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Sample records for estrogen-injected female mouse

  1. The estrogen-injected female mouse: new insight into the etiology of PCOS

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    Freeh Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female mice and rats injected with estrogen perinatally become anovulatory and develop follicular cysts. The current consensus is that this adverse response to estrogen involves the hypothalamus and occurs because of an estrogen-induced alteration in the GnRH delivery system. Whether or not this is true has yet to be firmly established. The present study examined an alternate possibility in which anovulation and cyst development occurs through an estrogen-induced disruption in the immune system, achieved through the intermediation of the thymus gland. Methods, Results and Conclusion A putative role for the thymus in estrogen-induced anovulation and follicular cyst formation (a model of PCOS was examined in female mice by removing the gland prior to estrogen injection. Whereas all intact, female mice injected with 20 ug estrogen at 5–7 days of age had ovaries with follicular cysts, no cysts were observed in animals in which thymectomy at 3 days of age preceded estrogen injection. In fact, after restoring immune function by thymocyte replacement, the majority of thymectomized, estrogen-injected mice had ovaries with corpora lutea. Thus, when estrogen is unable to act on the thymus, ovulation occurs and follicular cysts do not develop. This implicates the thymus in the cysts' genesis and discounts the role of the hypothalamus. Subsequent research established that the disease is transferable by lymphocyte infusion. Transfer took place between 100-day-old estrogen-injected and 15-day-old naïve mice only when recipients were thymectomized at 3 days of age. Thus, a prerequisite for cyst formation is the absence of regulatory T cells. Their absence in donor mice was judged to be the result of an estrogen-induced increase in the thymus' vascular permeability, causing de facto circumvention of the final stages of regulatory T cell development. The human thymus has a similar vulnerability to steroid action during the fetal stage. We

  2. Estrogen Injection

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    ... menopause (change of life; the end of monthly menstrual periods). However, women who need a medication only ... time.Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  3. Female presence and estrous state influence mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations.

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    Jessica L Hanson

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1 vocalizations varied among males, 2 the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3 the frequency (kHz, bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4 syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls.

  4. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

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    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-07-31

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26(rbw/+);Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

  5. Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase

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    Lim Dae-sik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutarotases are recently characterized family of enzymes that are involved in the anomeric conversions of monosaccharides. The mammalian fucose mutarotase (FucM was reported in cultured cells to facilitate fucose utilization and incorporation into protein by glycosylation. However, the role of this enzyme in animal has not been elucidated. Results We generated a mutant mouse specifically lacking the fucose mutarotase (FucM gene. The FucM knockout mice displayed an abnormal sexual receptivity with a drastic reduction in lordosis score, although the animals were fertile due to a rare and forced intromission by a typical male. We examined the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv of the preoptic region in brain and found that the mutant females showed a reduction in tyrosine hydoxylase positive neurons compared to that of a normal female. Furthermore, the mutant females exhibited a masculine behavior, such as mounting to a normal female partner as well as showing a preference to female urine. We found a reduction of fucosylated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in a mutant embryo relative to that of a wild-type embryo. Conclusions The observation that FucM-/- female mouse exhibits a phenotypic similarity to a wild-type male in terms of its sexual behavior appears to be due to the neurodevelopmental changes in preoptic area of mutant brain resembling a wild-type male. Since the previous studies indicate that AFP plays a role in titrating estradiol that are required to consolidate sexual preference of female mice, we speculate that the reduced level of AFP in FucM-/- mouse, presumably resulting from the reduced fucosylation, is responsible for the male-like sexual behavior observed in the FucM knock-out mouse.

  6. Innate immunity is sufficient for the clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the female mouse genital tract.

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    Sturdevant, Gail L; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis, mouse and human strains, respectively, have been used to study immunity in a murine model of female genital tract infection. Despite evidence that unique genes of these otherwise genomically similar strains could play a role in innate immune evasion in their respective mouse and human hosts, there have been no animal model findings to directly support this conclusion. Here, we infected C57BL/6 and adaptive immune-deficient Rag1(-/-) female mice with these strains and evaluated their ability to spontaneously resolve genital infection. Predictably, C57BL/6 mice spontaneously cleared infection caused by both chlamydial strains. In contrast, Rag1(-/-) mice which lack mature T and B cell immunity but maintain functional innate immune effectors were incapable of resolving C. muridarum infection but spontaneously cleared C. trachomatis infection. This distinct dichotomy in adaptive and innate immune-mediated clearance between mouse and human strains has important cautionary implications for the study of natural immunity and vaccine development in the mouse model. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Round Spermatid Injection Rescues Female Lethality of a Paternally Inherited Xist Deletion in Mouse.

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    Federica Federici

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In mouse female preimplantation embryos, the paternal X chromosome (Xp is silenced by imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI. This requires production of the noncoding Xist RNA in cis, from the Xp. The Xist locus on the maternally inherited X chromosome (Xm is refractory to activation due to the presence of an imprint. Paternal inheritance of an Xist deletion (XpΔXist is embryonic lethal to female embryos, due to iXCI abolishment. Here, we circumvented the histone-to-protamine and protamine-to-histone transitions of the paternal genome, by fertilization of oocytes via injection of round spermatids (ROSI. This did not affect initiation of XCI in wild type female embryos. Surprisingly, ROSI using ΔXist round spermatids allowed survival of female embryos. This was accompanied by activation of the intact maternal Xist gene, initiated with delayed kinetics, around the morula stage, resulting in Xm silencing. Maternal Xist gene activation was not observed in ROSI-derived males. In addition, no Xist expression was detected in male and female morulas that developed from oocytes fertilized with mature ΔXist sperm. Finally, the expression of the X-encoded XCI-activator RNF12 was enhanced in both male (wild type and female (wild type as well as XpΔXist ROSI derived embryos, compared to in vivo fertilized embryos. Thus, high RNF12 levels may contribute to the specific activation of maternal Xist in XpΔXist female ROSI embryos, but upregulation of additional Xp derived factors and/or the specific epigenetic constitution of the round spermatid-derived Xp are expected to be more critical. These results illustrate the profound impact of a dysregulated paternal epigenome on embryo development, and we propose that mouse ROSI can be used as a model to study the effects of intergenerational inheritance of epigenetic marks.

