WorldWideScience

Sample records for estuary nw iberian

  1. Recruitment of flatfish species to an estuarine nursery habitat (Lima estuary, NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2010-11-01

    One of the present concerns of fish biologists involves defining and identifying nursery habitats in the context of conservation and resource management strategies. Fish nursery studies usually report upon nursery occupation during the latter juvenile stages, despite the fact that recruitment to nurseries can start early in life, during the larval phase. Here we investigated the use of a temperate estuarine nursery area, the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), by initial development stages of flatfish species before and after metamorphosis, integrating the larval and juvenile phases. The Lima estuarine flatfish community comprised twelve taxa, seven of which were present as pelagic larvae, six as juveniles and three as adults. There was a general trend of increasing spring-summer abundance of both larvae and juveniles, followed by a sharp winter decrease, mainly of larval flatfishes. The Lima estuary was used by Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus and Solea solea as a nursery area, with direct settlement for the two first species. In contrast, indirect settlement was suggested for S. solea, with metamorphosis occurring outside the estuarine area. Estuarine recruitment of S. senegalensis varied between years, with young larvae occurring in the estuary throughout a prolonged period that lasted 6-9 months, corroborating the protracted spawning season. P. flesus, the second most abundant species, exhibited a typical spring estuarine recruitment, without inter-annual variations. Developed larvae arrived in the estuary during spring, whereas the 0-group juveniles emerged in the following summer period. The present study contributes new insight to our understanding of the economically important S. senegalensis, and highlights the importance of integrating the planktonic larval phase into traditional flatfish nursery studies.

  2. Microsatellite variation in Donax trunculus from the Iberian Peninsula, with particular attention to Galician estuaries (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantón, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.; Fernández-Pérez, J.; Nóvoa, S.; Méndez, J.

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variation and population structure information is essential for conservation and stock management policies. The wedge clam Donax trunculus is an important fishing resource in the Iberian Peninsula and in some areas, such as the northwestern Spain, wild stocks have decreased greatly. Despite this, information is mainly from the southwestern Atlantic to the northwestern Mediterranean of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, fifteen microsatellite loci were examined at 17 localities along the Iberian Peninsula to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Particular attention was paid to the northwestern Atlantic area, and to test if the pattern previously described for this species is confirmed when localities distributed across the Atlantic coast are included and different microsatellite markers are used. All localities displayed similar allelic richness values and heterozygosity levels but when genetic diversity levels were compared among groups of localities, tests were significant and samples from the northwestern area (Galicia) showed the lowest values. The analysis of population structure indicated that localities from the Atlantic coast are genetically homogeneous although some samples showed significant pairwise Fst values. These values were low and Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation did not show a consistent structure along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Atlantic samples were genetically different from those located in Mediterranean coast, which may be explained by the existence of the Almeria-Oran front. Moreover, Fuengirola, locality situated in the Alboran Sea between the Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean Sea, showed significant differences from all remaining localities included in the study. Overall, the data showed the existence of genetic homogeneity along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and support the three management units (Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern

  3. Palaeofloods and ancient fishing weirs in NW Iberian rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Sanjurjo-Sanchez, J.; Goy-Dizc, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 15-m-thick, fluvial sedimentary record of the NW Iberian lower Miño River was studied. Grain-size analyses were performed and twelve samples were dated using optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques, documenting a 1300-yr-old reconstructed fluvial record that does not match with known

  4. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Varela, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production

  5. Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Lithosphere Across the Variscan Orogen (Iberian Autochthonous Domain, NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Ribeiro, J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Dias da Silva, Í.; Nascimento, C.; Silva, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    A new magnetotelluric (MT) survey comprising 17 MT soundings throughout a 30 km long N30°W transect in the Iberian autochthons domain of NW Iberia (Central Iberian Zone) is presented. The 2-D inversion model shows the resistivity structure of the continental crust up to 10 km depth, heretofore unavailable for this region of the Variscan Orogen. The MT model reveals a wavy structure separating a conductive upper layer underlain by a resistive layer, thus picturing the two main tectonic blocks of a large-scale D2 extensional shear zone (i.e., Pinhel shear zone). The upper layer represents a lower grade metamorphic domain that includes graphite-rich rocks. The lower layer consists of high-grade metamorphic rocks that experienced partial melting and are associated with granites (more resistive) emplaced during crustal thinning. The wavy structure is the result of superimposed crustal shortening responsible for the development of large-scale D3 folds (e.g., Marofa synform), later deflected and refolded by a D4 strike-slip shear zone (i.e., Juzbado-Penalva do Castelo shear zone). The later contribution to the final structure of the crust is marked by the intrusion of postkinematic granitic rocks and the propagation of steeply dipping brittle fault zones. Our study demonstrates that MT imaging is a powerful tool to understand complex crustal structures of ancient orogens in order to design future prospecting surveys for mineral deposits of economic interest.

  6. Late Pleistocene deglaciation chronology in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula using cosmic-ray produced 21Ne in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Mosquera, D.; Marti, K.; Romani, J.R. Vidal; Weigel, A.

    2000-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glaciations in the NW Iberian Peninsula over Serra de Queixa and Serra de Xures, all with granite substrata, were studied by mass spectrometry using cosmogenic 21 Ne. Rock cores were drilled in glacial polished surfaces and push-moraine boulders, and were analyzed to determine their integral exposure time to cosmic rays. First results, which are consistent with the relative geomorphologic model estimates, allow the identification of at least three different glacial stages, with the latest terminating about 15 ka BP

  7. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ausín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution through the water column of the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system was performed. From July 2011 to June 2012, monthly sampling at various water depths was conducted at two parallel stations located at 42° N. Total coccosphere abundance was higher at the outer-shelf station, where warmer, nutrient-depleted waters favoured coccolithophore rather than phytoplanktonic diatom blooms, which are known to dominate the inner-shelf location. In seasonal terms, higher coccosphere and coccolith abundances were registered at both stations during upwelling seasons, coinciding with high irradiance levels. This was typically in conjunction with stratified, nutrient-poor conditions (i.e. relaxing upwelling conditions. However, it also occurred during some upwelling events of colder, nutrient-rich subsurface waters onto the continental shelf. Minimum abundances were generally found during downwelling periods, with unexpectedly high coccolith abundance registered in subsurface waters at the inner-shelf station. This finding can only be explained if strong storms during these downwelling periods favoured resuspension processes, thus remobilizing deposited coccoliths from surface sediments, and hence hampering the identification of autochthonous coccolithophore community structure. At both locations, the major coccolithophore assemblages were dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, small Gephyrocapsa group, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda, Syracosphaera spp., Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Calcidiscus leptoporus. Ecological preferences of the different taxa were assessed by exploring the relationships between environmental conditions and temporal and vertical variability in coccosphere abundance. These findings provide relevant information for the use of fossil coccolith assemblages in marine sediment records, in order to infer past

  8. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausín, Blanca; Zúñiga, Diana; Flores, Jose A.; Cavaleiro, Catarina; Froján, María; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Arbones, Belén; Santos, Celia; de la Granda, Francisco; Castro, Carmen G.; Abrantes, Fátima; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Salgueiro, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution through the water column of the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system was performed. From July 2011 to June 2012, monthly sampling at various water depths was conducted at two parallel stations located at 42° N. Total coccosphere abundance was higher at the outer-shelf station, where warmer, nutrient-depleted waters favoured coccolithophore rather than phytoplanktonic diatom blooms, which are known to dominate the inner-shelf location. In seasonal terms, higher coccosphere and coccolith abundances were registered at both stations during upwelling seasons, coinciding with high irradiance levels. This was typically in conjunction with stratified, nutrient-poor conditions (i.e. relaxing upwelling conditions). However, it also occurred during some upwelling events of colder, nutrient-rich subsurface waters onto the continental shelf. Minimum abundances were generally found during downwelling periods, with unexpectedly high coccolith abundance registered in subsurface waters at the inner-shelf station. This finding can only be explained if strong storms during these downwelling periods favoured resuspension processes, thus remobilizing deposited coccoliths from surface sediments, and hence hampering the identification of autochthonous coccolithophore community structure. At both locations, the major coccolithophore assemblages were dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, small Gephyrocapsa group, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda, Syracosphaera spp., Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Calcidiscus leptoporus. Ecological preferences of the different taxa were assessed by exploring the relationships between environmental conditions and temporal and vertical variability in coccosphere abundance. These findings provide relevant information for the use of fossil coccolith assemblages in marine sediment records, in order to infer past environmental conditions, of

  9. Planktonic Foraminifera Proxies Calibration Off the NW Iberian Margin: Nutrients Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, E.; Castro, C. G.; Zuniga, D.; Martin, P. A.; Groeneveld, J.; de la Granda, F.; Villaceiros-Robineau, N.; Alonso-Perez, F.; Alberto, A.; Rodrigues, T.; Rufino, M. M.; Abrantes, F. F. G.; Voelker, A. H. L.

    2014-12-01

    Planktonic foraminifera (PF) shells preserved in marine sediments are a useful tool to reconstruct productivity conditions at different geological timescales. However, the accuracy of these paleoreconstructions depends on the data set and calibration quality. Several calibration works have been defining and improving the use of proxies for productivity and nutrient cycling parameters. Our contribution is centred on a multi-proxy calibration at a regional coastal upwelling system. To minimize the existing uncertainties affecting the use of trace elements and C stable isotopes as productivity proxy in the high productivity upwelling areas, we investigate the content and distribution of Ba/Ca and δ13C in the water column, its transference into the planktonic foraminifera shells, and, how the living planktonic foraminifera Ba/Ca and δ13C signal is related to the same planktonic foraminiferal species preserved in the sediment record. This study is based on a large data set from two stations (RAIA - 75m water depth, and CALIBERIA - 350m water depth) located off the NW Iberian margin (41.5-42.5ºN; 9-10ºW), and includes: i) two year monthly water column data (temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll a, Ba/Ca, and δ13C-DIC); ii) seasonal Ba/Ca, δ13C in several living PF species at both stations; and iii) Ba/Ca and δ13C in several PF species from a large set of core-top sediment samples in the study region. Additionally, total organic carbon and total alkenones were also measured in the sediment. Our results showed the link between productivity proxies in the surface sediment foraminifera assemblage and the processes regulating the actual phytoplankton dynamics in an upwelling area. The understanding of this relationship has special relevance since it gives fundamental information related to the past oceanic biogeochemistry and/or climate and improves the prevision of future changes against possible climate variability due to anthropogenic forcing.

  10. The ichthyoplankton assemblage and the environmental variables off the NW and N Iberian Peninsula coasts, in early spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, G.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Cabal, J.

    2009-05-01

    Ichthyoplankton and mesozooplankton were sampled and fluorescence and physical environmental variables were measured off the NW and N Iberian Peninsula coasts, during April 2005. A total of 51 species of fish larvae, belonging to 26 families, were recorded. Sardina pilchardus, with 43.8% and 58.7% of the total fish egg and larval catches, respectively, dominated the ichthyoplankton assemblage. The study area was divided by a cross-shelf frontal structure into two hydrographic regions that coincided with the Atlantic and Cantabrian geographic regions. Ichthyoplankton abundance was higher in the Cantabrian region while larval diversity was higher in the Atlantic region. This was the main alongshore variability in the structure of the larval fish assemblage. Nevertheless, the stronger variability, related with the presence of a shelf-slope front, was found in the central-eastern Cantabrian region where two major larval fish assemblages, an "outer" and a "coastal", were distinguished. The Atlantic region, where the shelf-slope front was not found, was inhabited by a single larval fish assemblage. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that, off the NW and N Iberian Peninsula coasts, the horizontal distribution of larval fish species in early spring may be explained by a limited number of environmental variables. Of these, the most important were the physical variables depth and sea surface temperature.

  11. Twentieth century overview of heavy metals in the Galician Rias (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, R.; Cobelo-Garcia, A

    2003-03-01

    All information published on metals in this region up to the year 2000 is reviewed from a biogeochemical viewpoint. - The 18 Galician Rias, comprising 25% of the Iberian Peninsula coastline, form a unique system within the European continental Atlantic coast and provide a useful reference area for studies of metals. These rias are sensitive to anthropogenic influence due to the socioeconomic importance generated in these areas by industry, aquaculture, port activities, fishing, tourism and, accordingly, several islands lying within close proximity to the rias have recently been declared natural parks. Aquaculture in the Galician Rias is a growth industry and in 2000 the rias supported 3386 mussel rafts producing 2.5x10{sup 8} kg year{sup -1}, i.e. 40% of European Union total seafood production. The Galician Rias are partially stratified estuaries with positive residual circulation with fresh (runoff lower than 100 m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) and salt water mixing inside the basins. This behaviour has direct consequences on metal fluxes whereby the rias behave as a barrier and accumulate metals in the sediments. Metals tend to deposit close to point sources and remobilization occurs inside the ria, leading to a seaward decrease in metal concentration. With the exception of the Ulla (Arosa Ria) and Eume (Ares-Betanzos Ria) head rivers and the Lagares river (Vigo Ria) the available data suggest that riverine freshwater inputs are not the main source of contamination. Metal studies reported in the literature mainly relate to Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, and to a lesser extent Hg and Sn. Studies of other harmful metals such as Ag, Se and As are notably lacking. In addition, the studies have been localized and mainly restricted to the surface sediment. Data of heavy metals in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and biota is scarce in the mainstream literature and should be considered in the future research. From the entire Galician coast, data from seven

  12. Twentieth century overview of heavy metals in the Galician Rias (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prego, R.; Cobelo-Garcia, A.

    2003-01-01

    All information published on metals in this region up to the year 2000 is reviewed from a biogeochemical viewpoint. - The 18 Galician Rias, comprising 25% of the Iberian Peninsula coastline, form a unique system within the European continental Atlantic coast and provide a useful reference area for studies of metals. These rias are sensitive to anthropogenic influence due to the socioeconomic importance generated in these areas by industry, aquaculture, port activities, fishing, tourism and, accordingly, several islands lying within close proximity to the rias have recently been declared natural parks. Aquaculture in the Galician Rias is a growth industry and in 2000 the rias supported 3386 mussel rafts producing 2.5x10 8 kg year -1 , i.e. 40% of European Union total seafood production. The Galician Rias are partially stratified estuaries with positive residual circulation with fresh (runoff lower than 100 m 3 s -1 ) and salt water mixing inside the basins. This behaviour has direct consequences on metal fluxes whereby the rias behave as a barrier and accumulate metals in the sediments. Metals tend to deposit close to point sources and remobilization occurs inside the ria, leading to a seaward decrease in metal concentration. With the exception of the Ulla (Arosa Ria) and Eume (Ares-Betanzos Ria) head rivers and the Lagares river (Vigo Ria) the available data suggest that riverine freshwater inputs are not the main source of contamination. Metal studies reported in the literature mainly relate to Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, and to a lesser extent Hg and Sn. Studies of other harmful metals such as Ag, Se and As are notably lacking. In addition, the studies have been localized and mainly restricted to the surface sediment. Data of heavy metals in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and biota is scarce in the mainstream literature and should be considered in the future research. From the entire Galician coast, data from seven rias of socio

  13. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, Elisa; Sintes, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J; Varela, Marta M

    2018-02-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production throughout the water column, however, more prominently in the bathypelagic waters. Microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (MICRO-CARD-FISH) allowed us to identify several microbial groups involved in dark DIC uptake. The contribution of SAR406 (Marinimicrobia), SAR324 (Deltaproteobacteria) and Alteromonas (Gammaproteobacteria) to the dark DIC fixation was significantly higher than that of SAR202 (Chloroflexi) and Thaumarchaeota, in agreement with their contribution to microbial abundance. Q-PCR on the gene encoding for the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) from the putatively high versus low ammonia concentration ecotypes revealed their depth-stratified distribution pattern. Taken together, our results indicate that chemoautotrophy is widespread among microbes in the dark ocean, particularly in bathypelagic waters. This chemolithoautotrophic biomass production in the dark ocean, depleted in bio-available organic matter, might play a substantial role in sustaining the dark ocean's food web. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Actual and future trends of extreme values of temperature for the NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, J.; Brands, S.; Lorenzo, N.

    2009-09-01

    It is now very well established that yearly averaged temperatures are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. The main objective of this work is to assess actual and future trends of different extreme indices of temperature, which are of curcial importance for many impact studies. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). As direct GCM-output significantly underestimates the variance of daily surface temperature variables in NW Spain, these variables are obtained by applying a statistical downscaling technique (analog method), using 850hPa temperature and mean sea level pressure as combined predictors. The predictor fields have been extracted from three GCMs participating in the IPCC AR4 under A1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The definitions of the extreme indices have been taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard extreme values to simplify intercomparisons of data from different regions of the world. For the temperatures in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum temperatures above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum temperatures below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum temperatures are reverse: less nights with minimum temperatures below 10th percentile, and more with minimum temperatures above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned extreme values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic

  15. Kinetics of N-Utilization By Natural Phytoplankton Assemblages During Upwelling Events At The NW Iberian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, N.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Baeyens, W.

    2003-04-01

    The concentration-dependent uptakes of nitrate, ammonium and the effect of ammo-nium on the f-ratio were surveyed in surface waters of the NW Iberian shelf during June 1997, July 1998 and September 1999. Because relationships between rates and substrate concentrations were quite variable, ranging from linear to convex shaped curves, they were fitted to rational functions. Stepwize regression analysis yielded subsequent model equations with reasonable statistical properties which allowed describing all but all a few cases. Differentiating these equations with respect to the concentration gave the slope of the tangent to the curve, i.e., the variation in rate expected for a given perturbation of the ambient substrate concentration. The initial slope value was then used as an index to gauge the "affinity" of the plankton community for the nitrogen substrate utilization. In June 1997, the situation at the Iberian shelf showed no upwelling except near Cape Finistère. Overall, the phytoplankton community displayed a high "affinity" for both nitrate and ammonium and low f-ratio values, which is indicative of a re-generated production regime. High ammonium regeneration rates supported furthermore these observations. It was also demonstrated that the new production rates is only marginally sensitive to changes of the ambient nitrate and/or ammonium concentrations. This indicates that the production regime is rather stable throughout. Only at Cape Finistère, nitrate concentrations were high reflecting the onset of an upwelling event. In this zone, the phytoplankton community, taking advantage of its high affinity for nitrate enhanced both total N-uptake rate and f-ratio. In July 1998, the situation evolved towards an extension to the south of the upwelling event starting at Cape Finistère. In this southern zone of the upwelling the phytoplankton community displayed generally a lower affinity for nitrate (but not for ammonium) than in 1997. In spite of this lower affinity

  16. Land-Sea Correlation of Holocene Records in NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Alvare, R.; Costas, S.; Bernardez, P.; Frances, G.; Alejo, I.

    2005-12-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations in the temperate region of the Northeast Atlantic have been established by comparing marine and terrestrial proxies. This work is based on suction-cores collected in the Cies Islands lagoon (NW Spain) and vibro-cores from the adjacent continental shelf. The lower Holocene marine record (9400-7000 yr BP) consists on sandy transgressive facies overlying fluvial Pleistocene deposits. During this time the continental shelf was dominated by high energy processes linked to the progressive and fast sea level rise. The rate of sea level rise sharply decelerated at 7000 yr BP and a high productive marine environment was fully established, as revealed by planktonic foraminifera assemblages and biogeochemical markers. In the terrestrial areas, peat deposits were formed beginning around 6000 yr BP in the deeper parts of the paleo-relief that was developed above the granitic basement. The peat was deposited in a fresh-water shallow coastal lake under warm and humid conditions that are brought about by prevailing SW winds. From 4800 yr BP, a progressive rainfall decrease provoked the lowering of the lake level and a weaker fluvial influence on the adjacent shelf. The prevailing eastern winds caused significantly drier conditions between 4000 and 3200 yr BP. During this period the coastal lake dried and the peat layer was covered by aeolian deposits. At the continental shelf a strong stratification of the water column induced a fall in the productivity. The end of this period is marked by the increase of storm regimes caused by a shift to prevailing SW winds. The last 3000 years are characterized by humid and warm conditions, and the enhancement of upwelling regime and terrestrial sediment supply. In Cies Islands, a sand barrier-lagoon complex was developed as a consequence of both the sea level rise and the inundation of the lower areas in the island.

  17. Millennial-scale climatic variability between 340 000 and 270 000 years ago in SW Europe: evidence from a NW Iberian margin pollen sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Desprat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new high-resolution marine pollen record from NW Iberian margin sediments (core MD03-2697 covering the interval between 340 000 and 270 000 years ago, a time period centred on Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 9 and characterized by particular baseline climate states. This study enables the documentation of vegetation changes in the north-western Iberian Peninsula and therefore the terrestrial climatic variability at orbital and in particular at millennial scales during MIS 9, directly on a marine stratigraphy. Suborbital vegetation changes in NW Iberia in response to cool/cold events are detected throughout the studied interval even during MIS 9e ice volume minimum. However, they appear more frequent and of higher amplitude during the 30 000 years following the MIS 9e interglacial period and during the MIS 9a-8 transition, which correspond to intervals of an intermediate to high ice volume and mainly periods of ice growth. Each suborbital cold event detected in NW Iberia has a counterpart in the Southern Iberian margin SST record. High to moderate amplitude cold episodes detected on land and in the ocean appear to be related to changes in deep water circulation and probably to iceberg discharges at least during MIS 9d, the mid-MIS 9c cold event and MIS 9b. This work provides therefore additional evidence of pervasive millennial-scale climatic variability in the North Atlantic borderlands throughout past climatic cycles of the Late Pleistocene, regardless of glacial state. However, ice volume might have an indirect influence on the amplitude of the millennial climatic changes in Southern Europe.

  18. Monumentalizing Landscape: from present perceptions to the original meanings of Galician Megalithism (NW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Boado, Felipe

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Landscape as social construction implies considering its economic and territorial dimensions, as much as its symbolic ones. A major topic in such kind of studies is to reconstruct the ways as natural and social space was perceived by past societies. We ought approach the project of building an Archaeology of Perception. One of the aims of such research programme would be to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial landscape features on past human observers. This paper will argue that a possible strategy for studying these dimensions of past landscapes could be based on the systematic analysis of visual features of the prehistoric monuments and in the characterization of the escenic effects and vistas related to them. A detailed analysis of the pattern of location of megalithic monuments, of their visibility and visibilization conditions, allow us to recognize certain regularities what display an intentional will to remark on the existence of the monument and provoke dramatic artificial effects. In such way we could approach a phenomenology of prehistoric perception without falling in mere subjetive solutions. This study is based in a systematic review of the megalithic monuments from Sierra de Barbanza (NW Iberia. Its final scope is proposing theoretical and methodological standpoints to approach these phenomena, but as well producing a case-study to reconstruct monumental strategies to shape cultural landscapes in Neolithic Europe and observe the diacrony (ie, continuities and changes of these traditions.

    El estudio del paisaje como construcción social implica considerar sus dimensiones económicas, territoriales y simbólicas. Sería importante reconstruir cómo fue percibido el espacio natural y social, para lo que se debería construir una Arqueología de la Percepción que tendría entre sus objetivos evaluar el efecto de los rasgos naturales y artificiales del paisaje sobre sus observadores pretéritos. Aquí se

  19. Non-stationary influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and winter temperature on oak latewood growth in NW Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Vicente; García-González, Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The properties of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as period, amplitude, and teleconnection strength to extratropical regions, have changed since the mid-1970s. ENSO affects the regional climatic regime in SW Europe, thus tree performance in the Iberian Peninsula could be affected by recent ENSO dynamics. We established four Quercus robur chronologies of earlywood and latewood widths in the NW Iberian Peninsula. The relationship between tree growth and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), the atmospheric expression of ENSO, showed that only latewood growth was correlated negatively with the SOI of the previous summer-autumn-winter. This relationship was non-stationary, with significant correlations only during the period 1952-1980; and also non-linear, with enhanced latewood growth only in La Niña years, i.e. years with a negative SOI index for the previous autumn. Non-linear relationship between latewood and SOI indicates an asymmetric influence of ENSO on tree performance, biassed towards negative SOI phases. During La Niña years, climate in the study area was warmer and wetter than during positive years, but only for 1952-1980. Winter temperatures became the most limiting factor for latewood growth since 1980, when mean regional temperatures increased by 1°C in comparison to previous periods. As a result, higher winter respiration rates, and the extension of the growing season, would probably cause an additional consumption of stored carbohydrates. The influence of ENSO and winter temperatures proved to be of great importance for tree growth, even at lower altitudes and under mild Atlantic climate in the NW Iberian Peninsula.

  20. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated...

  1. Tracking climate change in oligotrophic mountain lakes: Recent hydrology and productivity synergies in Lago de Sanabria (NW Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina-Enríquez, Margarita; Recio, Clemente; Vega, José Carlos; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2017-07-15

    Mountain lakes are particularly sensitive to global change as their oligotrophic conditions may be rapidly altered after reaching an ecological threshold, due to increasing human impact and climate change. Sanabria Lake, the largest mountain lake in the Iberian Peninsula and with a recent history of increased human impact in its watershed, provides an opportunity to investigate recent trends in an oligotrophic, hydrologically-open mountain lake, and their relationship with climate, hydrological variability and human pressure. We conducted the first systematic and detailed survey of stable isotope compositions of Sanabria Lake and Tera River together with limnological analyses during 2009-2011. δ 18 O lakewater and δD lakewater seasonal fluctuations are strongly linked to river discharges, and follow the monthly mean isotopic composition of precipitation, which is controlled by NAO dynamics. δ 13 C POM and δ 13 C DIC revealed higher contribution of allochthonous organic matter in winter and spring due to higher river inflow and lower primary productivity. Increased phytoplankton biomass in late summer correlated significantly with higher pH and Chl-a, and higher nutrient input and lower river inflow. However, the small δ 13 C POM seasonal amplitude underlines the stability of the oligotrophic conditions and the isotopic variation in POM and DIC reflect small seasonal fluctuations mostly as a consequence of strong throughflow. The stability of hydrology and productivity patterns is consistent with Holocene and last millennium reconstructions of past limnological changes in Sanabria Lake. The results of this study indicate that trophic state in this hydrologically-open mountain lake is strongly controlled by climate variability, but recent changes in human-land uses have increased sediment delivery and nutrients supply to the lake and have to be considered for management policies. Monitoring surveys including isotope techniques provide snapshots of modern isotope

  2. Vertical stratification of bacterial communities driven by multiple environmental factors in the waters (0-5000 m) off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobal-Amador, Vladimir; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Guerrero-Feijoo, Elisa; Hernando-Morales, Victor; Teira, Eva; Varela-Rozados, Marta M.

    2016-08-01

    The processes mediated by microbial planktonic communities occur along the entire water column, yet the microbial activity and composition have been studied mainly in surface waters. This research examined the vertical variation in bacterial abundance, activity and community composition and structure from surface down to 5000 m depth following a longitudinal transect off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin, from 43°N, 9°W to 43°N, 15°W). Community activity and composition changed with depth. The leucine incorporation rates decreased from the euphotic layer to the bathypelagic waters by three orders of magnitude, whereas prokaryotic abundance decreased only by one order of magnitude. The relative abundance of SAR11 and Alteromonas, determined by catalyzed reported deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), decreased with depth. Meanwhile, the contribution of SAR 202 and SAR324 was significantly higher in the deeper layers (i.e. NEADW, North East Atlantic Deep Water and LDW, Lower Deep Water) than in the euphotic zone. Bacterial community structure, assessed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA), was depth-specific. A distance based linear model (DistLM) revealed that the variability found in bacterial community structure was mainly explained by temperature nitrate, phosphate, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence, prokaryotic abundance, leucine incorporation and to a lesser extent salinity, oxygen, CDOM absorbance and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Our results displayed a bacterial community structure shaped not only by depth-related physicochemical features but also by DOM quality, indicating that different prokaryotic taxa have the potential to metabolize particular DOM sources.

  3. Multiproxies (benthic foraminifera, ostracods and biopolymers approach applied to identify the environmental partitioning of the Guadiana River Estuary (Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Guadiana River is the fourth longest river in Europe and is a natural frontier between southern Portugal and Spain. This river was historically used to transport minerals exploited in the region since the Roman Empire and therefore suffered human interventions that have been intensified after the industrial revolution. The Guadiana River has in its limits the Guadiana Valley Natural Park, which is of great value for the Conservation of Geobiodiversity. This study mainly aims to identify zones with the environmental characteristics in the estuarine area of the Guadiana River based on the distribution and ecology of microorganisms (ostracods and foraminifera associated with physicochemical parameters and sedimentological and geochemical (carbohydrate, lipid, protein, total organic carbon and total sulfur data. Fifty-five foraminifera taxa were identified along the estuary with dominance of Ammonia tepida and Miliammina fusca and 13 ostracods taxa with dominance Leptocythere lacertosa and Loxoconcha elliptica. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA performed using biotic and abiotic variables indicated that pH, grain size, total organic carbon (TOC and lipids were the most influent factors in the distribution of these organisms. Four zones were identified in the Guadiana River estuary: i Low estuary - region with the largest marine influence with sandy sediment, higher salinity and total sulfur and mainly represented by the dominance of estuarine species of foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Cribroelphidium vadescens and by the ostracods (Darwinula stevensoni, Semicytherura sulcata and Urocythereis oblonga; ii Intermediate estuary - region characterized by neutral pH and sandy sediment enriched in carbohydrates; this region is characterized by the presence of the ostracods species Cytherois fischeri and Neocytherideis subulata and by calcareous and agglutinated species in foraminiferal assemblages; iii Upper estuary - silt, high TOC, proteins and

  4. First occurrence of thinlip grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1827 in the Odra River estuary (NW Poland: genetic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Panicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of exotic fish species in the Baltic Sea and its tributaries poses a serious threat for native ichthyofauna, mainly due to the spread of new pathogens. As the accurate identification of species is essential for an effective assessment of changes related to the appearance of non-native species in an aquatic environment, in this paper we tested the usefulness of biometrics and molecular markers in identifying a specimen from the Mugilidae family found in the Odra estuary. The results demonstrated that unambiguous identification of the specimen using biometric features was impossible due to high morphological similarities shared by grey mullets. Unambiguous identification was possible only due to molecular markers, e.g. rhodopsin gene, which helped to identify the collected fish specimen as Liza ramada (Risso, 1827, the first specimen of this species found in the Odra River estuary. The presence of an L. ramada specimen in the Odra River – which could signal the expansion of non-native species into wider ranges – may be linked to climate change or human activity.

  5. Seasonal variation and mixing behaviour of glutathione, thioacetamide and fulvic acids in a temperate macrotidal estuary (Aulne, NW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Lauriane; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Waeles, Matthieu; Riso, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Fulvic acids and two dissolved reduced sulphur substances (RSS) were analysed for one year along the whole salinity gradient in the Aulne estuary (north-western France) using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry. Concentrations of glutathione-like (GSH-like), thioacetamide-like (TA-like) and fulvic acid-like (FA-like) compounds ranged from 0.2 to 38 nmol L-1, from 0.02 to 6.6 μmol L-1 and from 0.1 to 4 mgC L-1, respectively. Our results indicated primarily allochthonous-continental sources for all three compounds. The behaviour of GSH-like compounds along the salinity gradient was globally conservative, with minor losses (important removals. In terms of the TA-like budget, losses were counterbalanced by exceptional inputs occurring in the flood period (February). FA-like compounds were intensely degraded (∼50%) in the last section of the river and then behaved conservatively in the estuary. The annual flux of FA-like compounds to coastal waters was 2800 ± 600 tC. This flux was mainly (74%) delivered during the high discharge period, in accordance with its known pedogenic origin.

  6. Discharge patterns of radionuclides and the influence of early diagenesis in a salt-marsh of the Ribble Estuary, NW England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Routine discharges of low level liquid radioactive waste from British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfield have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. The variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, 232 Th, 238 U, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am) with depth were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends. The influence of early diagenesis in terms of radionuclide mobility was established by considering geochemical associations of radionuclides through the depth profile. A core from Longton Marsh was analysed by gamma-spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Major/trace metal and total organic carbon determinations were also made. Sequential extractions were employed in order to specify radionuclide phase associations. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs, 241 Am and 239,240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 800 Bq kg -1 for 241 Am. Thorium-230 and 238 U exhibited complex activity profiles with depth. 137 Cs was found associated predominantly with the residual phase at all depths. Thorium-230 and 239,240 Pu were mainly associated with the organic and sesquioxide phases with some evidence to suggest that plutonium had undergone a phase redistribution below the sediment surface. Caesium-137, 230 Th and 239,240 Pu were deemed useful in terms of establishing core chronologies. (author)

  7. New insights into the early life ecology of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792 in the northern Iberian Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atlantic Iberian estuaries, sardines tend to be a minor component of the ichthyoplankton assemblages, with rare occurrence largely restricted to estuarine mouths. However, this was not the case of the Lima estuary (NW Portugal, where sardines were the most abundant and frequently occurring marine taxon of the larval fish assemblages. Abundance of sardines collected during a two-year survey (2002-2004 ranged from 0.5 to 60.8 larvae/100 m3, with the majority still showing yolk and unpigmented eyes. Moreover, 80% of sardines were 8 days old or less and the total length ranged from 2 to 16 mm. Seasonal variations of sardine occurrence in the Lima estuary correlated with temporal variations of salinity and temperature in the water column. The unusually high river-flow observed during the winter of 2002-2003, which preceded the spring-summer abundance peak, seemed to act as a signal for the estuarine recruitment that was encountered. In addition, the estuarine occurrence of sardine larvae was also correlated with the intensity of summer upwelling, which was responsible for coastal depletion of sardine larvae resulting in estuarine low catches during the summer of 2002. The Lima estuary also revealed another peculiarity related to the lack of temporal synchrony between coastal spawning activity and occurrence of larvae within the estuary. The abundance peaks of newly-hatched larvae (autumn 2002 and spring-summer 2003 did not coincide with the winter-spring spawning pattern described earlier for the northern Iberian coast. Modifications of the spawning strategy of the northern Iberian sardine stock are discussed based on these new insights into the early life of S. pilchardus.

  8. The reticulate evolutionary history of the polyploid NW Iberian Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan (Compositae, Anthemideae) as inferred from nrDNA ETS sequence diversity and eco-climatological niche-modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberprieler, Christoph; Greiner, Roland; Konowalik, Kamil; Vogt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genus Leucanthemum Mill. is a species-rich polyploid complex of southern and central Europe, comprising 41 species with ploidy levels ranging from 2x to 22x. The Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan, a geographically isolated species group of the NW Iberian Peninsula, comprises the diploid L. pluriflorum, the tetraploids Leucanthemumircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and Leucanthemum×corunnense (being a putative hybrid taxon based on a cross between L. pluriflorum and Leucanthemummerinoi), and the two hexaploids Leucanthemumsylvaticum and L. merinoi. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this species group, we analysed sequence variation at the external transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat (nrDNA ETS) for its members and for a number of other diploid species of Leucanthemum. Our results indicate that there are two major ETS ribotypes present in Leucanthemum, with some of the diploid species fixed for either of the two types and several species (among them L. pluriflorum) exhibiting both types. This polymorphism at the nrDNA ETS locus suggests either gene flow among some of the diploid species (possibly via polyploids) or a homoploid hybrid origin of some of those diploids. Additionally, patterns of ETS ribotype sharing among populations of the four species of the L. pluriflorum clan suggest that the tetraploid L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and the hexaploids L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi have an allopolyploid origin with L. pluriflorum as the maternal parent. Eco-climatological modelling of present and past (last glacial maximum, LGM) distribution areas of the members of the L. pluriflorum clan indicates that the diploid L. pluriflorum may have undergone geographical differentiation into northern (Galician) and southern (central Portuguese) coastal lineages that could account for the two chloroplast haplotype groups observable in the tetra- and hexaploids. Later climatic changes in the Holocene could then have led to the

  9. A new mountain lizard from Montes de León (NW Iberian Peninsula): Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov. (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Oscar J; Galán, Pedro; Remón, Núria; Naveira, Horacio

    2014-05-19

    the female analyses the new taxon centroid is closer to I. monticola s. str. than to I. gal ani (more similarity with I manticolas.str.), whereas in the male analyses the relationship is just the contrary (closer to I. gal ani, paralleling the direction of the hypothesized past hybridization). Moreover, in both sexes' ANOVA, I. m. astur ssp. nov. results more similar (lessPssp. nov. is slightly more similar toI. monticola s. str. than to I. galani, especially in the squamosal bone, which is regularly arched (primitive shape). Genetically,as indicated above, the NML populations can be subdivided in two groups according to their mitochondrial DNA,namely NML-I (bearing clearly differentiated haplotypes, phylogenetically closer to I. monticola) and NML-II (whose haplotypes could have been mistaken for those of an I. gal ani population). This mitochondrial subdivision has at most a subtle nuclear correlate, however. According to the nuclear microsatellite markers, all the NML populations belong to a single group(/. m. astur ssp. nov.), which would be more similar to I. gal ani than to I monticola, with NML-II populations lying closer to I. galani than those from the NML-I group and, correspondingly, more distant from I. monticola. The discordant phylogenetic signal of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is discussed in terms of past introgression events and sex-biases in phylopatry and dispersion in these species. Iberolacerta manti cola astur ssp. nov., inhabits the Northern Montes de Leon (Sierra de Gistreo sensu latissimo ): Gistredo,Catoute, Tambaron, Nevadfn, Villabandfn (or Macizo del Alto de Ia Canada), Arcos del Agua (or Fernan Perez),Tiendas and Suspiron, mainly in quartzite and slate rock substrates. Its current distribution, cornered in the NW of theNorthern part of the Montes de Leon, suggests a possible competitive exclusion between this taxon and/. galani, as the galani haplotypes (NML-II) appear cornered in the most harsh and continental areas, speaking also

  10. Determination of 54 pesticides in waters of the Iberian Douro River estuary and risk assessment of environmentally relevant mixtures using theoretical approaches and Artemia salina and Daphnia magna bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Amaral, Sofia; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2017-11-01

    As a case study, the estuary of the international Douro River (Iberian Peninsula) was sampled over a year (2010) at six sampling sites to determine the presence of 56 pesticides of different categories (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides). 96% of measured pesticides were detected in 79% of the quantified samples. Individual average pesticide concentrations ranged from 39 to 1 265ng/L, indicating a ubiquitous presence of the selected compounds; moreover, twelve pesticides were above the 2013/39/EU Directive limits. Due to its highly impacted profile, a theoretical hazard assessment was done considering the average and maximum environmental mixtures of all measured pesticides to identify the most sensitive trophic level. For both environmental mixtures, the theoretical approach suggested that invertebrates were the most sensitive group. Therefore, short-time exposure assays using both invertebrates Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, were done using the referred mixtures. Data demonstrated significant toxic effects ─ high mortality rate and abnormal swimming behaviour ─ of the exposed animals. Both approaches (theoretical and experimental) support the analytical results, alerting for an intervention on this estuarine environment and of other comparable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with larger fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus was lower than previous studies acknowledged in the system (0.037 g.WWm- 2.year- 1), indicating that the production estimates of this species in estuaries can vary considerably depending on of several factors such as the sampling year and strategy, population and fish size.

  12. Macrobenthic community in the Douro estuary: relations with trace metals and natural sediment characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha, A.P.; Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D.; Bordalo, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study used a novel approach to detect a clear signature of metal contamination and biological impacts in an estuary. - The relationship between macrobenthic community structure and natural characteristics of sediment and trace metal contamination were studied in the lower Douro estuary (Portugal, NW, Iberian Peninsula), using an innovative threefold approach (SQG, Sediment Quality Guidelines), metal normalization to Fe, and macrobenthic community structure. This study allowed detection of a clear signature of anthropogenic contamination, in terms of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr in the north bank of the estuary, which experiences high urban pressure. Using the SQG approach, metal concentrations above ERM (effects range--median) were observed only at one sampling station, but several stations had levels above ERL (effects range-low). The macrobenthic community had a low diversity, with only 19 species found in the entire estuarine area, dominated by opportunistic species. The granulometric distribution of the sediments (estimated from the combination of organic matter, Fe and Al) seemed to be the major structuring factor for the communities, establishing the natural macrobenthic distribution pattern. The metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cr) seemed to act as a disturbing factor over the natural distribution, with deleterious consequences for the macrobenthic communities

  13. Trace elements in the Prestige fuel-oil spill: Levels and influence on Laxe Ria sediments (NW Iberian Peninsula); Elementos traza en el combustible vertido por el Prestige: Niveles e impacto sobre el sedimento de la Ria de Laxe (noroeste de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, R; Cobelo-Garcia, A; Santos-Echeandia, J [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo, (Spain); Marmolejo-Rodriguez, J [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    Trace elements have been determined in sediments from the Laxe Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula) one year before and one year after the Prestige fuel-oil spill (November 2002; 42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West). The elements analyzed (Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se and V) were chosen because they appeared to represent a potential contaminant from the deposited oil in the sediments. Enrichment factors, based on Al-normalized background concentrations, did not indicate metal contamination in the sediments from most of the ria; however, a severe contamination by Cu, Mo, Ni and V was found in the area of Corme Inlet, where the fuel oil could have accumulated as a result of the ria's hydrodynamic pattern. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la concentracion de 19 elementos quimicos en el combustible pesado derramado al mar desde los tanques del petrolero Prestige (noviembre de 2002; 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este). Entre ellos, se investigo la presencia de Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se y V en el sedimento superficial de la Ria de Laxe (NO de Espana) en los anos anterior y posterior al vertido debido a que sus niveles son similares tanto en el fuel como en el sedimento. Los factores de enriquecimiento, obtenidos tras normalizacion de las concentraciones con el aluminio, no indican contaminacion del sedimento en la ria. No obstante, se detecto una severa contaminacion por Cu, Mo, Ni y V en la ensenada de Corme donde el vertido podria haberse acumulado como resultado de la hidrodinamica de la propia ria.

  14. Theorizing Iberian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Robert Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of scholars invested in Iberian Studies are asking how peninsular literary and cultural studies might be reimagined, and reinvigorated, by placing the Spanish and Portuguese canons into critical dialogue with each other, and with Galician, Catalan, Basque/Euskadi, and Latin American and North African immigrant writers, cultural…

  15. Are Iberian endemics Iberian? A case-study using water beetles of family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribera, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    more restricted distributions within the Iberian peninsula (they occur typically in only one of the main biogeographical regions, and tend to occur exclusively in running waters. The within-Iberian species are best represented by the “Iberian” clade of the genus Deronectes, formed by six endemic species plus two species with wider distributions. Most species in this group originated in rapid succession in the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene boundary by repeated vicariant events in the three main mountain massifs in the Iberian peninsula: the Pyrenees, the Baetic ranges, and the Sistema Central plus mountain massifs of the NW. On the contrary, most of the Iberian/European species seem to be the recent (Pleistocene vicariants of a species with a widespread distribution encompassing the Iberian peninsula, at present restricted to south and west of the Ebro valley. The results of these analyses suggest that the Iberian peninsula was an isolated refuge during the Quaternary glaciations, in where allopatric speciation was frequent among some lineages of Dytiscidae diving beetles.

    Se estudian las relaciones filogenéticas y el origen geográfico de 27 de las 34 especies, y de 3 de las 9 subespecies, de endemismos ibéricos de la la familia Dytiscidae, en base a filogenias de las especies construidas con dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (16S rRNA y Citocromo Oxidasa I. Todas las especies ibéricas de las que se pudo estudiar más de un ejemplar son monofiléticas, con la excepción del complejo Deronectes aubei sanfilippoi Fery & Brancucci, 1997-D. delarouzei (Jac. Du Val, 1857. El género Stictotarsus tal y como está definido en la actualidad es polifilético, al estar compuesto de tres linajes distintos: el grupo de S. duodecimpustulatus —que incluye el endemismo ibérico S. bertrandi (Legros, 1956—, Trichonectes otini (Guignot, 1941 (nueva combinación y los grupos de S. griseostriatus y S. roffii

  16. Essential habitat for sardine juveniles in Iberian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Rodríguez-Climent

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In a period when the Iberian sardine stock abundance is at its historical minimum, knowledge of the sardine juvenile’s distribution is crucial for the development of fishery management strategies. Generalized additive models were used to relate juvenile sardine presence with geographical variables and spawning grounds (egg abundance and to model juvenile abundance with the concurrent environmental conditions. Three core areas of juvenile distribution were identified: the Northern Portuguese shelf (centred off Aveiro, the coastal region in the vicinity of the Tagus estuary, and the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. Spatial differences in the relationship between juvenile presence and egg abundances suggest that essential juvenile habitat might partially differ from the prevailing spawning grounds. Models also depicted significant relationships between juvenile abundance, temperature and geographical variables in combination with salinity in the west and with zooplankton in the south. Results indicate that the sardine juvenile distribution along the Iberian Peninsula waters are an outcome of a combination of dynamic processes occurring early in life, such as egg and larva retention, reduced mortality and favourable feeding grounds for both larvae and juveniles.

  17. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Iberian horses supports this suggestion. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group...... wild mares during an early Iberian domestication or restocking event, whereas the D1 group probably was introduced into Iberia in later historical times....

  18. The climate of the Common Era off the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rufino, Marta; Salgueiro, Emília; Oliveira, Dulce; Gomes, Sandra; Oliveira, Paulo; Costa, Ana; Mil-Homens, Mário; Drago, Teresa; Naughton, Filipa

    2017-12-01

    reveals a clear difference between the NW Iberia and the Algarve records. While off NW Iberia variability is low, the Algarve shows large-amplitude decadal variability with an inverse relationship between SST and river input. Such conditions suggest a shift in the EA mode, from negative between 1900 and 1970 CE to positive after 1970, while NAO and SCAND remain in a positive phase. The particularly noticeable rise in SST at the Algarve site by the mid-20th century (±1970), provides evidence for a regional response to the ongoing climate warming. The reported findings have implications for decadal-scale predictions of future climate change in the Iberian Peninsula.

