations about longevity. Today's consciousness about growing older is partly shaped by a new form of ethics, constituted by and enabled through the routines and institutions that comprise ordinary clinical care. Unlike bioethics, whose emphasis is on clinical decision-making in individual situations, this new form of ethics is exceptionally diffuse and can be characterized as an ethical field. It is located in and shaped by health-care policies, standard technologies, and clinical evidence, and it emerges in what patients and families come to need and want. Three developments illustrate this ethical field at work: the changing nature of disease, especially the ascent of risk awareness and risk-based strategies for life extension; the role of technology in reshaping the ends of medicine; and the role of Medicare policy in creating need and ethical necessity. Medicare's expanding criteria for payment coverage of liver transplantation and implantable cardiac devices illustrate the pervasive logic of this new form of ethics. The powerful connection between the technological imperative and its ethical necessity is rarely mentioned in Medicare reform debates.
Orasanu, Judith; Martin, Lynne; Davison, Jeannie; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
Despite efforts to design systems and procedures to support 'correct' and safe operations in aviation, errors in human judgment still occur and contribute to accidents. In this paper we examine how an NDM (naturalistic decision making) approach might help us to understand the role of decision processes in negative outcomes. Our strategy was to examine a collection of identified decision errors through the lens of an aviation decision process model and to search for common patterns. The second, and more difficult, task was to determine what might account for those patterns. The corpus we analyzed consisted of tactical decision errors identified by the NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) from a set of accidents in which crew behavior contributed to the accident. A common pattern emerged: about three quarters of the errors represented plan-continuation errors, that is, a decision to continue with the original plan despite cues that suggested changing the course of action. Features in the context that might contribute to these errors were identified: (a) ambiguous dynamic conditions and (b) organizational and socially-induced goal conflicts. We hypothesize that 'errors' are mediated by underestimation of risk and failure to analyze the potential consequences of continuing with the initial plan. Stressors may further contribute to these effects. Suggestions for improving performance in these error-inducing contexts are discussed.
Alkhatib, Omar J; Abdou, Alaa
The construction industry is usually characterized as a fragmented system of multiple-organizational entities in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The greatest challenge in the construction process for the achievement of a successful practice is the development of an outstanding reputation, which is built on identifying and applying an ethical framework. This framework should reflect a common ethical ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market. This study establishes a framework for ethical judgment of behavior and actions conducted in the construction process. The framework was primarily developed based on the essential attributes of business management identified in the literature review and subsequently incorporates additional attributes identified to prevent breaches in the construction industry and common ethical values related to professional engineering. The proposed judgment framework is based primarily on the ethical dimension of professional responsibility. The Ethical Judgment Framework consists of descriptive approaches involving technical, professional, administrative, and miscellaneous terms. The framework provides the basis for judging actions as either ethical or unethical. Furthermore, the framework can be implemented as a form of preventive ethics, which would help avoid ethical dilemmas and moral allegations. The framework can be considered a decision-making model to guide actions and improve the ethical reasoning process that would help individuals think through possible implications and consequences of ethical dilemmas in the construction industry.
Schwikert, Shane R; Curran, Tim
Heuristics involve the ability to utilize memory to make quick judgments by exploiting fundamental cognitive abilities. In the current study we investigated the memory processes that contribute to the recognition heuristic and the fluency heuristic, which are both presumed to capitalize on the byproducts of memory to make quick decisions. In Experiment 1, we used a city-size comparison task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the potential contributions of familiarity and recollection to the 2 heuristics. ERPs were markedly different for recognition heuristic-based decisions and fluency heuristic-based decisions, suggesting a role for familiarity in the recognition heuristic and recollection in the fluency heuristic. In Experiment 2, we coupled the same city-size comparison task with measures of subjective preexperimental memory for each stimulus in the task. Although previous literature suggests the fluency heuristic relies on recognition speed alone, our results suggest differential contributions of recognition speed and recollected knowledge to these decisions, whereas the recognition heuristic relies on familiarity. Based on these results, we created a new theoretical framework that explains decisions attributed to both heuristics based on the underlying memory associated with the choice options. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard
The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.