  8. Ovarian function’s role during cancer cachexia progression in the female mouse

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    Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Hardee, Justin P.; LaVoie, Holly A.; Murphy, E. Angela

    2017-01-01

    Cachexia is a debilitating condition that occurs with chronic disease, including cancer; our research has shown that some regulation of cancer cachexia progression is affected by sex differences. The ApcMin/+ mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; IL-6 signaling and hypogonadism are associated with cachexia severity in the male. This relationship in the female warrants further investigation, as we have shown that the ability of IL-6 to induce cachexia differs between the sexes. Since ovarian reproductive function relies on a complex system of endocrine signaling to affect whole body homeostasis, we examined the relationship between ovarian reproductive function and progression of cancer cachexia in the female ApcMin/+ mouse. Our study of ovarian reproductive function in female ApcMin/+ mice showed disease-related cessation of estrous cycling (acyclicity) in 38% of mice. Acyclicity, including morphological and functional losses and enhanced muscle inflammatory gene expression, was associated with severe cachexia. Interestingly, ovariectomy rescued body weight and muscle mass and function but increased muscle sensitivity to systemic IL-6 overexpression. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a relationship between ovarian reproductive function and cachexia progression in female ApcMin/+ mice. PMID:28292759

  9. Ovarian function's role during cancer cachexia progression in the female mouse.

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    Hetzler, Kimbell L; Hardee, Justin P; LaVoie, Holly A; Murphy, E Angela; Carson, James A

    2017-05-01

    Cachexia is a debilitating condition that occurs with chronic disease, including cancer; our research has shown that some regulation of cancer cachexia progression is affected by sex differences. The Apc Min/+ mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; IL-6 signaling and hypogonadism are associated with cachexia severity in the male. This relationship in the female warrants further investigation, as we have shown that the ability of IL-6 to induce cachexia differs between the sexes. Since ovarian reproductive function relies on a complex system of endocrine signaling to affect whole body homeostasis, we examined the relationship between ovarian reproductive function and progression of cancer cachexia in the female Apc Min/+ mouse. Our study of ovarian reproductive function in female Apc Min/+ mice showed disease-related cessation of estrous cycling (acyclicity) in 38% of mice. Acyclicity, including morphological and functional losses and enhanced muscle inflammatory gene expression, was associated with severe cachexia. Interestingly, ovariectomy rescued body weight and muscle mass and function but increased muscle sensitivity to systemic IL-6 overexpression. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a relationship between ovarian reproductive function and cachexia progression in female Apc Min/+ mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Elevated expression of H19 and Igf2 in the female mouse eye.

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    Björn Reinius

    Full Text Available The catalogue of genes expressed at different levels in the two sexes is growing, and the mechanisms underlying sex differences in regulation of the mammalian transcriptomes are being explored. Here we report that the expression of the imprinted non-protein-coding maternally expressed gene H19 was female-biased specifically in the female mouse eye (1.9-fold, p = 3.0E-6 while not being sex-biased in other somatic tissues. The female-to-male expression fold-change of H19 fell in the range expected from an effect of biallelic versus monoallelic expression. Recently, the possibility of sex-specific parent-of-origin allelic expression has been debated. This led us to hypothesize that H19 might express biallelically in the female mouse eye, thus escape its silencing imprint on the paternal allele specifically in this tissue. We therefore performed a sex-specific imprinting assay of H19 in female and male eye derived from a cross between Mus musculus and Mus spretus. However, this analysis demonstrated that H19 was exclusively expressed from the maternal gene copy, disproving the escape hypothesis. Instead, this supports that the female-biased expression of H19 is the result of upregulation of the single maternal. Furthermore, if H19 would have been expressed from both gene copies in the female eye, an associated downregulation of Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2 was expected, since H19 and Igf2 compete for a common enhancer element located in the H19/Igf2 imprinted domain. On the contrary we found that also Igf2 was significantly upregulated in its expression in the female eye (1.2-fold, p = 6.1E-3, in further agreement with the conclusion that H19 is monoallelically elevated in females. The female-biased expression of H19 and Igf2 specifically in the eye may contribute to our understanding of sex differences in normal as well as abnormal eye physiology and processes.

  11. Recombinational hotspot specific to female meiosis in the mouse major histocompatibility complex.

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    Shiroishi, T; Hanzawa, N; Sagai, T; Ishiura, M; Gojobori, T; Steinmetz, M; Moriwaki, K

    1990-01-01

    The wm7 haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), derived from the Japanese wild mouse Mus musculus molossinus, enhances recombination specific to female meiosis in the K/A beta interval of the MHC. We have mapped crossover points of fifteen independent recombinants from genetic crosses of the wm7 and laboratory haplotypes. Most of them were confined to a short segment of approximately 1 kilobase (kb) of DNA between the A beta 3 and A beta 2 genes, indicating the presence of a female-specific recombinational hotspot. Its location overlaps with a sex-independent hotspot previously identified in the Mus musculus castaneus CAS3 haplotype. We have cloned and sequenced DNA fragments surrounding the hotspot from the wm7 haplotype and the corresponding regions from the hotspot-negative B10.A and C57BL/10 strains. There is no significant difference between the sequences of these three strains, or between these and the published sequences of the CAS3 and C57BL/6 strains. However, a comparison of this A beta 3/A beta 2 hotspot with a previously characterized hotspot in the E beta gene revealed that they have a very similar molecular organization. Each hotspot consists of two elements, the consensus sequence of the mouse middle repetitive MT family and the tetrameric repeated sequences, which are separated by 1 kb of DNA.

  12. Substance p regulates puberty onset and fertility in the female mouse.

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    Simavli, Serap; Thompson, Iain R; Maguire, Caroline A; Gill, John C; Carroll, Rona S; Wolfe, Andrew; Kaiser, Ursula B; Navarro, Víctor M

    2015-06-01

    Puberty is a tightly regulated process that leads to reproductive capacity. Kiss1 neurons are crucial in this process by stimulating GnRH, yet how Kiss1 neurons are regulated remains unknown. Substance P (SP), an important neuropeptide in pain perception, induces gonadotropin release in adult mice in a kisspeptin-dependent manner. Here, we assessed whether SP, through binding to its receptor NK1R (neurokinin 1 receptor), participates in the timing of puberty onset and fertility in the mouse. We observed that 1) selective NK1R agonists induce gonadotropin release in prepubertal females; 2) the expression of Tac1 (encoding SP) and Tacr1 (NK1R) in the arcuate nucleus is maximal before puberty, suggesting increased SP tone; 3) repeated exposure to NK1R agonists prepubertally advances puberty onset; and 4) female Tac1(-/-) mice display delayed puberty; moreover, 5) SP deficiency leads to subfertility in females, showing fewer corpora lutea and antral follicles and leading to decreased litter size. Thus, our findings support a role for SP in the stimulation of gonadotropins before puberty, acting via Kiss1 neurons to stimulate GnRH release, and its involvement in the attainment of full reproductive capabilities in female mice.