  19. Ecosystem services provided by pacific NW Estuaries: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW)...

  20. Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  1. Climate Ready Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on climate change impacts to different estuary regions, tools and resources to monitor changes, and information to help managers develop adaptation plans for risk management of estuaries and coastal communities.

  2. Benthic macrofaunal dynamics and environmental stress across a salt wedge Mediterranean estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebra, Alfonso; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Muñoz-Camarillo, Gloria; Ibáñez, Carles

    2016-06-01

    The spatial distribution of benthic macroinvertebrate community in relation to environmental factors was studied along the Ebro Estuary (NE Iberian Peninsula), a salt wedge Mediterranean estuary. Both ordination methods and generalized additive models were performed to identify the different benthic assemblages and their relationship to abiotic factors. Our results showed a strong relationship between macrofaunal assemblages and the predominant environmental gradients (e.g. salinity); thus revealing spatial differences in their structure and composition. Two different stretches were identified, namely the upper (UE) and the lower Ebro Estuary (LE). UE showed riverine characteristics and hence was colonized by a freshwater community; whereas LE was influenced by marine intrusion and sustained a complex marine-origin community. However, within each stretch, water and sediment characteristics played an important role in explaining species composition differences among sampling stations. Moreover, outcomes suggested a total species replacement pattern, instead of the nestedness pattern usually associated with well-mixed temperate estuaries. The sharp species turnover together with the estuarine stratification point out that the Ebro Estuary is working, in terms of ecological boundaries, under an ecotone model. Finally, despite obvious differences with well mixed estuaries (i.e. lack of tidal influence, stratification and species turnover), the Ebro Estuary shares important ecological attributes with well-mixed temperate estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Local Estuary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information about Local Individual Estuary Programs including links to their NEP homepages, social media, Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans, and state of the bay reports.

  4. Milwaukee Estuary AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rivers in the Milwaukee estuary in Wisconsin drain into Lake Michigan. Wastewater treatment plants and combined sewer overflows contribute pollution which affects fish and wildlife and recreation.

  5. Larval connectivity studies in the Western Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Jesus; Nolasco, Rita; Queiroga, Henrique

    2010-05-01

    The study of the connectivity between populations is one of the 'hot' applications of numerical models of the ocean circulation. An IBM (Individual Based model) was developed, using Carcinus manenas larvae crab as a model. A set of particles was used as a representation of larvae, in order to study their larval life cycle, including the larval growth, larval mortality (both depending on temperature and salinity), larval dispersal by currents, diel vertical migration, and larval recruitment. The life cycle of every larvae in the ocean, was modeled from zoeae 1 stage to megalopae stage, during typical periods of 30-50 days. Larvae were initialized in 14 estuarine systems of the Atlantic Western Iberian Peninsula, from January to July. In every period, a number of 225 larvae are initialized in everyone of the 14 considered estuaries, with fortynighly periodicity. The larvae evolves during the (variable, depending mainly on temperature) period of growth in the ocean, and when a larvae reach the age for recruit, if it is located in the neighborhood of the considered estuarine systems, the larvae is accounted as a recruited larvae in that place. With this methodology, a connectivity matrix can be computed, acconting for the 225 larvae emitted in every estuary, the number of larvae that reaches the every place. The connectivity matrix depends strongly on the current regime along the Atlantic coast of Iberian Peninsula, and has been calculated for the present circulation, for the period 2001 to 2009, for runs with realistic forcing with NCEP2 and Quikscat (for winds) forcing. The connectivity matrix, have also been calculated for climatological runs. For the present climatological conditions, it is observed the prevalence of southward transport for the period January-July, because the prevalence of Northerly winds along the west coast of IP in the COADS present time climatology. Strong dispersal is observed at the Northern estuaries, during winter with strong loss of

  6. Climate fluctuations during the Holocene in NW Iberia: High and low latitude linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, L. D.; Francés, G.; Diz, P.; Esparza, M.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nombela, M. A.; Alejo, I.

    2010-07-01

    High resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes (δ 18O, δ 13C) and molecular biomarkers in the sediments are used here to infer rapid climatic changes for the last 8200 years in the Ría de Muros (NW Iberian Margin). Benthic foraminiferal δ 18O and δ 13C potentially register migrations in the position of the hydrographic front formed between two different intermediate water masses: Eastern North Atlantic Central Water of subpolar origin (ENACW sp) and subtropical origin (ENACW st). The molecular biomarkers in the sediment show a strong coupling between continental organic matter inputs and negative δ 13C values in benthic foraminifera. The rapid centennial and millennial events registered in these records have been compared with two well known North Atlantic Holocene records from the subtropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST) anomalies off Cape Blanc, NW Africa and the subpolar Atlantic (Hematite Stained Grains percentage, subpolar North Atlantic). Comparison supports a strong link between high- and low-latitude climatic perturbations at centennial-millennial time scales during the Holocene. Spectral analyses also points to a pole-to-equator propagation of the so-called 1500 yr cycles. Our results demonstrate that during the Holocene, the NW Iberian Margin has undergone a series of rapid events which are likely triggered at high latitudes in the North Atlantic and are rapidly propagated towards lower latitudes. Conceivably, the propagation of these rapid climatic changes involves a shift in atmospheric and oceanic circulatory systems.

  7. A numerical study of local variations in tidal regime of Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Miguel; Valentim, Juliana Marques; Sousa, Magda Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Tidal dynamics of shallow estuaries and lagoons is a complex matter that has attracted the attention of a large number of researchers over the last few decades. The main purpose of the present work is to study the intricate tidal dynamics of the Tagus estuary, which states as the largest estuary of the Iberian Peninsula and one of the most important wetlands in Portugal and Europe. Tagus has large areas of low depth and a remarkable geomorphology, both determining the complex propagation of tidal waves along the estuary of unknown manner. A non-linear two-dimensional vertically integrated hydrodynamic model was considered to be adequate to simulate its hydrodynamics and an application developed from the SIMSYS2D model was applied to study the tidal propagation along the estuary. The implementation and calibration of this model revealed its accuracy to predict tidal properties along the entire system. Several model runs enabled the analysis of the local variations in tidal dynamics, through the interpretation of amplitude and phase patterns of the main tidal constituents, tidal asymmetry, tidal ellipses, form factor and tidal dissipation. Results show that Tagus estuary tidal dynamics is extremely dependent on an estuarine resonance mode for the semi-diurnal constituents that induce important tidal characteristics. Besides, the estuarine coastline features and topography determines the changes in tidal propagation along the estuary, which therefore result essentially from a balance between convergence/divergence and friction and advection effects, besides the resonance effects.

  8. Community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Nebra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The community composition and spatial distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates were studied along the Ebro estuary, a highly stratified estuary located in the NE Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade the oligotrophication process occurring in the lower Ebro River and its estuary has allowed a complex benthic macroinvertebrate community to become established; these results contrast with the poor community found there in the early nineties. A total of 214 taxa were identified, and polychaetes dominated the community both in abundance and species richness. The results showed spatial differences in the structure and composition of macroinvertebrates, which suggests that there are two distinct communities along the estuary. Each community was found in a specific stretch (upper and lower estuary in function of the presence of the salt wedge. The macrobenthos of the upper estuary was dominated by freshwater taxa, but some euryhaline species were also found. The lower estuary showed a marine community typical of shallow Mediterranean environments. The transition between these two communities fits an ecotone model. The highest abundances, richness and diversities were recorded at the lower estuarine stations, especially those closer to the river mouth, whereas the lowest values corresponded to the stations adjacent to the tip of the salt wedge.

  9. 1st Iberian Robotics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Ferre, Manuel; ROBOT2013; Advances in robotics

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the ROBOT 2013: FIRST IBERIAN ROBOTICS CONFERENCE and it can be said that included both state of the art and more practical presentations dealing with implementation problems, support technologies and future applications. A growing interest in Assistive Robotics, Agricultural Robotics, Field Robotics, Grasping and Dexterous Manipulation, Humanoid Robots, Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Marine Robotics, has been demonstrated by the very relevant number of contributions. Moreover, ROBOT2013 incorporates a special session on Legal and Ethical Aspects in Robotics that is becoming a topic of key relevance. This Conference was held in Madrid (28-29 November 2013), organised by the Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo en Robótica (SEIDROB) and by the Centre for Automation and Robotics - CAR (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)), along with the co-operation of Grupo Temático de Robótica CEA-GT...

  10. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  11. The climate of the Common Era off the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abrantes

    2017-12-01

    SCAND. The Industrial Era reveals a clear difference between the NW Iberia and the Algarve records. While off NW Iberia variability is low, the Algarve shows large-amplitude decadal variability with an inverse relationship between SST and river input. Such conditions suggest a shift in the EA mode, from negative between 1900 and 1970 CE to positive after 1970, while NAO and SCAND remain in a positive phase. The particularly noticeable rise in SST at the Algarve site by the mid-20th century (±1970, provides evidence for a regional response to the ongoing climate warming. The reported findings have implications for decadal-scale predictions of future climate change in the Iberian Peninsula.

  12. Crustal parameters in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, E.

    1988-06-01

    The structure of the crust in the Iberian Peninsula has been investigated for the last 15 years by Spanish and Portuguese groups in close collaboration with other European institutions. The first experiments were carried out in Portugal (Mueller et al., 1973) with the aim of investigating the crustal structure of the Hercynian belt in the southwest corner of the Iberian peninsula. Other experiments have been subsequently realized to study different aspects of the crust in various regions of Portugal. In Spain the main effort has been focused in Alpine areas, with the first experiments in the Alboran Sea and the Betic Cordilleras (Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in Spain, 1974-1975, 1977; Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in the Alboran Sea, 1974-1975, 1978). Follow-up experiments until 1981 completed the work in the Betic Cordillera. Extensive experiments were carried out in the Pyrenees in 1978. Further surveys covered the Balearic Islands in 1976, the Valencia Trough in 1976 and 1983, and the Celtiberian Chain (or Iberic system) in 1981. The Hercynian belt has only been studied in detail in the northwest corner of Spain in 1982, with smaller studies in the central Iberian Massif in 1976 and 1986. Mostaanpour (1984) has compiled some crustal parameters (crustal thickness, average crustal velocity and Pn velocity) for western Europe. Meanwhile, more complete data are available for the Iberian Peninsula. The results presented here were derived from a large number of seismic refraction experiments which have been carried out mostly along or close to coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore explosions of various sizes were used as the energy source in most cases, in addition to some quarry blasts. Unfortunately this leaves most of the inner part of the Iberian Peninsula unsurveyed. Our purpose is to summarize some of the crustal parameters obtained so far and to detail the appropriate literature for the interested reader.

  13. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  14. Penobscot Estuary (Maine) Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's NEFSC collects fisheries data from the Penobscot Estuary using several types of fishing gear. The data is used to determine species presence, relative...

  15. Sedimentary processes on the NW Iberian Continental Shelf since the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Virgínia; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; França, Elvis Joacir; Ferreira, Paulo Alves de Lima; Martins, Paula; Santos, José Francisco; Dias, João Alveirinho; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Monge Soares, António M.; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Rocha, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The OMEX core CD110 W90, retrieved from the Douro Mud Patch (DMP) off the River Douro in the north of Portugal, records the period since the beginning of Little Ice Age (LIA). The core chronology is based upon the data attributes for 210Pb, 137Cs and a 14C dating from a level near the core base. Geochemical, granulometric, microfaunal (benthic foraminifera) and compositional data suggest the occurrence of precipitation changes which may have been, at least partially, influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), that contributes to the regulation of the ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the North Atlantic. Southwesterly Atlantic storm track is associated with the negative phases of the NAO, when the Azores High is anomalously weak, higher oceanographic hydrodynamism, downwelling events and increased rainfall generally occurs. Prevalence of these characteristics during the LIA left a record that corresponds to phases of major floods. During these phases the DMP received a higher contribution of relatively coarse-grained terrigenous sediments, enriched in quartz particles, which diluted the contribution of other minerals, as indicated by reduced concentrations of several lithogenic chemical elements such as: Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Rb, Sc, Sn, Th, V and Y. The presence of biogenic carbonate particles also underwent dilution, as revealed by the smaller abundance of foraminifera and correlative lower concentrations of Ca and Sr. During this period, the DMP also received an increased contribution of organic matter, indicated by higher values of lignin remains and a benthic foraminifera high productivity index, or BFHP, which gave rise to early diagenetic changes with pyrite formation. Since the beginning of the 20th century this contribution diminished, probably due to several drier periods and the impact of human activities in the river basins, e.g. construction of dams, or, on the littoral areas, construction of hard-engineering structures and sand extraction activities. During the first half of the 20th century mainly positive phases of the NAO prevailed, caused by the above normal strengthening of the subtropical high pressure centre of the Azores and the deepening of the low pressure centre in Iceland. These phases may have contributed to the reduction in the supply of both terrigenous sediments and organic matter from shallow water to the DMP. During the positive phases of the NAO, sedimentation became finer. The development of mining and industrial activities during the 20th century is marked, in this core, by higher concentrations of Pb. Furthermore, the erosion of heaps resulting from wolfram exploitation leaves its signature as a peak of W concentrations recorded in the sediments of the DMP deposited between the 1960s and the 1990s. Wolfram exploitation was an important activity in the middle part of the 20th century, particularly during the period of the Second World War.

  16. About Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions.

  17. A review of the arcuate structures in the Iberian Variscides; constraints and genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R.; Ribeiro, A.; Romão, J.; Coke, C.; Moreira, N.

    2016-06-01

    The main Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) is essentially defined by a predominant NW-SE trend in the Iberian branch and an E-W trend in the Brittany one. However, in northern Spain it presents a 180° rotation, sometimes known as the Cantabrian Arc (CA). The relation between both arcs is controversial, being considered either as a single arc due to one tectonic event, or as the result of a polyphasic process. According to the last assumption, there is a later arcuate structure (CA), overlapping a previous major one (IAA). Whatever the models, they must be able to explain the presence of a Variscan sinistral transpression in Iberia and a dextral one in Armorica, and a deformation spanning from the Devonian to the Upper Carboniferous. Another arcuate structure, in continuity with the CA, the Central-Iberian Arc (CIA) was recently proposed mainly based upon on magnetic anomalies, geometry of major folds and Ordovician paleocurrents. The critical review of the structural, stratigraphic and geophysical data supports both the IAA and the CA, but as independent structures. However, the presence of a CIA is highly questionable and could not be supported. The complex strain pattern of the IAA and the CA could be explained by a Devonian - Carboniferous polyphasic indentation of a Gondwana promontory. In this model the CA is essentially a thin-skinned arc, while the IAA has a more complex and longer evolution that has led to a thick-skinned first order structure. Nevertheless, both arcs are essentially the result of a lithospheric bending process during the Iberian Variscides.

  18. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  19. The Late Cretaceous Alkaline Igneous Province in the Iberian Peninsula, and its tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, N. M. S.

    1982-04-01

    The Iberian Province consists of the following: the three subvolcanic, syenitic, major intrusive complexes of Monchique, Sines and Sintra in W. and SW Portugal, together with their basanitic/lamprophyric minor intrusive suites; basanitic volcanic complexes around Lisbon; at least some of a widespread suite of basanitic to theralitic minor intrusives in west central Portugal; about 80 small basanitic/lamprophyric to nepheline syenitic intrusions scattered through the Pyrenees, NE Spain, the French Corbières, and off the coast of NW Spain; and the Ormonde Seamount of the Gorringe Bank off the SW coast of Portugal. Most of these occurrences have been dated isotopically or from field evidence as Late Cretaceous. Geological and petrological details of the various occurrences are compiled and reviewed. Primary basanitic magmas were probably parental to the entire Province, and generated syenitic magmas by differentiation processes; oversaturated rocks were produced by alkali loss and perhaps also by crustal involvement. The Iberian Province is related to the opening of the N. Atlantic, specifically that of the Bay of Biscay.

  20. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  1. The Cape Ghir filament system in August 2009 (NW Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Troupin, Charles; Barreiro-González, Beatriz; Desmond Barton, Eric; Orbi, Abdellatif; Arístegui, Javier

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the Canaries-Iberian marine ecosystem Exchanges (CAIBEX) experiment, an interdisciplinary high-resolution survey was conducted in the NW African region of Cape Ghir (30°38'N) during August 2009. The anatomy of a major filament is investigated on scales down to the submesoscale using in situ and remotely sensed data. The filament may be viewed as a system composed of three intimately connected structures: a small, shallow, and cold filament embedded within a larger, deeper, and cool filament and an intrathermocline anticyclonic eddy (ITE). The cold filament, which stretches 110 km offshore, is a shallow feature 60 m deep and 25 km wide, identified by minimal surface temperatures and rich in chlorophyll a. This structure comprises two asymmetrical submesoscale (˜18 km) fronts with jets flowing in opposite directions. The cold filament is embedded near the equatorward boundary of a much broader region of approximately 120 km width and 150 m depth that forms the cool filament and stretches at least 200 km offshore. This cool region, partly resulting from the influence of cold filament, is limited by two asymmetrical mesoscale (˜50 km) frontal boundaries. At the ITE, located north of the cold filament, we observe evidence of downwelling as indicated by a relatively high concentration of particles extending from the surface to more than 200 m depth. We hypothesize that this ITE may act as a sink of carbon and thus the filament system may serve dual roles of offshore carbon export and carbon sink.

  2. Framework and evolution of Hercynian mineralization in the Iberian Meseta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermerhorn, L.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Hercynian cycle, starting in Late Precambrian times and terminated at the end of the Palaeozoic, is associated in the Iberian Peninsula with the deposition of a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources. The most famous of these are the base-metal sulphides of the Iberian Pyrite

  3. The Mandovi and Zuari estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; DileepKumar, M.; Shankar, D.

    of their extensive use for fisheries, agriculture, transportation, dumping of waste, etc. The two estuaries have since continued to attract scientific curiosity over the years, thanks in large measure to support from national and local funding agencies. As a... made so far to simulate them in numerical models, and characteristics of stratification and mixing. These are followed by chapters that examine the fun- damentals of biology and chemistry of the estuaries. A distinct characteristic of the estuaries...

  4. Ecology of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennish, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects represents the most definitive and comprehensive source of reference information available on the human impact on estuarine ecosystems. The book discusses both acute and insidious pollution problems plaguing these coastal ecotones. It also provides a detailed examination of the deleterious and pervasive effects of human activities on biotic communities and sensitive habitat areas in estuaries. Specific areas covered include organic loading, oil pollution, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dredging and dredge-spoil disposal, radionuclides, as well as other contaminants and processes. The diverse components of these anthropogenic influences are assembled in an organized framework and presented in a clear and concise style that will facilitate their understanding

  5. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  6. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  7. Using SHRIMP zircon dating to unravel tectonothermal events in arc environments. The early Palaeozoic arc of NW Iberia revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abati, J.; Castineiras, P.G.; Arenas, R.; Fernandez-Suarez, J.; Barreiro, J.G.; Wooden, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Dating of zircon cores and rims from granulites developed in a shear zone provides insights into the complex relationship between magmatism and metamorphism in the deep roots of arc environments. The granulites belong to the uppermost allochthonous terrane of the NW Iberian Massif, which forms part of a Cambro-Ordovician magmatic arc developed in the peri-Gondwanan realm. The obtained zircon ages confirm that voluminous calc-alkaline magmatism peaked around 500Ma and was shortly followed by granulite facies metamorphism accompanied by deformation at c. 480Ma, giving a time framework for crustal heating, regional metamorphism, deformation and partial melting, the main processes that control the tectonothermal evolution of arc systems. Traces of this arc can be discontinuously followed in different massifs throughout the European Variscan Belt, and we propose that the uppermost allochthonous units of the NW Iberian Massif, together with the related terranes in Europe, constitute an independent and coherent terrane that drifted away from northern Gondwana prior to the Variscan collisional orogenesis. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  9. The Iberian Plate: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canerot, J.

    2016-10-01

    The plate tectonics theory generally leads us to consider that Iberia was an independent plate separated from Europe by the North Pyrenean Fault (NPF). The NPF has been commonly interpreted as a transform fault associated with a huge counterclockwise transverse and rotational movement that allowed the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the relative eastward motion of Iberia during the Mesozoic. According to some interpretations, this movement may have generated an interplate gap several hundreds of km wide, which led to the creation of an oceanic crust during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. However, field studies recently carried out in the Pyrenees do not support these interpretations. The North Pyrenean Fault (NPF) of Tertiary age is observed in the central and eastern Pyrenees, where pioneering researchers defined it as separating the North Pyrenean Zone from the Axial Zone.However, this fault cannot be identified in the western part of the range to the west of the Ossau valley. Consequently, the geodynamic evolution of Iberia has always been dependent on Europe, especially during the failed oceanic rifting in the Mid-Cretaceous. Indeed, during this period, a central zone of crustal thinning occupied by turbiditic basins separated the European from the Iberian continental crust, with a very localized mantle exhumation found only in the Mauleon basin. Therefore, far from being an interplate range, the Pyrenees can neither be considered as an intraplate unit. We can define this orogenic belt as resulting from the Tertiary tectonic inversion of a Mid-Cretaceous rift system. According to this new interpretation, Iberia would not have been an isolated plate but represented an unstable, outlying part of Europe. Rather than displaying the features of a rigid lithospheric unit with well-defined boundaries, Iberia grouped together different crustal blocks undergoing specific movements at particular times. During the Mesozoic, normal, reverse or strike

  10. Ultrasonic monitoring of Iberian fat crystallization during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona, E; García-Pérez, J V; Santacatalina, J V; Peña, R; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of ultrasonic measurements to characterize the crystallization process and to assess the textural changes of Iberian fat and Iberian ham during cold storage. The ultrasonic velocity was measured in two types of Iberian fats (Montanera and Cebo) during cold storage (0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 °C) and in vacuum packaged Iberian ham stored at 6°C for 120 days. The fatty acid profile, thermal behaviour and textural properties of fat were determined. The ultrasonic velocity and textural measurements showed a two step increase during cold storage, which was related with the separate crystallization of two fractions of triglycerides. It was observed that the harder the fat, the higher the ultrasonic velocity. Likewise, Cebo fat resulted harder than Montanera due to a higher content of saturated triglycerides. The ultrasonic velocity in Iberian ham showed an average increase of 55 m/s after 120 days of cold storage due to fat crystallization. Thus, non-destructive ultrasonic technique could be a reliable method to follow the crystallization of fats and to monitor the changes in the textural properties of Iberian ham during cold storage.

  11. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, J. R.; Aguilar, E.; Ashcroft, L.

    2017-11-01

    Drought variability and change was assessed across the Iberian Peninsula over more than 100 years expanding through the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 Iberian time series were quality controlled and homogenized to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), driven only by precipitation, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), were computed at annual and seasonal scale to describe the evolution of droughts across time. The results confirmed that a clear temperature increase has occurred over the entire Iberian Peninsula at the annual and seasonal scale, but no significant changes in precipitation accumulated amounts were found. Similar drought variability was provided by the SPI and SPEI, although the SPEI showed greater drought severity and larger surface area affected by drought than SPI from 1980s to 2010 due to the increase in atmospheric evaporative demand caused by increased temperatures. Moreover, a clear drying trend was found by the SPEI for most of the Iberian Peninsula at annual scale and also for spring and summer, although the SPI did not experience significant changes in drought conditions. From the drying trend identified for most of the Iberian Peninsula along the twentieth century, an increase in drought conditions can also be expected for this region in the twenty-first century according to future climate change projections and scenarios.

  12. Spatio-temporal Analysis of suspended sediment Concentration in the Yongjiang Estuary Based on GOCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanyan; Dong, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The concentration and spatio-temporal variation of suspended sediment concentration in the estuary area are of great significance to the nearshore engineering, port construction and coastal evolution. Based on multi-period GOCI images and corresponding measured suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data, three inversion models (the linear regression model, the power exponent model and the neural network model) were established after rapid atmospheric correction. The results show that the absolute error of the three models is 0.20, 0.16 and 0.10kg/m3 respectively, and the relative errors are 38%, 23% and 18% respectively. The accuracy of the neural network (8-17-17-1) is the best. The SSC distribution diagrams in an ebb and flow cycle are obtained using this ANN model. The results show that with Yongjiang estuary for segmentation, the high concentration area is located in the north and the lower is in the south around Jintang Island deeper water area. When the tide rises, the water flow disturbs a large amount of sediment, and then the sediment concentration increases and high area high concentrations water body moves along the SE-NW. When the tide falls, flow rate decreases and the sediment concentration decreases. However, with the falling tide, the concentration of suspended sediment in the northern sea areas gradually increases, and is higher than 1kg/m3, and gradually moves along the NW-SE until to the estuary.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA of pre-last glacial maximum red deer from NW Spain suggests a more complex phylogeographical history for the species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey de la Iglesia, Alba; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Campos, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The major climatic oscillations that characterized the Quaternary had a great influence on the evolution and distribution of several species. During cold periods, the distribution of temperate-adapted species became fragmented with many surviving in southern refugia (Iberian, Italian, and Balkan...... Peninsulas). Red deer was one of the species that contracted its original range to southern refugia. Currently, two main lineages have been described for the species: western and eastern. We have analyzed fossils pre-dating the last glacial maximum (LGM) from Liñares cave (NW Spain) that belongs...

  14. FLORA OF MOLOCHNYI ESTUARY COASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present-day characteristic of the coastal flora of Molochnyi eastury is given, that is one of the largest estuaries in Ukraine, the shores and waters of which in 2009 became a part of the Pryazov’ya National Nature Park. The analysis of the main parameters of the flora is made. Rare component of the estuary coastal flora is characterized, further steps to conserve the nature of Pryazov’ya are proposed.

  15. Picophytoplankton and carbon cycle on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribas-Ribas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four surveys (Jun’06 and Nov’06; Feb’07 and May’07 were carried out on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Iberian Peninsula to relate the spatio-temporal distribution of the carbon cycle parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon to picophytoplankton biomass and community composition. In addition, the net ecosystem production and the picophytoplankton contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange process were investigated. The results showed that chlorophyll-a, carbon cycle parameters and picophytoplankton composition showed large seasonality, and the Guadalquivir Estuary plays an important role in the contribution of nutrient and suspended particular material over the year. Regarding picophytoplankton composition, the flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were the main populations in the studied area and their temporal and spatial distributions were complementary: the Prochlorococcus population showed its maximum concentration in May’07 and Jun’06 and in the surface oceanic water, whereas the Synechococcus population was at its maximum during Feb’07 and Nov’06, and off the Guadalquivir Estuary and Bay of Cádiz. In addition, a relationship between the studied parameters and the fugacity of CO2 was also observed, suggesting that primary production is an important factor in the regulation of this parameter in the studied area. The calculated carbon budget showed that the area acts as a carbon sink on an annual basis.

  16. Technology-critical elements: a need for evaluating the anthropogenic impact on their marine biogeochemical cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cobelo-Garcia

    2014-06-01

    (ii Pt behaviour during estuarine mixing. The factors controlling the behaviour of Pt during estuarine mixing and its particle–water interactions will be discussed from the data obtained in the Lérez Estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula and the Gironde Estuary (SW France, with the implication for its transport and fate in the coastal ocean.

  17. Estuary-wide genetic stock distribution and salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  18. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Meat mixture detection in Iberian pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Somovilla, V; España-España, F; De Pedro-Sanz, E J; Gaitán-Jurado, A J

    2005-11-01

    Five homogenized meat mixture treatments of Iberian (I) and/or Standard (S) pork were set up. Each treatment was analyzed by NIRS as a fresh product (N=75) and as dry-cured sausage (N=75). Spectra acquisition was carried out using DA 7000 equipment (Perten Instruments), obtaining a total of 750 spectra. Several absorption peaks and bands were selected as the most representative for homogenized dry-cured and fresh sausages. Discriminant analysis and mixture prediction equations were carried out based on the spectral data gathered. The best results using discriminant models were for fresh products, with 98.3% (calibration) and 60% (validation) correct classification. For dry-cured sausages 91.7% (calibration) and 80% (validation) of the samples were correctly classified. Models developed using mixture prediction equations showed SECV=4.7, r(2)=0.98 (calibration) and 73.3% of validation set were correctly classified for the fresh product. These values for dry-cured sausages were SECV=5.9, r(2)=0.99 (calibration) and 93.3% correctly classified for validation.

  20. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 34975 - Notice of Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Estuary Habitat Restoration Council's Intent to Revise its Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy; Request... interagency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council, is providing notice of the Council's intent to revise the ''Estuary Habitat Restoration Strategy'' and requesting public comments to guide its revision. DATES...

  2. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbal, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 (http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/upload/Northwest-CSC-Strategic-Plan.cfm) and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  3. Frequent Questions about Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  4. Downloading and Installing Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  5. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  6. SANCOR estuaries programme 1982-1986

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available , such research will also aid in the rational management of estuaries. Estuaries on which research should be concentrated are identified and guidelines are given for project proposals and reporting....

  7. Nutrients in some estuaries of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Remani, K.N.; Zacharias, D.; Unnithan, R.V.

    phosphate and ammonia were high at Kallai compared to other three estuaries. All the estuaries showed an increase in nitrate content during monsoon. Nitrite values were high in postmonsoon. Ammonia levels were generally high except at Korapuzha. Nutrient...

  8. Leven estuary project. Fisheries Department final report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    This is the report on the Leven estuary project: Fisheries Department final report produced by the Environment Agency North West in 1997. This report contains information about Leven estuary, river Leven catchment, river Crake catchment and the Ulverston Discharges. The Leven estuary is characterised by being very shallow, and shares the extremely variable tides and currents that characterize the whole of Morecambe Bay. There was little detailed knowledge of the impact on the Leven estuary, a...

  9. Physiological status and intersex in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana from thirteen estuaries in northwest France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi Tankoua, O.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Denis, F.; Minier, C.; Mouneyrac, C.; Berthet, B.

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Scrobicularia plana, an important species for the structure and functioning of estuarine and coastal mudflats, was studied in thirteen sites from NW France differing by their degree of contamination to document the presence of reproduction impairments (intersex, sex ratio, gonadosomatic indices) in relation to the condition revealed by using hepatosomatic and condition indices. In agreement with recent studies in other European estuaries, intersex was revealed in all the studied estuaries, including sites the chemical and ecological status of which is considered “good” according to the criteria of the European Water Framework Directive. The presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) could result in such disturbances. Our results re-inforce the concern linked to the subtle effects of EDCs, which are active at very low doses, often in the absence of any major sign of toxicity. However at this stage, no clear link may be established between intersex and population effects. - Highlights: ► Clams were collected from 13 estuaries differing by their degree of contamination. ► Gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and condition indices were determined. ► Reproduction impairments (intersex, biased sex ratio, asynchronism) were shown. ► Intersex shown even at sites with good ecological status (Water Framework Directive). ► No clear links between intersex and populational effects. - Intersex in clams from estuaries, the chemical/ecological status of which was considered as good under the EC Water Framework Directive.

  10. Indian estuaries: Dynamics, ecosystems, and threats

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    the tide pulls the mixed water out of the estuary through its mouth. Different processes within an estuary contribute to mixing of the two waters, the important among these in the Mandovi estuary are: influence of the tide on the advective field within...

  11. Potamogeton schweinfurthii in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first records for the Iberian Peninsula of Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn., a species distributed mainly in Africa that was not discovered in Europe until 2005, where it is assumed to be indigenous but it has generally been confused with P. lucens. The Iberian specimens, which for the most part are from recent collections, have been identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular studies. We have detected 8 localities, 4 in the northeastern area of the Peninsula (Catalonia and Navarra and 4 from the West (south and north of Portugal and western Andalusia. Our studies show that it is a very rare species on a regional level. Although it is a mainly tropical and subtropical species, we have found that P. schweinfurthii (both natural populations and those cultivated has a high tolerance to climates with severe winters and frequent frosts. The large proportion of populations found in anthropogenic habitats, and the fact that most European records are from the past half-century, suggest that P. schweinfurthii may have experienced a recent expansion favoured by the construction of large number of artificial water bodies in the Mediterranean region. This raises the possibility that P. schweinfurthii in Europe is a species that forms temporary populations and has a naturally unstable area.Se aportan las primeras citas de Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn. en la Península Ibérica, una especie de área básicamente africana que no fue descubierta en Europa hasta 2005, donde se supone que es autóctona y en general había sido confundida con P. lucens. Los ejemplares ibéricos han sido identificados por sus caracteres morfológicos y por estudios moleculares y, en su mayor parte, proceden de recolecciones recientes. Se ha detectado en 8 localidades, 4 del noreste peninsular (Cataluña y Navarra y 4 del oeste (sur y norte de Portugal y Andalucía occidental. Según la información actualmente disponible, se trataría de

  12. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  14. Ecosystem services provided by Pacific NW estuaries: State of knowledge - March 3, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) ...

  15. Temporal dynamics of gastropod fauna on subtidal sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, J.; Aldea, C.; Troncoso, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation of the gastropod fauna inhabiting sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, Spain) was studied at three subtidal sites from February 1996 to February 1997 by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 5,463 individuals representing 51 gastropod species and 22 families were found. The family Pyramidellidae was the most diverse in number of species (11 species), followed by Rissoidae and Trochidae (4 species each). The dogwhelk, Nassarius reticulatus, and the rissoid snail, Rissoa parva, were the numerically dominant species at the three studied sites; those and other abundant species showed their greatest densities by the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. In general, univariate measures of the assemblage (number of species, abundance, diversity and evenness) showed variations through time; greater values were recorded between summer and autumn depending on the site. Multivariate analyses done on abundance data showed certain seasonality in the evolution of the assemblage as expected for shallow subtidal sandy sediments at temperate latitudes; those seasonal changes were mostly related to variations in abundance of numerically dominant species. Although the measured sedimentary variables did not show significant correlations with faunal univariate parameters, sediment heterogeneity due to the presence of mats of Zostera marina L. and shells of dead bivalves might explain the differences in composition of the gastropod assemblage among sampling sites.

  16. Bloom dynamics and life cycle strategies of two toxic dinoflagellates in a coastal upwelling system (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Isabel; Fraga, Santiago; Isabel Figueroa, Rosa; Pazos, Yolanda; Massanet, Ana; Ramilo, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    A study of Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium minutum blooms on the Galician coast was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in order to increase knowledge of the mechanisms governing recurrent blooms of these species. Considerable differences in their bloom dynamics were observed. G. catenatum blooms occurred in autumn and winter, following the pattern previously reported in the literature: they began off-shore and were advected to the Galician rias when a relaxation of the coastal upwelling occurred. On the other hand, A. minutum blooms developed inside embayments in spring and summer during the upwelling season and were associated with water stability and stratification. Both the vegetative population and the cyst distribution of A. minutum were related to less saline water from freshwater river outputs, which support a saline-gradient relationship postulated herein for this species. Dinoflagellates may produce both long-term double-walled cysts (resting) and short-term pellicle cysts. Resting cyst deposition and distribution in sediments showed that seeding occurred during the blooms of both species. However, the relationship between the cyst distribution in the sediments in Baiona Bay and the intensity and occurrence of G. catenatum blooms, suggests that the latter are not directly related to resting cyst germination. Moreover, the results presented in the present study point to other difference between the two species, such as the detection of pellicle cysts only for A. minutum. Finally, we discuss how the life cycle strategies of these two species may help to explain the different mechanisms of bloom formation reported herein.

  17. Geochemical behavior of metals and metalloids in an estuary affected by acid mine drainage (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, A; Olías, M; Ketterer, M E; Vaca, F; Borrego, J; Cánovas, C R; Bolivar, J P

    2014-02-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers in southwest Spain drain the world's largest sulfide mineral formation: the Iberian Pyrite Belt which has been worked since 2,500 BC. The Tinto and Odiel estuarine zones include both an extensive area of salt marsh and an intensively industrialized urban area. As a consequence of pyrite oxidation, the Tinto and Odiel rivers are strongly acidic (pH major and trace elements were determined in the acid mine drainage affected estuary of the Ría de Huelva. During estuarine mixing, ore-derived metal concentrations exhibit excellent correlations with pH as the main controlling parameter. As pH increases, concentrations of dissolved ore-associated elements are attenuated, and this process is enhanced during the summer months. The decrease in Fe and Al concentrations ranged from 80 to 100 % as these elements are converted from dissolved to sediment-associated forms in the estuary. Coprecipitation/adsorption processes also removed between 60 and 90 % of the originally dissolved Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Th; however, Cd and Ni exhibited a greater propensity to remain in solution, with an average removal of approximately 60 %. On the other hand, As and U exhibited a different behavior; it is likely that these elements remain in dissolved forms because of the formation of U carbonates and soluble As species. Concentrations of As remain at elevated levels in the outer estuary (average = 48 μg L(-1)) which exceeds concentrations present in the Tinto River. Nevertheless, the estuary has recently witnessed improvements in water quality, as compared to results of several previous studies reported in the 1990s.

  18. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L −1 (mean of 45 ng · L −1 ), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L −1 for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L −1 for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains of the Iberian

  19. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  20. Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair: The Iberian Suture Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Allston J.; Andersen, Jason S.; Mannava, Sandeep; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Howse, Elizabeth A.; Winter, S. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic hip labral repair has beneficial short-term outcomes; however, debate exists regarding ideal surgical labral repair technique. This technical note presents an arthroscopic repair technique that uses intrasubstance labral suture passage to restore the chondrolabral interface. This “Iberian suture technique” allows for an anatomic repair while posing minimal risk of damage to the labral and chondral tissues.

  1. Biogeochemical budgets for Tapi Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bapardekar, M.V.; DeSousa, S.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    sup(-1) comes from the wastes. Chemical fertilizers are used in the basin at the rate of 113 kg.ha sup(-1). During the dry season the salinity in the estuary decreases progressively in the upstream direction form an average 32.53 psu at the mouth to 0...

  2. Food Webs in an Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Barbara B.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on food chains in an estuary. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  3. Simulated Sampling of Estuary Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jenkins, Deborah Bainer

    2009-01-01

    To find out about the microscopic life in the valuable estuary environment, it is usually necessary to be near the water. This dry lab offers an alternative, using authentic data and a simulation of plankton sampling. From the types of organisms found in the sample, middle school students can infer relationships in the biological and physical…

  4. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results

  5. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; López, Mario; Carballo, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO2-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very...... harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996 - 2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location...

  6. Rock magnetic properties of sediments from Lake Sanabria and its catchment (NW Spain): paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoaña, J. C.; Borruel, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Rico, M.; Valero-Garces, B.; Moreno-Caballud, A.; Soto, R.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Sanabria is located in the NW Spanish mountains at 1000 m a.s.l., and constitutes the largest lake of glacial origin in the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present an environmental magnetic study of a Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core from Lake Sanabria and from different lithologies that crop out in its catchment, which includes Paleozoic plutonic, metamorphic and vulcanosedimentary rocks, and Quaternary deposits of glacial origin. This study was designed to complement sedimentologic and geochemical studies aimed at unraveling the climatic evolution of the NW Iberian Peninsula during the last deglaciation. Our results indicate that magnetite and pyrrhotite dominate the magnetic assemblage of both the sediments from the lower half of the studied sequence (25.6 - 13 cal kyr BP) deposited in a proglacial environment, and the Paleozoic rocks that make up most of the catchment of the lake. The occurrence of these minerals both in the catchment rocks and in the lake sediments indicates that sedimentation was then driven by the erosion of a glacial flour, which suffered minimal chemical transformation in response to a rapid and short routing to the lake. Sediments from the upper half of the studied sequence, accumulated after 12.4 cal kyr BP in a fluviolacustrine environment, contain magnetite and greigite. This points to a prominent role of post-depositional reductive dissolution, driven by a sharp increase in the accumulation of organic matter into the lake and the creation of anoxic conditions in the sediments, in shaping the magnetic assemblage of Holocene sediments. Pyrrhotite is stable under reducing conditions as opposed to magnetite, which is unstable. We therefore interpret that previous pedogenic processes occurred in the then deglaciated catchment of the lake were responsible for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and authigenic formation of magnetite, which survived subsequent reductive diagenesis given its initial larger concentrations. This interpretation is

  7. In-stream PIT detection, estuary wetlands - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  8. Salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  9. Osteological differentiation among Iberian Pelodytes (Anura, Pelodytidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Herráiz, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological differentiation among Pelodytes species is analysed based on a sample of disarticulated bones from the main osteological regions of the male adult skeleton. A set of 35 interspecifically diagnostic characters, analysed under different outgroup hypotheses, clearly shows that P. ibericus and P. punctatus are a sister-group with respect to P. caucasicus. The Caucasian species retains a very primitive morphology, with only 17-23 % derived character-states, while both living Iberian species reach percentages of derivation over 68 %. There is little difference between P. ibericus and P. punctatus in their relative degree of evolutionary transformation, and when using P. caucasicus as the outgroup the percentage of derived character-states is 45 and 60 % respectively. Differentiation rates are calculated in darwin units for several characters, and we show that the skull components have higher rates than the traits directly related with locomotion. Several adult growth trajectories, different between species, are described and identified as diverse allometric heterochronies. Three factors have been detected that might have grouped several characters as coevolutionary units. These factors are: a an ontogenetic factor, operating through heterochronic processes, expressed as a tendency to reduce ossification; b a functional morphological integration, detected in the elements involved in skull size and proportions; and c an ecomorphological factor, presumably an adaptive response, can be assumed for characters related to limb shape.Se analiza la diferenciación morfológica en Pelodytes mediante el análisis comparado de una muestra de elementos óseos desarticulados procedentes de las principales regiones del esqueleto macho adulto. Un conjunto de 35 rasgos interespecíficamente diferenciales, analizada bajo diversos grupos externos, permite inferir que P. ibericus y P. punctatus forman un grupo hermano frente a P. caucasicus. La especie

  10. Weather Types, temperature and relief relationship in the Iberian Peninsula: A regional adiabatic processes under directional weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Cortesi, Nicola; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed at monthly scale the spatial distribution of Pearson correlation between monthly mean of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures with weather types (WTs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), represent them in a high spatial resolution grid (10km x 10km) from MOTEDAS dataset (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). The WT classification was that developed by Jenkinson and Collison, adapted to the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara, using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The spatial distribution of Pearson correlations shows a clear zonal gradient in Tmax under the zonal advection produced in westerly (W) and easterly (E) flows, with negative correlation in the coastland where the air mass come from but positive correlation to the inland areas. The same is true under North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-West (SW) and South-East (SE) WTs. These spatial gradients are coherent with the spatial distribution of the main mountain chain and offer an example of regional adiabatic phenomena that affect the entire IP (Peña-Angulo et al., 2015b). These spatial gradients have not been observed in Tmin. We suggest that Tmin values are less sensitive to changes in Sea Level Pressure and more related to local factors. These directional WT present a monthly frequency over 10 days and could be a valuable tool for downscaling processes. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298 Peña-Angulo, D., Trigo, R., Cortesi, C., González-Hidalgo, J.C. (2015b): The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  11. Chemical petrology of polymetamorphic ultramafic rocks from Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, P.

    1970-01-01

    The investigated polymetamorphic peridotites occur associated with metabasic rocks in several complexes of probably Precambrian age in the northern part of the Hesperian massif (Iberian peninsula). Spinel-clinopyroxene-, spinel-pargasite-, spinel-hornblende- and chlorite-amphibole-peridotites,

  12. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  13. Uranium pollution in an estuary affected by pyrite acid mine drainage and releases of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, M.; Manjon, G.; Hurtado, S.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Huelva estuary is affected by former phosphogypsum releases and pyrite acid mine drainage. → Time evolution of uranium concentration is analyzed after halting of NORM releases. → Two new contamination sources are preventing the complete uranium cleaning: (1) The leaching of phosphogypsum stacks located close to Tinto River. (2) Pyrite acid mine drainage. → High uranium concentrations are dissolved in water and precipitate subsequently. - Abstract: After the termination of phosphogypsum discharges to the Huelva estuary (SW Spain), a unique opportunity was presented to study the response of a contaminated environmental compartment after the cessation of its main source of pollution. The evolution over time of uranium concentrations in the estuary is presented to supply new insights into the decontamination of a scenario affected by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) discharges. The cleaning of uranium isotopes from the area has not taken place as rapidly as expected due to leaching from phosphogypsum stacks. An in-depth study using various techniques of analysis, including 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 232 Th ratios and the decreasing rates of the uranium concentration, enabled a second source of uranium contamination to be discovered. Increased uranium levels due to acid mine drainage from pyrite mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) prevent complete uranium decontamination and, therefore, result in levels nearly twice those of natural background levels.

  14. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Anar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. ...

  15. Anthropometric history of the Iberian world. Lessons we have learned

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Martínez-Carrión

    2011-01-01

    Recent research of anthropometric history within the Iberian world shed new light on trends in nutritional status, health, living standards, and biological welfare since ancient times. It has been shown that nutrition was not worse during the middle Ages than at the beginning of modern times, and that the height of the Portuguese and Spaniards did not differ much from that enjoyed by other Europeans in the Age of Enlightenment. At the beginning of industrialization height deteriorated in both...

  16. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Laiz, Gemma; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae , Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri . Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage.

  17. The Permanent GPS Network In The Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Bastos, L.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Noomen, R.