Cristina C B Cavalcante
Full Text Available History matching is the process of modifying the uncertain attributes of a reservoir model to reproduce the real reservoir performance. It is a classical reservoir engineering problem and plays an important role in reservoir management since the resulting models are used to support decisions in other tasks such as economic analysis and production strategy. This work introduces a dynamic decision-making optimization framework for history matching problems in which new models are generated based on, and guided by, the dynamic analysis of the data of available solutions. The optimization framework follows a 'learning-from-data' approach, and includes two optimizer components that use machine learning techniques, such as unsupervised learning and statistical analysis, to uncover patterns of input attributes that lead to good output responses. These patterns are used to support the decision-making process while generating new, and better, history matched solutions. The proposed framework is applied to a benchmark model (UNISIM-I-H based on the Namorado field in Brazil. Results show the potential the dynamic decision-making optimization framework has for improving the quality of history matching solutions using a substantial smaller number of simulations when compared with a previous work on the same benchmark.
Naudé, Jérémie; Dongelmans, Malou; Faure, Philippe
Addiction to nicotine is characterized by impulses, urges and lack of self-control towards cigarettes. A key element in the process of addiction is the development of habits oriented towards nicotine consumption that surpass flexible systems as a consequence of a gradual adaptation to chronic drug exposure. However, the long-term effects of nicotine on brain circuits also induce wide changes in decision-making processes, affecting behaviors unrelated to cigarettes. This review aims at providing an update on the implications of nicotine on general decision-making processes, with an emphasis on impulsivity and risk-taking. As impulsivity is a rather ambiguous behavioral trait, we build on economic and normative theories to better characterize these nicotine-induced alterations in decision-making. Nonetheless, experimental data are sparse and often contradictory. We will discuss how the latest findings on the neurobiological basis of choice behavior may help disentangling these issues. We focus on the role of nicotine acetylcholine receptors and their different subunits, and on the spatio-temporal dynamics (i.e. diversity of the neural circuits, short- and long-term effects) of both endogenous acetylcholine and nicotine action. Finally, we try to link these neurobiological results with neuro-computational models of attention, valuation and action, and of the role of acetylcholine in these decision processes. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kahneman, Daniel; Lovallo, Dan; Sibony, Olivier
When an executive makes a big bet, he or she typically relies on the judgment of a team that has put together a proposal for a strategic course of action. After all, the team will have delved into the pros and cons much more deeply than the executive has time to do. The problem is, biases invariably creep into any team's reasoning-and often dangerously distort its thinking. A team that has fallen in love with its recommendation, for instance, may subconsciously dismiss evidence that contradicts its theories, give far too much weight to one piece of data, or make faulty comparisons to another business case. That's why, with important decisions, executives need to conduct a careful review not only of the content of recommendations but of the recommendation process. To that end, the authors-Kahneman, who won a Nobel Prize in economics for his work on cognitive biases; Lovallo of the University of Sydney; and Sibony of McKinsey-have put together a 12-question checklist intended to unearth and neutralize defects in teams' thinking. These questions help leaders examine whether a team has explored alternatives appropriately, gathered all the right information, and used well-grounded numbers to support its case. They also highlight considerations such as whether the team might be unduly influenced by self-interest, overconfidence, or attachment to past decisions. By using this practical tool, executives will build decision processes over time that reduce the effects of biases and upgrade the quality of decisions their organizations make. The payoffs can be significant: A recent McKinsey study of more than 1,000 business investments, for instance, showed that when companies worked to reduce the effects of bias, they raised their returns on investment by seven percentage points. Executives need to realize that the judgment of even highly experienced, superbly competent managers can be fallible. A disciplined decision-making process, not individual genius, is the key to good
Odame, Augustina Yaa Oye
This dissertation is made up of three separate studies under the unifying theme of “Water Decision-Making under Uncertainty.” The first study analyzed a farmer’s decision to invest in a more efficient irrigation system given uncertainty about future water supplies and his post-investment efficiency. It found the price at which farmers would no longer produce to be a bigger consideration in irrigation investment than previously thought. It also found support for a careful identification and co...