  13. XY females do better than the XX in the African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides.

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    Saunders, Paul A; Perez, Julie; Rahmoun, Massilva; Ronce, Ophélie; Crochet, Pierre-André; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    All therian mammals have a similar XY/XX sex-determination system except for a dozen species. The African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides, harbors an unconventional system in which all males are XY, and there are three types of females: the usual XX but also XX* and X*Y ones (the asterisk designates a sex-reversal mutation on the X chromosome). The long-term evolution of such a system is a paradox, because X*Y females are expected to face high reproductive costs (e.g., meiotic disruption and loss of unviable YY embryos), which should prevent invasion and maintenance of a sex-reversal mutation. Hence, mechanisms for compensating for the costs could have evolved in M. minutoides. Data gathered from our laboratory colony revealed that X*Y females do compensate and even show enhanced reproductive performance in comparison to the XX and XX*; they produce significantly more offspring due to (i) a higher probability of breeding, (ii) an earlier first litter, and (iii) a larger litter size, linked to (iv) a greater ovulation rate. These findings confirm that rare conditions are needed for an atypical sex-determination mechanism to evolve in mammals, and provide valuable insight into understanding modifications of systems with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Enrichment of Female Germline Stem Cells from Mouse Ovaries Using the Differential Adhesion Method

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    Meng Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The isolation and establishment of female germline stem cells (FGSCs is controversial because of questions regarding the reliability and stability of the isolation method using antibody targeting mouse vasa homologue (MVH, and the molecular mechanism of FGSCs self-renewal remains unclear. Thus, there needs to be a simple and reliable method for sorting FGSCs to study them. Methods: We applied the differential adhesion method to enrich FGSCs (DA-FGSCs from mouse ovaries. Through four rounds of purification and 7-9 subsequent passages, DA-FGSC lines were established. In addition, we assessed the role of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K-AKT pathway in regulating FGSC self-renewal. Results: The obtained DA-FGSCs spontaneously differentiated into oocyte-like cells in vitro and formed functional eggs in vivo that were fertilized and produced healthy offspring. AKT was rapidly phosphorylated when the proliferation rate of FGSCs increased after 10 passages, and the addition of a chemical PI3K inhibitor prevented FGSCs self-renewal. Furthermore, over-expression of AKT-induced proliferation and differentiation of FGSCs, c-Myc, Oct-4 and Gdf-9 levels were increased. Conclusions: The differential adhesion method provides a more feasible approach and is an easier procedure to establish FGSC lines than traditional methods. The AKT pathway plays an important role in regulation of the proliferation and maintenance of FGSCs. These findings could help promote stem cell studies and provide a better understanding of causes of ovarian infertility, thereby providing potential treatments for infertility.

  15. Enrichment of Female Germline Stem Cells from Mouse Ovaries Using the Differential Adhesion Method.

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    Wu, Meng; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Ma, Lingwei; Lu, Zhiyong; Qin, Xian; Luo, Aiyue; Zhang, Jinjin; Xie, Huan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Shixuan

    2018-04-28

    The isolation and establishment of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) is controversial because of questions regarding the reliability and stability of the isolation method using antibody targeting mouse vasa homologue (MVH), and the molecular mechanism of FGSCs self-renewal remains unclear. Thus, there needs to be a simple and reliable method for sorting FGSCs to study them. We applied the differential adhesion method to enrich FGSCs (DA-FGSCs) from mouse ovaries. Through four rounds of purification and 7-9 subsequent passages, DA-FGSC lines were established. In addition, we assessed the role of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway in regulating FGSC self-renewal. The obtained DA-FGSCs spontaneously differentiated into oocyte-like cells in vitro and formed functional eggs in vivo that were fertilized and produced healthy offspring. AKT was rapidly phosphorylated when the proliferation rate of FGSCs increased after 10 passages, and the addition of a chemical PI3K inhibitor prevented FGSCs self-renewal. Furthermore, over-expression of AKT-induced proliferation and differentiation of FGSCs, c-Myc, Oct-4 and Gdf-9 levels were increased. The differential adhesion method provides a more feasible approach and is an easier procedure to establish FGSC lines than traditional methods. The AKT pathway plays an important role in regulation of the proliferation and maintenance of FGSCs. These findings could help promote stem cell studies and provide a better understanding of causes of ovarian infertility, thereby providing potential treatments for infertility. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Phenotyping of nNOS neurons in the postnatal and adult female mouse hypothalamus.

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    Chachlaki, Konstantina; Malone, Samuel A; Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Hrabovszky, Erik; Münzberg, Heike; Giacobini, Paolo; Ango, Fabrice; Prevot, Vincent

    2017-10-15

    Neurons expressing nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) and thus capable of synthesizing NO play major roles in many aspects of brain function. While the heterogeneity of nNOS-expressing neurons has been studied in various brain regions, their phenotype in the hypothalamus remains largely unknown. Here we examined the distribution of cells expressing nNOS in the postnatal and adult female mouse hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. In both adults and neonates, nNOS was largely restricted to regions of the hypothalamus involved in the control of bodily functions, such as energy balance and reproduction. Labeled cells were found in the paraventricular, ventromedial, and dorsomedial nuclei as well as in the lateral area of the hypothalamus. Intriguingly, nNOS was seen only after the second week of life in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). The most dense and heavily labeled population of cells was found in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OV) and the median preoptic nucleus (MEPO), where most of the somata of the neuroendocrine neurons releasing GnRH and controlling reproduction are located. A great proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the OV/MEPO and ARH were seen to express estrogen receptor (ER) α. Notably, almost all ERα-immunoreactive cells of the OV/MEPO also expressed nNOS. Moreover, the use of EYFP Vglut2 , EYFP Vgat , and GFP Gad67 transgenic mouse lines revealed that, like GnRH neurons, most hypothalamic nNOS neurons have a glutamatergic phenotype, except for nNOS neurons of the ARH, which are GABAergic. Altogether, these observations are consistent with the proposed role of nNOS neurons in physiological processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome in female hyperandrogenic mouse models.