    In recent years, the number of permanent GPS sites in the Iberia Peninsula has in- creased significantly: in the beginning of 1996 there were just 2 sites with publicly available data. This number had risen to 15 by the end of 1999, and recently (end of 2001), it has reached 18. For many sites, the observation time-span is already suffi- ciently long to derive a reliable estimate of the motion of the stations. Combined with the relatively good geographical distribution of the sites, this velocity field contains unique information to study the tectonics of the Iberian Peninsula, both internally and with respect to the rest of Europe. In the framework of a combined DEOS-AOUP research project called GIN (GPS Iberian Network), the data of all available GPS sites in the region (including some in North Africa, the Azores Archipelago and France) are being processed on a daily basis since the middle of 2000 (with backward processing extending to January 1996). Following this project, DEOS became an official LAC (Local Analysis Centre) of EU- REF in the beginning of 2001. The DEOS weekly solutions are included in the official EUREF analysis chain, resulting in weekly coordinate solutions for the entire EU- REF network. The two solutions (GIN &EUREF) are computed by the DEOS-AOUP group using the same software, but applying different strategies. The differences in the solutions are analysed in order to pinpoint data problems and processing errors. Furthermore, the GIN velocity field is compared with the one derived from the offi- cial EUREF solution. Special attention is paid to the different procedures to link the solutions into a unified reference frame. Finally, this paper presents a preliminary interpretation of the contemporary tectonics of the Iberian Peninsula based on the derived velocity fields. There is evidence of significant intra-plate deformation in the Iberia region and there are indications that the Iberian block exhibits a differential motion with respect to

  18. Subjunctive dependents in Iberian Romance: A Reprojection account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel J. Gallego

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward an analysis of subjunctive dependent clauses in Iberian Romance based on Hornstein and Uriagereka’s (2002 treatment of binary quantifiers. The main idea is that Chomsky’s (2004 Transfer operation can be associated to the effect of these quantifiers; more specifically, it is argued that indicative mood, contrary to subjunctive mood, operates as a binary quantifier, thus triggering the application of Transfer.

  19. Analysis of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitan Herraiz, Alvaro; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased. In the period considered (August 2006-July 2008), monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium variations (decreasing with variance of spot prices during delivery period and increasing with skewness of spot prices during delivery period). Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development of all the coexistent forward contracting mechanisms and with further integration of European Regional Electricity Markets. (author)

  20. Passerine bird communities of Iberian dehesas: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellería, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian dehesas are a man-made habitat composed of scattered oaks (Quercus spp. and extensive grass cover occupying three million ha in south-western Iberia. This paper compares the structure of the passerine bird communities in this region with other bird assemblages of Iberian woodlands. Although forest bird numbers in the southern half of the Iberian peninsula are decreasing, the dehesas show the highest richness in breeding birds, seemingly as the result of the increased presence of border and open-habitat birds. A low intra-habitat turnover of species was observed in the dehesas, with birds recorded at a sampling point accounting for a high percentage of the total richness of the community. This can be related to the low spatial patchiness of this habitat. In winter, the dehesas continued to maintain many bird species, but showed bird densities similar to other woodlands. This pattern, as well as the scarcity of some common forest passerines during the breeding period, could result from the removal of the shrub layer typical of Mediterranean woodlands.

  1. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma Vedula, VSS

    2012-07-01

    The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

  3. Characterization and dating of coastal deposits of NW Portugal (Minho-Neiva area): A record of climate, eustasy and crustal uplift during the Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalhido, Ricardo P.; Pereira, Diamantino I.; Cunha, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the characterization and numerical dating of Quaternary coastal deposits of NW Portugal, located between the mouths of the Minho and Neiva rivers. They record continental (small alluvial fans and streams) and transitional (aeolian dunes, interdune ponds, estuary, sandy...... and gravelly beaches) paleoenvironments. Quartz and K-feldspar optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is employed as well as AMS C-14 dating. A staircase of coastal terraces (abrasion shore platforms) was identified (altimetry, a.s.l.) and ascribed to the following probable Marine Isotope Stages (MIS...

  4. Trapping of sediment in tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernetsky, A.

    2012-01-01

    An estuary is an ideal habitat for various aquatic species. At the same time, estuaries and adjacent rivers are used as fast navigation routes between the coastal and inland territories. The fast industrial development and the subsequent growth of cities and trade have led to large-scale

  5. Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shiye; Zhu, Lixin; Li, Daoji

    2015-01-01

    Estuarine Microplastics (MPs) are limited to know globally. By filtering subsurface water through 330 μm nets, MPs in Jiaojiang, Oujiang Estuaries were quantified, as well as that in Minjiang Estuary responding to Typhoon Soulik. Polymer matrix was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. MP (<5 mm) comprised more than 90% of total number plastics. The highest MPs density was found in Minjiang, following Jiaojiang and Oujiang. Fibers and granules were the primary shapes, with no pellets found. Colored MPs were the majority. The concentrations of suspended microplastics determine their bioavailability to low trophic organisms, and then possibly promoting the transfer of microplastic to higher trophic levels. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the prevalent types of MPs analyzed. Economic structures in urban estuaries influenced on MPs contamination levels. Typhoon didn't influence the suspended MP densities significantly. Our results provide basic information for better understanding suspended microplastics within urban estuaries and for managerial actions. - Highlights: • Suspended microplastic were investigated within three densely populated/developed urban estuaries, China. • Economical structures may contribute to the abundances of microplastic particles within the studied estuaries. • Typhoon Soulik didn't influence microplastic densities in the water column of Minjiang Estuary. • Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) dominated more than 90% of the total plastic by number. - Suspended microplastics (MPs) levels were quantified within three urban estuaries, China. MPs densities were consistent with the urban economical structure, and that in Minjiang were unaffected by Typhoon.

  6. The Mntafufu and Mzamba River estuaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-14

    Mar 14, 1989 ... A survey of the fish fauna of Transkei estuaries. Part Four: The Mntafufu and Mzamba River estuaries. E.E. Plumstead • and J.F. Prinsloo. Department of Zoology, University of Transkei, Private Bag X1, Unitra, Umtata, Republic of Transkei. H.J. Schoonbee. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, ...

  7. Oblique strain partitioning and transpression on an inverted rift: The Castilian Branch of the Iberian Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente, G. de; Vegas, R.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Wees, J.D.A.M. van; Casas-Sáinz, A.; Sopeña, A.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Arche, A.; López-Gómez, J.; Olaiz, A.; Fernández-Lozano, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Iberian Chain is a wide intraplate deformation zone formed by the tectonic inversion during the Pyrenean orogeny of a Permian-Mesozoic basin developed in the eastern part of the Iberian Massif. The N-S convergence between Iberia and Eurasia from the Late Cretaceous to the Lower Miocene times

  8. Collaborative Potential between National Estuary Programs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitat for freshwater and marine species as well as valuable social and economic benefits. The wealth of ecosystem goods and services from estuaries has led to growth and development of human communities in adjacent areas and an increase in human activities that can adversely affect water quality and critical habitat. Managing for sustainable estuaries requires a balance of environmental concerns with community social and economic values. This has created an opportunity to leverage Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientific knowledge and tools with National Estuary Program (NEP) planning and management expertise to address environmental challenges in important estuarine ecosystems. The non-regulatory National Estuary Program (NEP) was outlined in the Clean Water Act to provide stakeholders an opportunity to monitor and manage ‘nationally significant’ estuaries. Currently there are 28 estuaries in the NEP, broadly distributed across the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coasts, and in Puerto Rico. The local NEP management conferences must address a variety of environmental issues, from water quality and natural resources to coastal and watershed development. While the underlying objectives of each NEP are quite similar, each has unique landscapes, land uses, waterbodies, habitats, biological resources, economies and social culture. Consequently, the effects and severity of anthr

  9. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  10. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification

  11. Characterizing seston in the Penobscot River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseck, Shannon L; Li, Yaqin; Sunila, Inke; Dixon, Mark; Clark, Paul; Lipsky, Christine; Stevens, Justin R; Music, Paul; Wikfors, Gary H

    2017-10-01

    The Penobscot River Estuary is an important system for diadromous fish in the Northeast United States of American (USA), in part because it is home to the largest remnant population of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the country. Little is known about the chemical and biological characteristics of seston in the Penobscot River Estuary. This study used estuarine transects to characterize the seston during the spring when river discharge is high and diadromous fish migration peaks in the Penobscot River Estuary. To characterize the seston, samples were taken in spring 2015 for phytoplankton identification, total suspended matter (TSM), percent organic TSM, chlorophyll a, particle size (2 μm-180 μm), particulate carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The estuarine profiles indicate that TSM behaved non-conservatively with a net gain in the estuary. As phytoplankton constituted only 1/1000 of the particles, the non-conservative behavior of TSM observed in the estuary was most likely not attributable to phytoplankton. Particulate carbon and nitrogen ratios and stable isotope signals indicate a strong terrestrial, allochthonous signal. The seston in the Penobscot River Estuary was dominated by non-detrital particles. During a short, two-week time period, Heterosigma akashiwo, a phytoplankton species toxic to finfish, also was detected in the estuary. A limited number of fish samples, taken after the 2015 Penobscot River Estuary bloom of H. akashiwo, indicated frequent pathological gill damage. The composition of seston, along with ichthyotoxic algae, suggest the need for further research into possible effects upon resident and migratory fish in the Penobscot River Estuary. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Iberian ATLAS Cloud response during the first LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Villaplana, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Borges, G; Borrego, C; Carvalho, J; David, M; Espinal, X; Fernández, A; Gomes, J; González de la Hoz, S; Kaci, M; Lamas, A; Nadal, J; Oliveira, M; Oliver, E; Osuna, C; Pacheco, A; Pardo, JJ; del Peso, J; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Wolters, H

    2011-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is based on a tiered hierarchy that ranges from Tier0 (CERN) down to end-user's own resources (Tier3). According to the same computing model, the role of the Tier2s is to provide computing resources for event simulation processing and distributed data analysis. Tier3 centers, on the other hand, are the responsibility of individual institutions to define, fund, deploy and support. In this contribution we report on the operations of the ATLAS Iberian Cloud centers facing data taking and we describe some of the Tier3 facilities currently deployed at the Cloud.

  13. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  14. Gene flow and genetic structure in the Galician population (NW Spain according to Alu insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez Lois

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most recent Alu insertions reveal different degrees of polymorphism in human populations, and a series of characteristics that make them particularly suitable genetic markers for Human Biology studies. This has led these polymorphisms to be used to analyse the origin and phylogenetic relationships between contemporary human groups. This study analyses twelve Alu sequences in a sample of 216 individuals from the autochthonous population of Galicia (NW Spain, with the aim of studying their genetic structure and phylogenetic position with respect to the populations of Western and Central Europe and North Africa, research that is of special interest in revealing European population dynamics, given the peculiarities of the Galician population due to its geographical situation in western Europe, and its historical vicissitudes. Results The insertion frequencies of eleven of the Alu elements analysed were within the variability range of European populations, while Yb8NBC125 proved to be the lowest so far recorded to date in Europe. Taking the twelve polymorphisms into account, the GD value for the Galician population was 0.268. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS, NJ and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify three population groups that correspond to the geographic areas of Western-Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. Galicia is shown to be included in the Western-Central European cluster, together with other Spanish populations. When only considering populations from Mediterranean Europe, the Galician population revealed a degree of genetic flow similar to that of the majority of the populations from this geographic area. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that the Galician population, despite its geographic situation in the western edge of the European continent, occupies an intermediate position in relation to other European populations in

  15. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Lopez, M.; Carballo, R.; Castro, A. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Hydraulic Engineering, E.P.S., Campus Universitario s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Fraguela, J.A. [University of A Coruna, E.P.S., Campus de Esteiro s/n, Ferrol (Spain); Frigaard, P. [University of Aalborg, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK 9000 (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO{sub 2}-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996-2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location of ports, navigation routes, and fishing and aquaculture zones, an area is selected for wave energy exploitation. The transformation of the offshore wave field as it propagates into this area is computed by means of a nearshore wave model (SWAN) in order to select the optimum locations for a wave farm. Two zones emerge as those with the highest potential for wave energy exploitation. The large modifications in the available wave power resulting from relatively small changes of position are made apparent in the process. (author)

  16. Robot 2015 : Second Iberian Robotics Conference : Advances in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, António; Lima, Pedro; Montano, Luis; Muñoz-Martinez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers accepted for presentation and discussion at ROBOT 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 19th-21th, 2015. ROBOT 2015 is part of a series of conferences that are a joint organization of SPR – “Sociedade Portuguesa de Robótica/ Portuguese Society for Robotics”, SEIDROB – Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo de la Robótica/ Spanish Society for Research and Development in Robotics and CEA-GTRob – Grupo Temático de Robótica/ Robotics Thematic Group. The conference organization had also the collaboration of several universities and research institutes, including: University of Minho, University of Porto, University of Lisbon, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, University of Aveiro, University of Zaragoza, University of Malaga, LIACC, INESC-TEC and LARSyS. Robot 2015 was focussed on the Robotics scientific and technological activities in the Iberian Peninsula, although open to research and delegates from other...

  17. Restructuring and generation of electrical energy in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, E. Fernandez; Bernat, J. Xiberta

    2007-01-01

    Portugal and Spain are on the threshold of the creation of an Iberian electricity market. In order to help its development, the power of the electric interconnection between the countries has been increased and market mechanisms designed to resolve congestion, should it arise. A system of joint supply for the Iberian Peninsula will lead to single price for the whole area except at times when the interconnection is saturated, in which case prices will be somewhat higher in the importing zone. In the medium term, the hope is that both systems will have very similar generating equipment and that their variable costs will equalize due to the substitution of the most obsolete equipment with combined cycle power stations, and to the increase of exchange capacity. The coming into effect of this market will bring about improvements in the security and efficiency of supply in both countries. There will also be some obstacles to overcome, such as, for example, the current regulatory frame deficiencies on power generation, the contacts which exist at present in Portugal between the producers and the National Electricity Network, the asymmetry of the distribution channels in each country, the differences in rates and the limited capacity for exchange. (author)

  18. Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Pandya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mahi river estuary is one of the major estuaries of Gujarat. This paper presents a comprehensive list of birds of the Mahi river estuary (nearly 50 km stretch and the adjacent banks/ravines and defines the avian diversity at three major estuarine gradations with a brief check of similarity and diversity within the three. The present observation is the outcome of a 3 year period from August 2006 to July 2009. A sum total of 118 species belonging to 42 families were reported and listed as on Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream of estuary. No significant difference was seen in the species richness at the three zones; a change in avian composition at upstream and downstream was notable.

  19. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  20. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  1. Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    of anthropogenic metal to the estuary. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor support Hg contamination of the estuarine sediment to a varying degree. Hg is not significantly correlated with TOC, Al, Fe and Mn in these sediments...

  2. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  3. Mercury in sediments of Ulhas estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Borole, D.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Hg levels in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Ulhas estuary are under considerable environmental stress due to the indiscriminate release of effluents from a variety of industries including chlor-alkali plants. Concentration...

  4. Benthic studies in south Gujarat estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govindan, K.; Varshney, P.K.; Desai, B.N.

    Benthic biomass and faunal composition in relation to various environmental conditions of the four South Gujarat estuaries namely the Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were studied and compared. Mean population density of benthos in Auranga, Ambika...

  5. Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean understanding to high school students. When the student has completed this unit, he should be able to: (1) define an…

  6. Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sampériz, Penélope

    2010-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the location and composition of Iberian vegetation types during the whole Pleistocene and Holocene periods shows a complex patched landscape with persistence of different types of ecosystems, even during glacial times. In addition, recent, high-resolution palaeoecological records are changing the traditional picture of post-glacial vegetation succession in the Iberian Peninsula. The main available charcoal and pollen sequences include, coniferous and deciduous forest, steppes, shrublands, savannahs and glacial refugia during the Pleistocene for Meso-thermophytes (phytodiversity reservoirs), in different proportions. This panorama suggests an environmental complexity that relates biotic responses to climate changes forced by Milankovitch cycles, suborbital forcings and by the latitudinal and physiographic particularities of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, many factors are critical in the course of vegetational developments and strong regional differences are observed since the Early Pleistocene. Currently, the flora of Iberia is located in two biogeographical/climatic regions: the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean. The first one includes northern and northwestern areas of the peninsula, where post-glacial responses of vegetation are very similar to Central Europe, although with some particularities due to its proximity to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean region. The second one comprises the main territory of Iberia and shows more complex patterns and singularities, now and in the past. Steppe landscapes dominated extensive areas over all the territory during the cold spells of the Quaternary, especially during the Late Pleistocene up to the Last Glacial Maximum, but differences in composition of the dominant taxa (Compositae versus Artemisia) are observed since the Early Pleistocene, probably related to moisture regional gradients. Coastal shelves and intramountainous valleys, even in continental areas, are spots of floristic

  7. Keurbooms Estuary floods and sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart H. Schumann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Keurbooms Estuary at Plettenberg Bay lies on a wave-dominated, microtidal coast. It has a dune-topped sandy barrier, or barrier dune, almost 4 km long, with a narrow back-barrier lagoon connected to its source rivers, the Keurbooms and Bitou. The estuary exits to the sea through this barrier dune, and it is the geomorphology and mouth position in relation to floods, which is the subject of this paper. Measurements of rainfall, water level, waves and high- and low-tide water lines were used to analyse the mouth variability over the years 2006–2012. Two major floods occurred during this time, with the first in November 2007 eroding away more than 500 000 m3 of sediment. The new mouth was established at the Lookout Rocks limit – the first time since 1915. The second flood occurred in July 2012 and opened up a new mouth about 1 km to the north-east; high waves also affected the position of the breach. The mouth has a tendency to migrate southwards against the longshore drift, but at any stage this movement can be augmented or reversed. The effectiveness of floods in breaching a new mouth through the barrier dune depends on the flood size and the nature of the exit channel in the back-barrier lagoon. Other factors such as ocean waves, sea level, vegetative state of the dune and duration of the flood are also important and can determine where the breach occurs, and if the new mouth will dominate the old mouth.

  8. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  9. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-06-14

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African-Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African-Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures.

  10. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng·L(-1) (mean of 45 ng·L(-1)), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms and 5-10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5-10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5-10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Estuary Book: A Guide to Promoting Understanding and Regional Management of Maine's Estuaries and Embayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Jenny

    The objective of this document is to provide information about estuaries, the impact of uses on the environmental health of an estuary, and what communities and concerned individuals can do to manage and protect their local estuarine resources successfully. Much of the information presented here pertains to other embayments along the Maine coast…

  12. Seasonal stratification and property distributions in a tropical estuary (Cochin estuary, west coast, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shivaprasad, A.; Vinita, J.; Revichandran, C.; Reny, P.D.; Deepak, M.P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    immune from extended hypoxia/anoxia and maintaining the health of the Cochin estuary. For the seasonally varying river flow in the estuary, salt intrusion receded with increasing river flow in monsoon and rebounded with decreasing river flow in dry season...

  13. Skill Assessment of An Hybrid Technique To Estimate Quantitative Precipitation Forecast For Galicia (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, A.; Taboada, J. J.

    Precipitation is the most obvious of the weather elements in its effects on normal life. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is generally used to produce quantitative precip- itation forecast (QPF) beyond the 1-3 h time frame. These models often fail to predict small-scale variations of rain because of spin-up problems and their coarse spatial and temporal resolution (Antolik, 2000). Moreover, there are some uncertainties about the behaviour of the NWP models in extreme situations (de Bruijn and Brandsma, 2000). Hybrid techniques, combining the benefits of NWP and statistical approaches in a flexible way, are very useful to achieve a good QPF. In this work, a new technique of QPF for Galicia (NW of Spain) is presented. This region has a percentage of rainy days per year greater than 50% with quantities that may cause floods, with human and economical damages. The technique is composed of a NWP model (ARPS) and a statistical downscaling process based on an automated classification scheme of at- mospheric circulation patterns for the Iberian Peninsula (J. Ribalaygua and R. Boren, 1995). Results show that QPF for Galicia is improved using this hybrid technique. [1] Antolik, M.S. 2000 "An Overview of the National Weather Service's centralized statistical quantitative precipitation forecasts". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:306- 337. [2] de Bruijn, E.I.F and T. Brandsma "Rainfall prediction for a flooding event in Ireland caused by the remnants of Hurricane Charley". Journal of Hydrology, 239, pp:148-161. [3] Ribalaygua, J. and Boren R. "Clasificación de patrones espaciales de precipitación diaria sobre la España Peninsular". Informes N 3 y 4 del Servicio de Análisis e Investigación del Clima. Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. Madrid. 53 pp.

  14. Mapping of tecto-lineaments and their influence on sedimentological processes in a GIS environment: a case study of the Iberian trough, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero-Hernández Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The subsurface sedimentary succession of the Iberian Trough, Spain was examined using geophysical techniques (analogue seismic profiles and inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation algorithm implemented in a gvGIS open source software. The results showed that the Late Cretaceous succession is divided into two depositional sequences: DS-1 (Late Albian-Middle Turonian and DS-2 (Late Turonian-Campanian. From the analogical seismic sections, digital data and quantitative isopach maps for DS-1 and DS-2 were obtained. The new isopach maps obtained for the DS-1 sequence showed that the deeper sectors of the basin were located to the northeast and the proximal ones to the southwest. The palaeoshoreline was inferred to be situated in the N 150 direction. Across and parallel to this direction several blocks were delimited by faults, with a direction between 30 N and N 65. The thickness of the sediments in these blocks varied in direction NW-SE, with subsidence and depocentres in hangingwall and uplift in the footwall. These variations may have been related to active synsedimentary faults (e.g., Boñar and Yugueros Faults. In the DS-2 sequence, a lineament separated the smaller thicknesses to the southwest from the larger thicknesses (up to 1400 m to the northeast. This lineament had an N170 orientation and it indicated the position of the palaeoshoreline. In the isopach map for DS-2 there were two groups of lineaments. The first showed a block structure that was limited by N100-120, they were foundering toward the S and had large thicknesses (depocentres, and rose towards the N, where there were smaller thicknesses. The second group of lineaments had a N 50-65 direction and, in this case, they had a similar interpretation as the one in DS-1. The maps obtained are of great help for geologists and permit better understanding of the geological setting and stratigraphic succession of the Late Cretaceous of the Iberian Trough.

  15. Landscape and vegetation change on the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Epoch - A reconstruction based on Geo-Bioarchives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Archaeological investigations expect that first strong landscape changes on the Iberian Peninsula based on Roman Occupation (Schattner 1998, Teichner 2007). Actual sedimentological investigations in flood plains, lagoons and estuaries do not reflect this development. They often show a decrease in sedimentation during this period (Thorndycraft & Benito 2006 a/b). In contrast analyses on sediments from roman dams (Hinderer et al. 2004, Solanas 2005) document massive erosion processes. The aim of this presented project is to reconstruct the effects of the roman land use system on vegetation and landscape development. Therefore different Geo-Bioarchives on several sites of Portugal and Spain - estuaries, palaeoriver channels and roman dams - are actually investigated with a high temporal resolution using palynological and sedimentological methods. First results show, that the anthropogenic impact starts clearly before roman time with an peak in human activity during Iron Age (Schneider et al. 2008). During the roman occupation phase different effects are visible. The inland areas document a massive increase in vegetation change, while the coastal areas were stronger developed before and show only slightly and very local changes in land use and vegetation. References Hinderer, M., Silva C. & J. Ries (2004). Erosion in zentralen Ebrobecken und Sedimentakkumulation in Talsperren. GeoLeipzig 2004, Geowissenschaften sichern Zukunft. - Schriftenreihe der Dt. Geol. Gesell. 34. Schattner, T.G. (1998): Archäologischer Wegweiser durch Portugal.- Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt 74. Mainz. Schneider, H., Höfer, D., Trog, C., Daut, G., Hilbich C. & R. Mäusbacher (2008): Geoarcheological reconstruction of lagoon development in the Algarve Region (South Portugal). Terra Nostra 2008/2, Abstract Volume 12th IPC: 248. Solanas, O.L.-P. (2005): El Aterramiento del embalse romano de Muel: Implicaciones para la evolución de la erosióy el uso de los recursos hidricos en el valle del

  16. Towards the classification of eutrophic condition in estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemley, DA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and ecological integrity of estuaries closely reflect activities within the entire upstream catchment. Much emphasis has been placed on the response of estuaries to anthropogenic stressors through the use of monitoring programmes. Key...

  17. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  18. Benthos of Beypore and Korapuzha estuaries of North Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Venugopal, P.

    The benthos from Beypore and Korapuzha estuaries were studied for one year. Environmental features, sediment characteristics and organic carbon content were estimated. Benthic density was high during monsoon and postmonsoon in both the estuaries...

  19. Variations of dissolved oxygen in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; SenGupta, R.

    During non-monsoon months the estuaries were well mixed showing uniform oxygen concentrations from surface to bottom. However, during monsoon months both the estuaries showed stratified conditions with surface water showing high oxygen concentration...

  20. Nutrient characterisation of river inflow into the estuaries of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient characterisation of river inflow into the estuaries of the Gouritz Water ... into the estuaries within the Gouritz Water Management Area (WMA) of South Africa. ... Long-term water quality monitoring data (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, i.e. ...

  1. Skagit IMW - Skagit River Estuary Intensively Monitored Watershed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study evaluates system-level effects of several estuary restoration projects on juvenile Chinook salmon production in the Skagit River estuary. The monitoring...

  2. Origin and composition of particulate organic matter in a macrotidal turbid estuary: The Gironde Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Nicolas; David, Valérie; Morisseau, François; Etcheber, Henri; Abril, Gwenaël; Billy, Isabelle; Charlier, Karine; Oggian, Georges; Derriennic, Hervé; Sautour, Benoît

    2012-08-01

    At the interface between continent and ocean, estuaries receive particles, and especially particulate organic matter (POM) originating from these two reservoirs, but also produce POM, through autochthonous primary production. The origin and composition of surface POM in the Gironde Estuary (SW France) and the environmental forcing of its variability was investigated using the data set produced by the French Coastal Monitoring Network SOMLIT (Service d'Observation en Milieu LITtoral; monthly like sampling during years 2007-2009). This estuary is considered as a model of macrotidal turbid estuaries. Using elemental and isotopic composition of the POM, we estimated that, at the inner estuary space scale and inter-annual time scale, surface particulate organic carbon (POC) was composed of terrestrial POM originated from the turbidity maximum (96.4%; refractory POC) and flood events (1.6%; labile and refractory POC), and of riverine (0.1%), estuarine (0.8%) and marine (1.1%) phytoplankton, i.e. that POC was 98% and 2% of terrestrial and phytoplankton origin, respectively. However, there was a clear spatial gradient: the phytoplankton contribution increases from ca. 1% in the upper and middle estuary to 8.5% in the lower estuary, where light condition is more favourable to plankton growth. The low contribution of phytoplankton to the POC is a characteristic of the Gironde estuary and contrast with other large temperate estuaries. Statistical analysis indicates that salinity, river flow and SPM concentration, and thus associated hydro-dynamic and sedimentary processes, were the only environmental forcings to the composition of surface POC in this system, at intra- and inter-annual time scale. In contrast, temperature and nutrient concentrations, and thus associated processes, do not force this composition of POC. By combining POC fluxes entering the inner estuary (literature data), POC loss as dissolved organic carbon and CO2 and as sediment trapping within the inner

  3. Assessing methods for developing crop forecasting in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A. V. M.; Capa Morocho, M. I.; Baethgen, W.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Han, E.; Ruiz Ramos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal climate prediction may allow predicting crop yield to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate variability and its extremes. It has been already demonstrated that seasonal climate predictions at European (or Iberian) scale from ensembles of global coupled climate models have some skill (Palmer et al., 2004). The limited predictability that exhibits the atmosphere in mid-latitudes, and therefore de Iberian Peninsula (PI), can be managed by a probabilistic approach based in terciles. This study presents an application for the IP of two methods for linking tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts with crop models to improve crop predictability. Two methods were evaluated and applied for disaggregating seasonal rainfall forecasts into daily weather realizations: 1) a stochastic weather generator and 2) a forecast tercile resampler. Both methods were evaluated in a case study where the impacts of two seasonal rainfall forecasts (wet and dry forecast for 1998 and 2015 respectively) on rainfed wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize in IP were analyzed. Simulated wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize were computed with the crop models CERES-wheat and CERES-maize which are included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at several locations in Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. These methodologies would allow quantifying the benefits and risks of a seasonal climate forecast to potential users as farmers, agroindustry and insurance companies in the IP. Therefore, we would be able to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse ones. ReferencesPalmer, T. et al., 2004. Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the

  4. Geomorphic status of regulated rivers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Besné, P; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A; Aristi, I; Díez, J R; Ibisate, A; Larrañaga, A; Elosegi, A; Batalla, R J

    2015-03-01

    River regulation by dams modifies flow regimes, interrupts the transfer of sediment through channel networks, and alters downstream bed dynamics, altogether affecting channel form and processes. So far, most studies on the geomorphic impacts of dams are restricted to single rivers, or even single river stretches. In this paper we analyse the geomorphic status of 74 river sites distributed across four large basins in the Iberian Peninsula (i.e. 47 sites located downstream of dams). For this purpose, we combine field data with hydrological data available from water agencies, and analyse historical (1970) and current aerial photographs. In particular, we have developed a Geomorphic Status (GS) index that allows us to assess the physical structure of a given channel reach and its change through time. The GS encompasses a determination of changes in sedimentary units, sediment availability, bar stability and channel flow capacity. Sites are statistically grouped in four clusters based on contrasted physical and climate characteristics. Results emphasise that regulation changes river's flow regime with a generalized reduction of the magnitude and frequency of floods (thus flow competence). This, in addition to the decrease downstream sediment supply, results in the loss of active bars as they are encroached by vegetation, to the point that only reaches with little or no regulation maintain exposed sedimentary deposits. The GS of regulated river reaches is negatively correlated with magnitude of the impoundment (regulation). Heavily impacted reaches present channel stabilization and, in contrast to the hydrological response, the distance and number of tributaries do not reverse the geomorphic impact of the dams. Stabilization limits river dynamics and may contribute to the environmental degradation of the fluvial ecosystem. Overall, results describe the degree of geomorphological alteration experienced by representative Iberian rivers mostly because of regulation

  5. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Ecological values of the Miño estuary and good practices related to ornithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA Noe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Miño estuary (northwest of the Iberian Peninsula is included in two natural protected areas of the EU Natura 2000 Galician network, one under the Habitats Directive (Site of Community Importance Baixo Miño, and other under the Birds Directive (Bird Special Protection Area Esteiro do Miño; the last cataloging deal with areas of particular relevance for migratory or endangered birds that requires a status of protection to ensure their protection and conservation. Moreover, the Miño estuary comprises a total of 32 habitats classified of Community interest by the European Habitats Directive, where numerous species of aquatic birds can be observed, especially during overwinter and migratory periods. The local naturalist association ANABAM is developing a number of activities for the conservation, study, divulgation and defense of the natural environment of the Baixo Miño area. Here, we emphasize the ornithological values of this area focusing on the water birds. A total of 79 species were recorded during the censuses carried out during the autumn-winter seasons of the last 26 years. They belong to 20 families included in 9 orders. Moreover, we describe two activities developed by ANABAM that are specially related to birding: guided birding tours and a campaign of birding tourism. More than 10,000 persons (mostly primary and high school students had attended these two activities. In addition to the promotion of birding, these actions are also aimed to divulgate the natural values of the Baixo Miño area.

  7. Environmental flow assessments for transformed estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Heyue; Yang, Zhifeng; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose an approach to environmental flow assessment that considers spatial pattern variations in potential habitats affected by river discharges and tidal currents in estuaries. The approach comprises four steps: identifying and simulating the distributions of critical environmental factors for habitats of typical species in an estuary; mapping of suitable habitats based on spatial distributions of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) and adopting the habitat aggregation index to understand fragmentation of potential suitable habitats; defining variations in water requirements for a certain species using trade-off analysis for different protection objectives; and recommending environmental flows in the estuary considering the compatibility and conflict of freshwater requirements for different species. This approach was tested using a case study in the Yellow River Estuary. Recommended environmental flows were determined by incorporating the requirements of four types of species into the assessments. Greater variability in freshwater inflows could be incorporated into the recommended environmental flows considering the adaptation of potential suitable habitats with variations in the flow regime. Environmental flow allocations should be conducted in conjunction with land use conflict management in estuaries. Based on the results presented here, the proposed approach offers flexible assessment of environmental flow for aquatic ecosystems that may be subject to future change.

  8. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  9. Improving navigability on the Kromme River Estuary: A choice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Navigation of estuaries is a vitally important aspect of boating recreation in South Africa and elsewhere. This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate recreation values of the Kromme River Estuary, a popular estuary along South Africa's east coast. This valuation methodology allows for the identification of preferred ...

  10. Screening of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria for potential probiotic use in Iberian dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Nevado, Francisco Pérez; de Guía Córdoba, María

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria and bifibobacteria strains as potential probiotic cultures during the processing of Iberian dry fermented sausages. A total of 1000 strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages (363), and human (337) and pig faeces (300) in different culture media. Around 30% of these strains, mainly isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages in LAMVAB agar, were pre-selected for testing as potential probiotics by their ability to grow adequately at the pH values and NaCl concentrations of these meat products during the ripening process. Of the in vitro investigations used to predict the survival of a strain in conditions present in the gastro intestinal tract, exposure to pH 2.5 showed itself to be a highly discriminating factor with only 51 out of 312 pre-selected strains resisting adequately after 1.5h of exposure. All acid-resistant isolates identified as lactobacilli originated from human faeces (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum) and pig faeces (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus murinus, and Lactobacillus vaginalis). Pediococcus acidilactici strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages and pig faeces, whereas the greatest number of Enterococcus strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium, with this species being isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages, and human and pig faeces. Most of these strains are promising probiotic meat culture candidates suitable for Iberian dry fermented sausages.

  11. Una nueva zona de arte rupestre al aire libre en el NW : la península de Barbanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Gil Agra

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A new área with open air rock carvings in the Iberian NW; the península of Barbanza. Traditionally the research on Galician rock art had focused in the área around Campolameiro (Pontevedra where the biggest number of sites was reported, whereas other zones to the North were almost unknown in that respect. In this paper we deal with the new finds of petroglyphs in the Barbanza, where intensive survey has multiplied the number of this tipe of sites. The usual motifs are abstract (mainly concentric circles and cupmarks but also semischematic with representations of deer. The distribution of the art is more dense in the coastal lowlands, though a number of sites is reported in the passes leading into the high sierra and in this área itself. As to the relationship with the roughiy contemporary settiements (lllrd millenium BC, we have observed a definite pattern: cupmarks are sharing the same space with the more densely Inhabited áreas down to the coast and also they are found near to the mounds in the high plateau; animal representations and more complex abstract motifs (concentric circles with or without radius are sited along small valleys or ridges that link the lowlands and the upper reaches of the Sierra. All this patterning would point out to the role of petrogliphs as a mechanism for defining the most resourceful or symbolic places and the paths leading into them.

  12. NW-MILO Acoustic Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2010-02-17

    There is an enduring requirement to improve our ability to detect potential threats and discriminate these from the legitimate commercial and recreational activity ongoing in the nearshore/littoral portion of the maritime domain. The Northwest Maritime Information and Littoral Operations (NW-MILO) Program at PNNL’s Coastal Security Institute in Sequim, Washington is establishing a methodology to detect and classify these threats - in part through developing a better understanding of acoustic signatures in a near-shore environment. The purpose of the acoustic data collection described here is to investigate the acoustic signatures of small vessels. The data is being recorded continuously, 24 hours a day, along with radar track data and imagery. The recording began in August 2008, and to date the data contains tens of thousands of signals from small vessels recorded in a variety of environmental conditions. The quantity and variety of this data collection, with the supporting imagery and radar track data, makes it particularly useful for the development of robust acoustic signature models and advanced algorithms for signal classification and information extraction. The underwater acoustic sensing system is part of a multi-modal sensing system that is operating near the mouth of Sequim Bay. Sequim Bay opens onto the Straight of Juan de Fuca, which contains part of the border between the U.S. and Canada. Table 1 lists the specific components used for the NW-MILO system. The acoustic sensor is a hydrophone permanently deployed at a mean depth of about 3 meters. In addition to a hydrophone, the other sensors in the system are a marine radar, an electro-optical (EO) camera and an infra-red (IR) camera. The radar is integrated with a vessel tracking system (VTS) that provides position, speed and heading information. The data from all the sensors is recorded and saved to a central server. The data has been validated in terms of its usability for characterizing the

  13. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Estuary wader capacity following severe weather mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.A.; Baillie, S.R.; Clark, N.A.; Langston, R.H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The building of a tidal power barrage across an estuary may lead to substantial changes in its ecology. Many of Britain's estuaries hold internationally important numbers of waders. Careful consideration, therefore, needs to be given to the likely effects of tidal power barrages on wader populations. The opportunity for increased understanding of the mechanisms which govern wader populations was provided by a period of severe winter weather in 1991, which resulted in a substantial mortality of waders in eastern England. Such conditions are known to be stressful to birds and the study objectives were to investigate both the effects of and recovery from severe weather. (author)

  15. The relationship between sediment and plutonium budgets in a small macrotidal estuary: Esk Estuary, Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.; Emptage, M.; Mudge, S.; Bradshaw, K.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.

    1991-01-01

    During a spring tide, measurements were made of sediment and 239,240 Pu discharges through a cross-section of the Esk estuary. These indicated that over the full tidal cycle, the inner estuary had a net gain of ca. 18 t of sediment and ca. 85 MBq of particulate phase 239,240 Pu, and a probable net loss of ca. 1 to 2 MBq of solution phase 239,240 Pu. Each of these was the net result of large gross discharges of sediment and plutonium into and out of the estuary for which the sea was the main source, with eroded estuarine sediment providing an additional minor source of sediment, of particulate phase plutonium and, via desorption, of solution phase plutonium. A net input with each tide, of sediment and its associated radionuclides, is considered to be typical for the Esk estuary under the normal conditions of low river flows. (author)

  16. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  17. Estuary fish data - Juvenile salmon in migratory corridors of lower Columbia River estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling juvenile salmon and associated fishes in open waters of the lower Columbia River estuary. Field work includes bi-weekly sampling during the spring...

  18. Future Drought Projections over the Iberian Peninsula using Drought Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valdecasas Ojeda, M.; Yeste Donaire, P.; Góngora García, T. M.; Gámiz-Fortis, S. R.; Castro-Diez, Y.; Esteban-Parra, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, drought events are the cause of numerous annual economic losses. In a context of climate change, it is expected an increase in the severity and the frequency of drought occurrences, especially in areas such as the Mediterranean region. This study makes use of two drought indices in order to analyze the potential changes on future drought events and their effects at different time scales over a vulnerable region, the Iberian Peninsula. The indices selected were the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which takes into account the global warming through the temperature, and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), based solely on precipitation data, at a spatial resolution of 0.088º ( 10 km). For their computation, current (1980-2014) and future (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) high resolution simulations were carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over a domain centered in the Iberian Peninsula, and nested in the 0.44 EUROCORDEX region. WRF simulations were driven by two different global bias-corrected climate models: the version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1) and the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM-LR), and under two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Future projections were analyzed regarding to changes in mean, median and variance of drought indices with respect to the historical distribution, as well as changes in the frequency and duration of moderate and severe drought events. In general, results suggest an increase in frequency and severity of drought, especially for 2071-2100 period in the RCP 8.5 scenario. Results also shown an increase of drought phenomena more evident using the SPEI. Conclusions from this study could provide a valuable contribution to the understanding of how the increase of the temperature would affect the drought variability in the Mediterranean regions which is necessary for a suitable

  19. Features at some significant estuaries of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattathiri, P.M.A.

    in the second and 162 in the third. Most of the studies on various aspects have been confined to very few of these, and that too, mostly to minor ones. Very little work has been carried out from many of the estuaries of the major rivers. An overview...

  20. Radiological assessment of the Esk Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howorth, J.M.; Barr, H.M.; Toole, J.; Strange, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    An assessment has been carried out of the radiological impact of artificial radionuclides in the Esk estuary in Cumbria, UK. Measurements were made of the distributions of 137 Cs, 239 + 240 Pu, and 241 Am in water, surface bed sediments and core profiles. The highest measured concentrations in surface sediments were 2.8 Bq g -1 of 137 Cs, 3.1 Bq g -1 of 239 + 240 Pu and 4.7 Bq g -1 of 241 Am. These values represent significant decreases from similar measurements made in 1970-1980. The measured behaviour of the actinides in low salinity water at the head of the estuary supports previous observations of actinide remobilisation from the bed. A model has been developed which simulates the long-term behaviour of radioactivity in the estuary. The model incorporates representations of tidal mixing, sediment transport, seasonal and long-term sediment accretion. The model also represents long-term build-up in salt marsh regions. The model gives good agreement with measured distributions of 137 Cs, but tends to underestimate actinide concentrations by factors of 2-3. Dose calculations show the importance of radionuclide uptake through livestock grazing sea-washed pasture alongside the estuary. 137 Cs and 241 Am are identified as the most important radionuclides considered in the assessment. (Author)

  1. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  2. The environmental characteristics of the Ganga estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Murty, C.S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.

    This report presents physical, chemical and biological observations in the last 160 km stretch of river Ganga for period of 3 years. In the one-layer estuary the mixing is brought about by the horizontal gradient of the flow field closely associated...

  3. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes.

  4. Estuaries and Tidal Marshes. Habitat Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This educational packet consists of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview examines estuaries and tidal or salt marshes by discussing the plants and animals in these habitats, marsh productivity, benefits and management of the habitats, historical aspects, and development and pollution. A glossary and list…

  5. Geochemical studies in the Godavari Estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, B.L.K.; Martin, J.M.; Eisma, D.; Thomas, A.J.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, K.S.

    are reported. The DOC and Fe concentrations are lower compared with those in other estuaries of the world and are below the average value reported for world rivers. Silicon behaves non-conservatively; its depletion which is most likely due to biological...

  6. Flushing characteristics of Mahim river estuary (Bombay)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sabnis, M.M; Zingde, M

    to the influence of wastewater. Flushing time of 19 tidal cycles was estimated by applying modified tidal prism method. After a large number of tidal cycles the estuary would retain 9.3x10 super(4) m super(3) of wastewater which was over 15% of the spring high tide...

  7. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, N.A.; Rao, D.B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    estuaries. The mean pCO sub(2) and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO sub(2) fluxes from...

  9. Hydrodynamics of the Bot river estuary revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 20 years management of the Bot/Kleinmond estuarine system in the south-western Cape has been based on the premise that, barring intervention, the estuary was naturally evolving into a freshwater coastal lake. This paper presents...

  10. Sedimentation in a river dominated estuary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, JAG

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mgeni Estuary on the wave dominated cast coast of South Africa occupies a narrow, bedrock confined, alluvial valley and is partially blocked at the coast by an elongate sandy barrier. Fluvial sediment extends to the barrier and marine depositon...

  11. Mouth Bar Formation in Yangtze River Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2002-01-01

    The periodic shifting of the bifurcation point of the North Channel and South Channel of the Yangtze river is very important in the estuary. The North Channel is bifurcated from the South Branch by cutting a channel through the submerged sandbanks. Once a bifurcation channel is formed, the

  12. 76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and Steelhead AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of availability; recovery plan module for Columbia River estuary salmon and steelhead... Plan Module for Salmon and Steelhead (Estuary Module). The Estuary Module addresses the estuary...

  13. The genus Nigritella (Orchidaceae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Llorenç

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the revision of Nigritella L.C.M. Richard in the Iberian Peninsula, here we recompile information of its variability, taxonomy, nomenclature and chorology. Two taxa are recognized: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. and N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, and the presence of N. corneliana is excluded. Detailed phytodermologic analysis showed that size of guard cells is useful for species identification.Tras la revisión del género Nigritella L.C.M. Richard en la Península Ibérica, se aportan datos sobre la variabilidad, taxonomía, nomenclatura y corología de sus diferentes especies. Se reconocen dos táxones: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. y N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, y se excluye la presencia de N. corneliana. El análisis fitodermológico indica que el tamaño de las células oclusivas es un carácter útil para la identificación de ambas especies

  14. Allergenic pollen in the subdesert areas of the Iberian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariñanos, P; Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Domínguez, E

    2000-01-01

    The yearly distribution of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, two of the most common types of pollen in a rural area located in the southeastern part of the Iberian peninsula, was studied over a 3-year period (1995-1997). The particular bioclimatic conditions of the area, such as its subdesert climate, extreme dryness and high mountain location (1,000 m above sea level), have led to the adaptation and abundance of these species in this area. They usually flower in the second half of the year, and are the main pollen types collected in the samples in that time period. The Artemisia pollen levels recorded are the highest in Spain, since there are several species in the area which flower at different times. Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen counts are also very high. The severity of both pollen types was also analyzed. The height of the sampler was taken into account because the quantities at human height can be considerably higher than those recorded at 20 m off the ground. It was concluded that both pollen types should be considered some of the main causes of allergy in this area.

  15. Fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula is analysed by considering two different series of data: the distance and the elapsed time between consecutive seismic events recorded by the seismic network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics (AIG. The fractal analyses have been repeated by considering four threshold magnitudes of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0. The re-scaled analysis lets to determine if the seismicity shows strong randomness or if it is characterised by time-persistence and the cluster dimension indicates the degree of time and spatial clustering of the seismicity. Another analysis, based on the reconstruction theorem, permits to evaluate the minimum number of nonlinear equations describing the dynamical mechanism of the seismicity, its 'loss of memory', its chaotic character and the instability of a possible predicting algorithm. The results obtained depict some differences depending on distances or elapsed times and the different threshold levels of magnitude also lead to slightly different results. Additionally, only a part of the fractal tools, the re-scaled analysis, have been applied to five seismic crises in the same area.

  16. 2nd Iberian Nuclear Astrophysics Meeting on Compact Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles; Pons, Jose; Albertus, C.