Mirzaei, Komeil; Milanifar, Alireza; Asghari, Fariba
Substitute decision making on behalf of incapable patients is based on the ethical principle of 'respect for autonomy'. This study was conducted to assess patients' wishes and preferences in terms of a substitute decision maker and determinants of such preferences. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study and selected samples randomly from patients presenting at Farabi Eye Hospital clinics who were 18 years of age or older. Questionnaires were completed through interviews. 200 patients between the ages of 18 and 83 years were interviewed. About 52% (N=105) were men and 73% (N=77) were married. Among married patients, the spouse was chosen as the substitute decision maker in only 51% of cases. Single men preferred their father first in 36% (N=9) of cases, while single girls chose their father in 5.6% (N=1) of cases and their most prevalent choice was other unmentioned people (33.3%, N=6). Most patients (93.5%) wished to be asked about their substitute decision maker when hospitalised. The results of this study show that the people we usually consult for decisions concerning patient treatment are significantly different from the patients' preferred substitute decision makers. The authors suggest patients be allowed to choose their substitute decision maker while conscious.
Gils, Suzanne; Hogg, Michael A.; Van Quaquebeke, Niels; Knippenberg, Daan
textabstractTo advance current knowledge on ethical decision-making in organizations, we integrate two perspectives that have thus far developed independently: the organizational identification perspective and the ethical climate perspective. We illustrate the interaction between these perspectives in two studies (Study 1, N = 144, US sample; and Study 2, N = 356, UK sample), in which we presented participants with moral business dilemmas. Specifically, we found that organizational identifica...
Wade, Katherine; Melamed, Irene; Goldhagen, Jeffrey
This analysis adopts a child rights approach-based on the principles, standards, and norms of child rights and the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)-to explore how decisions could be made with regard to treatment of a severely impaired infant (Baby G). While a child rights approach does not provide neat answers to ethically complex issues, it does provide a framework for decision-making in which the infant is viewed as an independent rights-holder. The state has obligations to develop the capacity of those who make decisions for infants in such situations to meet their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill their rights as delineated in the CRC. Furthermore, a child rights approach requires procedural clarity and transparency in decision-making processes. As all rights in the CRC are interdependent and indivisible, all must be considered in the process of ethical decision-making, and the reasons for decisions must be delineated by reference to how these rights were considered. It is also important that decisions that are made in this context be monitored and reviewed to ensure consistency. A rights-based framework ensures decision-making is child-centered and that there are transparent criteria and legitimate procedures for making decisions regarding the child's most basic human right: the right to life, survival, and development.
Abreu, Mirhelen Mendes de; Battisti, Raphael; Martins, Rachel Samhan; Baumgratz, Thiago Dias; Cuziol, Mirella
There is no SDM in clinical practice in Brazil. The first steps have been taken towards research and tool development recently. Likewise, our society is starting to get involved with decision making in health care. This paper aims to offer an overview of the Brazilian health system history, its values, and its influence on SDM. The participative social control concept is introduced as a result of the movement against the dictatorship era. In addition, the influence of social changes on the Medical Ethical Code is delineated. SDM state of the art in Brazil is also discussed and the challenges to implement it on clinical practice are described. Regardless the challenges, it is possible to make a positive assessment of SDM in Brazil. 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Angell, E L; Bryman, A; Ashcroft, R E; Dixon-Woods, M
The performance of NHS research ethics committees (RECs) is of growing interest. It has been proposed that they confine themselves to "ethical" issues only and not concern themselves with the quality of the science. This study aimed to identify current practices of RECs in relation to scientific issues in research ethics applications. Letters written by UK RECs expressing provisional or unfavourable opinions in response to submitted research applications were sampled from the research ethics database held by the Central Office for Research Ethics Committees. Ethnographic content analysis (ECA) was used to develop a coding framework. QSR N6 software was used to facilitate coding. "Scientific issues" were raised in 104 (74%) of the 141 letters in our sample. The present data suggest that RECs frequently considered scientific issues and that judgments of these often informed their decisions about approval of applications. Current processes of peer review seemed insufficient to reassure RECs about the scientific quality of applications they were asked to review. This study provides evidence that scientific issues are frequently raised in letters to researchers and are often considered a quality problem by RECs. In the discussion, the authors reflect on how far issues of science can and should be distinguished from those of ethics and the policy implications.