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    Caldwell, A S L; Middleton, L J; Jimenez, M; Desai, R; McMahon, A C; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J; Walters, K A

    2014-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, causing a range of reproductive, metabolic and endocrine defects including anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenism, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature of PCOS, but its etiology remains unknown, and ethical and logistic constraints limit definitive experimentation in humans to determine mechanisms involved. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic PCOS traits in 4 distinct murine models of hyperandrogenism, comprising prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT, potent nonaromatizable androgen) treatment during days 16-18 of gestation, or long-term treatment (90 days from 21 days of age) with DHT, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Prenatal DHT-treated mature mice exhibited irregular estrous cycles, oligo-ovulation, reduced preantral follicle health, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, but lacked overall changes in body-fat composition. Long-term DHT treatment induced polycystic ovaries displaying unhealthy antral follicles (degenerate oocyte and/or > 10% pyknotic granulosa cells), as well as anovulation and acyclicity in mature (16-week-old) females. Long-term DHT also increased body and fat pad weights and induced adipocyte hypertrophy and hypercholesterolemia. Long-term letrozole-treated mice exhibited absent or irregular cycles, oligo-ovulation, polycystic ovaries containing hemorrhagic cysts atypical of PCOS, and displayed no metabolic features of PCOS. Long-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment produced no PCOS features in mature mice. Our findings reveal that long-term DHT treatment replicated a breadth of ovarian, endocrine, and metabolic features of human PCOS and provides the best mouse model for experimental studies of PCOS pathogenesis.

  18. Female-biased expression of long non-coding RNAs in domains that escape X-inactivation in mouse

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    Lu Lu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual dimorphism in brain gene expression has been recognized in several animal species. However, the relevant regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate whether sex-biased gene expression in mammalian brain is globally regulated or locally regulated in diverse brain structures, and to study the genomic organisation of brain-expressed sex-biased genes, we performed a large scale gene expression analysis of distinct brain regions in adult male and female mice. Results This study revealed spatial specificity in sex-biased transcription in the mouse brain, and identified 173 sex-biased genes in the striatum; 19 in the neocortex; 12 in the hippocampus and 31 in the eye. Genes located on sex chromosomes were consistently over-represented in all brain regions. Analysis on a subset of genes with sex-bias in more than one tissue revealed Y-encoded male-biased transcripts and X-encoded female-biased transcripts known to escape X-inactivation. In addition, we identified novel coding and non-coding X-linked genes with female-biased expression in multiple tissues. Interestingly, the chromosomal positions of all of the female-biased non-coding genes are in close proximity to protein-coding genes that escape X-inactivation. This defines X-chromosome domains each of which contains a coding and a non-coding female-biased gene. Lack of repressive chromatin marks in non-coding transcribed loci supports the possibility that they escape X-inactivation. Moreover, RNA-DNA combined FISH experiments confirmed the biallelic expression of one such novel domain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the amount of genes with sex-biased expression varies between individual brain regions in mouse. The sex-biased genes identified are localized on many chromosomes. At the same time, sexually dimorphic gene expression that is common to several parts of the brain is mostly restricted to the sex chromosomes. Moreover, the study uncovered

  19. Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and XII in the female mouse reproductive organs

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    Tomas Eija

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. The twelve active CA isozymes are thought to regulate a variety of cellular functions including several processes in the reproductive systems. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the expression of transmembrane CAs, CA IX and XII, in the mouse uterus, ovary and placenta. The expression of CA IX and XII was examined by immunoperoxidase staining method and western blotting. CA II and XIII served as positive controls since they are known to be present in the mouse reproductive tract. Results The data of our study indicated that CA XII is expressed in the mouse endometrium. Only very faint signal was observed in the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta remained mainly negative. CA IX showed weak reaction in the endometrial epithelium, while it was completely absent in the ovary and placenta. Conclusion The conservation of CA XII expression in both mouse and human endometrium suggests a role for this isozyme in reproductive physiology.

  20. Airway Inflammation and Remodeling in Two Mouse Models of Asthma : Comparison of Males and Females

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    Blacquiere, M. J.; Hylkema, M. N.; Postma, D. S.; Geerlings, M.; Timens, W.; Melgert, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asthma and especially severe asthma affect women more frequently than men. Since asthma severity correlates with remodeling changes in the lung, a female propensity to remodeling could be expected. We studied whether our previous observation that female mice have more pronounced airway

  1. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

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    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  2. Sucrose feeding in mouse pregnancy leads to hypertension, and sex-linked obesity and insulin resistance in female offspring

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    Anne-Maj eSamuelsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eating an unbalanced diet during pregnancy may induce long-term health consequences in offspring, in particular obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that a maternal diet rich in simple sugars predispose mouse offspring to obesity, glucose intolerance and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard chow or a sucrose-rich diet (26% of total energy 6 weeks prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring of control dams (OC and high sucrose fed dams (OSF were weaned onto standard control chow, and metabolic and cardiovascular parameters determined at 3 months of age. Both male and female OSF were hyperphagic by 4 weeks of age and females were heavier than OC at 9 weeks. At 3 months, female OSF showed a significant increase in inguinal fat pad mass, whereas skeletal muscle mass (tibialis anterior and locomotor activity were decreased relative to OC. A ten-fold increase in fasting serum insulin in female OSF versus OC at 3 months (Insulin [pmol/L] mean±SEM, OSF, 200.3±16.1, versus OC, 20.3±1.8, n=6 P<0.001, was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (AUC [mmol/L min] mean±SEM, OSF 1437.4±124.2 versus OC, 1076.8±83.9, n=6, P<0.05. Both male and female OSF were hypertensive as assessed by radiotelemetry (night-time systolic arterial pressure [mmHg] mean±SEM, male OSF, 128±1 versus OC, 109±1, n=6, P<0.01; female OSF, 130±1 versus OC, 118±1, n=6, P<0.05. Analysis of heart rate variability demonstrated an increased low:high frequency ratio in male and female OSF (P<0.05, indicative of heightened sympathetic efferent tone. Renal tissue noradrenaline content was markely raised in the OSF versus OC (noradrenaline [pg/ml/mg tissue] mean±SEM, male OSF, 2.28±0.19 versus OC 0.84±0.09, n=6, P<0.01 . Exposure to a maternal diet rich in sucrose led to obesity and glucose intolerance in female mice offspring, and hypertension in both sexes.

  3. A Comparative Proteome Profile of Female Mouse Gonads Suggests a Tight Link between the Electron Transport Chain and Meiosis Initiation.