    2012-02-01

    ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Dr M Ángeles Pérez-García (Área Física Teórica-Universidad de Salamanca & IUFFYM) Dr J A Miralles (Universidad de Alicante) Dr J Pons (Universidad de Alicante) Dr C Albertus (Área Física Nuclear-Universidad de Salamanca & IUFFYM) Dr F Atrio (Área Física Teórica-Universidad de Salamanca & IUFFYM) PREFACE The second Iberian Nuclear Astrophysics meeting was held at the University of Salamanca, Spain on 22-23 September 2011. This volume contains most of the presentations delivered at this international workshop. This meeting was the second in the series following the previous I Encuentro Ibérico de Compstar, held at the University of Coimbra, Portugal in 2010. The main purpose of this meeting was to strengthen the scientific collaboration between the participants of the Iberian and the rest of the southern European branches of the European Nuclear Astrophysics network, formerly, COMPSTAR. This ESF (European Science Foundation) supported network has been crucial in helping to make a broader audience for the the most interesting and relevant research lines being developed currently in Nuclear Astrophysics, especially related to the physics of neutron stars. It is indeed important to emphasize the need for a collaborative approach to the rest of the scientific communities so that we can reach possible new members in this interdisciplinary area and as outreach for the general public. The program of the meeting was tailored to theoretical descriptions of the physics of neutron stars although some input from experimental observers and other condensed matter and optics areas of interest was also included. The main scientific topics included: Magnetic fields in compact stars Nuclear structure and in-medium effects in nuclear interaction Equation of state: from nuclear matter to quarks Importance of crust in the evolution of neutron stars Computational simulations of collapsing dense objects Observational phenomenology In particular, leading

  17. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Riverside of Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M I; Akerreta, S; Cavero, R Y

    2011-04-26

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in the Riverside of Navarra. Thereby, it will extend and complement a recent previous study carried out in the Northern Navarra. This paper aim to collect, analyse and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in the Riverside of Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 2554.4km(2) and 144,674 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 147 informants (mean age 76 years; the percentage of men and women was almost 50%) in 34 locations, identified the plants reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 90 medicinal plants belonging to 39 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 99% of the pharmaceutical uses (541). The species with the highest number of cites are Santolina chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis and Urtica dioica. All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. The percentage of internal uses is three times higher than external uses. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 11 new or scarcely cited uses for 8 medicinal plants. For 50% of the species (4) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 50% have only one or two references. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Middle Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in the Middle Navarra (Iberian Peninsula). Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in this area with 3622.2 km(2) and 404,634 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 276 informants (mean age 72; 46% women, 54% men) in 111 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 198 medicinal plants belonging to 60 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1401 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Santolina chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa, Jasonia glutinosa and Chamaemelum nobile with a long tradition of use in Navarra. All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. The most common mode of administration is oral, while the second most common is topical. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 80 new or scarcely cited uses for 14 medicinal plants. For 36% of the species (5) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 64% (9) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  20. Influence of pre-cure freezing of Iberian ham on proteolytic changes throughout the ripening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge; Barat, Jose Manuel; Aristoy, María Concepción; Antequera, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effect of pre-cure freezing Iberian hams on proteolysis phenomena throughout the ripening process. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN), peptide nitrogen (PN) and amino acid nitrogen (AN) as well as amino acid and dipeptide evolution followed the same trend in both refrigerated (R) and pre-cure frozen (F) Iberian hams during processing. At the different stages of ripening, there were no differences in the content of NPN and AN while F dry-cured hams had higher levels of PN than R hams at the final step. This seemed to be more related to the salt content (lower in F than in R hams) than to the pre-cure freezing treatment. Most amino acids and dipeptides detected showed higher concentrations in F than in R Iberian hams at the green stage, being rather similar at the intermediate phases. At the final stage, the effects of pre-cure freezing of Iberian hams were not well defined, higher levels of some amino acids and dipeptides were found in R than in F Iberian hams whereas other amino acids were lower in R than in F hams. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic characterization of fluid migration and Pockmarks in the Estremadura Spur, West Iberian Margin, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Débora; Magalhães, Vitor Hugo; Terrinha, Pedro; Ribeiro, Carlos; Madureira, Pedro; Menezes Pinheiro, Luís; Benazzouz, Omar; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Duarte, Henrique

    2017-04-01

    Recently a field with more than 70 pockmarks was discovered in the NW region of the Estremadura Spur outer shelf (West Iberian margin), a trapezoidal promontory elongated in an east-west direction, between Cabo Carvoeiro and Cabo da Roca, extending until the Tore seamount. Pockmarks are the seabed culminations of fluid migration through the sedimentary column and their characteristic seabed morphologies correspond to cone-shaped circular or elliptical depressions. These features and the associated fluid escape process are the main objectives of this work. Here we characterize these structures to understand their structural and stratigraphic control based on: 1) Seismic processing and interpretation of the high resolution 2D single-channel sparker seismic dataset, 2) Bathymetric and Backscatter interpretation and 3) ROV direct observation of the seafloor. The analysis of the seismic profiles allowed the identification of six seismic units, disturbed by the migration and accumulation of fluids. The Estremadura Spur outer shelf has been affected by several episodes of fluid migration and fluid escape during the Pliocene-Quaternary that are expressed by a vast number of seabed and buried pockmarks. At present, the pockmarks are mainly inactive, as the seabed pockmarks are covered by recent sediments. The stacking of various pockmarks suggests a cyclical fluid flow activity that can possibly be the result of the eustatic sea level variations and the subsequent changes of the hydrostatic pressure. The origin of the seep fluids is still under debate but considering the low-sedimentation rate of the area and the low productivity a deep source for the fluids is most probable, possibly related with the Jurassic hydrocarbon system. It was concluded that the migration of fluids to the seabed occurred over the Pliocene-Quaternary in several episodes, as indicated by the buried pockmarks at different depths. Acknowledgements: This work was carried out in the framework of the PES

  2. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    / thalasoterapy. Black Sea ecosystem restoration - Certainties and Uncertainties: Pressure on the Danube and other rivers has decreased, chemical discharges have decreased obviously, and yet there appear phenomena of water flowering - "red waters", hypoxia is still present at times and there is mass mortality of fish and other benthic organisms. Why? Signs of recovery should be considered cautiously and uncertainties may be resolved only in a longer time by increasing our scientific efforts. The results of the EU FP7 Project PERSEUS led to the identification of three important issues that should be resolved in order to achieve good environmental status: • Applying an adaptive management to increase the resilience of the ecosystems and to diminish the vulnerability of biodiversity; • Necessity of participative approach by stakeholders; • Identifying and obtaining adequate financial support for new R-D-I projects. Who are the actors in addressing and implementing the actions? • Academic educational and research institutions for adequate working condition; • More specialists trained for taxonomic groups; • Reasonable diversity of coordinating specialists, capable team leaders / satisfactory work packages; • Attracting NGO members towards nature conservation issues; • Resonable stakeholders committed to environmental issues. Studying the results of researches carried out by GeoEcoMar on the Romanian Black Sea coast in recent years, the author concluded that the major problems hampering progress towards a good ecosystem in NW Bent Black Sea are: • lack of diversity in the fields of research, both in theoretical and applied realms; • structural and functional consequences of ecological pressures and the disordered state of the ecosystems in the periods of paroxysmal eutrophication / pollution at the end of the 20th Century; • scarcity of data and knowledge on the Social-Economic System; • high costs of the new marine technology used directly in the sea and

  3. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P.

    2004-01-01

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4±1.7 μg g -1 and 184.6±26.9 μg g -1 from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels

  4. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4{+-}1.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 184.6{+-}26.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels.

  5. Historical changes in the Columbia River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jay, David A.; Bradford Harvey, R.; Hamilton, Peter; Simenstad, Charles A.

    Historical changes in the hydrology, sedimentology, and physical oceanography of the Columbia River Estuary have been evaluated with a combination of statistical, cartographic, and numerical-modelling techniques. Comparison of data digitized from US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys conducted in the periods 1867-1875, 1926-1937, and 1949-1958 reveals that large changes in the morphology of the estuary have been caused by navigational improvements (jetties, dredged channels, and pile dikes) and by the diking and filling of much of the wetland area. Lesser changes are attributable to natural shoaling and erosion. There has been roughly a 15% decrease in tidal prism and a net accumulation of about 68 × 10 6m 3 of sediment in the estuary. Large volumes of sediment have been eroded from the entrance region and deposited on the continental shelf and in the balance of the estuary, contributing to formation of new land. The bathymetric data indicate that, ignoring erosion at the entrance, 370 to 485 × 10 6m 3 of sediment has been deposited in the estuary since 1868 at an average rate of about 0.5 cm y -1, roughly 5 times the rate at which sea level has fallen locally since the turn of the century. Riverflow data indicate that the seasonal flow cycle of the Columbia River has been significantly altered by regulation and diversion of water for irrigation. The greatest changes have occurred in the last thirty years. Flow variability over periods greater than a month has been significantly damped and the net discharge has been slightly reduced. These changes in riverflow are too recent to be reflected in the available in the available bathymetric data. Results from a laterally averaged, multiple-channel, two-dimensional numerical flow model (described in HAMILTON, 1990) suggest that the changes in morphology and riverflow have reduced mixing, increased stratification, altered the response to fortnightly (neap-spring) changes in tidal forcing, and decreased the

  6. Dynamics of circulation and salt balance in the upper reaches of Periyar river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varma, P.U.; Pylee, A.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    The Eulerian residual currents of the upper reaches of Periyar estuary (Kerala, India) were directed down the estuary throughout the water column during the monsoon season. During the summer months the residual flow was directed up the estuary...

  7. Plankton composition in two estuaries of the Konkan coast during premonsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Devassy, V.P.; Nair, V.R.

    abundant at the mouth region. Zooplankton biomass was relatively high in the Kajvi Estuary and all the major groups occurred in high density throughout this estuary. In the Shastri Estuary, the zooplankton biomass was relatively lower and all the major...

  8. Coastal Human Actions on Natural Morph-dynamics around RIA of FOZ (NW Spain). Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, J. Javier; Veiga, Efren M.; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    This work approaches the natural littoral processes and their changes induced by human activities around the Cantabrian RIA of FOZ (Galicia, NW Spain). Ria is a specific Spanish term for referring the estuary figured on the sea flooded mouth of a river valley. Although located in Galicia the RIA of FOZ is a Cantabrian Ria. The "Cantabrian rias" clearly differ from the "Galician rias" in their lower degree of tectonic complexity, in their smaller dimensions and in their more advanced current state of infilling (Diez, 1996). While Galician is a Pacific coast Cantabrian was generated as a mainly Atlantic coast. The sedimentary deposits of the Cantabrian rias are mainly from marine origin, being from fluvial origin (Asensio, 1979) just the finest components. The predominant Cantabrian littoral transport goes eastwards and, as consequence of it, the sedimentary littoral spits closing the mouths in coasts normally grow in the same sense. But there are many cases, like in the Ria of Foz, where the spit progresses in an apparent westwards atypical way. This work shows that it is due to combined wind wave phenomena of refraction, diffraction and reflection, which will be detailed. But the human activities interfere in these natural processes. Different port constructions have been made in the Ria of Foz from 1931 to 1977. Their final effects in the morph-dynamics obligate to introduce one construction for regenerate the spit in 1986. The performance, effectiveness and impact of all these port constructions are studied in detail and what are their influences in natural processes for finally applying this knowledge in risks management. Keywords: Rias, Littoral processes, Coastal morph-dynamics, Human induced driving, Risk management.

  9. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pozo

    Full Text Available A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.

  10. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Aznar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan Emilio

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.

  11. Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez García, Clara; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spectral amplitude ratios between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratios) from seismic records are useful to evaluate site effects, predict ground motion and invert for S velocity in the top several hundred meters. These spectral ratios can be obtained from both ambient noise and earthquakes. H/V ratios from ambient noise depend on the content and predominant wave types: body waves, Rayleigh waves, a mixture of different waves, etc. The H/V ratio computed in this way is assumed to measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity since ambient vibrations are dominated by Rayleigh waves. H/V ratios from earthquakes are able to determine the local crustal structure at the vicinity of the recording station. These ratios obtained from earthquakes are based on surface wave ellipticity measurements. Although long period (>20 seconds) Rayleigh H/V ratio is not currently used because of large scatter has been reported and uncertainly about whether these measurements are compatible with traditional phase and group velocity measurements, we will investigate whether it is possible to obtain stable estimates after collecting statistics for many earthquakes. We will use teleseismic events from shallow earthquakes (depth ≤ 40 km) between 2007 January 1 and 2012 December 31 with M ≥ 6 and we will compute H/V ratios for more than 400 stations from several seismic networks across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco for periods between 20 and 100 seconds. Also H/V ratios from cross-correlations of ambient noise in different components for each station pair will be computed. Shorter period H/V ratio measurements based on ambient noise cross-correlations are strongly sensitive to near-surface structure, rather than longer period earthquake Rayleigh waves. The combination of ellipticity measurements based on earthquakes and ambient noise will allow us to perform a joint inversion with Rayleigh wave phase velocity. Upper crustal structure is better constrained by the joint inversion compared

  12. The nature of crustal reflectivity at the southwest Iberian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, G. G.; Torne, M.; Carbonell, R.; Melchiorre, M.; Vergés, J.; Fernàndez, M.

    2017-11-01

    Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired over the northern margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian margin) places new constraints on the upper crustal structure of the Guadalquivir-Portimão Bank. The data presented have been processed with optimized stacking and interval velocity models, a better approach to multiple attenuation, preserved amplitude information to derive the nature of seismic reflectivity, and accurate time-to-depth conversion after migration. The reprocessed data reveal a bright upper crustal reflector just underneath the Paleozoic basement that spatially coincides with the local positive free-air gravity high called the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High. To investigate the nature of this reflector and to decipher whether it could be associated with pieces of mantle material emplaced at upper crustal levels, we calculated its reflection coefficient and compared it to a buried high-density ultramafic body (serpentinized peridotite) at the Gorringe Bank. Its reflection coefficient ratio with respect to the sea floor differs by only 4.6% with that calculated for the high-density ultramafic body of the Gorringe Bank, while it differs by 35.8% compared to a drilled Miocene limestone unconformity. This means that the Gulf of Cádiz reflector has a velocity and/or density contrast similar to the peridotite at the Gorringe Bank. However, considering the depth at which it is found (between 2.0 and 4.0 km) and the available geological information, it seems unlikely that the estimated shortening from the Oligocene to present is sufficient to emplace pieces of mantle material at these shallow levels. Therefore, and despite the similarity in its reflection coefficient with the peridotites of the Gorringe Bank, our preferred interpretation is that the upper crustal Gulf of Cádiz reflector represents the seismic response of high-density intracrustal magmatic intrusions that may partially contribute to the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High.

  13. Analysis of volatile compounds from Iberian hams: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the study of the volatile compounds in raw and dry-cured Iberian hams. Different volatile compounds are identified and studies carried out by different authors are presented. This article reviews the analytical methods that have been used to determine the different volatiles of these samples. Furthermore, all volatile compounds identified (a total of 411 volatiles have been collected in several tables according to different series of compounds: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and ethers, lactones, terpenes and chloride compounds, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur compounds and carboxylic acids. This review can be useful in subsequent research due to the complexity of the study.

    En este artículo se proporciona información sobre el estudio de los compuestos volátiles del jamón ibérico tanto fresco como curado. Se presentan los diferentes compuestos volátiles identificados por distintos autores. Además, se evalúan los métodos analíticos que han sido utilizados para determinar dichos compuestos volátiles en este tipo de muestras. Todos los compuestos identificados y descritos en esta revisión (un total de 411 compuestos volátiles han sido agrupados en diversas tablas de acuerdo a las diferentes familias a que pertenecen: hidrocarburos, aldehídos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y éteres, lactonas, terpenos, compuestos halogenados, compuestos nitrogenados, compuestos de azufre y ácidos carboxílicos. Debido a la complejidad de este estudio, la presente revisión puede ser muy útil en investigaciones posteriores.

  14. Evidence for artificial magnetite coating on Iberian armoury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A metallographic study of two pre-roman Iberian arms, affected by a cremation process, revealed the presence of an outer magnetite layer, providing highly protective properties. This layer is extraordinarily tenacious and of very homogeneous thickness, indicating an intentional manufacturing process rather than an accidental formation during the severe heating/cooling cycles the artefact suffered. Up to date, the intentional production of these types of layers has been attributed to a welding process of three different metallic sheets, here an alternative model is proposed, allowing, as could be simulated in the laboratory, the virtually exclusive formation of a magnetite coating.

    Se presenta un estudio metalográficos de dos armas prerromanas afectadas por un proceso de cremación. Las armas poseen un recubrimiento exterior de magnetita que las confieren unas altas propiedades de protección frente a la corrosión. Esta capa es extraordinariamente tenaz y posee un espesor muy homogéneo, indicando que son producto de un proceso de fabricación intencionado más que una formación accidental durante los varios ciclos de calentamiento/ enfriamiento que han sufrido los objetos. Hasta la fecha, la producción intencional de este tipo de recubrimientos ha sido atribuida a un proceso de soldadura de tres láminas metálicas diferentes. En este trabajo se propone un modelo alternativo de formación, el cual permite una simulación en el laboratorio en la que se forma exclusivamente una capa de magnetita.

  15. Standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories-the case of Iberian spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel

    2009-01-01

    and optimization of sampling protocols, especially for mega-diverse arthropod taxa. This study had two objectives: (1) propose guidelines and statistical methods to improve the standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories, and (2) to propose a standardized and optimized protocol for Iberian spiders......, by finding common results between the optimal options for the different sites. The steps listed were successfully followed in the determination of a sampling protocol for Iberian spiders. A protocol with three sub-protocols of varying degrees of effort (24, 96 and 320 h of sampling) is proposed. I also...

  16. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of NW. Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.

    1966-01-01

    In NW. Borneo thick series of Tertiary sediments occur which are rich in fossil pollen and spores. The majority of these plant microfossils were derived from the various types of tropical lowland vegetation such as mangrove (Muller, 1964), mixed peat swamp forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest. Some

  17. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  18. Holocene climate dynamics and construction of the pesqueiras in the NW Iberian Lower Miño River: an OSL approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Sanjurjo-Sanchez, J.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the Lower Miño River basin a 15-m thick sandy fluvial sequence is found at the town of Chan de Vide, some 55 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean. The deposit is exceptional because it is the only known sandy deposit in the upstream reaches of the Lower Miño area, which is dominated by

  19. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  20. Marine geology of the St. Lawrence Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Onge, Guillaume [Canada Research Chair in Marine Geology, Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER) and GEOTOP Research Center, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec, G5L 3A1 (Canada); Duchesne, Mathieu J [Geological Survey of Canada, Quebec Division, 490 de la Couronne, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Lajeunesse, Patrick, E-mail: guillaume_st-onge@uqar.qc.ca [Departement de geographie and Centre d' etudes nordiques, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    The St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada, contains a very thick (>450 m) Quaternary sedimentary sequence. The results from recently conducted geophysical surveys in conjunction with piston coring indicate that these sediments were deposited under very high sedimentation rates, sometimes as high as {approx}30 m/ka during the last deglaciation. Results also reveal evidence of large submarine landslides during the Holocene, changes in sedimentation rates and the significant role of submarine canyons and channels to transfer sediments from the coast to the deeper marine environment. Finally, this paper highlights the presence of more than 1900 pockmarks on the seafloor of the St. Lawrence Estuary and discusses their possible origins: active hydrocarbon seeps in the Laurentian Channel and biogenic gas seepage on the northwestern shoulder of the Laurentian Channel.

  1. Marine geology of the St. Lawrence Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Duchesne, Mathieu J; Lajeunesse, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada, contains a very thick (>450 m) Quaternary sedimentary sequence. The results from recently conducted geophysical surveys in conjunction with piston coring indicate that these sediments were deposited under very high sedimentation rates, sometimes as high as ∼30 m/ka during the last deglaciation. Results also reveal evidence of large submarine landslides during the Holocene, changes in sedimentation rates and the significant role of submarine canyons and channels to transfer sediments from the coast to the deeper marine environment. Finally, this paper highlights the presence of more than 1900 pockmarks on the seafloor of the St. Lawrence Estuary and discusses their possible origins: active hydrocarbon seeps in the Laurentian Channel and biogenic gas seepage on the northwestern shoulder of the Laurentian Channel.

  2. Deschutes estuary feasibility study: hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

    2006-01-01

    Continual sediment accumulation in Capitol Lake since the damming of the Deschutes River in 1951 has altered the initial morphology of the basin. As part of the Deschutes River Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked to model how tidal and storm processes will influence the river, lake and lower Budd Inlet should estuary restoration occur. Understanding these mechanisms will assist in developing a scientifically sound assessment on the feasibility of restoring the estuary. The goals of the DEFS are as follows. - Increase understanding of the estuary alternative to the same level as managing the lake environment.

  3. Differences in the structure of copepod assemblages in four tropical estuaries: Importance of pollution and the estuary hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V; Dias, Cristina O; Bonecker, Sérgio L C

    2017-02-15

    We examined the relationship between pollution and structure of copepod assemblages in estuaries, using sampling standardization of salinity range to reduce the effects of "Estuarine Quality Paradox". Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four Southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and different hydrodynamic characteristics. The pollution negatively impacted the descriptors of the assemblage structure. The distribution of structure of copepod assemblages also showed a main separation trend between the most polluted estuaries and those less polluted. Temperature was the main factor affecting the assemblage structuring in the four estuaries. This factor acted in synergism with the effects of pollution impact and physical characteristics of the estuaries on the structure of copepod assemblages, supporting the potential vulnerability of coastal environments due to nutrient enrichment associated with climate change. Our study demonstrated the importance of sampling standardization of the salinity range in estuaries for reliable analysis of pollution effects on biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of climate change on Gironde estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborie, Vanessya; Hissel, Francois; Sergent, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Within the THESEUS European project, a simplified mathematical model for storm surge levels in the Bay of Biscay was adjusted on 10 events at Le Verdon using wind and pressure fields from CLM/SGA, so that the water levels at Le Verdon have the same statistic quantiles as observed tide records for the period [1960-2000]. A numerical model of the Gironde Estuary was used to evaluate future water levels at 6 locations of the estuary from Le Verdon to Bordeaux and to assess the changes in the quantiles of water levels during the 21. century using ONERC's pessimistic scenario for sea level rise (60 cm). The analysis of future storm surge levels shows a decrease in their quantiles at Le Verdon,, whereas there is an increase of the quantiles of total water levels. This increase is smaller than the sea level rise and gets even smaller as one enters farther upstream in the estuary. A series of flood maps for different return periods between 2 and 100 years and for four time periods ([1960-1999], [2010-2039], [2040-2069] and [2070-2099]) have been built for the region of Bordeaux. Quantiles of water levels in the flood plain have also been calculated. The impact of climate change on the evolution of flooded areas in the Gironde Estuary and on quantiles of water levels in the flood plain mainly depends on the sea level rise. Areas which are not currently flooded for low return periods will be inundated in 2100. The influence of river discharges and dike breaching should also be taken into account for more accurate results. (authors)

  5. Anthropogenic Carbon Pump in an Urbanized Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Yoon, T. K.; Jin, H.; Begum, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of estuaries as a carbon source has been increasingly recognized over the recent decades. However, constraining sources of CO2 evasion from urbanized estuaries remains incomplete, particularly in densely populated river systems receiving high loads of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources. To account for major factors regulating carbon fluxes the tidal reach of the Han River estuary along the metropolitan Seoul, characterization of organic carbon in the main stem and major urban tributaries were combined with continuous, submersible sensor measurements of pCO2 at a mid-channel location over a year and continuous underway measurements using a submersible sensor and two equilibrator sytems across the estuarine section receiving urban streams. Single-site continuous measurements exhibited large seasonal and diurnal variations in pCO2, ranging from sub-ambient air levels to exceptionally high values approaching 10,000 ppm. Diurnal variations of pCO2 were pronounced in summer and had an inverse relationship with dissolved oxygen, pointing to a potential role of day-time algal consumption of CO2. Cruise measurements displayed sharp pCO2 pulses along the confluences of urban streams as compared with relatively low values along the upper estuary receiving low-CO2 outflows from upstream dams. Large downstream increases in pCO2, concurrent with increases in DOC concentrations and fluorescence intensities indicative of microbially processed organic components, imply a translocation and subsequent dilution of CO2 carried by urban streams and/or fast transformations of labile C during transit along downstream reaches. The unique combination of spatial and temporal continuous measurements of pCO2 provide insights on estuarine CO2 pulses that might have resulted from the interplay between high loads of CO2 and organic C of anthropogenic origin and their priming effects on estuarine microbial processing of terrigenous and algal organic matter.

  6. Impact of climate change on Gironde Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, Vanessya; Hissel, François; Sergent, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Within the THESEUS European project, a simplified mathematical model for storm surge levels in the Bay of Biscay was adjusted on 10 events at Le Verdon using wind and pressure fields from CLM/SGA, so that the water levels at Le Verdon have the same statistic quantiles as observed tide records for the period [1960-2000]. The analysis of future storm surge levels shows a decrease in their quantiles at Le Verdon, whereas there is an increase of the quantiles of total water levels. This increase is smaller than the sea level rise and gets even smaller as one enters farther upstream in the estuary. A numerical model of the Gironde Estuary was then used to evaluate future water levels at 6 locations of the estuary from Le Verdon to Bordeaux and to assess the changes in the quantiles of water levels during the XXIst century using ONERC's pessimistic scenario for sea level rise (60 cm). The model was fed by several data sources : wind fields at Royan and Mérignac interpolated from the grid of the European Climatolologic Model CLM/SGA, a tide signal at Le Verdon, the discharges of Garonne (at La Réole), the Dordogne (at Pessac) and Isle (at Libourne). A series of flood maps for different return periods between 2 and 100 years and for four time periods ([1960-1999], [2010-2039], [2040-2069] and [2070-2099]) have been built for the region of Bordeaux. Quantiles of water levels in the floodplain have also been calculated. The impact of climate change on the evolution of flooded areas in the Gironde Estuary and on quantiles of water levels in the floodplain mainly depends on the sea level rise. Areas which are not currently flooded for low return periods will be inundated in 2100. The influence of river discharges and dike breaching should also be taken into account for more accurate results.

  7. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas

  8. Covariability of seasonal temperature and precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula in high-resolution regional climate simulations (1001-2099)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montes, S.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Rodrigo, F. S.; García-Valero, J. A.; Montávez, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation and surface temperature are interdependent variables, both as a response to atmospheric dynamics and due to intrinsic thermodynamic relationships and feedbacks between them. This study analyzes the covariability of seasonal temperature (T) and precipitation (P) across the Iberian Peninsula (IP) using regional climate paleosimulations for the period 1001-1990, driven by reconstructions of external forcings. Future climate (1990-2099) was simulated according to SRES scenarios A2 and B2. These simulations enable exploring, at high spatial resolution, robust and physically consistent relationships. In winter, positive P-T correlations dominate west-central IP (Pearson correlation coefficient ρ = + 0.43, for 1001-1990), due to prevalent cold-dry and warm-wet conditions, while this relationship weakens and become negative towards mountainous, northern and eastern regions. In autumn, negative correlations appear in similar regions as in winter, whereas for summer they extend also to the N/NW of the IP. In spring, the whole IP depicts significant negative correlations, strongest for eastern regions (ρ = - 0.51). This is due to prevalent frequency of warm-dry and cold-wet modes in these regions and seasons. At the temporal scale, regional correlation series between seasonal anomalies of temperature and precipitation (assessed in 31 years running windows in 1001-1990) show very large multidecadal variability. For winter and spring, periodicities of about 50-60 years arise. The frequency of warm-dry and cold-wet modes appears correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), explaining mainly co-variability changes in spring. For winter and some regions in autumn, maximum and minimum P-T correlations appear in periods with enhanced meridional or easterly circulation (low or high pressure anomalies in the Mediterranean and Europe). In spring and summer, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation shows some fingerprint on the frequency of warm/cold modes. For

  9. Tumulus 20 of the Iberian necropolis of Tútugi (Galera, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ariza, Mª Oliva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here the results from the excavation of Tumulus 20 of the Iberian Necropolis of Tútugi are presented. This tumulus was robbed in 1916, but the materials were recovered and published by Cabré and Motos in 1920. Among the artefacts was the Dama de Galera (Lady of Galera. The excavation has uncovered a structural complex with two phases of construction. The first phase consists of a quadrangular chamber with an access passageway, both carved into the rock, and with a central pillar of adobe that possibly supported a ceiling. In the second phase, the chamber was filled in with rocks and earth, and the rock was cut to form a circular platform of 13 m in diameter, which was painted red. In the centre of this platform a quadrangular space serving as an entrance corridor was constructed as a projection of the underground structures. This building in the open air was framed within an Cypriot-ingot-shaped platform painted in white.

    Se presentan aquí los resultados obtenidos de la excavación del Túmulo 20 de la Necrópolis ibérica de Tútugi. Este túmulo fue saqueado en 1916 y los materiales fueron recuperados y publicados por Cabré y Motos en 1920, entre ellos se encontraba la Dama de Galera. La excavación ha puesto al descubierto un complejo estructural con dos fases constructivas. La primera fase consta de una cámara cuadrangular con pasillo de acceso, ambos excavados en la roca, y con un pilar central de adobe que posiblemente sostenía el techo. En una segunda fase la cámara es rellenada por piedras y tierra y se recortaría la roca para conformar una plataforma circular de 13 m de diámetro que es pintada de rojo. En el centro de esta plataforma se construye, como proyección de las estructuras subterráneas, un espacio cuadrangular con corredor de entrada. Este edificio al aire libre queda enmarcado dentro de la plataforma por la forma del lingote chipriota pintado en blanco.

  10. Linking seasonal climate forecasts with crop models in Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Mirian; Ines, Amor; Baethgen, Walter; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Han, Eunjin; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Translating seasonal climate forecasts into agricultural production forecasts could help to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. In this study, we use seasonal rainfall forecasts and crop models to improve predictability of wheat yield in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Additionally, we estimate economic margins and production risks associated with extreme scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecast. This study evaluates two methods for disaggregating seasonal climate forecasts into daily weather data: 1) a stochastic weather generator (CondWG), and 2) a forecast tercile resampler (FResampler). Both methods were used to generate 100 (with FResampler) and 110 (with CondWG) weather series/sequences for three scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecasts. Simulated wheat yield is computed with the crop model CERES-wheat (Ritchie and Otter, 1985), which is included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at two locations in northeastern Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. Once simulated yields were obtained, an assessment of farmer's gross margin for different seasonal climate forecasts was accomplished to estimate production risks under different climate scenarios. This methodology allows farmers to assess the benefits and risks of a seasonal weather forecast in IP prior to the crop growing season. The results of this study may have important implications on both, public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance companies) sectors. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Hoogenboom, G. et al., 2010. The Decision

  11. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  12. Predictive models of threatened plant species distribution in the Iberian arid south-east

    OpenAIRE

    Benito, Blas M.

    2013-01-01

    Poster on the distribution of three rare, endemic and endangered annual plants of arid zones in the south-eastern Iberian peninsula. Presented in the workshop "Predictive Modelling of Species Distribution: New Tools for the XXI Century (Baeza, Spain, november 2005).

  13. The contribution of vegetation and landscape configuration for predicting environmental change impacts on Iberian birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triviño, Maria; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    of distributions, but they are rarely considered in such assessments. We explore the consequences of using simulated vegetation structure and composition as well as its associated landscape configuration in models projecting global change effects on Iberian bird species distributions. Both present-day and future...

  14. Evolution and genome specialization of Brucella suis biovar 2 Iberian lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; de Sá, Maria Inácia Corrêa; Dias, Ricardo

    2017-09-12

    Swine brucellosis caused by B. suis biovar 2 is an emergent disease in domestic pigs in Europe. The emergence of this pathogen has been linked to the increase of extensive pig farms and the high density of infected wild boars (Sus scrofa). In Portugal and Spain, the majority of strains share specific molecular characteristics, which allowed establishing an Iberian clonal lineage. However, several strains isolated from wild boars in the North-East region of Spain are similar to strains isolated in different Central European countries. Comparative analysis of five newly fully sequenced B. suis biovar 2 strains belonging to the main circulating clones in Iberian Peninsula, with publicly available Brucella spp. genomes, revealed that strains from Iberian clonal lineage share 74% similarity with those reference genomes. Besides the 210 kb translocation event present in all biovar 2 strains, an inversion with 944 kb was presented in chromosome I of strains from the Iberian clone. At left and right crossover points, the inversion disrupted a TRAP dicarboxylate transporter, DctM subunit, and an integral membrane protein TerC. The gene dctM is well conserved in Brucella spp. except in strains from the Iberian clonal lineage. Intraspecies comparative analysis also exposed a number of biovar-, haplotype- and strain-specific insertion-deletion (INDELs) events and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could explain differences in virulence and host specificities. Most discriminative mutations were associated to membrane related molecules (29%) and enzymes involved in catabolism processes (20%). Molecular identification of both B. suis biovar 2 clonal lineages could be easily achieved using the target-PCR procedures established in this work for the evaluated INDELs. Whole-genome analyses supports that the B. suis biovar 2 Iberian clonal lineage evolved from the Central-European lineage and suggests that the genomic specialization of this pathogen in the Iberian Peninsula

  15. Conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus in vulnerable habitats in NW Spain: temporal and spatial stability of wild populations with flexible polygamous mating system in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena López

    Full Text Available This study was focused on conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus on the Atlantic coast of NW Iberian Peninsula. Information about spatial structure and temporal stability of wild populations was obtained based on microsatellite markers, and used for monitoring a captive breeding program firstly initiated in this zone at the facilities of the Institute of Marine Research (Vigo, Spain. No significant major genetic structure was observed regarding the biogeographical barrier of Cape Finisterre. However, two management units under continuous gene flow are proposed based on the allelic differentiation between South-Atlantic and Cantabrian subpopulations, with small to moderate contemporary effective size based on single-sample methods. Temporal stability was observed in South-Atlantic population samples of H. guttulatus for the six-year period studied, suggesting large enough effective population size to buffer the effects of genetic drift within the time frame of three generations. Genetic analysis of wild breeders and offspring in captivity since 2009 allowed us to monitor the breeding program founded in 2006 in NW Spain for this species. Similar genetic diversity in the renewed and founder broodstock, regarding the wild population of origin, supports suitable renewal and rearing processes to maintain genetic variation in captivity. Genetic parentage proved single-brood monogamy in the wild and in captivity, but flexible short- and long-term mating system under captive conditions, from strict monogamy to polygamy within and/or among breeding seasons. Family analysis showed high reproductive success in captivity under genetic management assisted by molecular relatedness estimates to avoid inbreeding. This study provides genetic information about H. guttulatus in the wild and captivity within an uncovered geographical range for this data deficient species, to be taken into account for management and conservation purposes.

  16. Nutrient input through submarine groundwater discharge in two major Chinese estuaries: the Pearl River Estuary and the Changjiang River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianan; Du, Jinzhou; Wu, Ying; Liu, Sumei

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we used a 224Ra mass balance model to evaluate the importance of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) for the budgets of biogenic elements in two major Chinese estuaries: the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE). The apparent water age in the PRE was estimated to be 4.8 ± 1.1 days in the dry season and 1.8 ± 0.6 days in the wet season using a physical model based on the tidal prism. In the dry season, the water age in the CRE was estimated to be 11.7 ± 3.0 days using the 224Ra/223Ra activities ratios apparent age model. By applying the 224Ra mass balance model, we obtained calculations of the SGD flow in the PRE of (4.5-10) × 108 m3 d-1 (0.23-0.50 m3 m-2 d-1) and (1.2-2.7) × 108 m3 d-1 (0.06-0.14 m3 m-2 d-1) in the dry season and wet season, respectively, and the estimated SGD flux was (4.6-11) × 109 m3 d-1 (0.18-0.45 m3 m-2 d-1) in the dry season of the CRE. In comparison with the nutrient fluxes from the rivers, the SGD-derived nutrient fluxes may play a vital role in controlling the nutrient budgets and stoichiometry in the study areas. The large amount of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes together with high N: P ratios into the PRE and CRE would potentially contribute to eutrophication and the occurrence of red tides along the adjacent waters.

  17. Nutritional condition of fish larvae in South African estuaries: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional condition of fish larvae in South African estuaries: an appraisal of three biochemical methods. D Costalago, N Strydom, C Frost. Abstract. Estuaries are exposed to a number of threats and many South African estuarine systems are functionally and structurally altered. The extent to which fish are affected by these ...

  18. Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. 2012 Synthesis Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    LCFRB Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board LCRE lower Columbia River and estuary LCREP Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership LWD large woody debris...hydraulic reconnections, channel creation, large woody debris [ LWD ] placement) have restored a total of 3152 acres since 2001. If land acquisition...fencing, invasive plant removal, native replanting. Mirror Lake 208 Culvert replaced with a bridge, riparian restoration, LWD enhancement, culvert

  19. Tillamook Estuary Case Study: Local Drivers Influencing Coastal Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA initiated a study in the Tillamook estuary and watershed focused on the impact of changes in watershed land use, ocean conditions, and weather on estuarine water quality and ecosystem goods and services production within the estuary. This project is a collaboration betwee...

  20. Management of Fishery Resources in Yangtze River Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meiling; Huang, Shuolin

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the fish fauna composition and main commercial fishes in Yangtze River estuary. We also analyze the current situation of resources and environment in Yangtze River estuary as well as the influential factors. Finally, related countermeasures are put forward on how to protect and use the fishery resources in Yangtze River.

  1. Fish abundance and distribution in the Gamtoos estuary with notes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    favourably with other larger systems like the Sundays, Bashee and Kei estuaries. .... as well as the use of pesticides undoubtedly affects water quality in the ... Methods. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fish in the Gamtoos estuary was obtained ...

  2. Relation between tidal damping and wave celerity in estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, H.H.G.; Veling, E.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Observations in estuaries indicate that an amplified tidal wave moves considerably faster than is indicated by the classical equation for wave propagation. Similarly, the celerity of propagation is lower if the tidal wave is damped. This phenomenon is clearly observed in the Schelde estuary (located

  3. Zooplankton community changes in Nhlabane estuary, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    made impacts since 1977, when the lake and estuary were separated by the construction of a barrage. More recent man-made events included the construction of temporary sand walls, mid-way along the estuary, to allow crossing of a mining ...

  4. Tidal exchange between a freshwater tidal marsh and an impacted estuary: the Scheldt estuary, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, S.; Dehairs, F.; Tackx, M.; Beauchard, O.; Struyf, E.; Gribsholt, B.; van Cleemput, O.; Meire, P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal marsh exchange studies are relatively simple tools to investigate the interaction between tidal marshes and estuaries. They have mostly been confined to only a few elements and to saltwater or brackish systems. This study presents mass-balance results of an integrated one year campaign in a

  5. The importance of the river-estuary interface (REI) zone in estuaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-07-03

    Jul 3, 2002 ... A multidisciplinary and multi-institutional research programme studied the influence of river flow rate on salinity distribution and response of the ... alia, the state of the mouth influences the extent of water exchange with the sea, vertical and ... The Kariega Estuary is a marine dominated system with very little.

  6. Conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneton, Philippe; Filippini, Andrea Gilberto; Arpaia, Luca; Bonneton, Natalie; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in tidal bore dynamics. However most studies have been focused on small-scale bore processes. The present paper describes the first quantitative study, at the estuary scale, of the conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries. When freshwater discharge and large-scale spatial variations of the estuary water depth can be neglected, tide propagation in such estuaries is controlled by three main dimensionless parameters: the nonlinearity parameter ε0 , the convergence ratio δ0 and the friction parameter ϕ0. In this paper we explore this dimensionless parameter space, in terms of tidal bore occurrence, from a database of 21 estuaries (8 tidal-bore estuaries and 13 non tidal-bore estuaries). The field data point out that tidal bores occur for convergence ratios close to the critical convergence δc. A new proposed definition of the friction parameter highlights a clear separation on the parameter plane (ϕ0,ε0) between tidal-bore estuaries and non tidal-bore estuaries. More specifically, we have established that tidal bores occur in convergent estuaries when the nonlinearity parameter is greater than a critical value, εc , which is an increasing function of the friction parameter ϕ0. This result has been confirmed by numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Saint Venant equations. The real-estuary observations and the numerical simulations also show that, contrary to what is generally assumed, tide amplification is not a necessary condition for tidal bore formation. The effect of freshwater discharge on tidal bore occurrence has been analyzed from the database acquired during three long-term campaigns carried out on the Gironde/Garonne estuary. We have shown that in the upper estuary the tidal bore intensity is mainly governed by the local dimensionless tide amplitude ε. The bore intensity is an increasing function of ε and this relationship does not depend on freshwater

  7. Greenhouse gas (N2O emission from Portuguese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Tagus, Minho and Lima estuaries are source of N2O to the atmosphere. Particularly, in Lima estuary anthropogenic N input seems to play an important role on N2O emission. However, in a global perspective N2O attained emissions represent a reduced fraction (2O yr-1, Barnes and Upstill-Goddard, 2011. Values are comparable with those registered in some Portuguese estuaries and other European less eutrophic estuaries. However, it is known that higher N2O emissions in estuaries may occur during winter and spring (Sun et al., 2014. Thus, these systems may represent on an annual basis a larger source of N2O, which can only be clarified in future studies. Only a full comprehension of the global estuarine nitrogen cycle will provide an efficient basis of scientific knowledge for sustainably management of such ecosystems and ultimately reduce N2O emissions.

  8. NW Pacific mid-depth ventilation changes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, S.; Uchida, M.

    2010-12-01

    During the last 50 years the oxygen content of North Pacific Intermediate Water primarily originating in the Okhotsk Sea has declined suggesting decreased mid-depth water circulation, likely leading to changes in biological productivity in the NW Pacific realm and a decrease in CO2 drawdown. It is therefore of high interest to elucidate the climate-oceanic interconnections of the present interglacial period (Holocene) in the NW Pacific, in order to predict possible future climate and surface productivity changes associated with a decrease in mid-depth ventilation in this ecologically sensitive region. However, such efforts have been hampered so far by the lack of appropriate sediment cores with fast sedimentation rates during the Holocene. Core CK05-04 that was recovered in 2005 from off Shimokita peninsula, Japan, at ~1000 m depth shows sedimentation rates of ~80 cm/kyr during the Holocene and therefore presents an ideal opportunity to reconstruct for the first time the Holocene ventilation history of the NW Pacific Ocean. We employ Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (NIES-TERRA, Tsukuba) radiocarbon analysis of co-existing benthic and planktonic foraminifera to conclude on the ventilation age of the mid-depth water using benthic-planktonic radiocarbon age differences. At the conference we would like to present the results.

  9. Ancient bronze horse muzzles of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés Estallo, Ignasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse muzzles and Bronze muzzles are unique equestrian tools that have been referred to in scattered accounts throughout history. Nevertheless, the majority of these objects have received short descriptions and an overall study is still missing. The lack of a comprehensive study hinges on the over looked importance of these items and the superficial manner that have characterized their documentation. Both these reasons have limited observations on chronology and archaeological investigation. The recent identification of new unpublished exemplars among the Museums’ collections in Barcelona and Lleida has encouraged the authors of this paper to start a new study dedicated to these objects. Starting from a catalogue inclusive of all muzzles and muzzles currently known in the Iberian Peninsula, an attempt will be made to propose an accurate description, typological classification and, for some of the items, a revision of the decorative scenes that have marked their place in bronze horse muzzle and muzzle chronology. The formal development and the chronological framework here proposed refer to those of the exemplars found in Greece and in Italy. The broadening of the geographical area will allow reconsideration of those social phenomena that have in the past determined the diffusion of elements in horse tack throughout most of the western Peninsula in the Mediterranean.

    Los bozales y las muserolas en bronce para caballo constituyen unos excepcionales complementos ecuestres cuyo conocimiento se encuentra disperso en una extensa bibliografía. De muchos ejemplares apenas se ha publicado una breve descripción y nunca hasta el presente han sido objeto de un estudio monográfico, quizás por el desaliento que produce el desconocimiento de su procedencia en unos casos, o la superficial noticia del contexto de aparición en la mayoría de ellos, hecho que ha limitado las consideraciones cronológicas y de asociación. La identificación de nuevos

  10. The return of the Iberian lynx to Portugal: local voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Fernandes, Margarida; Espírito-Santo, Clara; Frazão-Moreira, Amélia

    2018-01-11

    Ethnographic research can help to establish dialog between conservationists and local people in reintroduction areas. Considering that predator reintroductions may cause local resistance, we assessed attitudes of different key actor profiles to the return of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to Portugal before reintroduction started in 2015. We aimed to characterize a social context from an ethnoecological perspective, including factors such as local knowledge, perceptions, emotions, and opinions. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 131) in three different protected areas and observed practices and public meetings in order to describe reintroduction contestation, emotional involvement with the species, and local perceptions about conservation. Detailed content data analysis was undertaken and an open-ended codification of citations was performed with the support of ATLAS.ti. Besides the qualitative analyses, we further explored statistic associations between knowledge and opinions and compared different geographical areas and hunters with non-hunters among key actors. Local ecological knowledge encompassed the lynx but was not shared by the whole community. Both similarities and differences between local and scientific knowledge about the lynx were found. The discrepancies with scientific findings were not necessarily a predictor of negative attitudes towards reintroduction. Contestation issues around reintroduction differ between geographical areas but did not hinder an emotional attachment to the species and its identification as a territory emblem. Among local voices, financial compensation was significantly associated to hunters and nature tourism was cited the most frequent advantage of lynx presence. Materialistic discourses existed in parallel with non-economic factors and the existence of moral agreement with its protection. The considerable criticism and reference to restrictions by local actors concerning protected areas and conservation

  11. Genetic analysis of maternal ability in Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Rodrigañez, J; Silio, L

    1994-01-12

    A practical measure of milk yield of the sow is the weight of the litter at three weeks of age when the piglet growth is entirely dependent on the milking ability of the dam. Genetic parameters of litter size at birth (LS) and litter weight at 21 days (LW21) were estimated using a DFREML procedure from records of 4883 litters (2,049 for LW21) of Iberian breed. Preliminary analysis showed negligible maternal genetic effects. The model for both traits included the fixed effects of farrowing period (86 levels), parity (6) and inbreeding coefficients of dam (Fd) and litter (F(1) ) as co-variables, and three random effects-additive genetic value, permanent environmental effect and residual on both traits. Heritability and repeatability estimates were 0.064 and 0.126 (LS) and 0.163 and 0.270 (LW21) respectively. Estimated genetic and phenotypic correlations were 0.214 and 0.043. The inbreeding depression per 10 % increase of Fd or F(1) was -0.150 or -0.170 in live piglets and -0.983 or -1.023 kg of litter weight. When the model for LW21 included the dam inbreeding and the number of suckling piglets as co-variables, the heritability and repeatability estimates were 0.243 and 0.431 respectively. A complementary analysis was carried out on individual records (weight at 21 days) of 26206 piglets farrowed by 1317 sows. The model included the fixed effects of sex, farrowing period, parity, and the inbreeding coefficients of dam and individual, as co-variables. A total of four random effects were also included: direct and maternal genetic effects, common environmental effects and residual. Estimates of heritability, maternal heritability and common environmental coefficient were, respectively, 0.019, 0.163 and 0.128, reinforcing the evidence of genetic variance for milk producing ability in Iberian sows. The estimated values of inbreeding depression for piglet weight at 21 days were -0.072 and -0.098 kg per 10 % increase in dam or litter inbreeding. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Genetische

  12. Age and growth of the sword razor clam Ensis arcuatus in the Ría de Pontevedra (NW Spain): Influence of environmental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, A.; Gaspar, M. B.; Macho, G.; Vázquez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The sword razor clam Ensis arcuatus is the most important commercial species of razor clam in Spain, and its fishery in the Ría de Pontevedra (Galicia, NW Spain) is the most productive. Despite the economic importance of this species, information on its biology is scarce. This study reports shell morphometric relationships, age, and growth rates of E. arcuatus in three fishing beds in the Ría de Pontevedra (Brensa, Bueu and Ons, located in respectively the inner, middle and outer zones of the ria), providing the first estimates of growth parameters for the species in the Iberian Peninsula. Growth was estimated by examination of surface growth rings and internal shell microgrowth patterns (acetate peel technique) that proved to be the most suitable method for growth estimate. Growth of E. arcuatus was slower in Bueu (L∞ = 140.4, k = 0.40) followed by Brensa (L∞ = 151.91, k = 0.40) and Ons (L∞ = 172.7, k = 0.33), and the clams reached commercial size in 1.7, 2.3 and 2.8 years in Ons, Brensa and Bueu, respectively. The differences in growth between sites in relation to environmental parameters are evaluated and the implications for the razor clam fishery are discussed.

  13. Physicochemical and biological cycles in a tide dominated, nitrogen-polluted temperate estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Le Corre, P.; Birrien, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variations in the physicochemical and biological parameters in the Morlaix estuary on the Brittany coast of France were studied. Hydrographically, the estuary can be classified into 3 segments: the upper estuary where stratification always persists, the lower estuary where vertical homogeneity is permanent, and a middle estuary where there is a regular oscillation of stratification and homogeneity during every tidal cycle, stratification being associated with slack waters and ...

  14. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Floods correspond to one of the most deadly natural disasters in the Iberian Peninsula during the last century. Quite often these floods are associated to intense low pressure systems with an Atlantic origin. In recent years a number of episodes have been evaluated on a case-by-case approach, with a clear focus on extreme events, thus lacking a systematic assessment. In this study we focus on the characteristics of storms for the extended winter season (October to March) that are responsible for the most extreme rainfall events over large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events during the extended winter is used based on the most comprehensive database of high resolution (0.2º latitude by 0.2º longitude) gridded daily precipitation dataset available for the Iberian Peninsula. The magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the total area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point (taking into account the daily normalised departure from climatology). Different precipitation rankings are studied considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Duero, Ebro, Tagus, Minho, Guadiana and Guadalquivir). Using an objective cyclone detecting and tracking scheme [Trigo, 2006] the storm track and characteristics of the cyclones were obtained using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the 1979-2008 period. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclone positions when the precipitation extremes occur will be analysed over the considered sub-domains (Iberia, Portugal, major river basins). In addition, we distinguish the different cyclone characteristics (lifetime, direction, minimum pressure, position, velocity, vorticity and radius) with significant impacts in precipitation over the different domains in the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa

  15. Environmental Flow for Sungai Johor Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilah, A. Kadir; Zulkifli, Yusop; Zainura, Z. Noor; Bakhiah, Baharim N.

    2018-03-01

    Sungai Johor estuary is a vital water body in the south of Johor and greatly affects the water quality in the Johor Straits. In the development of the hydrodynamic and water quality models for Sungai Johor estuary, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model was selected. In this application, the EFDC hydrodynamic model was configured to simulate time varying surface elevation, velocity, salinity, and water temperature. The EFDC water quality model was configured to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphate (PO4), and Chlorophyll a. The hydrodynamic and water quality model calibration was performed utilizing a set of site specific data acquired in January 2008. The simulated water temperature, salinity and DO showed good and fairly good agreement with observations. The calculated correlation coefficients between computed and observed temperature and salinity were lower compared with the water level. Sensitivity analysis was performed on hydrodynamic and water quality models input parameters to quantify their impact on modeling results such as water surface elevation, salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. It is anticipated and recommended that the development of this model be continued to synthesize additional field data into the modeling process.

  16. Mercury distribution in Douro estuary (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhosa, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: eduper@dq.ua.pt; Vale, C. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fishery Research, IPIMAR, Avenida Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Valega, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Monterroso, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Duarte, A.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    Determinations of dissolved reactive and total dissolved mercury, particulate and sedimentary mercury, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) have been made in the estuary of river Douro, in northern Portugal. The estuary was stratified by salinity along most of its length, it had low concentrations of SPM, typically <20 mg dm{sup -3}, and concentrations of DOC in the range <1.0-1.8 mg dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had a maximum dissolved concentration of reactive mercury of about 10 ng dm{sup -3}, whereas for the more saline bottom waters it was about 65 ng dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had maximum concentrations of total suspended particulate mercury of {approx}7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the bottom waters were always <1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Concentrations of mercury in sediments was low and in the range from 0.06 to 0.18 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The transport of mercury in surface waters was mainly associated with organic-rich particulate matter, while in bottom waters the dissolved phase transport of mercury is more important. Lower particulate organic matter, formation of chlorocomplexes in more saline waters and eventually the presence of colloids appear to explain the difference of mercury partitioning in Douro estuarine waters.

  17. Scavenging rate ecoassay: a potential indicator of estuary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Augustine G; Scanes, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of estuary condition is essential due to the highly productive and often intensely impacted nature of these ecosystems. Assessment of the physico-chemical condition of estuaries is expensive and difficult due to naturally fluctuating water quality and biota. Assessing the vigour of ecosystem processes is an alternative method with potential to overcome much of the variability associated with physico-chemical measures. Indicators of estuary condition should have small spatial and temporal variability, have a predictable response to perturbation and be ecologically relevant. Here, we present tests of the first criterion, the spatio-temporal variability of a potential ecoassay measuring the rate of scavenging in estuaries. We hypothesised that the proposed scavenging ecoassay would not vary significantly among A) sites in an estuary, B) trips separated by weeks, or C) days in a trip. Because not all habitats are present in all estuaries, this test was undertaken in two habitats. When conducted over bare substrate there were occasional significant differences, but no discernible patterns, within levels of the experiment. When conducted over vegetated substrate, days within a trip did not vary significantly, but later trips experienced greater scavenging. This scavenging ecoassay shows potential as a tool for assessing the condition of estuarine ecosystems, and further exploration of this protocol is warranted by implementation in estuaries across a gradient of anthropogenic stress.

  18. Cyanobacteria and macroalgae in ecosystem of the Neva estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulina V. N.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea and Neva estuary are plagued by coastal eutrophication. In order to estimate the scale of the problem, quantitative estimates of phytoplankton and macroalgal mats were determined in the Neva estuary. Long-term monitoring (1982–2009 of phytoplankton showed changes in its species composition and abundance. Summer phytoplankton biomass increased significantly in the 1990s, with concomitant changes in species composition, despite a decline of nutrients in the Neva estuary. The cyanobacteria Planktothrix agardhii became a dominant species. The summer biomass of phytoplankton reached a maximum of 5.2 ± 0.4 mg·L-1 in 2002–2004. Monitoring of macroalgal community in the coastal area of the Neva estuary from 2002 to 2009 showed the dominance of the filamentous green alga Cladophora glomerata in the phytobenthos. Average biomass of macroalgae in inner and outer estuary differed significantly at 132 ± 29 and 310 ± 67 g DW·m-2, respectively. This study showed, that fluctuations in macroalgal biomass reflected human influence on estuary, although it was less sensitive to human impact than the phytoplankton community. Thus qualitative and quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton and macroalgal blooms can indicate anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem, and help to better manage the Neva estuary.

  19. Waterfowl migration and distribution in North West estuaries. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, N.A.; Kirby, J.S.; Langston, R.H.W.; Donald, P.; Mawdesley, T.; Evans, J.

    1990-12-01

    Waterfowl populations may be affected by proposed tidal barrage across the Mersey. This study had three objectives:-(1) to evaluate the patterns of usage of the intertidal flats of the Mersey estuary by waders and wildfowl and to establish which are the preferred areas; (2) to identify the places of origin and movement patterns of the populations of waders and wildfowl that visit the Mersey Estuary; and (3) to evaluate evidence regarding the capacity of British estuaries to absorb waders and wildfowl populations which might be displaced by a Mersey Barrage. The text and tables and results only are presented in Volume 1. (author)

  20. Assessing climate change impacts on the Iberian power system using a coupled water-power model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Madsen, Henrik; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a negative impact on the power system of the Iberian Peninsula; changes in river runoff are expected to reduce hydropower generation, while higher temperatures are expected to increase summer electricity demand, when water resources are already limited. However,...... to balance agricultural, power, and environmental objectives in the operation of Iberian reservoirs, though some impacts could be mitigated by better alignment between temporal patterns of irrigation and power demands....... patterns of electricity demand caused by temperature changes, and changes in irrigation water use caused by temperature and precipitation changes. A stochastic dynamic programming approach was used to develop operating rules for the integrated system given hydrological uncertainty. We found that changes...

  1. Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneses, Javier; Centeno, Efraim

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO 2 -emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO 2 -emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO 2 -emission prices over Euro 15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies)

  2. The international pressures on the energy market in Iberian America and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavos Coimbra, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses Brazilian nuclear energy history, and addresses recent events, such as the international political pressures, the International Atomic Energy Agency/IAEA position, the new facts about nuclear energy in the world, the international energy market and the Iberian-America, the news about the Brazilian nuclear energy area, the best opportunities of good business in the Brazilian nuclear sector, the Brazilian Government and the Brazilian public position, in relation to International Law. (author)

  3. Latin Feminine Personal Names of Greek origin coming from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Striano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Greek Personal Names in the Latin inscriptions coming from the Iberian Peninsula is considerable. Furthermore, from the evidence found in religious centres it is clear that these inscriptions comprise a broad chronological period reaching to Medieval times. This paper shows that the Phonetic and Morphological adaptation of these names was very limited in Latin. Consequently, the fact that the various forms of these Greek names did not expand outside the closed community which bore them is justified.

  4. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  5. The Renewables Influence on Market Splitting: the Iberian Spot Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carvalho Figueiredo; Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Pedro Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the influence of wind power generation on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. We use logit models to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices together with explanatory variables like, wind speed, available transmission capacity and electricity demand. The results show that the probability of market splitting increases with the increase of wind power generation. The European intercon...

  6. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente José

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa, and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica, Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica, and red deer (Cervus elaphus. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama, mouflon (Ovis aries and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for

  7. Late Strunian age : a key time frame for VMS deposit exploration in the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, João Xavier; Pereira, Zélia; Rosa, Carlos J. P.; Rosa, Diogo R. N.; Oliveira, José Tomás; Relvas, Jorge M. R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Estimate of geological environments favorable for the formation of massive sulphide deposits is an important goal to the exploration companies working in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), the main European VMS base metals province, with giant deposits such as Neves Corvo, Aljustrel (Portugal), Rio Tinto and Tharsis (Spain). Palynostratigraphic research programs using more than 40 exploration boreholes (>30 km length) allowed the dating of the sediments of the Volcano-Sedimentary Comp...

  8. Centaurea inexpugnabilis, a new species from section Acrocentron for the Iberian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Ferrer-Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species for the genus Centaurea L. (sect. Acrocentron, Asteraceae is described: C. inexpugnabilis, sp. nov. This plant has been found in the Mallos de Riglos (Riglos, Huesca, Spain, and its distribution is currently limited to the northeastern of the Iberian Peninsula. A description and diagnosis, iconography and several tables showing the main diagnostic characters to differentiate it from its related species is reported.

  9. Salt Intrusion in the Tweed Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.

    1996-09-01

    Results are presented from a 2-week field programme in the Tweed Estuary, U.K. Maximum values of the empirically based Estuarine Richardson Number, Ri E, occurred during neap tides, and minimum values occurred during spring tides. Estimated values of Ri Evaried between 0·3 and 2·3, suggesting the occurrence of partially mixed to stratified conditions, depending on tidal state and freshwater inflow. These relatively large values of Ri Ewere consistent with both observed strong salinity stratification and large salt fluxes due to vertical shear transport. Low values (0·5) values in the halocline. A velocity maximum occurred within the halocline during the early flood. Wave-like spatial oscillations of the halocline occurred on the ebb. The oscillation troughs were situated above deep holes located just down-estuary of the rail and old road bridges. There was an indication that the constricted flow between the bridges' arches resulted in enhanced mixing of near-surface waters and a thickening of the halocline. It is also possible that these wave-like structures were stationary, near-critical internal lee waves, triggered by the deep holes. Trapping of high-salinity waters occurred on the ebb. Saline pools were isolated within a deep hole or deeper section of bed by the falling halocline. When the salt wedge moved further down-estuary, the ' trapped ' waters were subjected to strongly ebbing, overlying freshwater, and were subsequently entrained and flushed. The salinity intrusion was a strong function of spring-neap tidal state and a weaker function of freshwater inflow. The estimated salinity intrusion varied from about 4·7 to 7·6 km during the fieldwork period. The strong dependence on tidal range followed from the comparable lengths of the tidal excursion and salinity intrusion. Long excursion lengths were also partly responsible for the short residence (or flushing) times and their strong dependence on spring-neap tidal state. For typical summer freshwater

  10. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  11. Antero de Quental, Iberista: Iberianism as Organizing Principle and Evolving Intellectual Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Patrick Newcomb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In scholarship on Portugal’s Geração de 70 , Antero de Quental (1842-1891 is commonly remembered as the group’s intellectual guide or as a poet, with his sociopolitical prose unfortunately receiving less attention. This paper will propose iberianism – an intellectual current that advocates closer ties between Portugal and Spain – as an organizing principle of Quental’s prose, with his iberianist commitment evolving from an early advocacy of an Iberian federation through an interest in a common “peninsular race” and a defense of the beleaguered First Spanish Republic (1873-1874, to more fatalistic reflections on prospects for Spanish-Portuguese union. I will present Quental’s position in relation to earlier iberianists (J. F. Henriques Nogueira and federalists (P.-J. Proudhon, and will analyze Quental’s Causas da decadência dos povos peninsulares (1871 as a transitional text in the author’s evolving iberianism.

  12. {sup 210}Pb-Excess and Sediment Accumulation Rates at the Iberian Continental Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Soares, A. M. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Sediments from the continental shelf, slope, and rise at the continental margin of northern Portugal and the adjacent Iberian abyssal basin were analysed for 210Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 14}C. Pb-210 derived sedimentation rates at the continental shelf off the Portuguese coast were 0.2-0.6 cm/a. In some cores from fine sediment deposits at the outer shelf, the {sup 210}Pb excess continuum was interrupted and sediment layers were missing, suggesting that events such as sediment slides could have occurred. Higher sedimentation rates were determined in locations at the rise of the continental slope, confirming enhanced deposition by sediment slides. In the deeper Iberian Abyssal Basin, using the {sup 14}C age of sediment layers the sedimentation rate was determined at 3.2 cm/ka, thus four orders of magnitude lower than at the continental shelf. The spatial distribution of sedimentation rates determined by radionuclide based chronologies, suggested that fine sediments from river discharges are deposited mainly at the outer continental shelf. These deposits may became unstable with time and, occasionally, originate sediment slides that are drained by the canyons and reach the deep sea. The Iberian abyssal basin receives some advective contribution of these sediment slides and the sedimentation rate is one order of magnitude higher than in other abyssal basins of the NE Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  13. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Fraga

    Full Text Available The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  14. An invasion risk map for non-native aquatic macrophytes of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argantonio Rodríguez-Merino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater systems are particularly susceptible to non-native organisms, owing to their high sensitivity to the impacts that are caused by these organisms. Species distribution models, which are based on both environmental and socio-economic variables, facilitate the identification of the most vulnerable areas for the spread of non-native species. We used MaxEnt to predict the potential distribution of 20 non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula. Some selected variables, such as the temperature seasonality and the precipitation in the driest quarter, highlight the importance of the climate on their distribution. Notably, the human influence in the territory appears as a key variable in the distribution of studied species. The model discriminated between favorable and unfavorable areas with high accuracy. We used the model to build an invasion risk map of aquatic macrophytes for the Iberian Peninsula that included results from 20 individual models. It showed that the most vulnerable areas are located near to the sea, the major rivers basins, and the high population density areas. These facts suggest the importance of the human impact on the colonization and distribution of non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula, and more precisely agricultural development during the Green Revolution at the end of the 70’s. Our work also emphasizes the utility of species distribution models for the prevention and management of biological invasions.

  15. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Calama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  16. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  17. Winter precipitation over the Iberian peninsula and its relationship to circulation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodríguez-Puebla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter precipitation variability over the Iberian peninsula was investigated by obtaining the spatial and temporal patterns. Empirical Orthogonal Functions were used to describe the variance distribution and to compress the precipitation data into a few modes. The corresponding spatial patterns divide the peninsula into climatic regions according to precipitation variations. The associated time series were related to large scale circulation indices and tropical sea surface temperature anomalies by using lag cross-correlation and cross-spectrum. The major findings are: the most influential indices for winter precipitation were the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic/West Russian pattern; coherent oscillations were detected at about eight years between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation and some dynamic consequences of the circulation on precipitation over the Iberian peninsula were examined during drought and wet spells. In the end statistical methods have been proposed to downscale seasonal precipitation prediction. Keywords: Winter precipitation, circulation indices, Iberian peninsula climate, climate variations, precipitation trend

  18. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  19. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Manso, R.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Espelta, J.M.; Piqué, M.; Bravo, F.; Peso, C. del; Pardos, M.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  20. Empirical evaluation of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Capitán Herráiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased, though such a premium is not significant (only around 2% above the average of Settlement Prices. In the period considered (August 2006 to September 2008, monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium correlations (negative with variance of spot prices during delivery period and positive with skewness of spot prices during delivery period. Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development and with further integration of European Regional Power Markets.

  1. Modelling larval dispersal dynamics of common sole (Solea solea) along the western Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Teles-Machado, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Peliz, Álvaro; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2017-08-01

    Individual-based coupled physical-biological models have become the standard tool for studying ichthyoplankton dynamics and assessing fish recruitment. Here, common sole (Solea solea L.), a flatfish of high commercial importance in Europe was used to evaluate transport of eggs and larvae and investigate the connectivity between spawning and nursery areas along the western Iberian coast as spatio-temporal variability in dispersal and recruitment patterns can result in very strong or weak year-classes causing large fluctuations in stock size. A three-dimensional particle tracking model coupled to Regional Ocean Modelling System model was used to investigate variability of sole larvae dispersal along the western Iberian coast over a five-year period (2004-2009). A sensitivity analysis evaluating: (1) the importance of diel vertical migrations of larvae and (2) the size of designated recruitment areas was performed. Results suggested that connectivity patterns of sole larvae dispersal and their spatio-temporal variability are influenced by the configuration of the coast with its topographical structures and thus the suitable recruitment area available as well as the wind-driven mesoscale circulation along the Iberian coast.

  2. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  3. Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

  4. Shallow gas in the Iberian continental margin; Gas somero en el margen continental Iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gil, S.; Cartelle, V.; Blas, E. de; Carlos, A. de; Diez, R.; Duran, R.; Ferrin, A.; Garcia-Moreiras, I.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Iglesias, J.; Martinez-Carreno, N.; Munoz Sobrino, C.; Ramirez-Perez, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The shallow gas reservoirs in marine sediments from the Iberian margin or their escapes can be detected by using direct methods: (1) the measurement of high concentrations of methane or other hydrocarbons in the water column or sediment cores, (2) the identification of chemosynthetic communities and/or authigenic car- bonates in the seafloor, and (3) identification (using underwater videos) of pockmarks or carbonate mounds and mud volcanoes associated with the fluid escapes; or by indirect technical characterization of anomalies in acoustic records such as: (1) the presence of acoustic plumes in echo-sounders records, (2) the identification of acoustic blanking and/or acoustic turbidity in the high resolution seismic records, (3) the interpretation of reflectivity and (4) morphologies of pockmarks or seamounts in sidescan sonar and multibeam echo sounder records. This article is a compilation of acoustic-seismic, sedimentologic and morphologic evidence associated to the presence of shallow gas (accumulations or escapes) that appear in the Iberian margin and hat have been published in various papers. The description is divided into geographical sectors, beginning in the north-eastern end of the Mediterranean margin and ending at the easternmost area of the Cantabrian margin, following a clockwise direction around the Iberian Peninsula. (Author)

  5. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calama, R.; Manso, R.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Espelta, J.M.; Piqué, M.; Bravo, F.; Peso, C. del; Pardos, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  6. Activities of Project 'Cooperation and development with Latin America and Iberian in Biological Dosimetry of Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, Nora B.; Taja, Maria R.; Giorgio, Marina di; Garcia Lima, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Olivares, Pilar; Moreno, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria J.; Espinosa, Marco

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 the GRIAPRA Group (Latin American and Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies) was established with the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain. In 1998 began the biennial Collaborative Working Project 'Cooperation and Development with Latin America in Biological Dosimetry', partially supported by the Extremadura Government, Spain, initially involving five countries: Argentina, Cuba, Peru, Portugal and Spain. The general aim of the project is to create an Latin American and Iberian Biological Dosimetry Laboratories Coordinated Group in order to: give mutual cooperation and to other countries if required, in the case of radiological accident; contribute to enhance the technical capabilities of the participant laboratories; promote the installment of laboratories on this field in countries that does not have it yet through the training of human resources and providing the necessary equipment and, finally, perform jointly research activities in biological dosimetry. The activities designed in order to accomplish the project specific aims for the 1998-2000 period have been achieved. Description and results are presented. (author)

  7. Solar radiation and its penetration in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    The Cochin Backwater which is an estuarine area on the west coast of India receives maximum solar radiation from December to March and minimum from June to September. During the monsoon months the estuary becomes highly turbid as a result...

  8. Evaluating Causes of Ecological Impairments in the Estuaries of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainian estuaries have not undergone a systematic evaluation of the causes of ecological impairments caused by anthropogenic contamination. The objective of this evaluation is to use recently developed diagnostic tools to determine the causes of benthic ecological impairments. ...

  9. Fish and Salinity in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides access to a set of time-series maps for six fishes that live in the SF Estuary. Maps were produced to strengthen best available science that inform actions needed to improve protection for aquatic life.

  10. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquat

  11. an ecophysiological study of the meiofauna of the swartkops estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fauna in two exposed beaches in the Swartkops Estuary, near Port Elizabeth, were elucidated. PopUlation ... Variations of temperature and oxygen were found to be responsible for this pattern. ..... Apart from very low numbers of hermit crabs.

  12. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the Pu distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analyzed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse, and Newport), the suspended particulate matter (1 μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities, and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah River estuary, in addition to fallout Pu, has received up to 0.3 Ci of Pu from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence Pu isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Data are included on the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu in sediments and marsh grass of the Savannah River estuary

  13. St. Louis River Estuary 2011 - 2013 Faucet snail location data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of GPS coordinates for benthic invertebrate collections made in the St. Louis River Estuary in 2011 through 2013, and information on whether and...

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from...

  15. Comparative assessment of two agriculturally-influenced estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemley, DA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the spatio-temporal dynamics in two agriculturally-influenced South African estuaries - Gamtoos and Sundays - to investigate how contrasting hydrological alterations influence physical, chemical and biological responses...

  16. Bacterial contamination of mussels at Mahe estuary, Malabar coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Iyer, T.S.G.; Varma, P.R.G.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Mussel samples from the mussel bed and near-by market, beach sand, sediment and water from the Mahe Estuary, Kerala, India were analysed for the bacterial quality. Indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and faecal streptococci were isolated...

  17. Habitat Scale Mapping of Fisheries Ecosystem Service Values in Estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. O'Higgins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the variability of ecosystem service values at spatial scales most relevant to local decision makers. Competing definitions of ecosystem services, the paucity of ecological and economic information, and the lack of standardization in methodology are major obstacles to applying the ecosystem-services approach at the estuary scale. We present a standardized method that combines habitat maps and habitat-faunal associations to estimate ecosystem service values for recreational and commercial fisheries in estuaries. Three case studies in estuaries on the U.S. west coast (Yaquina Bay, Oregon, east coast (Lagoon Pond, Massachusetts, and the Gulf of Mexico (Weeks Bay, Alabama are presented to illustrate our method's rigor and limitations using available data. The resulting spatially explicit maps of fisheries ecosystem service values show within and between estuary variations in the value of estuarine habitat types that can be used to make better informed resource-management decisions.

  18. How the National Estuary Programs Address Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries face many challenges including, alteration of natural hydrologic flows, aquatic nuisance species, climate change, declines in fish and wildlife populations, habitat loss and degradation, nutrient loads, pathogens, stormwater and toxics.

  19. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  20. Time-dependence of salinity in monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijith, V.; Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    processes (diffusion, gravity current formation, impact of tidal asymmetries, etc.) is balanced by salinity-egress induced by runoff. Here we point out that the salinity field of the estuaries that are located on the coasts of the Indian subcontinent...

  1. Phytoplankton Diversity in the Cross River Estuary of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    This study was carried out to provide a concise set of structural based .... further growth of diatom in this zone due to rapid uptake of ... Table 1: Taxonomic listing and spatial distribution of phytoplankton species in Cross Rivers estuary. (+ =.

  2. Commercially important penaeid shrimp larvae in the estuaries of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Larval stages of the penaeid shrimps, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (Milne - Edwards) and Penaeus merguiensis De Man were mostly distributed at the lower reaches of Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. While larvae of M. dobsoni and M. affinis...

  3. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a subtropical estuary (the Brisbane River estuary, Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musenze, Ronald S.; Werner, Ursula [Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Grinham, Alistair [Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Udy, James [Healthy Waterways Ltd, P.O. Box 13086, George Street, Brisbane, Qld 4003 (Australia); Yuan, Zhiguo, E-mail: z.yuan@awmc.uq.edu.au [Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2014-02-01

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are two key greenhouse gases. Their global atmospheric budgeting is, however, flout with challenges partly due to lack of adequate field studies determining the source strengths. Knowledge and data limitations exist for subtropical and tropical regions especially in the southern latitudes. Surface water methane and nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in a subtropical estuarine system in the southern latitudes in an extensive field study from 2010 to 2012 and water–air fluxes estimated using models considering the effects of both wind and flow induced turbulence. The estuary was found to be a strong net source of both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O all-year-round. Dissolved N{sub 2}O concentrations ranged between 9.1 ± 0.4 to 45.3 ± 1.3 nM or 135 to 435% of atmospheric saturation level, while CH{sub 4} concentrations varied between 31.1 ± 3.7 to 578.4 ± 58.8 nM or 1210 to 26,430% of atmospheric saturation level. These results compare well with measurements from tropical estuarine systems. There was strong spatial variability with both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O concentrations increasing upstream the estuary. Strong temporal variability was also observed but there were no clear seasonal patterns. The degree of N{sub 2}O saturation significantly increased with NO{sub x} concentrations (r{sup 2} = 0.55). The estimated water–air fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.4 mg N{sub 2}O m{sup −2} d{sup −1} and 0.3 to 27.9 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} d{sup −1}. Total emissions (CO{sub 2}-e) were N{sub 2}O (64%) dominated, highlighting the need for reduced nitrogen inputs into the estuary. Choice of the model(s) for estimation of the gas transfer velocity had a big bearing on the estimated total emissions. - Highlights: • The estuary is a strong source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Emissions had strong spatial-temporal variability with unclear seasonal patterns. • Dissolved gas saturation comparable to that

  4. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a subtropical estuary (the Brisbane River estuary, Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musenze, Ronald S.; Werner, Ursula; Grinham, Alistair; Udy, James; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are two key greenhouse gases. Their global atmospheric budgeting is, however, flout with challenges partly due to lack of adequate field studies determining the source strengths. Knowledge and data limitations exist for subtropical and tropical regions especially in the southern latitudes. Surface water methane and nitrous oxide concentrations were measured in a subtropical estuarine system in the southern latitudes in an extensive field study from 2010 to 2012 and water–air fluxes estimated using models considering the effects of both wind and flow induced turbulence. The estuary was found to be a strong net source of both CH 4 and N 2 O all-year-round. Dissolved N 2 O concentrations ranged between 9.1 ± 0.4 to 45.3 ± 1.3 nM or 135 to 435% of atmospheric saturation level, while CH 4 concentrations varied between 31.1 ± 3.7 to 578.4 ± 58.8 nM or 1210 to 26,430% of atmospheric saturation level. These results compare well with measurements from tropical estuarine systems. There was strong spatial variability with both CH 4 and N 2 O concentrations increasing upstream the estuary. Strong temporal variability was also observed but there were no clear seasonal patterns. The degree of N 2 O saturation significantly increased with NO x concentrations (r 2 = 0.55). The estimated water–air fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.4 mg N 2 O m −2 d −1 and 0.3 to 27.9 mg CH 4 m −2 d −1 . Total emissions (CO 2 -e) were N 2 O (64%) dominated, highlighting the need for reduced nitrogen inputs into the estuary. Choice of the model(s) for estimation of the gas transfer velocity had a big bearing on the estimated total emissions. - Highlights: • The estuary is a strong source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Emissions had strong spatial-temporal variability with unclear seasonal patterns. • Dissolved gas saturation comparable to that in tropical rivers and polluted estuaries. • Emissions are dominated by N2O, which

  5. Cladocerans (Branchiopoda) of a tropical estuary in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paranaguá, M. N; Neumann-Leitão, S; Nogueira-Paranhos, J. D; Silva, T. A.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted in the Capibaribe river estuary in Recife (Brazil) to assess the role played by cladocerans in a eutrophic environment. Samplings were carried out monthly at 4 fixed stations along the estuary from July 1987 to June 1988. Collections were made with a plankton net of 65 micrometers mesh size. Six cladocerans species were registered: Penilia avirostris, Diaphanosoma spinulosum, Chydorus barroisi, Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Ilyocryptus spinifer, and Moina micrura. The most fre...

  6. Contamination and restoration of an estuary affected by phosphogypsum releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, M.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Perianez, R.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Huelva Estuary in Huelva, Spain, has been one of the most studied environmental compartments in the past years from the point of view of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) releases. It has been historically affected by waste releases, enriched in radionuclides from the U-decay series, from factories located in the area devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. Nevertheless, changes in national regulations forced a new waste management practice in 1998, prohibiting releases of phosphogypsum into the rivers. The input of natural radionuclides from phosphate factories to rivers was drastically reduced. Because of this there was a unique opportunity for the study of the response of a contaminated environmental compartment, specifically an estuary affected by tidal influences, after the cessation of the contaminant releases to, in this case, the Huelva Estuary (henceforth referred to as the Estuary). To investigate the environmental response to this new discharge regime, the specific activities of radionuclides 226 Ra and 210 Pb in water and sediment samples collected in four campaigns (from 1999 to 2005) were determined and compared with pre-1998 values. From this study it is possible to infer the most effective mechanisms of decontamination for the Estuary. Decontamination rates of 210 Pb and 226 Ra in the sediments and water have been calculated using exponential fittings and corresponding half-lives have been deduced from them. The cleaning half-life in the whole area of the Estuary is about 6 and 3.5 years for 226 Ra and 210 Pb respectively. The observed trend clearly shows that contamination of the Estuary by natural radionuclides is now decreasing and radioactive levels in waters and sediments are approaching the natural background references. This work attempts to evaluate whether it can be expected that the decontamination of the enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the Estuary can be performed via natural

  7. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  8. Contamination and restoration of an estuary affected by phosphogypsum releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: mvilla@us.es [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mosqueda, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Hurtado, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion, Universidad de Sevilla CITIUS, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, E41012-Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; Manjon, G. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain); Perianez, R. [E.U.I.T.A., Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Carretera de Utrera, Km. 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Vaca, F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21007-Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [E. T. S. Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2. 41012-Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Huelva Estuary in Huelva, Spain, has been one of the most studied environmental compartments in the past years from the point of view of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) releases. It has been historically affected by waste releases, enriched in radionuclides from the U-decay series, from factories located in the area devoted to the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. Nevertheless, changes in national regulations forced a new waste management practice in 1998, prohibiting releases of phosphogypsum into the rivers. The input of natural radionuclides from phosphate factories to rivers was drastically reduced. Because of this there was a unique opportunity for the study of the response of a contaminated environmental compartment, specifically an estuary affected by tidal influences, after the cessation of the contaminant releases to, in this case, the Huelva Estuary (henceforth referred to as the Estuary). To investigate the environmental response to this new discharge regime, the specific activities of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in water and sediment samples collected in four campaigns (from 1999 to 2005) were determined and compared with pre-1998 values. From this study it is possible to infer the most effective mechanisms of decontamination for the Estuary. Decontamination rates of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra in the sediments and water have been calculated using exponential fittings and corresponding half-lives have been deduced from them. The cleaning half-life in the whole area of the Estuary is about 6 and 3.5 years for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb respectively. The observed trend clearly shows that contamination of the Estuary by natural radionuclides is now decreasing and radioactive levels in waters and sediments are approaching the natural background references. This work attempts to evaluate whether it can be expected that the decontamination of the enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the Estuary

  9. Continuous resistivity profiling data from the Corsica River Estuary, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Worley, C.R.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Maryland's Corsica River Estuary was investigated as part of a larger study to determine its importance in nutrient delivery to the Chesapeake Bay. The Corsica River Estuary represents a coastal lowland setting typical of much of the eastern bay. An interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science team conducted field operations in the lower estuary in April and May 2007. Resource managers are concerned about nutrients that are entering the estuary via SGD that may be contributing to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and fish kills. Techniques employed in the study included continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), piezometer sampling of submarine groundwater, and collection of a time series of radon tracer activity in surface water. A CRP system measures electrical resistivity of saturated subestuarine sediments to distinguish those bearing fresh water (high resistivity) from those with saline or brackish pore water (low resistivity). This report describes the collection and processing of CRP data and summarizes the results. Based on a grid of 67.6 kilometers of CRP data, low-salinity (high-resistivity) groundwater extended approximately 50-400 meters offshore from estuary shorelines at depths of 5 to >12 meters below the sediment surface, likely beneath a confining unit. A band of low-resistivity sediment detected along the axis of the estuary indicated the presence of a filled paleochannel containing brackish groundwater. The meandering paleochannel likely incised through the confining unit during periods of lower sea level, allowing the low-salinity groundwater plumes originating from land to mix with brackish subestuarine groundwater along the channel margins and to discharge. A better understanding of the spatial variability and geological controls of submarine groundwater flow beneath the Corsica River Estuary could lead to improved models and mitigation strategies for nutrient over-enrichment in the

  10. Hydro-morphological modelling of small, wave-dominated estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinger, Jill H.

    2017-11-01

    Small, intermittently open or closed estuaries are characteristic of the coasts of South Africa, Australia, California, Mexico and many other areas of the world. However, modelling attention has tended to focus on big estuaries that drain large catchments and serve a wide diversity of interests e.g. agriculture, urban settlement, recreation, commercial fishing. In this study, the development of a simple, parametric, system dynamics model to simulate the opening and closure of the mouths of small, wave-dominated estuaries is reported. In the model, the estuary is conceived as a basin with a specific water volume to water level relationship, connected to the sea by a channel of fixed width, but variable sill height. Changes in the form of the basin are not treated in the model, while the dynamics of the mouth channel are central to the model. The magnitude and direction of the flow through the mouth determines whether erosion or deposition of sediment occurs in the mouth channel, influencing the sill height. The model is implemented on the Great Brak Estuary in South Africa and simulations reveal that the raised low water levels in the estuary during spring tide relative to neap tide, are occasioned by the constriction of the tidal flow through the shallow mouth. Freshwater inflows to the estuary are shown to be significant in determining the behaviour of the inlet mouth, a factor often ignored in studies on tidal inlets. Further it is the balance between freshwater inflows and wave events that determines the opening or closure of the mouth of a particular estuary.

  11. Functional diversity of fish in estuaries at a global extent

    OpenAIRE

    Rita P Vasconcelos; Sébastien Villéger; François Guilhaumon

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is currently viewed as a framework encompassing multiple facets of the variety of life, including taxonomic and functional aspects. Species richness and composition of fish assemblages in estuaries is defined by global to local processes acting on community colonization. The present study further investigates how biodiversity of fish assemblages varies among estuaries globally, by simultaneously analysing taxonomic and functional richness and diversity of assemblages. A comprehen...

  12. The reactivation of the SW Iberian passive margin: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joao; Rosas, Filipe; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter; Almeida, Pedro; Gutscher, Marc-André; Riel, Nicolas; Ribeiro, António

    2016-04-01

    On the morning of the 1st of November of 1755 a major earthquake struck offshore the Southwest Iberian margin. This was the strongest earthquake ever felt in Western Europe. The shake, fire and tsunami devastated Lisbon, was felt as far as Finland and had a profound impact on the thinkers of that time, in particular on the Enlightenment philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Kant. The Great Lisbon Earthquake is considered by many as the event that marks the birth of modern geosciences; and made of this region one of the most well studied areas in the world. After the 1755 earthquake, Kant and others authors wrote several treaties dealing with the causes and dynamics of earthquakes and tsunamis and were close to identify some key elements of what we now call plate tectonics. More than two hundred years later, in the year of 1969, the region was struck by another major earthquake. This was precisely during the period in which the theory of plate tectonics was being built. Geoscientists like Fukao (1973), Purdy (1975) and Mackenzie (1977) immediately focused their attention in the area. They suggested that these events were related with "transient" subduction of Africa below Iberia, along the East-West Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. Several years later, Ribeiro (1989) suggested that instead of Africa being subducted below Iberia, it was the West Iberian passive margin that was being reactivated, a process that may, in time, lead to the formation of a new subduction zone. In the turning of the millennium, a subducting slab was imaged bellow the Gibraltar Straits, a remanent of the Western Mediterranean arc system that according to Gutscher et al. (2002) was related with ongoing subduction. Recently, it was proposed that a causal link between the Gibraltar subduction system and the reactivation of the SW Iberian margin might exist. In addition, the large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence is inducing compressive stresses along the West Iberian margin. The margin

  13. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  14. Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature. We experimentally evaluate physics of wind wave growth in fetch and depth limited estuaries. We demonstrate that wave growth rate in shallow estuaries is a function of wind fetch to water depth ratio, which helps to develop a new set of parametric wave growth equations. We find that the final stage of wave growth in shallow estuaries can be presented by a product of water depth and wave number, whereby their product approaches 1.363 as either depth or wave energy increases. Suggested wave growth equations and their asymptotic constraints establish the magnitude of wave forces acting on wetland erosion that must be included in ecosystem restoration design.

  15. Probable movement and mixing of contaminants in tidal estuaries - A field study in Kundalika Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    The probable movement and mixing of contaminants within and through the Kundalika river estuary along the west coast of India are studied Neutrally buoyant biplane drogues, floats and dye were tracked at different stages of the tide to assess...

  16. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  17. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR

    2014-05-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the extended winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. These events are usually associated with low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months can be linked to Mediterranean low pressure systems. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and making use of data from relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented here based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily gridded precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands, and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal, with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. Through this objective method for ranking daily precipitation events the magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point and taking into account the daily precipitation normalised departure from climatology. Different precipitation rankings are presented considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are the water vapour (WV) core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. They are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. They are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV

  18. NEW DATA ABOUT MACROZOOBENTHOS OF BEYSUGSKY ESTUARY (SEA OF AZOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Bulysheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Beysugsky Estuary is one of the biggest estuaries of the Azov-Kuban’ lowland. Like the other water bodies in the South of Russia, this one is subject to strong anthropogenic load: detachment of the freshwater part for establishing the Beysug spawning area; regulation of the flow of the rivers feeding the estuary; destruction of the Yasenskaya spit and narrowing of the Bugaz mouth; disorganized tourism. The ongoing reformation of the ecosystem makes it necessary to carry out the analyses of the modern state of the biota of this water body and uncover reasons and regularities of its change.Location. Beysug Estuary of the Sea of Azov.Methods. Quantitative zoobenthos samples were taken with the Petersen dredger (sampling area 0,034 m2 from board of the inflatable “Zodiac” boat. Qualitative samples were taken in the coastal zone by hand and with the dredge. All the samples taken were washed through the bag made of mill sieve with mesh size 0,5 mm, and then were fixed in a plastic bucket by 4 % formaldehyde (quantitative samples or 70 % ethyl alcohol (qualitative samples. Taking and processing of samples were carried out in field and laboratory environment using common methods. 22 samples at 7 stations were taken in total.Results. Macrozoobenthos was presented by 14 invertebrate species. Estuarine fauna is the depleted version of the euryhaline one of the Sea of Azov with Holocene relic macrophyte-dwelling elements. Biodiversity and quantitative characters of the estuarine communities decrease from west to east. Pelophylic detritophages predominated in the benthic communities of the estuary. The results of this research are meant to be used for uncovering historical ways of forming of benthic fauna and clearing up the dependence of community structure on the seawater influence, freshwater flow, regulation of freshwater and seawater sources, nature of changing of faunas at salinization of estuaries connected with the sea and the

  19. Past, present and future distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: ecological and evolutionary clues from species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Acevedo

    Full Text Available The application of species distribution models (SDMs in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis were used to i determine the species' ecogeographical constraints, ii hindcast a climatic model for the last glacial maximum (LGM, relating it to inferences derived from molecular studies, and iii calibrate a model to assess the species future distribution trends (up to 2080. Our results showed that the climatic factor (in its pure effect and when it is combined with the land-cover factor is the most important descriptor of the current distribution of the Iberian hare. In addition, the model's output was a reliable index of the local probability of species occurrence, which is a valuable tool to guide species management decisions and conservation planning. Climatic potential obtained for the LGM was combined with molecular data and the results suggest that several glacial refugia may have existed for the species within the major Iberian refugium. Finally, a high probability of occurrence of the Iberian hare in the current species range and a northward expansion were predicted for future. Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change.

  20. Past, present and future distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: ecological and evolutionary clues from species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Melo-Ferreira, José; Real, Raimundo; Alves, Paulo Célio

    2012-01-01

    The application of species distribution models (SDMs) in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) were used to i) determine the species' ecogeographical constraints, ii) hindcast a climatic model for the last glacial maximum (LGM), relating it to inferences derived from molecular studies, and iii) calibrate a model to assess the species future distribution trends (up to 2080). Our results showed that the climatic factor (in its pure effect and when it is combined with the land-cover factor) is the most important descriptor of the current distribution of the Iberian hare. In addition, the model's output was a reliable index of the local probability of species occurrence, which is a valuable tool to guide species management decisions and conservation planning. Climatic potential obtained for the LGM was combined with molecular data and the results suggest that several glacial refugia may have existed for the species within the major Iberian refugium. Finally, a high probability of occurrence of the Iberian hare in the current species range and a northward expansion were predicted for future. Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change.

  1. Long-term changes in composition and distribution patterns in the Iberian herpetofaunal communities since the latest Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbal-Chinesta, Josep Francesc; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre

    2018-03-01

    The climate has undergone significant changes since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and in the course of the Holocene, parallel to important cultural transformations and migrations in the human communities. The faunal record has also suffered the effects of climate change. Amphibians and reptiles in particular have been shown to be highly sensitive because they are very susceptible to temperature alterations due to their ectothermy. This research presents the first approach to the Iberian paleobiogeography of the different species of amphibians and reptiles from the Late Pleistocene (MIS3) to present times, based on a comparative synthesis of the latest research published in recent years and the fossil record of the 58 archaeo-paleontological sites with significant assemblages. The paleoherpetofaunal associations make it possible to establish two major biotic regions during the Late Pleistocene. The first biotic region was located in the center and south of the Iberian Peninsula, with thermophilic species as the most representative taxa. The second biotic region was formed by the Atlantic-Cantabrian facade and the northeast Iberian area, dominated by hygrophilous and Euro-Siberian species, with an absence of Mediterranean species. After the Last Glacial Maximum there was an unprecedented concurrence in the northern Iberian Peninsula of autochthonous taxa from that area with thermophilic species. In the early Holocene, new species with no previous record in the Iberian Peninsula entered northern Iberia from eastern Mediterranean refugia. Finally, the introduction of North African species was the last significant biogeographical change during the Middle-Late Holocene.