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    Shen, Cong; Li, Mingrui; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Bo; Teng, Hui; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells. We identified 3666 proteins, of which 473 were differentially expressed. Further bioinformatics analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the mitochondria, especially in the electron transport chain and, notably, 9 proteins in electron transport chain Complex I were differentially expressed. We disrupted the mitochondrial electron transport chain function by adding the complex I inhibitor, rotenone to 11.5 days post coitum female gonads cultured in vitro. This treatment resulted in a decreased proportion of meiotic germ cells, as assessed by staining for histone γH2AX. Rotenone treatment also caused decreased ATP levels, increased reactive oxygen species levels and failure of the germ cells to undergo premeiotic DNA replication. These effects were partially rescued by adding Coenzyme Q10. Taken together, our results suggested that a functional electron transport chain is important for meiosis initiation. Our characterization of the quantitative proteome of female gonads provides an inventory of proteins, useful for understanding the mechanisms of meiosis initiation and female fertility. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

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    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  5. LH prevents cisplatin-induced apoptosis in oocytes and preserves female fertility in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Valerio; Lispi, Monica; Longobardi, Salvatore; Mattei, Maurizio; Rella, Francesca Di; Salustri, Antonietta; De Felici, Massimo; Klinger, Francesca G

    2017-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure and female infertility are frequent side effects of anticancer therapies, owing to the extreme sensitivity of the ovarian reserve oocytes to the damaging effects of irradiation and chemotherapy on DNA. We report here a robust protective effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) on the primordial follicle pool of prepubertal ovaries against the cisplatin (Cs)-induced apoptosis. In vitro LH treatment of prepubertal ovarian fragments generated anti-apoptotic signals by a subset of ovarian somatic cells expressing LH receptor (LHR) through cAMP/PKA and Akt pathways. Such signals, reducing the oocyte level of pro-apoptotic TAp63 protein and favoring the repair of the Cs-damaged DNA in the oocytes, prevented their apoptosis. Noteworthy, in vivo administration to prepubertal female mice of a single dose of LH together with Cs inhibited the depletion of the primordial follicle reserve caused by the drug and preserved their fertility in reproductive age, preventing significant alteration in the number of pregnancy and of delivered pups. In conclusion, these findings establish a novel ovoprotective role for LH and further support the very attracting prospective to use physiological 'fertoprotective' approaches for preventing premature infertility and risks linked to precocious menopause in young patients who survived cancer after chemotherapy.

  6. LH prevents cisplatin-induced apoptosis in oocytes and preserves female fertility in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Valerio; Lispi, Monica; Longobardi, Salvatore; Mattei, Maurizio; Rella, Francesca Di; Salustri, Antonietta; De Felici, Massimo; Klinger, Francesca G

    2017-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure and female infertility are frequent side effects of anticancer therapies, owing to the extreme sensitivity of the ovarian reserve oocytes to the damaging effects of irradiation and chemotherapy on DNA. We report here a robust protective effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) on the primordial follicle pool of prepubertal ovaries against the cisplatin (Cs)-induced apoptosis. In vitro LH treatment of prepubertal ovarian fragments generated anti-apoptotic signals by a subset of ovarian somatic cells expressing LH receptor (LHR) through cAMP/PKA and Akt pathways. Such signals, reducing the oocyte level of pro-apoptotic TAp63 protein and favoring the repair of the Cs-damaged DNA in the oocytes, prevented their apoptosis. Noteworthy, in vivo administration to prepubertal female mice of a single dose of LH together with Cs inhibited the depletion of the primordial follicle reserve caused by the drug and preserved their fertility in reproductive age, preventing significant alteration in the number of pregnancy and of delivered pups. In conclusion, these findings establish a novel ovoprotective role for LH and further support the very attracting prospective to use physiological 'fertoprotective' approaches for preventing premature infertility and risks linked to precocious menopause in young patients who survived cancer after chemotherapy. PMID:27689876

  7. Germ cells are not required to establish the female pathway in mouse fetal gonads.

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    Danielle M Maatouk

    Full Text Available The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells.

  8. Germ Cells Are Not Required to Establish the Female Pathway in Mouse Fetal Gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Hinson, Ashley; Kobayashi, Akio; McMahon, Andrew P.; Capel, Blanche

    2012-01-01

    The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells. PMID:23091613

  9. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  10. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  11. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  12. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα−, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  13. Potential effects of the herbicide Diuron on mammary and urinary bladder two-stage carcinogenesis in a female Swiss mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Nelci Antunes; Grassi, Tony Fernando; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2010-02-01

    The potential promoting effect of Diuron was investigated in a mouse model of mammary and urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). Four-week old female Swiss mice were allocated to five groups: Groups G1-G3 received DMBA (5 x 1.5 mg/mouse) and BBN (8 x 7.5 mg/mouse) and G4 and G5 groups received only vehicles during the first 6 weeks. At week 7, G1 and G5 groups received basal diet and G2, G3 and G4 groups were fed a diet containing Diuron at 1,250, 2,500 and 2,500 ppm, respectively, during 13 weeks. At week 20, the animals were euthanized and the gross tumors were registered. Mammary glands and urinary bladder were processed for histopathological analysis. Samples from non-tumor areas were evaluated for cell proliferation by 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling index (BrdU-LI%) and apoptosis. Dietary treatment with Diuron at 1,250 and 2,500 ppm significantly increased BrdU-LI% (P Diuron 2,500 ppm (G3). In contrast, in the mammary gland, Diuron feeding for 13 weeks did not significantly alter cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes or the incidence of hyperplastic lesions or neoplasms in the DMBA/BBN-initiated groups. These findings suggest that Diuron is a promoting agent to the urinary bladder but not to the mammary gland in female Swiss mice submitted to a medium-term two-stage carcinogenesis bioassay.

  14. Male Seminal Relaxin Contributes to Induction of the Post-mating Cytokine Response in the Female Mouse Uterus

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    Danielle J. Glynn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hormone relaxin is important in female reproduction for embryo implantation, cardiovascular function, and during labor and lactation. Relaxin is also synthesized in males by organs of the male tract. We hypothesized that relaxin might be one component of seminal plasma responsible for eliciting the female cytokine response induced in the uterus at mating. When recombinant relaxin was injected into the uterus of wild-type (Rln+/+ mice at estrus, it evoked the production of Cxcl1 mRNA and its secreted protein product CXCL1 in four of eight animals. Mating experiments were then conducted using mice with a null mutation in the relaxin gene (Rln−/− mice. qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in wild-type females showed diminished uterine expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the absence of male relaxin. Similar differences were also noted comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated to wild-type males. Quantification of uterine luminal fluid cytokine content confirmed that male relaxin provokes the production of CXCL10 and CSF3 in Rln+/+ females. Differences were also seen comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated with Rln−/− males for CXCL1, CSF3, and CCL5, implying that endogenous relaxin in females might prime the uterus to respond appropriately to seminal fluid at coitus. Finally, pan-leukocyte CD45 mRNA was increased in wild-type matings compared to other combinations, implying that male and female relaxin may trigger leukocyte expansion in the uterus. We conclude that male and/or female relaxin may be important in activating the uterine cytokine/chemokine network required to initiate maternal immune adaptation to pregnancy.