  2. Distribution and assessment of sediment toxicity in Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahim, G. M. S.; Parker, R. J.; Nichol, S. L.

    2007-07-01

    Heavy metal levels in surface sediments from Tamaki Estuary demonstrate significant up estuary increases in Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and mud concentrations. Increased metal levels towards the head of the estuary are linked to local catchment sources reflecting the historical development, industrialisation and urbanisation of catchment areas surrounding the upper estuary. The relatively narrow constriction in the middle estuary (Panmure area), makes it susceptible to accumulation of upper estuary pollutants, since the constriction reduces circulation and extends the time required for fine waterborne sediments in the upper estuary to exchange with fresh coastal water. As a result fine fraction sediments trapped in the upper estuary facilitate capture and retention of pollutants at the head of the estuary. The increase in sandy mud poor sediments towards the mouth of the estuary is associated with generally low metal concentrations. The estuary’s geomorphic shape with a mid estuary constriction, sediment texture and mineralogy and catchment history are significant factors in understanding the overall spatial distribution of contaminants in the estuary. Bulk concentration values for Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in all the studied surface samples occur below ANZECC ISQG-H toxicity values. Cd and Cu concentrations are also below the ISQG-L toxicity levels for these elements. However, Pb and Zn concentrations do exceed the ISQG-L values in some of the surface bulk samples in the upper estuary proximal to long established sources of catchment pollution.

  3. Correlation between the Palaeozoic structures from West Iberian and Grand Banks margins using inversion of magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elsa A.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J. F.; Galdeano, A.

    2000-05-01

    Verhoef [Srivastava, S.P., Verhoef, J., 1992. Evolution of Mesozoic sedimentary basins around the North Central Atlantic: a preliminary plate kinematic solution. In: Parnell, J. (Ed.), Basins on the Atlantic Seaboard: Petroleum Geology Sedimentology and Basin Evolution, Geological Society Special Publication No. 62, pp. 397-420] pole. Using this coherent magnetic framework, we can verify that the continuity between adjacent blocks is quite good, in terms of the amplitude, wavenumber and magnetic susceptibility pattern. If we accept that the magnetic properties can be taken as a marker of the hercynian zonation, as was verified in previous studies (Miranda, J.M., Galdeano, A., Rossignol, J.C., Mendes-Victor, L.A., 1989. Aeromagnetic anomalies in mainland Portugal and their tectonic implications. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 95, 161-177; Galdeano, A., Miranda, J.M., Matte, P., Mouge, P., Rossignol, C., 1990. Aeromagnetic data: A tool for studying the Variscan arc of Western Europe and its correlation with transatlantic structures. Tectonophysics 177, 293-305; Socias, I., 1994. Estudios de los Elementos del Campo Magnético en la España Peninsular a partir de Datos Aeromagmanéticos. Ph.D. thesis, University of Madrid), we can conclude that (1) the characteristic magnetic signature of Ossa Morena Zone is absent on the Iberian Margin and west of it; (2) no eastward continuation of the Collector Anomaly is found in Iberia; (3) only the inner zones of the Variscan Belt can be followed towards NW France; (4) there is a major (left lateral ?) strike-slip fault along the northern Portuguese shoreline that cuts the IAA and significantly displaces the once-contiguous variscan units.

  4. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C; Newton, Ryan J; Dila, Deborah K; McLellan, Sandra L

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an "urban microbial signature," and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas , and Pseudomonas , which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with potential

  5. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C. Fisher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an “urban microbial signature,” and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas, which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is

  6. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Newton, Ryan J.; Dila, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an “urban microbial signature,” and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas, which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with

  7. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  8. A study of the probable movement and mixing of contaminants in a tidal estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.

    The probable movement and mixing of contaminants within and through the Amba river estuary, a tidal estuary along the westcoast of India are studied Neutrally buoyant bipelane drogues, floats and dye were tracked at different stages of the tide...

  9. Bacterial domination over Archaea in ammonia oxidation in a monsoon-driven tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vipindas, P.V.; Anas, A.; Jasmin, C.; Lallu, K.R.; Fausia, K.H.; Balachandran, K.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, S.

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidizing microorganisms,which are responsible for the rate-limiting step of nitrification in most aquatic systems, have not been studied in tropical estuaries. Cochin estuary (CE) is one of the largest, productive, and monsoon...

  10. Circulation and mixing process in Vasishta-Godavari estuary, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, A.R.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, V.R.; Reddy, B.S.R.

    Circulation and Mixing Process in Vasishta-Godavari Estuary, have been studied by using estuarine classification model. Analysis of salinity, salt budget, diffusion coefficients and flushing times based on salinity data of Vasishta-Godavari estuary...

  11. Picophytoplankton community in a tropical estuary: Detection of Prochlorococcus-like populations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Rajaneesh, K.M.; Anil, A.C.; Sundar, D.

    The influence of hydrography on the picophytoplankton (PP) abundance in estuaries was studied by sampling along a salinity gradient in an Indian estuary. Prochlorococcus-like cells were detected at salinities ranging from 0.06 to 35, which otherwise...

  12. Seasonal variations in abundance, biomass and grazing rates of microzooplankton in a tropical monsoonal estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.; Mochemadkar, S.; Patil, S.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Madhupratap, M.

    Seasonal abundance, composition and grazing rates of microzooplankton (20–200 µm) in the Zuari estuary were investigated to evaluate their importance in food web dynamics of a tropical monsoonal estuary. Average abundances of microzooplankton...

  13. Impact of maintenance dredging on macrobenthic community structure of a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rehitha, T.V.; Ullas, N.; Vineetha, G.; Benny, P.Y.; Madhu, N.V.; Revichandran, C.

    This paper demonstrates the impact of maintenance dredging activities on the macrobenthic community structure of a tropical monsoonal estuary (Cochin estuary), located in the southwest coast of India for three consecutive years. The results...

  14. A comparative study of Northern Ireland's estuaries based on the results of beam trawl fish surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Trevor D.; Armour, Neil D.; McNeill, Michael T.; Moorehead, Peter W.

    2017-11-01

    The fish communities of Northern Ireland's estuaries were described and compared using data collected with a modified beam trawl over a six year period from 2009 to 2014. Multivariate analyses identified four estuary groups based on variations in their physico-chemical attributes. These groups broadly corresponded with the distribution and variation of estuary geomorphic types identified around the Irish coast. The dominant fish species captured were also among the main species reported in other North East Atlantic estuaries. A significant link between the estuary types and their fish communities was found; each estuary group contained a somewhat distinctive fish community. The fish communities also showed a significant relationship with the physico-chemical characteristics of the estuaries. Differences in fish species composition are attributed to habitat and environmental preferences of key estuary-associated species.

  15. Maturation of the penaeid prawn Metapenaeus moyebi in Mandovi Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T; Parulekar, A

    Metapenaeus moyebi contributed a good share of penaeid prawn population in the Mandovi Estuary of Goa, India throughout the year. Both males and females of this species with fully mature gonads were observed in the estuary, suggesting further...

  16. West Coast Estuaries for Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict the boundaries of estuaries along the West Coast of the United States. The estuary boundaries are delineated according to the U.S. Fish and...

  17. The Bronze Age in the Northwestern of Iberian Peninsula: an analysis from funerary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettencourt, Ana M. S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of the funerary practices and of their integration in the different chronological-cultural contexts where they develop, the author works out a new interpretation of the mechanism of negotiation of power and the promotion of social identity through the Bronze Age of the NW Iberian Peninsula. When studying an area so wide she distinguishes two great trends in the type and distribution of the funerary architectures throughout the Bronze Age that she associates with different ways of interaction with, and perception of, the world. Thus, she argues that the necropolises of “cloudy” tombs (cists without tumuli, plain graves and pits, located in areas of great agricultural potential and close to the settlements, may have been constructed by sedentary communities, very involved in agricultural activities, with a great sense of territoriality and a great control over, and deep knowledge of, the territory. On the other hand the communities involved with mountain landscapes, eventually more related to cattle and with ways of life that would imply greater mobility, were responsible for the construction of more visible funerary structures, such as small tumuli of megalithic tradition, located away from the settlements. In relation to the social role of the corpse, the author argues for the Early Bronze Age, that, the occupation of new territories, the emergence of a new form of community interaction with the environment and the emergence of new mechanisms of power and legitimacy of the territory were materialized in burial practices and in the social role of some corpses, in copper and gold grave goods. This social role was represented in old and new places. From the Middle Bronze Age she assumes that the corpse loses importance in collective terms and that death becomes more familiar. The new settings of power negotiation and social identity are transferred to other contexts of action more connected with the sphere of the living

  18. Projected future wave climate in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Projected future regional wave climate scenarios at a high temporal-spatial scale were obtained for the NW Mediterranean Sea, using five combinations of regional-global circulation models. Changes in wave variables were analyzed and related to the variations of the forcing wind projections, while also evaluating the evolution of the presence of the different types of sea states. To assess the significance of the changes produced, a bootstrap-based method was proposed, which accounts for the autocorrelation of data and correctly reproduces the extremes. For the mean climate, relative changes of Hs up to ±10% were obtained, whereas they were around ±20% for the extreme climate. In mean terms, variations of Hs are similar to those associated with wind speed but are enhanced/attenuated, respectively, when fetch conditions are favorable/unfavorable. In general, most notable alterations are not in the Hs magnitude but rather in its direction. In this regard, during the winter season, it is interesting to note that the significant deviations between the results derived from the two global circulation models are larger than those between regional models. ECHAM5 simulated an enhanced west wind flow that is translated into more frequent W-NW waves, whereas the HadCM3Q3 global model gives rise to the east component, which contributes to a higher intensity and number of storms coming from such a direction and directly affects the wind-sea/swell distribution of coastal stretches that face east, like the Catalan coast. Different patterns of change were obtained during the summer when a common rise of NE-E waves was found.

  19. Iberian-Tartessian scripts/graffiti in Iruna-Veleia (Basque Country, North Spain: findings in both Iberia and Canary Islands-Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arnaiz-Villena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 760 officially recognized scripts on ceramics from Iruña-Veleia excavated by the archaeology firm Lurmen S.L. (approximately between years 2002-2008 have been analyzed. A number of these ceramics contains scripts which may be assimilated to Iberian/Tartessian writings. This number may be underestimated since more studies need to be done in already available and new found ceramics. This is the second time that Iberian writing is found by us in an unexpected location together with the Iberian-Guanche inscriptions of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands. On the other hand, naviform scripting, usually associated to Iberian rock or stone engraving may have also been found in Veleia. Strict separation, other than in time and space stratification, between Iberian and (South Tartessian culture and script is doubted.

  20. Ascent ability of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and two Iberian cyprinids − Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei, and northern straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma duriense − in a vertical slot fishway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ronda, Fco. Javier; Bravo-Cordoba, F.J.; Fuentes-Perez, J.F.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage performance of brown trout (Salmo trutta), Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) was investigated in a vertical slot fishway in the Porma River (Duero River basin, Spain) using PIT telemetry. We analysed the effects of different fishway discharges on motivation and passage success. Both cyprinid species ascended the fishway easily, performing better than the trout despite their theoretically weaker swimming performance. Fishway discharge affected fish motivation although it did not clearly influence passage success. Observed results can guide design and operation criteria of vertical slot fishways for native Iberian fish.

  1. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as flooding, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses, and are usually associated to deep low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months are fed by the Mediterranean. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and with relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2003, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands (Herrera et al., 2012), and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal (Belo-Pereira et al., 2011), with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. The daily precipitation data from 1950 to 2003 are compared with a 30-year (1961-90) precipitation climatology to achieve a daily normalized departure from the climatology. The magnitude of an event is given daily by an index that is obtained after multiplying 1) the area (in percentage) that has precipitation anomalies above two standard deviations by 2) the mean values of these anomalies over this area. With this criterion we are able to evaluate not only the spatial extent of the precipitation events but also their spatially integrated intensity. In addition, to stress out the hydrological responses to precipitation, rankings taking into account the sum of the normalized anomalies over different time periods (3 days, 5 days and 10 days) were also computed. Here different precipitation rankings will be presented considering the entire Iberian

  2. Trophic flow structure of a neotropical estuary in northeastern Brazil and the comparison of ecosystem model indicators of estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Alex; Angelini, Ronaldo; Le Loc'h, François; Ménard, Frédéric; Lacerda, Carlos; Frédou, Thierry; Lucena Frédou, Flávia

    2018-06-01

    We developed an Ecopath model for the Estuary of Sirinhaém River (SIR), a small-sized system surrounded by mangroves, subject to high impact, mainly by the sugar cane and other farming industries in order to describe the food web structure and trophic interactions. In addition, we compared our findings with those of 20 available Ecopath estuarine models for tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, aiming to synthesize the knowledge on trophic dynamics and provide a comprehensive analysis of the structures and functioning of estuaries. Our model consisted of 25 compartments and its indicators were within the expected range for estuarine areas around the world. The average trophic transfer efficiency for the entire system was 11.8%, similar to the theoretical value of 10%. The Keystone Index and MTI (Mixed Trophic Impact) analysis indicated that the snook (Centropomus undecimalis and Centropomus parallelus) and jack (Caranx latus and Caranx hippos) are considered as key resources in the system, revealing their high impact in the food web. Both groups have a high ecological and commercial relevance, despite the unregulated fisheries. As result of the comparison of ecosystem model indicators in estuaries, differences in the ecosystem structure from the low latitude zones (tropical estuaries) to the high latitude zones (temperate system) were noticed. The structure of temperate and sub-tropical estuaries is based on high flows of detritus and export, while tropical systems have high biomass, respiration and consumption rates. Higher values of System Omnivory Index (SOI) and Overhead (SO) were observed in the tropical and subtropical estuaries, denoting a more complex food chain. Globally, none of the estuarine models were classified as fully mature ecosystems, although the tropical ecosystems were considered more mature than the subtropical and temperate ecosystems. This study is an important contribution to the trophic modeling of estuaries, which may also help

  3. Riverbed Micromorphology of the Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaihu Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dunes are present in nearly all fluvial channels and are vital in understanding sediment transport, deposition, and flow conditions during floods of rivers and estuaries. This information is pertinent for helping developing management practices to reduce risks in river transportation and engineering. Although a few recent studies have investigated the micromorphology of a portion of the Yangtze River estuary in China, our understanding of dune development in this large estuary is incomplete. It is also poorly understood how the development and characteristics of these dunes have been associated with human activities in the upper reach of the Yangtze River and two large-scale engineering projects in the estuarine zone. This study analyzed the feature in micromorphology of the entire Yangtze River estuary bed over the past three years and assessed the morphological response of the dunes to recent human activities. In 2012, 2014, and 2015, multi-beam bathymetric measurements were conducted on the channel surface of the Yangtze River estuary. The images were analyzed to characterize the subaqueous dunes and detect their changes over time. Bottom sediment samples were collected for grain size analysis to assess the physical properties of the dunes. We found that dunes in the Yangtze River estuary can be classified in four major classes: very large dunes, large dunes, medium dunes, and small dunes. Large dunes were predominant, amounting to 51.5%. There was a large area of dunes developed in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River estuary and in the Hengsha Passage. A small area of dunes was observed for the first time in the turbidity maximum zone of the Yangtze River estuary. These dunes varied from 0.12 to 3.12 m in height with a wide range of wavelength from 2.83 to 127.89 m, yielding a range in height to wavelength of 0.003–0.136. Sharp leeside slope angles suggest that the steep slopes of asymmetrical dunes in the middle and upper

  4. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  5. Silicon dynamics in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Conley, Daniel J.; Humborg, Christoph; Witek, Zbigniew; Sitek, Stanisław

    2008-10-01

    Studies on dissolved silicate (DSi) and biogenic silica (BSi) dynamics were carried out in the Oder estuary, Baltic Sea in 2000-2005. The Oder estuary proved to be an important component of the Oder River-Baltic Sea continuum where very intensive seasonal DSi uptake during spring and autumn, but also BSi regeneration during summer take place. Owing to the regeneration process annual DSi patterns in the river and the estuary distinctly differed; the annual patterns of DSi in the estuary showed two maxima and two minima in contrast to one maximum- and one minimum-pattern in the Oder River. DSi concentrations in the river and in the estuary were highest in winter (200-250 μmol dm - 3 ) and lowest (often less than 1 μmol dm - 3 ) in spring, concomitant with diatom growth; such low values are known to be limiting for new diatom growth. Secondary DSi summer peaks at the estuary exit exceeded 100 μmol dm - 3 , and these maxima were followed by autumn minima coinciding with the autumn diatom bloom. Seasonal peaks in BSi concentrations (ca. 100 μmol dm - 3 ) occurred during the spring diatom bloom in the Oder River. Mass balance calculations of DSi and BSi showed that DSi + BSi import to the estuary over a two year period was 103.2 kt and that can be compared with the DSi export of 98.5 kt. The difference between these numbers gives room for ca. 2.5 kt BSi to be annually exported to the Baltic Sea. Sediment cores studies point to BSi annual accumulation on the level of 2.5 kt BSi. BSi import to the estuary is on the level of ca. 10.5 kt, thus ca. 5 kt of BSi is annually converted into the DSi, increasing the pool of DSi that leaves the system. BSi concentrations being ca. 2 times higher at the estuary entrance than at its exit remain in a good agreement with the DSi and BSi budgeting presented in the paper.

  6. Disentangling migratory routes and wintering grounds of Iberian near-threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants are suffering drastic declines in the last decades. Causes beneath this problem are complex due to the wide spatial and temporal scale involved. We aim to reveal migratory routes, stopover areas, wintering grounds, and migratory strategies for the most southwestern populations of the near-threatened European Roller Coracias garrulus in order to identify conservation key areas for the non-breeding stage of this species. To this end, we used tracking data from seven satellite transmitters fitted to birds breeding in different populations throughout the Iberian Peninsula and four geolocators fitted to individuals in a southeastern Iberian population. Precise satellite data were used to describe daily activity patterns and speed in relation to the main regions crossed during the migration. Individuals from the most southwestern Iberian populations made a detour towards the Atlantic African coast whereas those from northeastern populations followed a straight north-to-south route. We identified important stopover areas in the Sahel belt, mainly in the surroundings of the Lake Chad, and wintering grounds on southwestern Africa farther west than previously reported for the species. Concerning the migratory strategy, satellite data revealed: 1 a mainly nocturnal flying activity, 2 that migration speed depended on the type of crossed habitat, with higher average speed while crossing the desert; and 3 that the migration was slower and lasted longer in autumn than in spring. The studied populations showed weak migratory connectivity, suggesting the confluence of birds from a wide range of breeding grounds in a restricted wintering area. Therefore, we suggest to target on defining precisely key areas for this species and identifying specific threats in them in order to develop an appropriate global conservation programme for the European Roller.

  7. Persistent genetic signatures of colonization in Brachionus manjavacas rotifers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Africa; Montero-Pau, Javier; Lunt, David H; Serra, Manuel; Campillo, Sergi

    2007-08-01

    Recent phylogeographical assessments have consistently shown that continental zooplankton display high levels of population subdivision, despite the high dispersal capacity of their diapausing propagules. As such, there is an apparent paradox between observed cosmopolitanism in the zooplankton that is associated with long-distance dispersal, and strong phylogeographical structures at a regional scale. Such population dynamics, far from migration-drift equilibrium, have been shown in the rotifer species complex Brachionus plicatilis, a group of over a dozen species inhabiting salt lakes and coastal lagoons worldwide. Here we present the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of one of these species, Brachionus manjavacas, in the Iberian Peninsula, where it often co-occurs with the morphologically similar species B. plicatilis sensu stricto. We obtained sequences from 233 individuals from diapausing eggs and clonal cultures from 16 lakes in the Iberian Peninsula, and a Tunisian lake. Two strongly supported deep mitochondrial DNA clades were found (A and B). Phylogenetic and nested clade analysis showed that clade A has a strong phylogeographical structure, with a strong similarity of phylogeographical patterns between B. manjavacas clade A and B. plicatilis s.s. These include (i) signatures of allopatric fragmentation between central and southern populations, and (ii) range expansions in the Iberian Peninsula, both likely to have occurred during the Pleistocene. We find evidence for a glacial refugium in the Guadiana basin. Clades A and B co-occurred in several of these lakes because of range expansion and secondary contact between both clades. The co-occurrence between B. plicatilis s.s. and B. manjavacas is not recent, and both species might have experienced similar environmental challenges during the Pleistocene. The strong correlation of genetic and geographical distance found suggests that historical events can lead to such correlation, mirroring the effects of

  8. Ecophysiology Tracks Phylogeny and Meets Ecological Models in an Iberian Gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, C; Carretero, M A

    2015-01-01

    Because fitness of ectotherms, including reptiles, is highly dependent on temperature and water availability, the study of ecophysiological traits, such as preferred temperature (T p) and water loss rates (WLRs), may provide mechanistic evidence on the restricting factors to the species ranges. The Moorish gecko, Tarentola mauritanica, is a species complex with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. In the Iberian Peninsula, two sister parapatric forms of the complex, known as the Iberian and the European clades, are found. Ecological models previously performed using presence records and bioclimatic variables suggest niche divergence between both lineages correlated with precipitation rather than with temperature. In this study, we test this correlative hypothesis using ecophysiological evidence. In the laboratory, we analyzed the T p and WLRs for 84 adult males from seven distinct populations ascribed to one of the two lineages present in Iberia. Specifically, we evaluated the existence of trait conservatism versus adaptation among populations, lineages, or both. In addition, we tested for a trade-off between water and thermal traits and assessed whether climate regime of sampling localities had any influence on the ecophysiological patterns found. We found that T p is quite conserved at both the population and lineage levels and independent from body size. In contrast, water loss experiments revealed some variation among populations, but the regression analysis failed to detect correlation between T p and WLR at any level. Overall, the European lineage displayed a trend for higher water loss and was more diverse among populations when compared with the Iberian lineage. The lack of correspondence between ecophysiological traits and local climatic conditions favors phylogenetic signal versus adaptation. This suggests divergent evolutionary responses to the environment, mainly acting on water ecology, in both lineages, which may account for the differences in their

  9. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Barral-Arca

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula has been the focus of attention of numerous studies dealing with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation, most of them targeting the control region segment. In the present study we sequenced the control region of 3,024 Spanish individuals from areas where available data were still limited. We also compiled mtDNA haplotypes from the literature involving 4,588 sequences and 28 population groups or small regions. We meta-analyzed all these data in order to shed further light on patterns of geographic variation, taking advantage of the large sample size and geographic coverage, in contrast with the atomized sampling strategy of previous work. The results indicate that the main mtDNA haplogroups show primarily clinal geographic patterns across the Iberian geography, roughly along a North-South axis. Haplogroup HV0 (where haplogroup U is nested is more prevalent in the Franco Cantabrian region, in good agreement with previous findings that identified this area as a climate refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, prior to a subsequent demographic re-expansion towards Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Typical sub-Saharan and North African lineages are slightly more prevalent in South Iberia, although at low frequencies; this pattern has been shaped mainly by the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The results also indicate that summary statistics that aim to measure molecular variation, or AMOVA, have limited sensitivity to detect population substructure, in contrast to patterns revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Overall, the results suggest that mtDNA variation in Iberia is substantially stratified. These patterns might be relevant in biomedical studies given that stratification is a common cause of false positives in case-control mtDNA association studies, and should be also considered when weighting the DNA evidence in forensic casework, which is strongly dependent on haplotype

  10. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral-Arca, Ruth; Pischedda, Sara; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Pastoriza, Ana; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; López-Soto, Manuel; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has been the focus of attention of numerous studies dealing with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, most of them targeting the control region segment. In the present study we sequenced the control region of 3,024 Spanish individuals from areas where available data were still limited. We also compiled mtDNA haplotypes from the literature involving 4,588 sequences and 28 population groups or small regions. We meta-analyzed all these data in order to shed further light on patterns of geographic variation, taking advantage of the large sample size and geographic coverage, in contrast with the atomized sampling strategy of previous work. The results indicate that the main mtDNA haplogroups show primarily clinal geographic patterns across the Iberian geography, roughly along a North-South axis. Haplogroup HV0 (where haplogroup U is nested) is more prevalent in the Franco Cantabrian region, in good agreement with previous findings that identified this area as a climate refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), prior to a subsequent demographic re-expansion towards Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Typical sub-Saharan and North African lineages are slightly more prevalent in South Iberia, although at low frequencies; this pattern has been shaped mainly by the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The results also indicate that summary statistics that aim to measure molecular variation, or AMOVA, have limited sensitivity to detect population substructure, in contrast to patterns revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Overall, the results suggest that mtDNA variation in Iberia is substantially stratified. These patterns might be relevant in biomedical studies given that stratification is a common cause of false positives in case-control mtDNA association studies, and should be also considered when weighting the DNA evidence in forensic casework, which is strongly dependent on haplotype frequencies.

  11. Roaring high and low: composition and possible functions of the Iberian stag's vocal repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Passilongo

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed description of the rutting vocalisations of free-ranging male Iberian deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus, Hilzheimer 1909, a geographically isolated and morphologically differentiated subspecies of red deer Cervus elaphus. We combine spectrographic examinations, spectral analyses and automated classifications to identify different call types, and compare the composition of the vocal repertoire with that of other red deer subspecies. Iberian stags give bouts of roars (and more rarely, short series of barks that are typically composed of two different types of calls. Long Common Roars are mostly given at the beginning or at the end of the bout, and are characterised by a high fundamental frequency (F0 resulting in poorly defined formant frequencies but a relatively high amplitude. In contrast, Short Common Roars are typically given in the middle or at the end of the bout, and are characterised by a lower F0 resulting in relatively well defined vocal tract resonances, but low amplitude. While we did not identify entirely Harsh Roars (as described in the Scottish red deer subspecies (Cervus elaphus scoticus, a small percentage of Long Common Roars contained segments of deterministic chaos. We suggest that the evolution of two clearly distinct types of Common Roars may reflect divergent selection pressures favouring either vocal efficiency in high pitched roars or the communication of body size in low-pitched, high spectral density roars highlighting vocal tract resonances. The clear divergence of the Iberian red deer vocal repertoire from those of other documented European red deer populations reinforces the status of this geographical variant as a distinct subspecies.

  12. Analysis of the relationship between the monthly temperatures and weather types in Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Nicola, Cortesi; José Carlos, González-Hidalgo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the relationship between the atmospheric circulation and weather types and the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula is modeled (period 1950-2010). The temperature data used were obtained from a high spatial resolution (10km x 10km) dataset (MOTEDAS dataset, Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). In addition, a dataset of Portuguese temperatures was used (obtained from the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere). The weather type classification used was the one developed by Jenkinson and Collison, which was adapted for the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The analysis of the behaviour of monthly temperatures based on the weather types was carried out using a stepwise regression procedure of type forward to estimate temperatures in each cell of the considered grid, for each month, and for both maximum and minimum monthly average temperatures. The model selects the weather types that best estimate the temperatures. From the validation model it was obtained the error distribution in the time (months) and space (Iberian Peninsula). The results show that best estimations are obtained for minimum temperatures, during the winter months and in coastal areas. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298

  13. Functional diversity of fish in estuaries at a global extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita P Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is currently viewed as a framework encompassing multiple facets of the variety of life, including taxonomic and functional aspects. Species richness and composition of fish assemblages in estuaries is defined by global to local processes acting on community colonization. The present study further investigates how biodiversity of fish assemblages varies among estuaries globally, by simultaneously analysing taxonomic and functional richness and diversity of assemblages. A comprehensive worldwide database was compiled on the fish assemblage composition and environmental characteristics of estuaries. In addition, functional attributes of the fish species were characterized such as body size, habitat use and trophic ecology. We investigated the relationship between taxonomic and functional aspects of biodiversity, i.e. the match or mismatch between the two. We also explored how functional diversity of fish assemblages varied among estuaries globally and related to environmental features of estuaries, i.e. historic and contemporary, global and local constraints. The results are explored in the context of ecosystem functioning and resilience, and outcomes relevant to assist in prioritizing conservation efforts are highlighted.

  14. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; McDonald, P.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, and 239240 Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs and 239240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 600 Bq kg -1 for 239240 Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg -1 . The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 239240 Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230 Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Zilsel's Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Henrique; Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

  16. Regional Climate Modelling of the Western Iberian Low-Level Wind Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Semedo, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is one the less studied boundary layer wind jet features in the Eastern Boundary Currents Systems (EBCS). These regions are amongst the most productive ocean ecosystems, where the atmosphere-land-ocean feedbacks, which include marine boundary layer clouds, coastal jets, upwelling and inland soil temperature and moisture, play an important role in defining the regional climate along the sub-tropical mid-latitude western coastal areas. Recently, the present climate western Iberian CLLJ properties were extensively described using a high resolution regional climate hindcast simulation. A summer maximum frequency of occurrence above 30% was found, with mean maximum wind speeds around 15 ms-1, between 300 and 400m heights (at the jet core). Since the 1990s the climate change impact on the EBCS is being studied, nevertheless some lack of consensus still persists regarding the evolution of upwelling and other components of the climate system in these areas. However, recently some authors have shown that changes are to be expected concerning the timing, intensity and spatial homogeneity of coastal upwelling and of CLLJs, in response to future warming, especially at higher latitudes, namely in Iberia and Canaries. In this study, the first climate change assessment study regarding the Western Iberian CLLJ, using a high resolution (9km) regional climate simulation, is presented. The properties of this CLLJ are studied and compared using two 30 years simulations: one historical simulation for the 1971-2000 period, and another simulation for future climate, in agreement with the RCP8.5 scenario, for the 2071-2100 period. Robust and consistent changes are found: 1) the hourly frequency of occurrence of the CLLJ is expected to increase in summer along the western Iberian coast, from mean maximum values of around 35% to approximately 50%; 2) the relative increase of the CLLJ frequency of occurrence is higher in the north off western Iberia

  17. High resolution projections for the western Iberian coastal low level jet in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Semedo, Alvaro

    2017-09-01

    The Iberian coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is one of the less studied boundary layer wind jet features in the Eastern Boundary Currents Systems (EBCS). These regions are amongst the most productive ocean ecosystems, where the atmosphere-land-ocean feedbacks, which include marine boundary layer clouds, coastal jets, upwelling and inland soil temperature and moisture, play an important role in defining the regional climate along the sub-tropical mid-latitude western coastal areas. Recently, the present climate western Iberian CLLJ properties were extensively described using a high resolution regional climate hindcast simulation. A summer maximum frequency of occurrence above 30 % was found, with mean maximum wind speeds around 15 ms-1, between 300 and 400 m heights (at the jet core). Since the 1990s the climate change impact on the EBCS is being studied, nevertheless some lack of consensus still persists regarding the evolution of upwelling and other components of the climate system in these areas. However, recently some authors have shown that changes are to be expected concerning the timing, intensity and spatial homogeneity of coastal upwelling, in response to future warming, especially at higher latitudes, namely in Iberia and Canaries. In this study, the first climate change assessment study regarding the Western Iberian CLLJ, using a high resolution (9 km) regional climate simulation, is presented. The properties of this CLLJ are studied and compared using two 30 years simulations: one historical simulation for the 1971-2000 period, and another simulation for future climate, in agreement with the RCP8.5 scenario, for the 2071-2100 period. Robust and consistent changes are found: (1) the hourly frequency of occurrence of the CLLJ is expected to increase in summer along the western Iberian coast, from mean maximum values of around 35 % to approximately 50 %; (2) the relative increase of the CLLJ frequency of occurrence is higher in the north off western Iberia; (3

  18. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the southwest Iberian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Rodriguez, S.; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo Molina, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009–2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain...... be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure...

  19. A comparison of daily evaporation downscaled using WRFDA model and GLEAM dataset over the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José González-Rojí, Santos; Sáenz, Jon; Ibarra-Berastegi, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    GLEAM dataset was presented a few years ago and since that moment, it has just been used for validation of evaporation in a few places of the world (Australia and Africa). The Iberian Peninsula is composed of different soil types and it is affected by different weather regimes, with different climate regions. It is this feature which makes it a very interesting zone for the study of the meteorological cycle, including evaporation. For that purpose, a numerical downscaling exercise over the Iberian Peninsula was run nesting the WRF model inside ERA Interim. Two model configurations were tested in two experiments spanning the period 2010-2014 after a one-year spin-up (2009). In the first experiment (N), boundary conditions drive the model. The second experiment (D) is configured the same way as the N case, but 3DVAR data assimilation is run every six hours (00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z) using observations obtained from the PREPBUFR dataset. For both N and D runs and ERA Interim, the evaporation of the model runs was compared to GLEAM v3.0b and v3.0c datasets over the Iberian Peninsula, both at the daily and monthly time scales. GLEAM v3.0a was not used for validation as it uses for forcing radiation and air temperature data from ERA Interim. Results show that the experiment with data assimilation (D) improve the results obtained for N experiment. Moreover, correlations values are comparable to the ones obtained with ERA Interim. However, some negative correlation values are observed at Portuguese and Mediterranean coasts for both WRF runs. All of these problematic points are considered as urban sites by the NOAH land surface model. Because of that, the model is not able to simulate a correct evaporation value. Even with these discrepancies, better results than for ERA Interim are observed for seasonal Biases and daily RMSEs over Iberian Peninsula, obtaining the best values inland. Minimal differences are observed for the two GLEAM datasets selected.

  20. Radiological study of the pelvic limb in the growing Iberian pig [ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayoral, A.I.; Regodon, S.; Franco, A.; Lignereux, Y.; Robina, A.

    1997-01-01

    The chronology of ossification of the pelvic limb of the growing Iberian pig is analyzed by the radiological method, from birth to 482 days(16 months). Forty eight individuals have been used, 24 males and 24 females born from eight gilts; all were castrated and distributed within 6 age groups : birth (1 day), weaning (58 days), preparation ( >, 234 days), beginning ( >, 352 days), half ( >, 424 days) and end ( >, 482 days) of fattening. The appearance and the evolution of the ossification centers are observed, as well as some phenomena occurring during the fusion of the ossification centers [fr

  1. 76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, three species of marine mammals during estuary... December 31, 2010; and Russian River Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive Management Plan. NMFS' Environmental...

  2. 77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, three species of marine mammals during estuary... Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive Management Plan; and Feasibility of Alternatives to the Goat Rock State...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1190 - Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. 165.1190 Section 165.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1190 Security Zone; San Francisco Bay, Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: All navigable waters of the Oakland Estuary, California, from the surface to...

  4. 78 FR 68995 - Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... waters of the Oakland Estuary just north of the Park Street Bridge in Alameda, CA in support of the Oakland Estuary Closure for the Vessel Removal Project on November 4, 2013 through November 22, 2013. This...

  5. 78 FR 46332 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; National Estuary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Request; Comment Request; National Estuary Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... request (ICR), ``National Estuary Program'' (EPA ICR No. 1500.08, OMB Control No. 2040-0138 to the Office... comments to OMB. Abstract: The National Estuary Program (NEP) involves collecting information from the...

  6. Eco-morphological problems in the Yangtze Estuary and the Western Scheldt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Ding, P.X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the Yangtze Estuary in China and the Western Scheldt Estuary in The Netherlands by their morphodynamic and ecological systems, their engineering works and estuarine management issues, and the major challenges in studying them. Physically speaking, the two estuaries are very

  7. Variability in stratification and flushing times of the Gautami-Godavari estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sridevi, B.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Vijaykumar, K.; Raju, N.S.N.; JawaharKumar, CH.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Luis, R.; Kumar, M.D.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    –Godavari estuary (G–GE) during spring and neap tide periods covering entire spectrum of discharge over a distance of 36 km from the mouth. The bathymetry of the estuary was recently changed due to dredging of ~20 km of the estuary from the mouth for transportation...

  8. 75 FR 2517 - Notice of Solicitation for Estuary Habitat Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ..., wastewater treatment plant upgrades, combined sewer outfalls, and non-point source pollution projects such as... Estuary Restoration Act of 2000, Title I of the Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-457... with fresh water from land drainage.'' Estuary also includes the ``* * * near coastal waters and...

  9. A morphological gap for Iberian Zospeum filled: Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae a new species from Asturias (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. from Cueva de La Herrería (Llanes, Asturias is described. It is characterized by a relatively large shell (1.4–1.8 mm height, conical, with ovate aperture, continuous peristome and thickened parietal callus; shell costulate except two first whorls; without any sort of inner formations. It is the first clearly costulate Iberian species, filling a morphological gap in the Iberian clade, and the largest species from the Cantabrian region, being the first species described from Asturias.

  10. Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylves, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included

  11. Effects of heavy metal contamination on the macrobenthic fauna in estuaries: The case of the Seine estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination levels are generally higher in estuaries than in the open sea. Some estuaries, the Seine estuary for example, have particularly high pollution levels of metals, yet continue to support a very high benthic biomass and remain quite productive. Measurements of sediment contamination are highly variable due to diverse chemical analysis methods, sediments origin and sources of contaminants found in the estuaries. Salinity appears to be the principal factor controlling contaminant distribution in the sediment and the overlying and/or interstitial waters; it also affects the bioavailability of contaminants in estuarine sediments. Of course, the response to contaminants varies greatly among species and assemblages. Trace metals explain only a small part of the variation in benthic community structure. Some species, such as the shrimp Crangon crangon, appears vulnerable to metal pollution, while other species, such as Scrobicularia plana, are able to tolerate quite high levels of cadmium in their tissue. This paper demonstrates the wide variability of benthic responses to contamination, which is probably due to the high spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the estuary. To reduce the problems due the heterogeneity and variability observed to date in the available results, it will be necessary to encourage integrated estuarine studies, in which sedimentologists, chemists, and biologists work together on the same campaigns at the same sites

  12. Tritium in the Savannah River Estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing, and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the River and from sea water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary, respectively

  13. Waterfowl migration and distribution in North West estuaries. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, N.A.; Kirby, J.S.; Langston, R.H.W.; Donald, P.; Mawdesley, T.; Evans, J.

    1990-12-01

    Waterfowl populations may be affected by the proposed tidal barrage across the Mersey. A study was performed with three objectives: (1) to evaluate the patterns of usage of the intertidal flats of the Mersey estuary by waders and wildfowl and to establish which are the preferred areas; (2) to identify the places of origin and movement patterns of the populations of waders and wildfowl that visit the Mersey estuary; and (3) to evaluate evidence regarding the capacity of British estuaries to absorb waders and wildfowl populations which might be displaced by a Mersey Barrage. The text and tables of results of this study have already been presented in Volume 1. Volume 2 contains the figures describing the results (U.K)

  14. Tritium in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is approximately 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States of America average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the river and from sea-water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary respectively. (author)

  15. Does boat traffic cause displacement of fish in estuaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Alistair; Whitfield, Alan K; Cowley, Paul D; Järnegren, Johanna; Næsje, Tor F

    2013-10-15

    Estuaries are increasingly under threat from a variety of human impacts. Recreational and commercial boat traffic in urban areas may represent a significant disturbance to fish populations and have particularly adverse effects in spatially restricted systems such as estuaries. We examined the effects of passing boats on the abundance of different sized fish within the main navigation channel of an estuary using high resolution sonar (DIDSON). Both the smallest (100-300 mm) and largest (>501 mm) size classes had no change in their abundance following the passage of boats. However, a decrease in abundance of mid-sized fish (301-500 mm) occurred following the passage of boats. This displacement may be attributed to a number of factors including noise, bubbles and the rapidly approaching object of the boat itself. In highly urbanised estuarine systems, regular displacement by boat traffic has the potential to have major negative population level effects on fish assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of 224 Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on 224 Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of 228 Ra in the estuary and produced the highest 228 Ra/ 226 Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the 228 Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of 224 Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, 224 Ra and 228 Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the 232 Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Modelling extreme climatic events in Guadalquivir Estuary ( Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan; Moreno-Navas, Juan; Pulido, Antoine; García-Lafuente, Juan; Calero Quesada, Maria C.; García, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Extreme climatic events, such as heat waves and severe storms are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude as a consequence of global warming but their socio-ecological effects are poorly understood, particularly in estuarine ecosystems. The Guadalquivir Estuary has been anthropologically modified several times, the original salt marshes have been transformed to grow rice and cotton and approximately one-fourth of the total surface of the estuary is now part of two protected areas, one of them is a UNESCO, MAB Biosphere Reserve. The climatic events are most likely to affect Europe in forthcoming decades and a further understanding how these climatic disturbances drive abrupt changes in the Guadalquivir estuary is needed. A barotropic model has been developed to study how severe storm events affects the estuary by conducting paired control and climate-events simulations. The changes in the local wind and atmospheric pressure conditions in the estuary have been studied in detail and several scenarios are obtained by running the model under control and real storm conditions. The model output has been validated with in situ water elevation and good agreement between modelled and real measurements have been obtained. Our preliminary results show that the model demonstrated the capability describe of the tide-surge levels in the estuary, opening the possibility to study the interaction between climatic events and the port operations and food production activities. The barotropic hydrodynamic model provide spatially explicit information on the key variables governing the tide dynamics of estuarine areas under severe climatic scenarios . The numerical model will be a powerful tool in future climate change mitigation and adaptation programs in a complex socio-ecological system.

  18. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary AGENCY... the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary (Bay Delta Estuary) in California. EPA is... programs to address recent significant declines in multiple aquatic species in the Bay Delta Estuary. EPA...

  19. The geological origin, Galicien, of the Marabiu example (Teverga, Asturias and cultural considerations on weapon-tools classified as ''northern battle-axes'' in the NW of Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Blas Cortina, Miguel A.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical analysis of a perforated item from Asturias shows that its only presence in the Cantabric region is due to an import from Galicia (cianites of Touro, near Santiago de Compostela. The concentration of these tool-weapons in barrows of the III millenium in Galicia is a unique focus in the Iberian peninsula of a very well known phenomenon in Europe. In this article, geographic, economic and cultural arguments are offered, justifiyng the peculiar presence of these sceptres or status symbols and of their local character, although they remind us of types in the continental NW, so that the Galician perforated tools are classified as ''northern battle-axes".

    El análisis físico de un ejemplar perforado del centro de Asturias (Marabiu prueba que su solitaria presencia en la Región Cantábrica se debe a una importación desde Galicia (cianitas deTouro, al E de Santiago de Compostela. La concentración de estos útiles-arma en túmulos del III milenio en Galicia (Coruña y O de Lugo dibuja el foco único en la Península Ibérica de un fenómeno bien conocido en Europa. En el artículo se ofrecen argumentos geográficos, económicos y culturales justificativos de la presencia singular de estos "cetros" o símbolos de estatus, de su carácter local aunque se aprecien resonancias de tipos de NO continental, lo que hizo que se calificara a los perforados gallegos de "hachas de combate nórdicas".

  20. Combined use of chemical, biochemical and physiological variables in mussels for the assessment of marine pollution along the N-NW Spanish coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Albentosa, Marina; Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Besada, Victoria; Franco, M Ángeles; Fumega, José; González-Quijano, Amelia; Viñas, Lucía; Beiras, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This study undertakes an overall assessment of pollution in a large region (over 2500 km of coastline) of the N-NW Spanish coast, by combining the use of biochemical (AChE, GST, GPx) and physiological (SFG) responses to pollution, with chemical analyses in wild mussel populations (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The application of chemical analysis and biological techniques identified polluted sites and quantified the level of toxicity. High levels of pollutants were found in mussel populations located close to major cities and industrialized areas and, in general, average concentrations were higher in the Cantabrian than in the Iberian Atlantic coast. AChE activities ranged between 5.8 and 27.1 nmol/min/mg prot, showing inhibition in 12 sampling sites, according to available ecotoxicological criteria. GST activities ranged between 29.5 and 112.7 nmol/min/mg prot, and extreme variability was observed in GPx, showing activities between 2.6 and 64.5 nmol/min/mg prot. Regarding SFG, only 5 sites showed 'moderate stress' (SFG value below 20 J/g/h), and most sites presented a 'high potential growth' (>35 J/g/h) corresponding to a 'healthy state'. Multivariate statistical techniques applied to the chemical and biological data identified PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and BDEs as the main responsible of the observed toxicity. However, the alteration of biological responses caused by pollutants seems to be, in general, masked by biological variables, namely age and mussel condition, which have an effect on the mussels' response to pollutant exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical Changes in a Eutrophic Estuary During Reduced Nutrient Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Markager, Stiig

    2014-01-01

    Loss of water clarity is one of the consequences of coastal eutrophication. Efforts have therefore been made to reduce external nutrient loadings of coastal waters. This paper documents improvements to water clarity between 1985 and 2008–2009 at four stations in the microtidal estuary Roskilde...... to 74 % in 1985 to 78 to 85 % in 2008–2009. Overall, efforts to reduce nutrient loading and improve water clarity appeared to have had a larger impact on POM* than on Chl a and colored dissolved organic matter concentrations in the estuary, which can account for the decrease in the scatter...