  15. Improvement of ovarian response and oocyte quality of aged female by administration of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a mouse model

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    Park Seung S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advancing female age remains a difficult problem in infertility treatment. Ovarian angiogenesis plays an important role in follicular development and the activation of ovarian angiogenesis has been emerged as a new strategy for the improvement of age-related decline of oocyte quality. BMP-6 affect gonadotropin signals in granulosa cells and it promotes normal fertility by enabling appropriate response to LH and normal oocyte quality. BMP-6 has a potential role in regulation of angiogenesis and regulates the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins (Ids. Ids involved in the control and timing of follicle selection and granulosa cells differentiation. Especially, Id-1 is well-characterized target of BMP-6 signaling. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-administration of BMP-6 during superovulation process improves ovarian response, oocyte quality and expression of Id-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the ovary of aged female using a mouse model. Methods Aged C57BL/6 female mice (26–31 weeks old were superovulated by injection with 0.1 mL of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG containing recombinant mouse BMP-6 at various doses (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng, followed by injection with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later. Then, the mice were immediately paired with an individual male. The aged control group was superovulated without BMP-6. Young mice of 6–9 weeks old were superovulated without BMP-6 as a positive control for superovulation and in vitro culture of embryos. Eighteen hours after hCG injection, zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Both ovaries of each mouse were provided in the examination of ovarian expression of Id-1 and VEGF by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Administration of 0.1 ng BMP-6 significantly increased the number and blastocyst formation rate of oocytes ovulated and ovarian

  16. Developmental exposure to ethinylestradiol affects reproductive physiology, the GnRH neuroendocrine network and behaviors in female mouse

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    Lyes eDerouiche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2, the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR or pharmacological (PHARMACO doses (0.1 and 1 µg/kg (body weight/day respectively, from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs.

  17. Effect of vitamin E on preovulatory stage irradiated female mouse expressed as chromosomal abnormalities in generated embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, M.; Mozdarani, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effects of preovulatory stage gamma-irradiation of female mice in the absence or presence of vitamin E on numerical chromosome abnormalities in 8-cell embryos after mating with non- irradiated males. Materials and Methods: The 8-11 weeks adult female NMRl mice were whole body irradiated at preovulatory stage (post PMSG injection and about 12-18 hours before Injecting HCG) with 4 Gy gamma-rays generated from a cobalt-60 source alone or in combination with 200 IU/kg vitamin E, intraperitoneally administered one hour prior to irradiation. Soon after HCG injection super ovulated irradiated females were mated with non-irradiated males. About 68-h post coitus (p.c), 8-cell embryos were flushed from the oviducts of pregnant mice and were fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for metaphase spreads and numerical chromosome abnormalities. Results: In control embryos, 8% of metaphase plates were aneuploidy whereas in preovulatory stage irradiated female mice, about 50% of metaphase plates of embryos showed numerical chromosome aberrations (P nd meiotic division. Reduction of the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the presence of vitamin E is probably due to antioxidant effects of this vitamin, and scavenging free radicals induced by gamma-rays in mice oocytes' environment

  18. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic components are defective in oocytes of the B6.Y(TIR) sex-reversed female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amleh, A; Smith, L; Chen, H; Taketo, T

    2000-03-15

    In the mammalian gonadal primordium, activation of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome initiates a cascade of genetic events leading to testicular organization whereas its absence results in ovarian differentiation. An exception occurs when the Y chromosome of Mus musculus domesticus from Tirano, Italy (Y(TIR)), is placed on the C57BL/6J (B6) genetic background. The B6.Y(TIR) progeny develop only ovaries or ovotestes despite Sry transcription in fetal life. Consequently, the XY offspring with bilateral ovaries develop into apparently normal females, but their eggs fail to develop after fertilization. Our previous studies have shown that the primary cause of infertility can be attributed to oocytes rather than their surrounding somatic cells in the XY ovary. This study attempted to identify the defects in oocytes from the B6.Y(TIR) female mouse. We examined the developmental potential of embryos from XY and XX females after exchanging their nuclear components by microsurgery following in vitro maturation and fertilization. The results suggest that both nuclear and cytoplasmic components are defective in oocytes from XY females. In the XY fetal ovary, most germ cells entered meiosis and their autosomes appeared to synapse normally while the X and Y chromosomes remained unpaired during meiotic prophase. This lack of X-Y pairing probably caused aneuploidy in some secondary oocytes following in vitro maturation. However, normal numbers of chromosomes in the rest of the secondary oocytes indicate that aneuploidy alone can not explain the nuclear defect in oocytes. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  20. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication IV. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, L V; Kudryavtseva, A A [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 R, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1 to 3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 R to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 to 3 days, and of others after 10 to 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 to 700 R restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase.

  1. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication 4. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.V.; Kudryavtseva, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 r, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1-3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 r to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 - 3 days, and of others after 10 - 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 - 700 r restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase. (author)

  2. Social isolation mediated anxiety like behavior is associated with enhanced expression and regulation of BDNF in the female mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Singh, Padmanabh; Baghel, Meghraj Singh; Thakur, M K

    2016-05-01

    Adverse early life experience is prominent risk factors for numerous psychiatric illnesses, including mood and anxiety disorders. It imposes serious long-term costs on the individual as well as health and social systems. Hence, developing therapies that prevent the long-term consequences of early life stress is of utmost importance, and necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms by which early life stress triggers long-lasting alterations in gene expression and behavior. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rodents models the behavioral consequences of adverse early life experiences in humans and it is reported to cause anxiety like behavior which is more common in case of females. Therefore, in the present study, we have studied the impact of social isolation of young female mice for 8weeks on the anxiety like behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism. Elevated plus maze and open field test revealed that social isolation caused anxiety like behavior. BDNF, a well-known molecule implicated in the anxiety like behavior, was up-regulated both at the message and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. CREB-1 and CBP, which play a crucial role in BDNF transcription, were up-regulated at mRNA level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. HDAC-2, which negatively regulates BDNF expression, was down-regulated at mRNA and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Furthermore, BDNF acts in concert with Limk-1, miRNA-132 and miRNA-134 for the regulation of structural and morphological plasticity. Social isolation resulted in up-regulation of Limk-1 mRNA and miRNA-132 expression in the cerebral cortex. MiRNA-134, which inhibits the translation of Limk-1, was decreased in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Taken together, our study suggests that social isolation mediated anxiety like behavior is associated with up-regulation of BDNF expression and concomitant increase in the expression of CBP, CREB-1, Limk-1 and miRNA-132, and decrease

  3. Low dose bisphenol S or ethinyl estradiol exposures during the perinatal period alter female mouse mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, SriDurgaDevi; Morcos, Mary; Martin, Brian; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2018-03-08

    Throughout life, mammary tissue is strongly influenced by hormones. Scientists have hypothesized that synthetic chemicals with hormonal activities could disrupt mammary gland development and contribute to breast diseases and dysfunction. Bisphenol S (BPS) is an estrogenic compound used in many consumer products. In this study, CD-1 mice were exposed to BPS (2 or 200 μg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation. Mice exposed to 0.01 or 1 μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE2), a pharmaceutical estrogen, were also evaluated. Mammary glands from female offspring were collected prior to the onset of puberty, during puberty, and in early adulthood. Growth parameters, histopathology, cell proliferation and expression of hormone receptors were quantified. Our evaluations revealed age- and dose-specific effects of BPS that were different from the effects of EE2, and distinct from the effects of BPA that have been reported previously. These assessments suggest that individual xenoestrogens may have unique effects on this sensitive tissue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of 17β-estradiol on cutaneous wound healing in protein-malnourished ovariectomized female mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kanae; Komatsu, Emi; Nakajima, Yukari; Urai, Tamae; Nasruddin; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is delayed by protein malnutrition (PM). On the other hand, estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing by its anti-inflammatory and cell proliferation effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that estrogen administration in protein-malnourished ovariectomized (OVX) female mice might improve the inflammatory response and promote cutaneous wound healing as well as normal nutrition. To test this hypothesis, we used full-thickness excisional wounds in Control SHAM, PM SHAM, PM OVX and PM OVX+17β-estradiol mice. The Control diet included 200 g/kg protein and the PM diet included 30 g/kg protein. The ratio of wound area in the Control SHAM group was significantly smaller than those in the three PM groups. In addition, microscopic findings also showed that the ratio of collagen fibers, the ratio of myofibroblasts and the number of new blood vessels in the Control SHAM group were significantly greater than those in the three PM groups. However, the number of Ym1-positive cells as an anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage marker in the PM OVX+17β-estradiol group was significantly higher than those in the other three groups. These results indicate that the appearance of anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages was promoted by estrogen administration; however, it could not promote cutaneous wound healing upon a low-protein diet. Therefore, it may be confirmed that nutrition is more important for promoting cutaneous wound healing than estrogen administration.

  5. The effect of 17β-estradiol on cutaneous wound healing in protein-malnourished ovariectomized female mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Mukai

    Full Text Available Cutaneous wound healing is delayed by protein malnutrition (PM. On the other hand, estrogen promotes cutaneous wound healing by its anti-inflammatory and cell proliferation effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that estrogen administration in protein-malnourished ovariectomized (OVX female mice might improve the inflammatory response and promote cutaneous wound healing as well as normal nutrition. To test this hypothesis, we used full-thickness excisional wounds in Control SHAM, PM SHAM, PM OVX and PM OVX+17β-estradiol mice. The Control diet included 200 g/kg protein and the PM diet included 30 g/kg protein. The ratio of wound area in the Control SHAM group was significantly smaller than those in the three PM groups. In addition, microscopic findings also showed that the ratio of collagen fibers, the ratio of myofibroblasts and the number of new blood vessels in the Control SHAM group were significantly greater than those in the three PM groups. However, the number of Ym1-positive cells as an anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage marker in the PM OVX+17β-estradiol group was significantly higher than those in the other three groups. These results indicate that the appearance of anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages was promoted by estrogen administration; however, it could not promote cutaneous wound healing upon a low-protein diet. Therefore, it may be confirmed that nutrition is more important for promoting cutaneous wound healing than estrogen administration.

  6. The nucleolus in the mouse oocyte is required for the early step of both female and male pronucleus organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OGUSHI, Sugako; SAITOU, Mitinori

    2010-10-01

    During oocyte growth in the ovary, the nucleolus is mainly responsible for ribosome biogenesis. However, in the fully-grown oocyte, all transcription ceases, including ribosomal RNA synthesis, and the nucleolus adopts a specific monotonous fibrillar morphology without chromatin. The function of this inactive nucleolus in oocytes and embryos is still unknown. We previously reported that the embryo lacking an inactive nucleolus failed to develop past the first few cleavages, indicating the requirement of a nucleolus for preimplantation development. Here, we reinjected the nucleolus into oocytes and zygotes without nucleoli at various time points to examine the timing of the nucleolus requirement during meiosis and early embryonic development. When we put the nucleolus back into oocytes lacking a nucleolus at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and at second metaphase (MII), these oocytes were fertilized, formed pronuclei with nucleoli and developed to full term. When the nucleolus was reinjected at the pronucleus (PN) stage, most of the reconstructed zygotes cleaved and formed nuclei with nucleoli at the 2-cell stage, but the rate of blastocyst formation and the numbers of surviving pups were profoundly reduced. Moreover, the zygotes without nucleoli showed a disorder of higher chromatin organization not only in the female pronucleus but also, interestingly, in the male pronucleus. Thus, the critical time point when the nucleolus is required for progression of early embryonic development appears to be at the point of the early step of pronucleus organization.

  7. In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiki, Kanji; Haruki, Yasuo; Imanishi, Yoshio

    1978-01-01

    In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3 H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3 H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