  2. Impacts of pesticides in a Central California estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer; Smalling, Kelly; Kuivila, Kathy; Hamilton, Mary; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Tjeerdema, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Recent and past studies have documented the prevalence of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds in California. While toxic concentrations of these pesticides have been found in freshwater systems, there has been little research into their impacts in marine receiving waters. Our study investigated pesticide impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary, which provides critical habitat to numerous aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species on the central California coast. Runoff from irrigated agriculture constitutes a significant portion of Santa Maria River flow during most of the year, and a number of studies have documented pesticide occurrence and biological impacts in this watershed. Our study extended into the Santa Maria watershed coastal zone and measured pesticide concentrations throughout the estuary, including the water column and sediments. Biological effects were measured at the organism and community levels. Results of this study suggest the Santa Maria River estuary is impacted by current-use pesticides. The majority of water samples were highly toxic to invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), and chemistry evidence suggests toxicity was associated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, or mixtures of both classes of pesticides. A high percentage of sediment samples were also toxic in this estuary, and sediment toxicity occurred when mixtures of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid pesticides exceeded established toxicity thresholds. Based on a Relative Benthic Index, Santa Maria estuary stations where benthic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed were degraded. Impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary were likely due to the proximity of this system to Orcutt Creek, the tributary which accounts for most of the flow to the lower Santa Maria River. Water and sediment samples from Orcutt Creek were highly toxic to invertebrates due to mixtures of the same pesticides measured

  3. Physical biological coupling in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul J.; Yin, Kedong; Lee, J. H. W.; Gan, Jianping; Liu, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    The Pearl River Estuary is a subtropical estuary and the second largest in China based on discharge volume from the Pearl River. Processes in the estuary vary spatially and temporally (wet vs dry season). In the dry season at the head of the estuary, hypoxic and nearly anoxic conditions occur and NH 4 reaches >600 μM, NO 3 is ˜300 μM and nitrite is ˜60 μM indicating that nitrification and denitrification may be important dry season processes in the region extending 40 km upstream of the Humen outlet. There are very few biological studies conducted in this upper section of the estuary in either the dry or wet seasons and hence there is a need for further research in this region of the river. In the wet season, the salinity wedge extends to the Hongqimen outlet and oxygen is low (35-80% saturation). Nitrate is ˜100 μM, silicate ˜140 μM; and phosphate is relatively low at ˜0.5 μM, yielding an N:P ratio up to ˜200:1 in summer. Nutrients decrease in the lower estuary and primary productivity may become potentially P-limited. Eutrophication is not as severe as one would expect from the nutrient inputs from the Pearl River and from Hong Kong's sewage discharge. This estuary shows a remarkable capacity to cope with excessive nutrients. Physical processes such as river discharge, tidal flushing, turbulent dispersion, wind-induced mixing, and estuarine circulation play an important role in controlling the production and accumulation of algal blooms and the potential occurrence of hypoxia. Superimposed on the physical processes of the estuary are the chemical and biological processes involved in the production of the bloom. For example, the 100N:1P ratio indicates that P potentially limits the amount of algal biomass (and potential biological oxygen demand) in summer. While extended periods of hypoxia are rare in Hong Kong waters, episodic events have been reported to occur during late summer due to factors such as low wind, high rainfall and river discharge which

  4. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Export Promotion Aims and Reality: A Comparison of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éltető Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the international crisis in 2008-2009, the role of exports in economic growth came into focus in most countries. Exports of EU Member States gained momentum from 2010 onward but with certain changes in their structure and direction. In several countries, the turn towards non-EU areas, such as China or Latin America was part of the state export strategy. On the one hand, our article describes these foreign trade strategies and their institutional framework of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European governments, detecting possible similarities. On the other hand, we analyse recent export data. This way we can get a picture on the structure and direction of exports of periphery economies and this can be compared to the aims of the given states. Our hypothesis is that there is a gap between the reality and the intentions of the governments. The size of this gap varies and is influenced by certain factors such as the different involvement of multinational companies in foreign trade or the different economic structure of these countries. In our paper we list which countries adopted a government strategy and with what aim. We provide a short literature review on state trade promotion policies and discuss these policies and their institutions in the Baltic, Visegrád and Iberian countries.

  6. Drought-induced weakening of growth-temperature associations in high-elevation Iberian pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Galván, J.; Büntgen, Ulf; Ginzler, Christian; Grudd, Håkan; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Labuhn, Inga; Julio Camarero, J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth/climate relationship of theoretically temperature-controlled high-elevation forests has been demonstrated to weaken over recent decades. This is likely due to new tree growth limiting factors, such as an increasing drought risk for ecosystem functioning and productivity across the Mediterranean Basin. In addition, declining tree growth sensitivity to spring temperature may emerge in response to increasing drought stress. Here, we evaluate these ideas by assessing the growth/climate sensitivity of 1500 tree-ring width (TRW) and 102 maximum density (MXD) measurement series from 711 and 74 Pinus uncinata trees, respectively, sampled at 28 high-elevation forest sites across the Pyrenees and two relict populations of the Iberian System. Different dendroclimatological standardization and split period approaches were used to assess the high- to low-frequency behavior of 20th century tree growth in response to temperature means, precipitation totals and drought indices. Long-term variations in TRW track summer temperatures until about 1970 but diverge afterwards, whereas MXD captures the recent temperature increase in the low-frequency domain fairly well. On the other hand summer drought has increasingly driven TRW along the 20th century. Our results suggest fading temperature sensitivity of Iberian high-elevation P. uncinata forest growth, and reveal the importance of summer drought that is becoming the emergent limiting factor of tree ring width formation in many parts of the Mediterranean Basin.

  7. Groundwater influence on soil moisture memory and land-atmosphere interactions over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the memory introduced in soil moisture fields by groundwater long timescales of variation in the semi-arid regions of the Iberian Peninsula with the LEAFHYDRO soil-vegetation-hydrology model, which includes a dynamic water table fully coupled to soil moisture and river flow via 2-way fluxes. We select a 10-year period (1989-1998) with transitions from wet to dry to again wet long lasting conditions and we carry out simulations at 2.5 km spatial resolution forced by ERA-Interim and a high-resolution precipitation analysis over Spain and Portugal. The model produces a realistic water table that we validate with hundreds of water table depth observation time series (ranging from 4 to 10 years) over the Iberian Peninsula. Modeled river flow is also compared to observations. Over shallow water table regions, results highlight the groundwater buffering effect on soil moisture fields over dry spells and long-term droughts, as well as the slow recovery of pre-drought soil wetness once climatic conditions turn wetter. Groundwater sustains river flow during dry summer periods. The longer lasting wet conditions in the soil when groundwater is considered increase summer evapotranspiration, that is mostly water-limited. Our results suggest that groundwater interaction with soil moisture should be considered for climate seasonal forecasting and climate studies in general over water-limited regions where shallow water tables are significantly present and connected to land surface hydrology.

  8. Influence of finite-time Lyapunov exponents on winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaboa-Paz, Daniel; Lorenzo, Nieves; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    Seasonal forecasts have improved during the last decades, mostly due to an increase in understanding of the coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics, and the development of models able to predict the atmosphere variability. Correlations between different teleconnection patterns and severe weather in different parts of the world are constantly evolving and changing. This paper evaluates the connection between winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and the large-scale tropospheric mixing over the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) have been calculated from 1979 to 2008 to evaluate this mixing. Our study suggests that significant negative correlations exist between summer FTLE anomalies and winter precipitation over Portugal and Spain. To understand the mechanisms behind this correlation, summer anomalies of the FTLE have also been correlated with other climatic variables such as the sea surface temperature (SST), the sea level pressure (SLP) or the geopotential. The East Atlantic (EA) teleconnection index correlates with the summer FTLE anomalies, confirming their role as a seasonal predictor for winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula.

  9. Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea: Copepoda in the Iberian Peninsula: climate implications on host–parasite interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Hernández Javier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-native parasitic anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea may induce anaemia, malformations, reduced growth and increased susceptibility to secondary infection to its hosts. The objectives of this study were to (i compile a list of the host species of L. cyprinacea in the Iberian Peninsula and (ii assess if climate may impact on infestation levels of the parasite. There were two primary sources for data collection: (i fish sampling in the Tormes Basin (Ávila, central Spain during August 2010 and 2016 and (ii data retrieved from publications containing relevant information about L. cyprinacea. Eleven temperature variables were obtained from Worldclim. Next, the relationship between infestation levels of the anchor worm (prevalence, intensity and abundance and temperature was tested using mixed models. Fifteen cyprinids species among 18 species are host of L. cyprinacea in the Iberian Peninsula. Infestation levels of the anchor worm are highly connected to temperature. Finally, the possible implications of global warming for host–parasite interactions are discussed.

  10. Biogeographic evaluation of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana-Bria, L.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are one of the most diverse groups of animals in terrestrial ecosystems, and are thus a good model system to study macrogeographic patterns in species’ distributions. Here we perform a biogeographical analysis of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian Country (Eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the species present in this territory with those in the adjacent territories of Catalonia and Aragon, and with those present in the whole Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we update the list of species of dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian territory (65 species, and discuss the current status of two of them: Macromia splendens and Lindenia tetraphylla. Our results highlight that the Valencian Country has a higher proportion of Ethiopian elements but a lower proportion of Eurosiberian elements than Catalonia and Aragon. We also emphasize the importance of volunteer work in providing new knowledge on this group of iconic insects, and the relevance of museum collections in preserving them. The role of climate change in the distribution of Odonata is also discussed.

  11. A shift in the spatial pattern of Iberian droughts during the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domínguez-Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, series of drought occurrence and drought extension in the Iberian Peninsula are constructed for the 1600–1750 period from seven rogation series. These rogation ceremony records come from Bilbao, Catalonia, Zamora, Zaragoza, Toledo, Murcia and Seville. They are distributed across the Peninsula and include the areas with the most characteristic Iberian climate types, influenced by the Atlantic and the Mediterranean conditions, described from modern data. A seasonal division of the series shows that spring is a critical season for rogation series in most of Iberia, being Bilbao the only site were the highest number of rogations is detected for a different season. The annual analysis of the series shows a dramatic difference between the first half of the 17th century when droughts are characterized by its local character; and the rest of the period, when they affect to broader regions or even to the whole Peninsula. The analysis of spring series confirms the existence of the two periods detected in the annual analysis. Finally, secondary documentary sources are used to further characterise the two most extended droughts in the period, 1664 and 1680, and to verify the extension of the areas affected by droughts recorded through rogation series.

  12. Isopod fauna, excluding Epicaridea, from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas (Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Castelló

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 isopod species from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas were found, including the first record of Munna fabricii, Monodanthura maroccana, Campecopea hirsute, and Natatolana gallica from the Mediterranean; Synisoma nadejda and Uromunna petiti from the Atlantic; and Munna fabricii, Uromunna petiti, Monodanthura maroccana, Stellanthura cryptobia and Natatolana gallica from the Iberian waters. This article includes the previous records from the Iberian waters for all the species. The greatest number of species were found in Tarifa (16 species, located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. According to depth, the distribution of species was as follows: 18 species were collected in the intertidal zone, mostly Dynamene edwardsi and Ischyromene lacazei; 33 species were found between 1 and 10 m, 13 species were found between 11 and 20 m, and 6 species were found between 21 and 28 m, mostly Janira maculosa. According to habitat, 16 species were collected on soft bottoms, 2 species on Zostera, and 22 species on algae substrata, mostly Halopteris, Asparagopsis and Cystoseira. The most diverse genus was Cymodoce (5 species. This paper contributes to the taxonomic, faunistic and biogeographical knowledge of the benthic communities from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas.

  13. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  14. Evolution of extreme Total Water Levels along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Rasilla Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the evolution of storminess along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the calculation of extreme (1% Total Water Levels (eTWL on both observed (tide gauge and buoy data and hindcasted (SIMAR-44 data. Those events were first identified and then characterized in terms of oceanographic parameters and atmospheric circulation features. Additionally, an analysis of the long-term trends in both types of data was performed. Most of the events correspond to a rough wave climate and moderate storm surges, linked to extratropical disturbances following a northern track. While local atmospheric conditions seem to be evolving towards lesser storminess, their impact has been balanced by the favorable exposure of the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula to the increasing frequency and strength of distant disturbances crossing the North Atlantic. This evolution is also correctly reproduced by the simulated long-term evolution of the forcing component (meteorological sea level residuals and wave run up of the Total Water Level values calculated from the SIMAR 44 database, since sea level residuals have been experiencing a reduction while waves are arriving with longer periods. Finally, the addition of the rate of relative sea level trend to the temporal evolution of the atmospheric forcing component of the Total Water Level values is enough to simulate more frequent and persistent eTWL.

  15. High resolution reconstruction of monthly autumn and winter precipitation of Iberian Peninsula for last 150 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation over Iberian Peninsula (IP) presents large values of interannual variability and large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions in the north and dry regions in the southern plains. Unlike other European regions, IP was poorly monitored for precipitation during 19th century. Here we present a new approach to fill this gap. A set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo R.M. and DaCamara C.C., 2000) derived from a recent SLP dataset, the EMULATE (European and North Atlantic daily to multidecadal climate variability) Project, was used to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to March during 1851-1947. Principal Component Regression Analysis was chosen to develop monthly precipitation reconstruction back to 1851 and calibrated over 1948-2003 period for 3030 monthly precipitation series of high-density homogenized MOPREDAS (Monthly Precipitation Database for Spain and Portugal) database. Validation was conducted over 1920-1947 at 15 key site locations. Results show high model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 during validation period. Lower CV values were achieved in western area of IP. Trigo, R. M., and DaCamara, C.C., 2000: "Circulation weather types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.

  16. High resolution reconstruction of monthly precipitation of Iberian Peninsula using circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) is highly variable and shows large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions, to the north, and dry regions in the inland plains and southern areas. In this work, a high-density monthly precipitation dataset for the IP was coupled with a set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo and DaCamara, 2000) to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to May with a very high resolution of 3030 precipitation series (overall mean density one station each 200 km2). A stepwise linear regression model with forward selection was used to develop monthly reconstructed precipitation series calibrated and validated over 1948-2003 period. Validation was conducted by means of a leave-one-out cross-validation over the calibration period. The results show a good model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 for validation period, being particularly robust over the western and central sectors of IP, while the predicted values in the Mediterranean and northern coastal areas are less acute. We show for three long stations (Lisbon, Madrid and Valencia) the comparison between model and original data as an example to how these models can be used in order to obtain monthly precipitation fields since the 1850s over most of IP for this very high density network.

  17. Phylogeographic distribution of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolates in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortey, Martí; Bertran, Kateri; Toskano, Jennifer; Majó, Natàlia; Dolz, Roser

    2012-01-01

    Viral population dynamics of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) field strains isolated in the Iberian Peninsula since the first outbreak in the 1990s have been analysed. Low levels of genetic variability and a global purification selection pattern were reported in 480 base pairs of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene, indicating a lack of a selection-driven immune escape in the evolutive pathway of the virus. The viral population structure of vvIBDV strains in the Iberian Peninsula showed a strong relationship between geography and phylogeny, with two main groups observed. A global comparison among vvIBDV strains also showed an association with sequences from the same country. The low variability, the strong purifying selection and the geographical pattern observed point to a picture where the virus evolves slowly, occupying the same geographical niche for a long time. The scenario depicted fits well with the biological features of the virus: being able to remain viable for long periods of time due to a strong environmental resistance, and as an immunosuppressive agent, capable per se of annihilating temporally the immune system of the host.

  18. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is often affected by drought events with strong influences in ecosystems and the related social and economic impacts (Gouveia et al. 2012, Trigo et al., 2013). In the last decades the severity of droughts in Iberia have increased due to the higher atmospheric evaporative demand (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014). The need for a deeper knowledge of drought frequency, duration and intensity over the Iberian Peninsula during the last 112 years is reinforced by the findings showing that the period of 1970-2010 over the Mediterranean region was considered drier when compared with 1901-1970. Together with the increasing dryness, the projections point for an increase of drought conditions during the twenty-first century (Hoerling et al., 2012) will tend to exacerbate these problems. The evolution of drought in the Iberian Peninsula was analyzed, using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), for the period 1901-2012, and the sub-periods 1901-1937, 1938-1974 and 1975-2012. We have used SPI and SPEI for the time scale of 12 months, as obtained from CRU TS3.21 database between 1901 and 2012, using a spatial resolution of 0.5°. The drought indices were analyzed in order to identify significant trends during the entire period and sub-periods. Trends in annual precipitation and PET were also performed. Drought's duration, magnitude and time spanned between drought events were computed. SPI and SPEI significant trends show areas with opposite signals in the period 1901-2012, following precipitation patterns. Precipitation trends are significant and positive in the Northwestern region of the IP, and significant and negative in the Southern areas. SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts, which is in agreement with the increase in PET on the majority of the territory. The same spatial differences were identified in the drought duration, magnitude and

  19. Population structure of Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Quartau, J A; Bruford, M W

    2008-02-01

    We assess the genetic history and population structure of Cicada barbara in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The divergence between Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula populations was strongly corroborated by the molecular data, suggesting genetically isolated populations with a low level of gene flow. The Ceuta population from Spanish North Africa was more similar to the Iberian populations than the surrounding Moroccan populations, suggesting that the Strait of Gibraltar has not been acting as a strict barrier to dispersal while the Rif Mountains have. The Iberian Peninsula specimens showed a signature of demographic expansion before that which occurred in Morocco, but some of the assumptions related to the demographic parameters should be considered with caution due to the small genetic variation found. The high haplotype diversity found in Morocco implies higher demographic stability than in the Iberian Peninsula populations. These results do not, however, suggest a Moroccan origin for Iberian cicadas; but the most northwest region in Africa, such as Ceuta, might have acted as a southern refuge for Iberian cicadas during the most severe climatic conditions, from where they could expand north when climate improved. The separation of two subspecies within C. barbara (C. barbara lusitanica and C. barbara barbara) finds support with these results.

  20. Can Pallars i Llobateres: A new hominoid-bearing locality from the late Miocene of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, David M; Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Furió, Marc; García-Paredes, Israel; Angelone, Chiara; Jovells-Vaqué, Sílvia; Luján, Àngel H; Almécija, Sergio; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2018-05-18

    In the Iberian Peninsula, Miocene apes (Hominoidea) are generally rare and mostly restricted to the Vallès-Penedès Basin. Here we report a new hominoid maxillary fragment with M 2 from this basin. It was surface-collected in March 2017 from the site of Can Pallars i Llobateres (CPL, Sant Quirze del Vallès), where fossil apes had not been previously recorded. The locality of provenance (CPL-M), which has delivered no further fossil remains, is located very close (ca. 50 m) to previously known CPL outcrops, and not very far (ca. 500 m in NW direction) from the classical hominoid-bearing locality of Can Poncic 1. Here we describe the new fossil and, based on the size and proportions of the M 2 , justify its taxonomic attribution to Hispanopithecus cf. laietanus, a species previously recorded from several Vallesian sites of the Vallès-Penedès Basin. Based on the associated mammalian fauna from CPL, we also provide a biochronological dating and a paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the site. The associated fauna enables an unambiguous correlation to the Cricetulodon hartenbergeri - Progonomys hispanicus interval local subzone, with an estimated age of 9.98-9.73 Ma (late Vallesian, MN10). Therefore, CPL-M is roughly coeval with the Hispanopithecus laietanus-bearing localities of Can Llobateres 1 and Can Feu 1, and minimally older than those of La Tarumba 1 and Can Llobateres 2. In contrast, CPL-M is younger than the early Vallesian (MN9) localities of Can Poncic 1 (the type locality of Hispanopithecus crusafonti) as well as Polinyà 2 (Gabarró) and Estació Depuradora d'Aigües Residuals-Riu Ripoll 13, where Hispanopithecus sp. is recorded. The associated fauna from CPL indicates a densely forested and humid paleoenvironment with nearby freshwater. This supports the view that Hispanopithecus might have been restricted to dense wetland forests soon before its extinction during the late Vallesian, due to progressive climatic deterioration. Coupled with the

  1. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  2. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  3. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  4. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  5. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  6. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Laysan, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the NW...

  7. Evidence of widespread Cretaceous remagnetisation in the Iberian Range and its relation with the rotation of Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.T.; Lowrie, W.; Osete, M.L.; Meléndez, G.

    1998-01-01

    A palaeomagnetic investigation has been carried out at 13 sites of Jurassic age in the Iberian Range (northern Spain). Two components of remanent magnetisation have been found at each site. A primary high-temperature component shows an average counterclockwise rotation with respect to the north of

  8. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  9. The phylogeographical history of the Iberian steppe plant Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae): a test of the abundant-centre hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Collazos, E; Sanchez-Gómez, P; Jiménez, F; Catalán, P

    2009-03-01

    The geology and climate of the western Mediterranean area were strongly modified during the Late Tertiary and the Quaternary. These geological and climatic events are thought to have induced changes in the population histories of plants in the Iberian Peninsula. However, fine-scale genetic spatial architecture across western Mediterranean steppe plant refugia has rarely been investigated. A population genetic analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism variation was conducted on present-day, relict populations of Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae). This species exhibits high individual/population numbers in the middle Ebro river valley and, according to the hypothesis of an abundant-centre distribution, these northern populations might represent a long-standing/ancestral distribution centre. However, our results suggest that the decimated southern and central Iberian populations are more variable and structured than the northeastern ones, representing the likely vestiges of an ancestral distribution centre of the species. Phylogeographical analysis suggests that F. loscosii likely originated in southern Spain and then migrated towards the central and northeastern ranges, further supporting a Late Miocene southern-bound Mediterranean migratory way for its oriental steppe ancestors. In addition, different glacial-induced conditions affected the southern and northern steppe Iberian refugia during the Quaternary. The contrasting genetic homogeneity of the Ebro valley range populations compared to the southern Iberian ones possibly reflects more severe bottlenecks and subsequent genetic drift experienced by populations of the northern Iberia refugium during the Pleistocene, followed by successful postglacial expansion from only a few founder plants.

  10. Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: 1. Hydrochemical characteristics and pollutant load of the Tinto and Odiel rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jose M; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Canovas, Carlos R; Olias, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt is probably the worst case in the world of surface water pollution associated with mining of sulphide mineral deposits. The Iberian Pyrite Belt is located in SW Iberian Peninsula, and it has been mined during the last 4,500 years. The central and eastern part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt is drained by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, which receive most of the acidic leachates from the mining areas. As a result, the main channels of the Tinto and Odiel rivers are very rich in metals and highly acidic until reaching the Atlantic Ocean. A significant amount of the pollutant load transported by these two rivers is delivered during the rainy season, as is usual in rivers of Mediterranean climate regions. Therefore, in order to have an accurate estimation of the pollutant loads transported by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, a systematic sampling on a weekly basis and a high temporal resolution sampling of floods events were both performed. Results obtained show that metal fluxes are strongly dependent on the study period, highlighting the importance of inter-annual studies involving dry and wet years.

  11. Influence of physicochemical characteristics and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Ávila, Marta; Garde, Sonia; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2017-09-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Iberian dry-cured hams of different physicochemical characteristics and the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600MPa on volatile compounds were investigated. According to the analysis of variance carried out on the levels of 122 volatile compounds, intramuscular fat content influenced the levels of 8 benzene compounds, 5 carboxylic acids, 2 ketones, 2 furanones, 1 alcohol, 1 aldehyde and 1 sulfur compound, salt concentration influenced the levels of 1 aldehyde and 1 ketone, salt-in-lean ratio had no effect on volatile compounds, and water activity influenced the levels of 3 sulfur compounds, 1 alcohol and 1 aldehyde. HPP-treated samples of Iberian ham had higher levels of 4 compounds and lower levels of 31 compounds than untreated samples. A higher influence of HPP treatment on volatile compounds than physicochemical characteristics was observed for Iberian ham. Therefore, HPP treatment conditions should be optimized in order to diminish its possible effect on Iberian ham odor and aroma characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative study on the internal dose due to Polonium-210 in the ecosystem of Athangarai estuary (Palk Strait) and Punnaikayal estuary (Gulf of Mannar), India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, R.; Ravikumar, S.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with Committed Effective Dose (CEO) due to 210 Po through the dietary intake of seafood from the Athangarai estuary and Punnaikayal estuary. The concentration of 210 Po was determined in selected species of estuarine organisms. It is found that the 210 Po dose due to the consumption of estuarine food varied from 49.9 to 552.1 μSv/y in Athangarai estuary and 148.0 to 406.9 μSv/y in Punnaikayal estuary. Concentration of 210 Po in the muscle of edible organisms in Athangarai estuary and Punnaikayal estuary ranged from 20.8 to 181.3 Bq/kg and 88.1 to 242.2 Bq/kg respectively. Higher 210 Po dose is expected via the consumption of fish Sandinella longiceps (552.1 μSv/y) in Athangarai estuary and Thyssa malabarica (406.9 μSv/y) in Punnaikayal estuary. In the present study higher level of 210 Po concentration was observed in Plankton feeding fish of both the estuary. (author)

  13. S-type granite generation and emplacement during a regional switch from extensional to contractional deformation (Central Iberian Zone, Iberian autochthonous domain, Variscan Orogeny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Gama, C.; Hofmann, M.; Gärtner, A.; Linnemann, U.

    2018-01-01

    Zircon grains extracted from S-type granites of the Mêda-Escalhão-Penedono Massif (Central Iberian Zone, Variscan Orogen) constrain the timing of emplacement and provide information about potential magma sources. Simple and composite zircon grains from three samples of S-type granite were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. New U-Pb data indicate that granites crystallized in the Bashkirian (318.7 ± 4.8 Ma) overlapping the proposed age range of ca. 321-317 Ma of the nearby S-type granitic rocks of the Carrazeda de Anciães, Lamego and Ucanha-Vilar massifs. The timing of emplacement of such S-type granites seems to coincide with the waning stages of activity of a D2 extensional shear zone (i.e. Pinhel shear zone) developed in metamorphic conditions that reached partial melting and anatexis (ca. 321-317 Ma). Dykes of two-mica granites (resembling diatexite migmatite) are concordant and discordant to the compositional layering and S2 (main) foliation of the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Pinhel shear zone. Much of the planar fabric in these dykes was formed during magmatic crystallization and subsequent solid-state deformation. Field relationships suggest contemporaneity between the ca. 319-317 Ma old magmatism of the study area and the switch from late D2 extensional deformation to early D3 contractional deformation. Inherited zircon cores are well preserved in these late D2-early D3 S-type granite plutons. U-Pb ages of inherited zircon cores range from ca. 2576 to ca. 421 Ma. The spectra of inherited cores overlap closely the range of detrital and magmatic zircon grains displayed by the Ediacaran to Silurian metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the Iberian autochthonous and parautochthonous domains. This is evidence of a genetic relationship between S-type granites and the host metamorphic rocks. There is no substantial evidence for the addition of mantle-derived material in the genesis of these late D2-early D3 S-type granitic rocks. The ɛNd arrays of heterogeneous

  14. Response of the Apodi-Mossoró estuary-incised valley system (NE Brazil to sea-level fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Vital

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Quaternary sea level changes in the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and adjacent shelf, Northeastern Brazil, based on the analysis of high-resolution seismic profiles, integrated with echosounder, SRTM and satellite image data. We use these data to develop a relative stratigraphy. An incised-valley extending from the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary onto the shelf dominates the investigated area. In very shallow waters (down to 10 m depth the channel lies mainly in a NW-SE direction, changing to NE-SW in waters below10 m, in the form of a J-shaped valley. The southern flank of the shallow channel presents an abrupt morphology, probably determined by a residual scarp due to neotectonic reactivation of a pre-existing fault. This incised-valley can be correlated with a former river valley formed during the late Pleistocene fall in sea-level. The base-level change related to this drop in sea level can be regionally expressed on seismic lines as a laterally-continuous stratigraphic surface named Horizon I, interpreted as representing the sub-aerial exposure of the continental shelf. Many incised valleys were excavated on this exposed shelf, including that of the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and its incised valley system. This incised valley has lain buried since the Holocene transgression. The Holocene sediments present sub-horizontal layers, or they have filled the incised valley with oblique features.Este estudo utiliza a integração de dados sísmicos de alta resolução, batimétricos, SRTM e imagens de satélite para desenvolvimento da estratigrafia relativa visando entender as variações do nível do mar durante o Quaternário no estuário do rio Apodi-Mossoró e plataforma adjacente, nordeste do Brasil. A principal feição identificada foi um canal submerso, na plataforma interna, parcialmente preenchido, provavelmente relacionado com o sistema de vales incisos formado durante o rebaixamento do nível do mar no Pleistoceno. O canal

  15. Easily fabricated and lightweight PPy/PDA/AgNW composites for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Gu, Fu-Qiang; Ni, Li-Juan; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Liu, Shu-Li; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jin-Ju; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-11-30

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing nanoscale conductive fillers have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, polypyrrole (PPy)/polydopamine (PDA)/silver nanowire (AgNW) composites with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance, good adhesion ability and light weight are successfully fabricated via a simple in situ polymerization method followed by a mixture process. Benefiting from the intrinsic adhesion properties of PDA, the adhesion ability and mechanical properties of the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites are significantly improved. The incorporation of AgNWs endows the functionalized PPy with tunable electrical conductivity and enhanced EMI shielding effectiveness (SE). By adjusting the AgNW loading degree in the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites from 0 to 50 wt%, the electrical conductivity of the composites greatly increases from 0.01 to 1206.72 S cm -1 , and the EMI SE of the composites changes from 6.5 to 48.4 dB accordingly (8.0-12.0 GHz, X-band). Moreover, due to the extremely low density of PPy, the PPy/PDA/AgNW (20 wt%) composites show a superior light weight of 0.28 g cm -3 . In general, it can be concluded that the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites with tunable electrical conductivity, good adhesion properties and light weight can be used as excellent EMI shielding materials.

  16. Evaluation of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sarcoptic mange diagnosis and assessment in the Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Granados, José Enrique; Serrano, Emmanuel; Dellamaria, Debora; Casais, Rosa; Rossi, Luca; Puigdemont, Anna; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús María; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón Casimiro; Citterio, Carlo; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2016-10-21

    Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species worldwide including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), in which mortalities over 90 % of the population have been reported. No efficient diagnostic methods are available for this disease, particularly when there are low mite numbers and mild or no clinical signs. In this study, three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) developed for dog (ELISA A), Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva) (ELISA B) and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) (ELISA C), were evaluated to detect specific antibodies (IgG) to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex sera. Serum samples from 131 Iberian ibexes (86 healthy and 45 scabietic) were collected from 2005 to 2012 in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Parks (southern Spain). Based on visual inspection, ibexes were classified into one of three categories, namely healthy (without scabietic compatible lesions), mildly affected (skin lesions over less than 50 % of the body surface) and severely affected (skin lesions over more than 50 % of the body surface). The optimal cut-off point, specificity, sensitivity and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated, and the agreement between tests was determined. Moreover, differences in the optical density (OD) related to scabies severity have been evaluated for the best test. ELISA C showed better performance than the two other tests, reaching higher values of sensitivity (93.0 %) and specificity (93.5 %) against the visual estimation of the percentage of affected skin, chosen as the gold standard. Significantly higher concentrations of specific antibodies were observed with this test in the mildly and severely infested ibexes than in healthy ones. Our results revealed that ELISA C was an optimal test to diagnose sarcoptic mange in the Iberian ibex. Further studies characterizing immune response during the course of the disease, including spontaneous or drug

  17. A model of nematode dynamics in the Westerschelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Vincx, M.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a time dynamic model to investigate the temporal dynamics of nematode community in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde Estuary. The biomass of four nematode feeding groups observed from March 1991 to February 1992 is used to calibrate the model. Using environmental data as the input,

  18. Sediment transport investigations in Hugli estuary using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.; Pant, H.J.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Pendharkar, A.S.; Chakraborty, Kalyan; Mukhopadhyay, Suman; Chaudhuri, Bikas

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes sediment transport investigations carried out at two different locations in Hugli estuary along the shipping channel leading to Haldia Dock Complex of the Kolkata Port Trust, Kolkata. The objectives of these investigations were to evaluate the suitability of the proposed dumping sites for optimizing the dredging operation and implementing the recommendations of the River Regulatory Measures, Kolkata Port Trust, Kolkata

  19. Water and suspended sediment dynamics in the Sungai Selangor estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Kamarudin Samuding; Nazrul Hizam Yusoff

    2000-01-01

    Observations of salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and tidal current velocity were made in the lower and along the longitudinal axis sungai Selangor estuary over near-spring cycles. The variations of these parameters at the measurement stations and along the channel are presented to illustrate the water and sediment dynamics in the estuary. The results shows that the Sungai Selangor estuary changes from a partially-mixed type during neaps to a well-mixed one during springs. promoted by stronger tidal energy during the higher tidal ranges. The strong neap density stratification is also promoted by the high river discharges during the measurement period maximum concentration of suspended sediment 2000 mg,'/) occurs during maximum current velocities both during flood and ebb. The maximum salinity was achieved during high water slack but the salt water was totally flushed out of estuary during low water springs. The longitudinal axis measurement indicates that a partially-developed zone of turbidity maximum with a sediment concentration over 1000 mg/l was observed at the limit of salt water intrusion in salinity range less than 1 ppt. Tidal pumping as oppose to the estuarine circulation is the more dominant factor in the maximum formation as the salt water is totally excluded at low water. (author)

  20. Thermodynamics of saline and fresh water mixing in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mixing of saline and fresh water is a process of energy dissipation. The freshwater flow that enters an estuary from the river contains potential energy with respect to the saline ocean water. This potential energy is able to perform work. Looking from the ocean to the river, there is a gradual transition from saline to fresh water and an associated rise in the water level in accordance with the increase in potential energy. Alluvial estuaries are systems that are free to adjust dissipation processes to the energy sources that drive them, primarily the kinetic energy of the tide and the potential energy of the river flow and to a minor extent the energy in wind and waves. Mixing is the process that dissipates the potential energy of the fresh water. The maximum power (MP) concept assumes that this dissipation takes place at maximum power, whereby the different mixing mechanisms of the estuary jointly perform the work. In this paper, the power is maximized with respect to the dispersion coefficient that reflects the combined mixing processes. The resulting equation is an additional differential equation that can be solved in combination with the advection-dispersion equation, requiring only two boundary conditions for the salinity and the dispersion. The new equation has been confronted with 52 salinity distributions observed in 23 estuaries in different parts of the world and performs very well.

  1. Water Quality Drivers in 11 Gulf of Mexico Estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. McCarthy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal water-quality is both a primary driver and also a consequence of coastal ecosystem health. Turbidity, a measure of dissolved and particulate water-quality matter, is a proxy for water quality, and varies on daily to interannual periods. Turbidity is influenced by a variety of factors, including algal particles, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. Identifying which factors drive trends and extreme events in turbidity in an estuary helps environmental managers and decision makers plan for and mitigate against water-quality issues. Efforts to do so on large spatial scales have been hampered due to limitations of turbidity data, including coarse and irregular temporal resolution and poor spatial coverage. We addressed these issues by deriving a proxy for turbidity using ocean color satellite products for 11 Gulf of Mexico estuaries from 2000 to 2014 on weekly, monthly, seasonal, and annual time-steps. Drivers were identified using Akaike’s Information Criterion and multiple regressions to model turbidity against precipitation, wind speed, U and V wind vectors, river discharge, water level, and El Nino Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation climate indices. Turbidity variability was best explained by wind speed across estuaries for both time-series and extreme turbidity events, although more dynamic patterns were found between estuaries over various time steps.

  2. Phytoplankton/protozoan dynamics in the Nyara Estuary, a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton/protozoan dynamics in the Nyara Estuary, a small temporarily open system in the Eastern Cape (South Africa) ... freshwater inflow, the Nyara is best described as a predominantly low nutrient, low phytoplankton biomass, stratified system, dominated by the microbial food-web and possibly fed by detritus.

  3. Benthic deversity in the Rhine-Meuse estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    The benthic diversity of the Rhine-Meuse estuary has been investigated by means of three diversity indices: the Shannon-Weaver information function, an index obtained by SANDERS' rarefaction method and the number of the species per sample. Succession proved to be a very important factor in the

  4. Salt Intrusion, Tides and Mixing in Multi-channel Estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel estuaries, such as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Scheldt in the Netherlands, have characteristics of both the river and the sea, forming a unique environment influenced by tidal movements of the sea and freshwater flow of the river. This study addresses a number of knowledge gaps

  5. Contaminants of emerging concern in a large temperate estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, James P; Yeh, Andrew; Young, Graham; Gallagher, Evan P

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the occurrence and concentrations of a broad range of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from three local estuaries within a large estuarine ecosystem. In addition to effluent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), we sampled water and whole-body juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) in estuaries receiving effluent. We analyzed these matrices for 150 compounds, which included pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs), and several industrial compounds. Collectively, we detected 81 analytes in effluent, 25 analytes in estuary water, and 42 analytes in fish tissue. A number of compounds, including sertraline, triclosan, estrone, fluoxetine, metformin, and nonylphenol were detected in water and tissue at concentrations that may cause adverse effects in fish. Interestingly, 29 CEC analytes were detected in effluent and fish tissue, but not in estuarine waters, indicating a high potential for bioaccumulation for these compounds. Although concentrations of most detected analytes were present at relatively low concentrations, our analysis revealed that overall CEC inputs to each estuary amount to several kilograms of these compounds per day. This study is unique because we report on CEC concentrations in estuarine waters and whole-body fish, which are both uncommon in the literature. A noteworthy finding was the preferential bioaccumulation of CECs in free-ranging juvenile Chinook salmon relative to staghorn sculpin, a benthic species with relatively high site fidelity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Aspects of the ecology of meiofauna in Mngazana estuary, Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Mngazana estuary were monitored over a period of 15 months from April 1977 .... Salinity was measured at 5 and 15 cm in the sandy area by withd rawing a few ... marina roots and a large number of fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator). The beach ...

  7. Environmental features and macrofauna of Kahana Estuary, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, J.A.; Timbol, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Lack of ecological information on Hawaiian estuaries prompted an intensive 2-year study of a small (5.7 ha) stream-mouth estuary on windward Oahu. Water quality and macrofauna were sampled weekly at seven stations. The water mass was strongly stratified vertically except during freshets. Average values for water column temperature and bottom salinity were 23.2°C and 12‰ at the head to 28.3°C and 28‰ at the mouth. Dissolved oxygen saturation in the water column varied from about 50% at night to 140% in the afternoon. Usually, bottom waters were 3–6°C warmer than surface waters and sometimes showed severe oxygen depletion.Macrofauna, collected primarily by seining, consisted mainly of decapod crustaceans (four species of crabs, seven species of shrimps) and fishes (24 species). Other typical estuarine taxons (mollusks, barnacles, polychaetes) were scarce or absent. Diversity increased seaward from 14 species near the estuary head to 29 species near the mouth. Three species of crustaceans and six of fishes were captured at all stations. Most abundant were the native prawn, Macrobrachium grandimanus, and mullet, Mugil cephalus. Perennially resident adults occurred among crustaceans and gobioid fishes; most other fishes were present as juveniles and sporadic adults. Comparisons with other data suggest that more than 50 species of native fishes may occur in Hawaiian estuaries, and that estuarine macrofaunal diversity on oceanic islands is much lower than on continents at similar latitudes.

  8. ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE ESTUARIES OF OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries are bodies of water that receive freshwater and sediment from rivers and saltwater from the oceans. They are transition zones between the fresh water of a river and the salty environment of the sea. This interaction produces a unique environment that supports wildlife...

  9. Organic carbon in the sediments of Mandovi estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surficial sediments in Mandovi Estuary, Goa, India varies widely from 0.1 to 3% (av. 1.05%). Highest values of TOC (2.4-3%) lie close to the mouth region and indicate no definite trend in its variation in the estuarine...

  10. Moveable flood barriers in the Rhine-Meuse estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, T.; Kok, M.

    2011-01-01

    It is possible to reduce flood risk in estuaries without having to drastically modify the river banks by levees or to block shipping routes and ecological flows by dams. ‘Storm surge barriers’ close off a river mouth at times of high sea water levels, but keep the river open during calmer times.

  11. Seasonal variation of the salinity in the Zuari estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Murty, C.S.

    The annual salt budget of the Zuari is examined. The characteristics of the estuary differ markedly from the low run off season during November - May to the heavy run off period of the southwest monsoon from June to October. During November - May...

  12. An assessment of tidal energy potential. The Lima estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo-Teixeira, A. [Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon Technical University, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rebordao, I. [WW Consulting Engineers, Laveiras, Caxias 2760-032 (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    A hydrodynamic model was set up for the Lima estuary (Portugal) and a preliminary assessment of the strength of tidal currents to produce tidal energy was made. To calibrate the model results were compared with measured data, and the model tuned to reproduce water levels and currents in several locations within the estuary. The data was acquired with ADCPs, during a field campaign that was planed to cover a spring-neap tide cycle, in October 2006. The Advanced Circulation Model - ADCIRC was forced with the most important harmonic constituents present in the ocean tide signal. Upstream, in the river boundary, the discharge was taken from hydrographs. The wetting and drying tool was also applied and a detailed bathymetry was considered, since there are areas in the domain where salt marshes occur, drying out at low tide. The tidal currents potential were assessed for a scenario of tidal forcing only, without any river discharge. The lower estuary is occupied by the port infrastructure and navigation channels which conflicts with any kind of equipment installation. Values of the currents and water depths given by the model indicate that some places in the main channel of the middle estuary, might be interesting to install micro turbines in the future, depending on the evolution of the requirements of this technology.

  13. Field observations of hypersaline runoff through a shallow estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Taleb; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates a rare situation at the Mond River Estuary in the Persian Gulf, in which the classical estuarine density gradient coincides with hypersaline runoff entering from saline soils upstream of the estuary after severe precipitation. This builds a unique estuarine setting, where two salt water masses, one originating from the coastal ocean and the other being discharged from upstream confine a range of almost freshwater in the middle of estuary. This "freshwater lens estuary" (FLE) situation includes two saltwater sources with opposing senses of estuarine circulation. Therefore, the tidal damping by the strong river flood can occur, especially during neap tide when high Unsteadiness number (∼0.04) signified ebb oriented condition which was induced by straining residual lateral circulation near the FLE mouth. Transition from well-mixed to weak strain induced periodic stratification regimes indicated the importance of the spring-neap tidal variations. Close to the mouth, a 13.66-day periodic tidal asymmetry from the triad K1-O1-M2 (ebb-dominance during spring tide and flood-dominance in neap tide) was overcome by higher harmonics.

  14. Flushing characteristics of Amba river estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Josanto, V.

    of 22 tidal cycles for neap, 6 to 7 tidal cycles for spring and dry weather flushing time of 45 tidal cycles for neap, 6 to 7 tidal cycles for spring based on modified tidal prism method indicated that the load retained in the estuary after infinite...

  15. Suspended sediment dynamics in Cochin estuary, West coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinita, J.; Revichandran, C.; Manoj, N.T.

    concentration (SSC) were conducted at spring and neap periods of wet and dry seasons. These data were complemented by measurements of tides, currents, vertical profiling of hydrography and turbidity at the main inlet of the estuary. The results showed that SSC...

  16. Initial growth of phytoplankton in turbid estuaries: a simple model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, H.E.; Schuttelaars, H.; Talke, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    An idealised model is presented and analysed to gain more fundamental understanding about the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in well-mixed, suspended sediment dominated estuaries. The model describes the behaviour of subtidal currents, suspended sediments, nutrients and phytoplankton in a channel

  17. On Internal Waves in a Density-Stratified Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article some field observations, made in recent years, of internal wave motions in a density-stratified estuary are presented, In order to facilitate the appreciation of the results, and to make some quantitative comparisons, the relevant theory is also summarized. Furthermore, the origins

  18. Salt intrusion study in Cochin estuary - Using empirical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, B.; Revichandran, C.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    been applied to the Cochin estuary in the present study to identify the most suitable model for predicting the salt intrusion length. Comparison of the obtained results indicate that the model of Van der Burgh (1972) is the most suitable empirical model...

  19. Environmental studies of the Ambika and associated river estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sharma, P.; Sabnis, M.M.

    loads quantified. High sea water influx, strong currents and small low tide volume rendered the estuaries well mixed with excellent flushing characteristics. The fraction of freshwater method gave a flushing time of 2.5 and 5.8 tidal cycles in October...

  20. Physico-chemical investigations in Auranga river estuary (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sharma, P.; Sabnis, M.M.

    currents. The flushing time calculated (2.7-4.1 tidal cycles) by applying the fraction of fresh water method was at least three times higher than computed on the basis of the tidal prism method. The load retained in the estuary under continuous flow...

  1. The zooplankton of Mgazana, a mangrove estuary in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    continent. The estuary is in an excellent state of preservation and all three species of mangrove trees which occur south of K.osi Bay (260 54' S) are recorded here (Avicennia marina, Bruguieria gymnorhiza .... of Heron Island a shallow ford or drift occurs where depth may be less than 0,25 m at low tide. Above the island the ...

  2. Maturation of Metapenaeus moyebi (Kishinouye) in Goa estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T; Parulekar, A

    An assessment of the stake net fishery in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries of Goa revealed that Metapenaeus moyebi, a penaeid prawn hitherto rarely recorded in Indian waters, formed a good percentage of the estuarine prawn fishery of Goa. At one...

  3. Temporal and spatial variations in hydrographic conditions of Mandovi estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varma, K.K.; Rao, L.V.G.; Cherian, T.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  4. Identification and characterisation of Thiobacilli spp. from Chaliyar Estuary - Malabar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, O.; Kumaran, S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Thiobacilli spp. occurring in surface and bottom water and sediment from seven stations in the Chaliyar Estuary, for a period of one year, were isolated and cultured. A total of 231 sample of water and sediments were analysed of which 77 gave...

  5. The late-Variscan peraluminous Valdepeñas pluton (southern Central Iberian Zone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errandonea-Martín, J.; Carracedo-sánchez, M.; Sarrionandia, F.; Santos Zalduegui, J.F.; García de Madinabeitia, S.; Gil-Ibarguchi, J.I.

    2017-07-01

    The Valdepeñas pluton is the easternmost outcrop of the Cáceres-Valdepeñas magmatic alignment (southern Central Iberian Zone). This massif is constituted by a cordierite-bearing porphyritic monzogranite and may be grouped within the so-called “Serie Mixta” granitoids. The Valdepeñas monzogranite is of magnesian [FeOt/(FeOt+MgO)~0.76], alkali-calcic [(Na2O+K2O)–CaO=7.8–8.5] and peraluminous (A/CNK=1.14–1.20). Multielemental- and REE-normalized patterns are comparable to those of similar rocks in the Nisa- Alburquerque-Los Pedroches magmatic alignment, and slightly differ from those of the Montes de Toledo batholith, both in the southern Central Iberian Zone. The U-Pb zircon age of 303±3Ma is consistent with the late-orogenic character of the intrusion and is in accordance with most of the granitic peraluminous intrusions in the southern Central Iberian Zone. 86Sr/87Sr300Ma ratios (0.707424–0.711253), εNd300Mavalues (-5.53 to -6.68) and whole-rock major and trace element compositions of the studied rocks, suggest that the parental magma of the Valdepeñas monzogranite could derive from a crustal metaigneous source. The U-Pb ages (552–650Ma) of inherited zircon cores found in Valdepeñas monzogranite samples match those often found in Lower Paleozoic metavolcanics and granitic orthogneisses of Central Iberia and, furthermore, point to Upper Neoproterozoic metaigneous basement rocks as possible protoliths at the magma source. Based on the solubility of monazite in peraluminous melts, the estimated emplacement temperature of the studied monzogranite is 742–762ºC. The results obtained in this work would contribute to a better understanding of the origin of the “Serie Mixta” granitoids.

  6. Detecting quasi-oscillations in the monthly precipitation regimes of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Morala

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A spectral analysis of the time series corresponding to the main monthly precipitation regimes of the Iberian Peninsula was performed using two methods, the Multi-Taper Method and Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis. The Multi-Taper Method gave a preliminary view of the presence of signals in some of the time series. Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis discriminated between potential oscillations and noise. From the results of the two methods it is concluded that there exist three significant quasi-oscillations at the 95% level of confidence: a 5.0 year quasi-oscillation and a long-term trend in the Atlantic pattern of March, a 3.2 year quasi-oscillation in the Cantabrian pattern of January, and a 4.0 year quasi-oscillation in the Catalonian pattern of February. These quasi-oscillations might be related to climatic variations with similar periodicities over the North Atlantic Ocean. The possible simultaneity of high values of precipitation generated by the significant quasi-oscillations and high sea–level pressures was studied by means of composite maps. It was found that high values of precipitation generated by the oscillations of the Atlantic patterns of January and March exist simultaneously with a specific high pressure structure over the North Atlantic Ocean, that allow cyclonic perturbations to cross the Iberian Peninsula. During the non-wet years, this high pressure structure moves northwards, keeping the track of the low pressure centers to the north, far from the Iberian Peninsula. On the other hand, high values of precipitation generated by the oscillation of the Cantabrian pattern of January exist simultaneously with a high pressure structure over the Galicia region and the Cantabrian Sea, that allow a northerly flow over the region. Also, a positive trend in the NAO index for March has been found, starting in the sixties, which is not evident for other winter months. This trend agrees with the decreasing trend found in the

  7. Modelling Chemical Patterns of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as PBDEs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) or PAHs, are widespread and generated in a multitude of anthropogenic (and natural for PAHs) processes and although they are found in the environment at low concentrations, possess an extraordinary carcinogenic capacity (Baussant et al., 2001) and high ecotoxicity due to their persistence in different matrices (air, soil, water, living organisms). In particular, PAHs are originated by combustion processes or release from fossil fuels and can be transported in the atmosphere over long distances in gaseous or particulate matter (Baek et al., 1991). The establishment of strategies for sampling and chemical transport modelling of SVOCs in the atmosphere aiming the definition and validation of the spatial, temporal and chemical transport patterns of contaminants can be achieved by an integrated system of third-generation models that represent the current state of knowledge in air quality modelling and experimental data collected in field campaigns. This has implications in the fields of meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and even climate change. In this case, an extensive database already obtained on levels of atmospheric PAHs from biomonitoring schemes in the Iberian Peninsula fuelled the establishment of the first models of behaviour for PAHs. The modelling system WRF+CHIMERE was implemented with high spatial and temporal resolution to the Iberian Peninsula in this first task (9 km for the Iberian Peninsula, 3 km to Portugal, 1 hour), using PAHs atmospheric levels collected over a year-long sampling scheme comprising 4 campaigns (one per season) in over 30 sites. Daily information on meteorological parameters such as air temperature, humidity, rainfall or wind speed and direction was collected from the weather stations closest to the sampling sites. Diagnosis and forecasts of these meteorological variables using MM5 or WRF were used to feed a chemistry transport model

  8. Volumetric runoff coefficients for experimental rural catchments in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación V.; Molina, Cecilio; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Ayuso, José L.; Casalí, Javier; Cid, Patricio; Dafonte, Jorge; Duarte, Antonio C.; Farguell, Joaquim; Giménez, Rafael; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Helena; Gómez, Jose A.; González-Hidalgo, J. Carlos; Keizer, J. Jacob; Lucía, Ana; Mateos, Luciano; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. Luz; Schnabel, Sussane; Serrano-Muela, M. Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of runoff and peaks therein is essential for designing hydraulic infrastructures and for assessing the hydrological implications of likely scenarios of climate and/or land-use change. Different methods are available to calculate runoff coefficients. For instance, the runoff coefficient of a catchment can be described either as the ratio of total depth of runoff to total depth of rainfall or as the ratio of peak flow to rainfall intensity for the time of concentration (Dhakal et al. 2012). If the first definition is considered, runoff coefficients represent the global effect of different features and states of catchments and its determination requires a suitable analysis according to the objectives pursued (Chow et al., 1988). In this work, rainfall-runoff data and physical attributes from small rural catchments located in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) were examined in order to compare the representative values of runoff coefficients using three different approaches: i) statistical analysis of rainfall-runoff data and their quantiles (Dhakal et al., 2012); ii) probabilistic runoff coefficients from the rank-ordered pairs of observed rainfall-runoff data and their relationships with rainfall depths (Schaake et al., 1967); iii) finally, a multiple linear model based on geomorphological attributes. These catchments exhibit great variety with respect to their natural settings, such as climate, topography and lithology. We present a preliminary analysis of the rainfall-runoff relationships as well as their variability in a complex context such as the Iberian Peninsula where contrasted environmental systems coexist. We also discuss reference parameters representing runoff coefficients commonly included into hydrological models. This study is conceived as the first step to explore further working protocols and modeling gaps in a very susceptible area to the climate change such as the Iberian Peninsula's, where the analysis of runoff coefficients is

  9. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  10. Comparison of nitrifier activity versus growth in the scheldt estuary - a turbid, tidal estuary in northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.G.I.; Brion, N.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrifier activity and growth were measured in the Scheldt estuary over a salinity gradient. Measurements were made during all 4 seasons using 15N enriched ammonium and 14C labeled carbon incorporation. Established conversion ratios are often used to convert the growth of nitrifiers (measured as the

  11. Influence of allochthonous input on autotrophiceheterotrophic switch-over in shallow waters of a tropical estuary (Cochin Estuary), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thottathil, S.D.; Balachandran, K.K.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Madhu, N.V.; Nair, S.

    Bacterial productivity (BP) and respiration (BR) were examined in relation to primary productivity (PP) for the first time in a shallow tropical ecosystem (Cochin Estuary), India. The degree of dependence of BP (6.3 199.7 mu g C L sup(-1) d sup(-1...

  12. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  13. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  14. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V. Morales

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  15. Effects of environmental and water quality parameters on the functioning of copepod assemblages in tropical estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V.; Dias, Cristina O.; Bonecker, Sérgio L. C.

    2017-07-01

    We examined changes in the functioning of copepod assemblages with increasing pollution in estuaries, using sampling standardization of the salinity range to enable comparisons. Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and hydrodynamic characteristics over two years. We obtained mesozooplankton samples together with environmental and water quality parameters in the estuaries, every two months under predetermined salinities ranging from 15 to 25. The values of parameters, except species size, associated with the functioning of the copepod assemblages (biomass, productivity, and turnover rate) did not differ among estuaries. However, in the more polluted estuaries, the biomass and productivity of copepod assemblages of mesozooplankton were negatively correlated with concentration of pollution indicator parameters. Conversely, in the less polluted estuaries some degree of enrichment still seems to increase the system biomass and productivity, as these parameters were inversely related to indicators of improved water quality. The pollution level of estuaries distorted the relationship between temperature and the efficiency of converting energy to organic matter. In the less polluted estuaries, the relationship between turnover rate and temperature was over 70%, while in the most polluted estuaries, this relationship was only approximately 50%. Our results demonstrated that the functioning of assemblages in the estuaries was affected differently by increasing pollution depending on the water quality level of the system. Thus, investigating the functioning of assemblages can be a useful tool for the analysis of estuarine conditions.

  16. Trends of rural tropospheric ozone at the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, S; Rodríguez, A; Souto, J A; Casares, J J; Bermúdez, J L; Soto, B

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80's-90's, until the application of NO(x) reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions.

  17. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Coupled water-energy modelling to assess climate change impacts on the Iberian Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Madsen, H.; Riegels, N.

    and marginal costs of the power producers. Two effects of climate change on the power system were studied: changes in the hydropower production caused by changes in precipitation and temperature, and changes in the electricity demand over the year caused by temperature changes. A rainfall-runoff model......Water resources systems and power systems are strongly linked; water is needed for most power generation technologies, and electricity is required in every stage of water usage. In the Iberian Peninsula, climate change is expected to have a negative impact on the power system: changes in runoff...... was established to estimate the impact of precipitation and temperature changes on reservoir inflows. The model was calibrated using observed precipitation, temperature and river discharge time series. Potential evapotranspiration was estimated from temperature data, and snow accumulation/melt was modelled using...

  20. Elites and peripheries: educational innovation and cultural transferences in the Iberian Peninsula during Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmele Artetxe Sánchez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the configuration of educational institutions in theoretical and historical perspective and the phenomenon of the formation of elites? In this paper we consider that the answer to this question demands expanding our vision in the study of the elites. A vision that has to link studies on education with social processes and actors. This emphasis entails a more dynamic analysis where society presents itself without a theoretical corset, without reductionisms, composed of connected realities such as «the cultural», «the material» or «the social». The present monograph that we present in this editorial must be situated in this line of research insofar as it addresses the double dimension of fragmentation between center and periphery, proposing to address both the historical relations within the Iberian Peninsula and its historical relations towards Europe.

  1. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  2. Evaluation of the Mineral Status of Two Ecosystems for Sustainable Goat Rearing in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vilallonga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral status in two ecosystems typical of the Iberian Peninsula was evaluated. Ecosystem I was formed by forests and ecosystem II by hilly areas. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and selenium in soils, rations and serum were measured. The concentratons of iron, copper, zinc and selenium were also checked in liver. Ecosystem I showed higher values of every mineral, except for phosphorus. Seasonal differences were recorded for rations and serum, with higher values in spring. The rations produced by both ecosystems met the mineral requirements of goats in lactation. Thus, both ecosystems are suitable for the development of an ecological goat farming system. However, extra supply of minerals, particularly calcium, may be needed in the maximum productions periods.

  3. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  4. Proceedings of the 2nd Iberian Nuclear Astrophysics Meeting on Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pons, J; Albertus, C

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains most of the links to the presentations delivered at this international workshop. This meeting was the second in the series following the previous I Encuentro Ib\\'erico de Compstar, held at the University of Coimbra, Portugal in 2010. The main purpose of this meeting was to strengthen the scientific collaboration between the participants of the Iberian and the rest of the southern European branches of the European Nuclear Astrophysics network, formerly, COMPSTAR. This ESF (European Science Foundation) supported network has been crucial in helping to make a broader audience for the the most interesting and relevant research lines being developed currently in Nuclear Astrophysics, especially related to the physics of neutron stars. The program of the meeting was tailored to theoretical descriptions of the physics of neutron stars although some input from experimental observers and other condensed matter and optics areas of interest was also included.

  5. The Iberian genus Paraphaenops Jeannel, 1916 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechini): Morphology, phylogeny and geographical distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuño, Vicente M.; Sendra, Alberto; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    ) and one nuclear (LSU) gene fragments evidenced a strong divergence for all markers considered between P. breuilianus and the new species P. fadriquei sp. nov. The strong genetic differences between the two taxa contrast singularly with the extreme morphological homogeneity of the genus. The ecological......The species Paraphaenops breuilianus (Jeannel, 1916) is an Iberian iconic cave beetle with “aphaenopsian” facies, monospecific until now. An extensive field work over the last years allowed the revision of this peculiar genus using the combinations of morphological, molecular and ecological...... approaches and led to the description of new taxa Paraphaenops fadriquei Ortuño and Faille sp. nov., Paraphaenops breuilianus espanoli Ortuño and Faille ssp. nov. and the full larval diagnosis of the third larval instar of the type species. The sequencing of two mitochondrial (cox1, rrnl + tRNA-Leu + nad1...

  6. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  7. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Angels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2007-09-05

    An ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the high river Ter valley (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) a small area located in the eastern Pyrenees, with 294 km(2) and 4526 inhabitants. Through 42 interviews with 60 informants of a mean age of 71.1, 220 species belonging to 71 botanical families were reported, 90.6% of which were used in human medicine and 7.8% in veterinary therapy. The present paper is focused on human medicinal plant uses. One fungal and four vascular plant species have not, or have very rarely been cited as medicinal, and for other taxa some very scarcely reported medicinal uses have been recorded (110 uses concerning 78 species).

  8. Circulation and suspended particulate matter transport in a tidally dominated estuary: caravelas estuary, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto França Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and transport of suspended particulate matter in the Caravelas Estuary are assessed. Nearly-synoptic hourly hydrographic, current (ADCP velocity and volume transport and suspended particulate matter data were collected during a full semidiurnal spring tide, on the two transects Boca do Tomba and Barra Velha and on longitudinal sections at low and high tide. On the first transect the peak ebb currents (-1.5 ms-1 were almost twice as strong as those of the wider and shallow Barra Velha inlet (-0.80 ms-1 and the peak flood currents were 0.75 and 0.60 ms-1, respectively. Due to the strong tidal currents both inlets had weak vertical salinity stratification and were classified with the Stratification-circulation Diagram as Type 2a (partially mixed-weakly stratified and Type 1a (well mixed. Volume transports were very close, ranging from -3,500 to 3,100 m³s-1 at the ebb and flood, respectively, with a residual -630 m³s-1. The concentration of the suspended particulate matter was closely related to the tidal variation and decreased landwards from 50 mg.L-1 at the estuary mouth, to 10 mg.L-1 at distances of 9 and 16 km for the low and high tide experiments, respectively. The total residual SPM transport was out of the estuary at rates of -18 tons per tidal cycle.A circulação e o transporte de material particulado em suspensão no Estuário de Caravelas são pesquisados. Dados quase-sinóticos hidrográficos, de correntes (velocidade e transporte de volume com ADCP e de material particulado em suspensão, foram medidos em intervalos horários durante um ciclo semidiurno de maré de sizígia, em duas seções transversais na Boca do Tomba e na Barra Velha e também em seções longitudinais na baixa-mar e na preamar. Na primeira transversal as correntes máximas de vazante (-1,50 m s-1 foram quase duas vezes mais intensas do que na seção transversal mais larga e rasa Barra Velha, (-0,80 m s-1 e as maiores velocidades das correntes de

  9. Giant calcite concretions in aeolian dune sandstones; sedimentological and architectural controls on diagenetic heterogeneity, mid-Cretaceous Iberian Desert System, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arribas, M.E.; Rodríguez-López, J.P.; Meléndez, N.; Soria, A.R.; de Boer, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Aeoliandunesandstones of the Iberian erg system (Cretaceous, Spain) host giantcalciteconcretions that constitute heterogeneities of diagenetic origin within a potential aeolian reservoir. The giantcalciteconcretions developed in large-scale aeoliandune foresets, at the transition between aeoliandune

  10. Middle and late Holocene climate change and human impact inferred from diatoms, algae and aquatic macrophyte pollen in sediments from Lake Montcortès (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.; Rull, V.; Corella, J.P.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gomà, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the middle and late Holocene, the Iberian Peninsula underwent large climatic and hydrologic changes, but the temporal resolution and regional distribution of available palaeoenvironmental records is still insufficient for a comprehensive assessment of the regional variability. The high

  11. First data of Iberian Nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G. plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, de Leonor Cristina; Ribera, Ignacio; Bilton, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Four species of Nematomorpha are recorded from NE Spain, representing the first reliable data on the group in the Iberian peninsula. Gordius aquations Linnaeus, 1758, G. plicatulus Heinze, 1937, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano, 1888) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour, 1828) are redescribed

  12. Building global and diffuse solar radiation series and assessing decadal trends in Girona (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbó, Josep; González, Josep-Abel; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of solar radiation was initiated in Girona, northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, in the late 1980s. Initially, two pyranometers were installed, one of them equipped with a shadowband for measuring the diffuse component. Two other pyranometers currently exist, both ventilated and one of them shadowed, with a sphere, and a pyrheliometer for measuring direct radiation. Additional instruments for other shortwave and longwave components, clouds, and atmospheric aerosols have been installed in recent years. The station is subject to daily inspection, data are saved at high temporal resolution, and instruments are periodically calibrated, all in accordance with the directions of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network. The present paper describes how the entire series of global solar radiation (1987-2014) and diffuse radiation (1994-2014) were built, including the quality control process. Appropriate corrections to the diffuse component were made when a shadowband was employed to make measurements. Analysis of the series reveals that annual mean global irradiance presents a statistically significant increase of 2.5 W m-2 (1.4 %) decade-1 (1988-2014 period), mainly due to what occurs in summer (5.6 W m-2 decade-1). These results constitute the first assessment of solar radiation trends for the northeastern region of the Iberian Peninsula and are consistent with trends observed in the regional surroundings and also by satellite platforms, in agreement with the global brightening phenomenon. Diffuse radiation has decreased at -1.3 W m-2 (-2 %) decade-1 (1994-2014 period), which is a further indication of the reduced cloudiness and/or aerosol load causing the changes.

  13. Precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula: an overview of the CLIPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João A.; Gonçalves, Paulo M.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rocha, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of the project "Climate change of precipitation extreme episodes in the Iberian Peninsula and its forcing mechanisms - CLIPE" are 1) to diagnose the climate change signal in the precipitation extremes over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and 2) to identify the underlying physical mechanisms. For the first purpose, a multi-model ensemble of 25 Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations, from the ENSEMBLES project, is used. These experiments were generated by 15 RCMs, driven by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) under both historic conditions (1951-2000) and SRES A1B scenario (2001-2100). In this project, daily precipitation and mean sea level pressure, for the periods 1961-1990 (recent past) and 2021-2100 (future), are used. Using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) on a daily basis, a precipitation extreme is defined by the pair of threshold values (Dmin, Imin), where Dmin is the minimum number of consecutive days with daily SPI above the Imin value. For both past and future climates, a precipitation extreme of a specific type is then characterised by two variables: the number of episodes with a specific duration in days and the number of episodes with a specific mean intensity (SPI/duration). Climate change is also assessed by changes in their Probability Density Functions (PDFs), estimated at sectors representative of different precipitation regimes. Lastly, for the second objective of this project, links between precipitation and Circulation Weather Regimes (CWRs) are explored for both past and future climates. Acknowledgments: this work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project CLIPE (PTDC/AAC-CLI/111733/2009).

  14. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  15. 400 Years of summer hydroclimate from stable isotopes in Iberian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Barriendos, Mariano; Schleser, Gerhard H.; Helle, Gerhard; Leuenberger, Markus; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Cook, Edward R.

    2017-07-01

    Tree rings are natural archives that annually record distinct types of past climate variability depending on the parameters measured. Here, we use ring-width and stable isotopes in cellulose of trees from the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (IP) to understand regional summer hydroclimate over the last 400 years and the associated atmospheric patterns. Correlations between tree rings and climate data demonstrate that isotope signatures in the targeted Iberian pine forests are very sensitive to water availability during the summer period, and are mainly controlled by stomatal conductance. Non-linear methods based on extreme events analysis allow for capturing distinct seasonal climatic variability recorded by tree-ring parameters and asymmetric signals of the associated atmospheric features. Moreover, years with extreme high (low) values in the tree-ring records were characterised by coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns with reduced (enhanced) moisture transport onto the northwestern IP. These analyses of extremes revealed that high/low proxy values do not necessarily correspond to mirror images in the atmospheric anomaly patterns, suggesting different drivers of these patterns and the corresponding signature recorded in the proxies. Regional hydroclimate features across the broader IP and western Europe during extreme wet/dry summers detected by the northwestern IP trees compare favourably to independent multicentury sea level pressure and drought reconstructions for Europe. Historical records also validate our findings that attribute non-linear moisture signals recorded by extreme tree-ring values to distinct large-scale atmospheric patterns and allow for 400-year reconstructions of the frequency of occurrence of extreme conditions in late spring and summer hydroclimate.

  16. Natural history and immature stage morphology of Spialia Swinhoe, 1912 in the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Hernández-Roldán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new data on the ecology, natural history and geographic distribution of the recently described skipper Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila, 2016 and compare its immature stage morphology with the sympatric species S. sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. Spialia rosae uses species of Rosa L. (Rosaceae as larval host-plants and prefers montane habitats, while S. sertorius feeds on Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae and inhabits lower altitudes. Rosa corymbifera Borkh. and R. tomentosa Sm. are documented for the first time as foodplants of S. rosae. We report Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae as a larval parasitoid of S. rosae. Details of the immature stages of S. rosae and S. sertorius are shown using scanning electron microscope photographs, confirming the similar immature stage morphology, at least as regards the Iberian S. sertorius. In both species, the egg has high radial ribs, the last instar larva has branched setae covering the head, and the pupa has setae with pointed tips, barrel-like cuticular formations, and hairy mesothoracic tubercles. By extensive sampling of the species of Spialia in the region of Segovia, Central Spain, we extend the previously known geographic distribution of S. rosae to 56 new 100 km2 MGRS squares, which represents a 155 % increase. Spialia rosae is present in the northern part of the interior plateau and in the main mountain systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The main threats to the populations of S. rosae are its limited distribution range and the possible effects of climate change due to its specialization in montane habitats. The conservation status of S. rosae was previously regarded as Data Deficient (DD. With the addition of new data the species can now be evaluated as Least Concern (LC.

  17. Paraglacial dynamics in Little Ice Age glaciated environments in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marc; Serrano, Enrique; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio; Palacios, David

    2017-04-01

    Three Iberian mountain ranges encompassed glaciers during the Little Ice Age (LIA): the Pyrenees, Cantabrian Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The gradual warming trend initiated during the second half of the XIX century promoted the progressive shrinking of these glaciers, which completely melted during the first half of the 20th century in the Cantabrian Mountains and Sierra Nevada and reduced by 80% of their LIA extent in the Pyrenees. Currently, the formerly glaciated environments are located within the periglacial belt and still present to a major or lesser degree signs of paraglacial activity. LIA moraines are devoid of vegetation and composed of highly unstable sediments that are being intensely mobilized by slope processes. Inside the moraines, different landforms and processes generated following LIA glacial retreat have generated: (i) buried ice trapped within rock debris supplied from the cirque walls, which has also generated rock glaciers and protalus lobes; (ii) semi-permanent snow fields distributed above the ice-patches remnants of the LIA glaciers, and (iii) small periglacial features such as frost mounds, sorted circles and solifluction landforms generated by processes such as solifluction and cryoturbation. Present-day morphodynamics is mostly related to seasonal frost conditions, though patches of permafrost have formed in some areas in contact with the buried ice. This 'geomorphic permafrost' is undergoing a process of degradation since it is not balanced with present-day climate conditions. This is reflected in the occurrence of multiple collapses and subsidences of the debris cover where the frozen bodies sit. In the highest areas of the Pyrenees there is a permafrost belt next to the small glaciated environments in the highest massifs. Finally, we propose a model for paraglacial activity in Iberian mountain ranges and compare it to other mid-latitude mountain environments as well as to other past deglaciation stages.

  18. Evolutionary history of Lissotriton helveticus: multilocus assessment of ancestral vs. recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, Ernesto; García-París, Mario

    2011-07-01

    The Pleistocene was characterized by climatic changes that greatly altered the distribution of organisms. Population extinctions, bottlenecks, isolation, range expansions and contractions were often associated with glaciations, leaving signatures in the spatial patterns of genetic diversity across species. Lissotriton helveticus belongs to a Pan-European lineage of newts that were strongly affected by glaciations and represent an excellent model to analyse the effect of generalized climatic changes in phylogeographic patterns. We studied the genetic diversity of the species using data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes analyzed in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to investigate the historical processes shaping spatial patterns of genetic diversity. Mitochondrial haplotypes cluster in four different groups present in the Iberian Peninsula and of Pleistocene origin, probably by allopatric fragmentation. Nuclear genes present no obvious geographic structure patterns, suggesting gene flow and generalized incomplete lineage sorting. Populations north of the Pyrenees are closely related to those from northeastern Iberia, suggesting recent range expansion from this region. Historical demographic analyses indicate a demographic expansion starting about 100,000years ago and more recent population declines. Compared to other Lissotriton species, L. helveticus includes only relatively young genetic lineages, suggesting a Central European pre-Pleistocene distribution followed by complete extirpation of the species during glaciations in that area. Historical demographic trends in the Iberian Peninsula are reversed with respect to the more Mediterranean species Lissotriton boscai, indicating different responses of both species to climate changes. Diversity patterns among Lissotriton species seem to be defined by four main factors: ancestral distributions, colonization capabilities, interactions with other species and effective population sizes. Differences in these

  19. Management of a caseous lymphadenitis outbreak in a new Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) stock reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Velarde, Roser; Salinas, Jesús; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Serrano, Emmanuel; Gassó, Diana; Bach, Ester; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; López-Olvera, Jorge R; Lavín, Santiago; León-Vizcaíno, Luís; Mentaberre, Gregorio

    2014-12-10

    In 2010, an Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) stock reservoir was established for conservation purposes in north-eastern Spain. Eighteen ibexes were captured in the wild and housed in a 17 hectare enclosure. Once in captivity, a caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) outbreak occurred and ibex handlings were carried out at six-month intervals between 2010 and 2013 to perform health examinations and sampling. Treatment with a bacterin-based autovaccine and penicillin G benzatine was added during the third and subsequent handlings, when infection by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was confirmed. Changes in lesion score, serum anti-C. pseudotuberculosis antibodies and haematological parameters were analyzed to assess captivity effects, disease emergence and treatment efficacy. Serum acute phase proteins (APP) Haptoglobin (Hp), Amyloid A (SAA) and Acid Soluble Glycoprotein (ASG) concentrations were also determined to evaluate their usefulness as indicators of clinical status. Once in captivity, 12 out of 14 ibexes (85.7%) seroconverted, preceding the emergence of clinical signs; moreover, TP, WBC, eosinophil and platelet cell counts increased while monocyte and basophil cell counts decreased. After treatment, casualties and fistulas disappeared and both packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin concentration significantly increased. Hp, SAA and ASG values were under the limit of detection or showed no significant differences. A role for captivity in contagion rate is suggested by the increase in antibody levels against C. pseudotuberculosis and the emergence of clinical signs. Although boosted by captivity, this is the first report of an outbreak of caseous lymphadenitis displaying high morbidity and mortality in wild ungulates. Treatment consisting of both vaccination and antibiotic therapy seemed to prevent mortality and alleviate disease severity, but was not reflected in the humoural response. Haematology and APP were not useful indicators in our study, perhaps due

  20. Evaluating the market splitting determinants: evidence from the Iberian spot electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho; Silva, Patrícia Pereira da; Cerqueira, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the main determinants on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. Iberia stands as an ideal case-study, where the high level deployment of wind power is observed, together with the implementation of the market splitting arrangement between the Portuguese and the Spanish spot electricity markets. Logit and non-parametric models are used to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices as a function of the explanatory variables representing the main technologies in the generation mix: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power, together with the available transfer capacity and electricity demand. Logit models give preliminary indications about market splitting behaviour, and then, notwithstanding the demanding computational challenge, a non-parametric model is applied in order to overcome the limitations of the former models. Results show an increase of market splitting probability with higher wind power generation or, more generally, with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity such as nuclear power generation. The European interconnection capacity target of 10% of the peak demand of the smallest interconnected market might be insufficient to maintain electricity market integration. Therefore, pro-active coordination policies, governing both interconnections and renewables deployment, should be further developed. -- Highlights: •Assess determinants on market splitting behaviour of Iberian electricity markets. •Logit and non-parametric models to express market splitting probability response. •Explanatory variables: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power; ATC and demand. •Results: increase of market splitting probability with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity. •Coordination policies governing both interconnections and renewables deployment

  1. Genome size variation and incidence of polyploidy in Scrophulariaceae sensu lato from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mariana; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, genomic studies using DNA markers have strongly influenced the current phylogeny of angiosperms. Genome size and ploidy level have contributed to this discussion, being considered important characters in biosystematics, ecology and population biology. Despite the recent increase in studies related to genome size evolution and polyploidy incidence, only a few are available for Scrophulariaceae. In this context, we assessed the value of genome size, mostly as a taxonomic marker, and the role of polyploidy as a process of genesis and maintenance of plant diversity in Scrophulariaceae sensu lato in the Iberian Peninsula. Large-scale analyses of genome size and ploidy-level variation across the Iberian Peninsula were performed using flow cytometry. One hundred and sixty-two populations of 59 distinct taxa were analysed. A bibliographic review on chromosome counts was also performed. From the 59 sampled taxa, 51 represent first estimates of genome size. The majority of the Scrophulariaceae species presented very small to small genome sizes (2C ≤ 7.0 pg). Furthermore, in most of the analysed genera it was possible to use this character to separate several taxa, independently if these genera were homoploid or heteroploid. Also, some genome-related phenomena were detected, such as intraspecific variation of genome size in some genera and the possible occurrence of dysploidy in Verbascum spp. With respect to polyploidy, despite a few new DNA ploidy levels having been detected in Veronica, no multiple cytotypes have been found in any taxa. This work contributed with important basic scientific knowledge on genome size and polyploid incidence in the Scrophulariaceae, providing important background information for subsequent studies, with several perspectives for future studies being opened.

  2. Evaluation of the trading development in the Iberian Energy Derivatives Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitán Herráiz, Álvaro; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of the Iberian Energy Derivatives Market in its first five and a half years is assessed in terms of volume, open interest and price. The continuous market shows steady liquidity growth. Its volume is strongly correlated to that of the Over The Counter (OTC) market, the amount of market makers, the enrolment of financial agents and generation companies belonging to the integrated group of last resort suppliers, and the OTC cleared volume in its clearing house. The hedging efficiency, measured through the ratio between the final open interest and the cleared volume, shows the lowest values for the Spanish base load futures as they are the most liquid contracts. The ex-post forward risk premium has diminished due to the learning curve and the effect of the fixed price retributing the indigenous coal fired generation. This market is quite less developed than the European leaders headquartered in Norway and Germany. Enrolment of more traders, mainly international energy companies, financial agents, energy intensive industries and renewable generation companies is desired. Market monitoring reports by the market operator providing post-trade transparency, OTC data access by the energy regulator, and assessment of the regulatory risk can contribute to efficiency gains. - Highlights: ► The continuous traded volumes in the Iberian power futures market grow steadily. ► Those volumes are correlated to OTC volumes and the enrolment of key players. ► Most liquid contracts show the smallest hedging ratio. ► Regulation fixing the coal fired generation price affects spot and forward prices. ► The overall efficiency can grow via market monitoring reports and OTC data access.

  3. North Atlantic Oscillation and moisture transport towards the Iberian Peninsula during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of interannual variability in winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Recent works have identified the most important sources of moisture that supply the IP during different seasons of the year, including the nearby western Mediterranean and the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the IP, and the IP itself (Gimeno et al., 2010). However, although rainfall is directly related to the moisture supply, the relationship between the water vapor transported towards IP and the NAO phase remains unclear. In this work the moisture transport towards IP was analyzed using a Lagrangian diagnosis method, which relies on the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. This methodology computes budgets of evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) by evaluating changes in the specific humidity along back-trajectories. Here we have computed (for each day) the evolution of moisture of the particles bound for Iberia up to 10 days prior to their arrival. The analysis was constrained to the winter (DJF) season, responsible for the largest fraction of precipitation, for the 20 years of ECMWF Reanalyses ERA40 dataset from 1980 to 2000. The contribution of the NAO phase on the water budgets is examined using composites of the obtained (E - P) fields for the 5 most extreme positive and negative NAO years of the study period. Results confirm that the IP is dominated by positive (negative) E-P anomalies during positive (negative) NAO phase. Additionally an anomalous water vapor sink (source) region located approximately over the Gulf Stream is found during positive (negative) NAO phase. Gimeno L., Nieto R., Trigo R.M. , Vicente-Serrano S.M, Lopes-Moreno J.I., (2010) "Where does the Iberian Peninsula moisture come from? An answer based on a Lagrangian approach". J. Hydrometeorology, 11, 421-436 DOI: 10.1175/2009JHM1182.1.

  4. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  5. Trace metal distribution in the Arosa estuary (N.W. Spain): The application of a recently developed sequential extraction procedure for metal partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Cave, Mark R.; Hill, Steve J.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the trace metal distribution in sediment samples from the Galician coast (Spain) has been performed. A multielement extraction method optimised via experimental design has been employed. The method uses centrifugation to pass the extractant solution at varying pH, through the sediment sample. The sequential leaches were collected and analysed by ICP-AES. Chemometric approaches were utilised to identify the composition of the physico-chemical components in order to characterise the sample. The samples collected at different sites could be classified according to their differences in metal bio-availability and important information regarding element distribution within the physico-chemical components is given. The method has proved to be a quick and reliable way to evaluate sediment samples for environmental geochemistry analysis. In addition, this approach has potential as fast screening method for the bio-availability of metals in the environment

  6. Why Do Some Estuaries Close: A Model of Estuary Entrance Morphodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, S. L.; Kennedy, D. M.; Rutherfurd, I.

    2014-12-01

    Intermittently Closed/Open Coastal Lakes/Lagoons (ICOLLs) are a form of wave-dominated, microtidal estuary that experience periodic closure in times of low river flow. ICOLL entrance morphodynamics are complex due to the interaction between wave, tidal and fluvial processes. Managers invest substantial funds to artificially open ICOLLs as they flood surrounding property and infrastructure, and have poor water quality. Existing studies examine broad scale processes but do not identify the main drivers of entrance condition. In this research, the changes in entrance geomorphology were surveyed before and after artificial entrance openings in three ICOLLs in Victoria, Australia. Changes in morphology were related to continuous measures of sediment volume, water level, tide and wave energy. A six-stage quantitative phase model of entrance geomorphology and hydrodynamics is presented to illustrate the spatio-temporal variability in ICOLL entrance morphodynamics. Phases include: breakout; channel expansion with rapid outflow; open with tidal exchange; initial berm rebuilding with tidal attenuation; partial berm recovery with rising water levels; closed with perched water levels. Entrance breakout initiates incision of a pilot channel to the ocean, whereby basin water levels then decline and channel expansion as the headcut migrates landwards. Peak outflow velocities of 5 m/s-3 were recorded and channel dimensions increased over 6 hrs to 3.5 m deep and 140 m wide. When tidal, a clear semi-diurnal signal is superimposed upon an otherwise stable water level. Deep-water wave energy was transferred 1.8 km upstream of the rivermouth with bores present in the basin. Berm rebuilding occurred by littoral drift and cross-shore transport once outflow ceased and microscale bedform features, particularly antidunes, contributed to sediment progradation. Phase duration is dependant on how high the estuary was perched above mean sea level, tidal prism extent, and onshore sediment supply

  7. New records of Trichoptera in reference Mediterranean-climate rivers of the Iberian Peninsula and north of Africa: taxonomical, faunistical and ecological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bonada, N.; Zamora-Muñoz, C.; El Alami, M.; Múrria, C.; Prat, N.

    2008-01-01

    Trichoptera is a very rich order in the Western Mediterranean, but knowledge of caddisflies in the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa is still not complete. We present records of caddisflies collected in 114 sites of the Mediterranean climate region of the Iberian Peninsula and the western Rif. We also provide notes on ecological aspects and taxonomical remarks on some species. Atotal of 86 species were identified and 8 species extended their distribution range. Considering the four differ...

  8. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2008-02-20

    The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures

  9. Estuary-ocean connectivity: fast physics, slow biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Cloern, James E

    2017-06-01

    Estuaries are connected to both land and ocean so their physical, chemical, and biological dynamics are influenced by climate patterns over watersheds and ocean basins. We explored climate-driven oceanic variability as a source of estuarine variability by comparing monthly time series of temperature and chlorophyll-a inside San Francisco Bay with those in adjacent shelf waters of the California Current System (CCS) that are strongly responsive to wind-driven upwelling. Monthly temperature fluctuations inside and outside the Bay were synchronous, but their correlations weakened with distance from the ocean. These results illustrate how variability of coastal water temperature (and associated properties such as nitrate and oxygen) propagates into estuaries through fast water exchanges that dissipate along the estuary. Unexpectedly, there was no correlation between monthly chlorophyll-a variability inside and outside the Bay. However, at the annual scale Bay chlorophyll-a was significantly correlated with the Spring Transition Index (STI) that sets biological production supporting fish recruitment in the CCS. Wind forcing of the CCS shifted in the late 1990s when the STI advanced 40 days. This shift was followed, with lags of 1-3 years, by 3- to 19-fold increased abundances of five ocean-produced demersal fish and crustaceans and 2.5-fold increase of summer chlorophyll-a in the Bay. These changes reflect a slow biological process of estuary-ocean connectivity operating through the immigration of fish and crustaceans that prey on bivalves, reduce their grazing pressure, and allow phytoplankton biomass to build. We identified clear signals of climate-mediated oceanic variability in this estuary and discovered that the response patterns vary with the process of connectivity and the timescale of ocean variability. This result has important implications for managing nutrient inputs to estuaries connected to upwelling systems, and for assessing their responses to changing

  10. Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Trząski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

  11. Heavy Metallic Element Distribution in Cisadane River Estuary's Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufik Kaisupy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of heavy metallic elements in Cisadane River Estuary has been done in July and November 2005. The results show that heavy metallic elements content in seawater is lower and still below the treshold value stated by government for fisheries. There was an indication of heavy metallic elements on sediment. Distribution of Pb on July and of Cu on November 2005 were found higher near the coast and decrease towards the sea, and commonly were found in front of estuary such as Cisadane, Muara Saban and Tanjung Pasir. High Pb and Zn distributions on November 2005 were found only in front of Cisadane estuary. Cd distribution of Cisadane estuary was constant at all station but did not show any correlation with the distance of station and estuary. The Cd content on July and November 2005 is lower than 0,001 ppm. Generally, heavy metallic elements content have a uniform distribution at all stations inspite of its distance to estuary.

  12. An analytical solution for tidal propagation in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for tidal dynamics has been applied to the Yangtze Estuary for the first time, to describe the tidal propagation in this large and typically branched estuary with three-order branches and four outlets to the sea. This study shows that the analytical model developed for a single-channel estuary can also accurately describe the tidal dynamics in a branched estuary, particularly in the downstream part. Within the same estuary system, the North Branch and the South Branches have a distinct tidal behaviour: the former being amplified demonstrating a marine character and the latter being damped with a riverine character. The satisfactory results for the South Channel and the South Branch using both separate and combined topographies confirm that the branched estuary system functions as an entity. To further test these results, it is suggested to collect more accurate and dense bathymetric and tidal information.

  13. Rare earth elements mobility processes in an AMD-affected estuary: Huelva Estuary (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, K L; Sarmiento, A M; Borrego, J; Nieto, J M

    2017-08-15

    Huelva Estuary is a transition zone where REE-rich acidic waters interact with saline-alkaline seawater. This mixing process influences the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of particulate and dissolved fractions. The Tinto River has >11,000μgL -1 dissolved REE (pH=1.66), whereas seawater only reaches 8.75·10 -2 μgL -1 dissolved REE (pH=7.87). REE-normalized patterns in "pH<6 solutions" are parallel and show similarities, diminishing their concentration as pH increases. Sequential extraction performed on the generated precipitates of mixed solutions indicates that most REE are associated to the residual phase. In a second order, REE are associated with soluble salts at pH3 and 3.5 whereas in sediments generated at pH4 and 5, they are distributed in salts (1° extraction), poorly crystallized Fe-bearing minerals (schwertmannite, 3° extraction) and well crystallized Fe-bearing minerals (goethite - hematite, 4° extraction). Finally, precipitated REE are highest at pH6 newly formed minerals with a release to solution in higher pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet and trophic organization of the fish assemblage from the Mamanguape River Estuary, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Aline Paiva Morais de; Xavier, Josias Henrique de Amorim; Rosa, Ierecê Maria de Lucena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present work aims to characterize a fish assemblage from a northeastern Brazilian estuary according to its diet and trophic organization along the estuarine-reef gradient. Sampling was performed at the Mamanguape Estuary, and fishes were collected using three types of nets at seventeen sites, grouped into four regions according to salinity range: reefs and the lower, middle, and upper estuary. The most abundant species were Atherinella brasiliensis, Mugil curema, and Sphoeroides ...

  15. Linking behavior, physiology, and survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Daniel S.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kocik, John F.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Decreased marine survival is identified as a component driver of continued declines of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. However, estimates of marine mortality often incorporate loss incurred during estuary migration that may be mechanistically distinct from factors affecting marine mortality. We examined movements and survival of 941 smolts (141 wild and 800 hatchery-reared fish) released in freshwater during passage through the Penobscot River estuary, Maine, from 2005 to 2013. We related trends in estuary arrival date, movement rate, and survival to fish characteristics, migratory history, and environmental conditions in the estuary. Fish that experienced the warmest thermal history arrived in the estuary 8 d earlier than those experiencing the coolest thermal history during development. Estuary arrival date was 10 d later for fish experiencing high flow than for fish experiencing low flow. Fish released furthest upstream arrived in the estuary 3 d later than those stocked further downstream but moved 0.5 km/h faster through the estuary. Temporally, movement rate and survival in the estuary both peaked in mid-May. Spatially, movement rate and survival both decreased from freshwater to the ocean. Wild smolts arrived in the estuary later than hatchery fish, but we observed no change in movement rate or survival attributable to rearing history. Fish with the highest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity incurred 25% lower mortality through the estuary than fish with the lowest gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Smolt survival decreased (by up to 40%) with the increasing number of dams passed (ranging from two to nine) during freshwater migration. These results underscore the importance of physiological preparedness on performance and the delayed, indirect effects of dams on survival of Atlantic Salmon smolts during estuary migration, ultimately affecting marine survival estimates.

  16. The Coastal Dynamics of Heterogeneous Sedimentary Environments: Numerical Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Mass Transport in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    Medina, et al. (2006). "The Prestige oil spill in Cantabria (Bay of Biscay). Part I: Operational forecasting system for quick response, risk assessment...estuaries (Kostoglidis, Pattiaratchi et al. 2005), macrotidal estuaries (Yang, Eisma et al. 2000), and estuaries with fringing mangrove swamps...the Atchafalaya Bay system (Cobb, Keen et al. 2008), and Patos Lagoon, Brazil . The model current fields used in the Papua New Guinea study (Keen, Ko

  17. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. ...

  18. The Caloosahatchee River Estuary: a monitoring partnership between Federal, State, and local governments, 2007-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The tidal Caloosahatchee River and downstream estuaries have substantial environmental, recreational, and economic value for southwest Florida residents and visitors. Modifications to the Caloosahatchee River watershed have altered the predevelopment hydrology, thereby threatening the environmental health of estuaries in the area. Hydrologic monitoring of the freshwater contributions from tributaries to the tidal Caloosahatchee River and its estuaries is necessary to adequately describe the total freshwater inflow and constituent loads to the delicate estuarine system.

  19. Multibiomarker assessment of three Brazilian estuaries using oysters as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Domingos, F.X.; Azevedo, M.; Silva, M.D.; Randi, M.A.F.; Freire, C.A.; Silva de Assis, H.C.; Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Oysters have been largely employed as bioindicators of environmental quality in biomonitoring studies. Crassostrea rhizophorae was selected to evaluate the health status of three estuarine areas impacted by anthropogenic activities along the Brazilian coast, in three estuarine complexes, ranging in latitude from 7 to 25 deg. S. In each estuary three sites were sampled in Winter and in Summer: a site considered as reference, and two sites next to contamination sources. Condition index was similar at all sites and estuaries, with the highest values found for Itamaraca oysters in Summer. Necrosis, hyperplasia, mucocyte hypertrophy and fusion of ordinary filaments were the main histopathological lesions observed. Muscle cholinesterase activity was overall similar, but with a strong seasonal effect. Inhibition or activation of branchial total ATPase and Na,K-ATPase activities at the contaminated sites was observed. The health status of these estuarine areas is quite similar, and the combined use of biomarkers is recommended

  20. Thermal impact assessment of multi power plant operations on estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Kim, K.H.; Harris, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on large estuaries requires careful consideration of the problems associated with: re-entrainment, re-circulation, thermal interaction, delay in the attainment of thermal equilibrium state, and uncertainty in specifying open boundaries and open boundary conditions of the regions, which are critically important in the analysis of the thermal conditions in receiving water bodies with tidal dominated, periodically reversing flow conditions. The results of an extensive study in the Hudson River at Indian Point, 42 miles upstream of the ocean end at the Battery, concluded that the tidal-transient, multi-dimensional discrete-element (UTA) thermal transport models (ESTONE, FLOTWO, TMPTWO computer codes) and the near-field far-field zone-matching methodology can be employed with a high degree of reliability in the assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on tidal dominated estuaries