  8. Adverse metabolic phenotype of female offspring exposed to preeclampsia in utero: a characterization of the BPH/5 mouse in postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Lob, Heinrich E; Song, Jiunn; Xia, YunWei; Butler, Scott; Liu, Chin-Chi; Redman, Leanne M; Sones, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating disorder of pregnancy that classically presents with maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. In addition to being a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity/mortality, epidemiological and prospective studies have revealed long-term consequences for both the mother and baby of preeclamptic pregnancies, including chronic hypertension as well as other cardiovascular diseases and metabolic derangements. To better understand the effect of in utero exposure of PE on offspring, we utilized the BPH/5 mouse, a spontaneous model of the maternal and fetal PE syndrome. We hypothesized that young BPH/5 offspring would have altered metabolic and cardiovascular phenotypes. Indeed, BPH/5 growth-restricted offspring showed excess catch-up growth by early adulthood due to hyperphagia and increased white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation, with inflammation markers isolated to the reproductive WAT depot only. Both excessive WAT accumulation and the inflammatory WAT phenotype were corrected by pair-feeding young BPH/5 female mice. We also found that young BPH/5 female mice showed evidence of leptin resistance. Indeed, chronic hyperleptinemia has been shown to characterize other rodent models of PE; however, the maternal metabolic profile before pregnancy has not been fully understood. Furthermore, we found that these mice show signs of cardiovascular anomalies (hypertension and cardiomegaly) and altered signaling within the reproductive axis in early life. Future studies will involve challenging the physiological metabolic state of BPH/5 mice through pair-feeding to reduce WAT before pregnancy and determining its causal role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Novel inactivating mutations of the DCAF17 gene in American and Turkish families cause male infertility and female subfertility in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, F; Desai, S; Diao, F; Turkkahraman, D; Wranitz, F; Wood-Trageser, M; Shin, Y-H; Kotan, L D; Jiang, H; Witchel, S; Gurtunca, N; Yatsenko, S; Mysliwec, D; Topaloglu, K; Rajkovic, A

    2018-04-01

    Loss-of-function DCAF17 variants cause hypogonadism, partial alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and deafness with variable clinical presentation. DCAF17 pathogenic variants have been largely reported in the Middle Eastern populations, but the incidence in American families is rare and animal models are lacking. Exome sequencing in 5 women with syndromic hypergonadotropic hypogonadism from 2 unrelated families revealed novel pathogenic variants in the DCAF17 gene. DCAF17 exon 2 (c.127-1G > C) novel homozygous variants were discovered in 4 Turkish siblings, while 1 American was compound heterozygous for 1-stop gain variant in exon 5 (c.C535T; p.Gln179*) and previously described stop gain variant in exon 9 (c.G906A; p.Trp302*). A mouse model mimicking loss of function in exon 2 of Dcaf17 was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 and showed female subfertility and male infertility. Our results identify 2 novel variants, and show that Dcaf17 plays a significant role in mammalian gonadal development and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression of the P2X2 receptor in different classes of ileum myenteric neurons in the female obese ob/ob mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Márcia Sanae; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Borelli, Primavera; Castelucci, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether the ob/ob mouse model of obesity is accompanied by enteric nervous system abnormalities such as altered motility. METHODS: The study examined the distribution of the P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) in myenteric neurons of female ob/ob mice. Specifically, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the co-expression of the P2X2R with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and calretinin (CalR) in neurons of the small intestine myenteric plexus in ob/ob and control female mice. In these sections, we used scanning confocal microscopy to analyze the co-localization of these markers as well as the neuronal density (cm2) and area profile (μm²) of P2X2R-positive neurons. In addition, enteric neurons were labeled using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase method and analyzed with light microscopy as an alternate means by which to analyze neuronal density and area. RESULTS: In the present study, we observed a 29.6% increase in the body weight of the ob/ob animals (OG) compared to the control group (CG). In addition, the average small intestine area was increased by approximately 29.6% in the OG compared to the CG. Immunoreactivity (IR) for the P2X2R, nNOS, ChAT and CalR was detectable in the myenteric plexus, as well as in the smooth muscle, in both groups. This IR appeared to be mainly cytoplasmic and was also associated with the cell membrane of the myenteric plexus neurons, where it outlined the neuronal cell bodies and their processes. P2X2R-IR was observed to co-localize 100% with that for nNOS, ChAT and CalR in neurons of both groups. In the ob/ob group, however, we observed that the neuronal density (neuron/cm2) of P2X2R-IR cells was increased by 62% compared to CG, while that of NOS-IR and ChAT-IR neurons was reduced by 49% and 57%, respectively, compared to control mice. The neuronal density of CalR-IR neurons was not different between the groups. Morphometric studies further demonstrated that the

  11. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Vitex improved some aging events in the reproductive system of female mice. Therefore, because of its apparent antiaging effects, Vitex can be suitable for some aging problems such as oxidative stress, female sex hormone deficiency, and an atrophic endometrium.

  12. Early decline in glucose transport and metabolism precedes shift to ketogenic system in female aging and Alzheimer's mouse brain: implication for bioenergetic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fan; Yao, Jia; Rettberg, Jamaica R; Chen, Shuhua; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits in the female brain accompanied reproductive senescence and was accompanied by a shift from an aerobic glycolytic to a ketogenic phenotype. Herein, we investigated the relationship between systems of fuel supply, transport and mitochondrial metabolic enzyme expression/activity during aging (3-15 months) in the hippocampus of nontransgenic (nonTg) background and 3xTgAD female mice. Results indicate that during female brain aging, both nonTg and 3xTgAD brains undergo significant decline in glucose transport, as detected by FDG-microPET, between 6-9 months of age just prior to the transition into reproductive senescence. The deficit in brain metabolism was sustained thereafter. Decline in glucose transport coincided with significant decline in neuronal glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity with a concomitant rise in phosphorylated/inactivated pyruvate dehydrogenase. Lactate utilization declined in parallel to the decline in glucose transport suggesting lactate did not serve as an alternative fuel. An adaptive response in the nonTg hippocampus was a shift to transport and utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel. In the 3xTgAD brain, utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel was evident at the earliest age investigated and declined thereafter. The 3xTgAD adaptive response was to substantially increase monocarboxylate transporters in neurons while decreasing their expression at the BBB and in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that the earliest change in the metabolic system of the aging female brain is the decline in neuronal glucose transport and metabolism followed by decline in mitochondrial function. The adaptive shift to the ketogenic system as an alternative fuel coincided with decline in mitochondrial function. Translationally, these data provide insights into the earliest events in bioenergetic aging of the female brain and provide potential

  13. Early Decline in Glucose Transport and Metabolism Precedes Shift to Ketogenic System in Female Aging and Alzheimer's Mouse Brain: Implication for Bioenergetic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fan; Yao, Jia; Rettberg, Jamaica R.; Chen, Shuhua; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits in the female brain accompanied reproductive senescence and was accompanied by a shift from an aerobic glycolytic to a ketogenic phenotype. Herein, we investigated the relationship between systems of fuel supply, transport and mitochondrial metabolic enzyme expression/activity during aging (3–15 months) in the hippocampus of nontransgenic (nonTg) background and 3xTgAD female mice. Results indicate that during female brain aging, both nonTg and 3xTgAD brains undergo significant decline in glucose transport, as detected by FDG-microPET, between 6–9 months of age just prior to the transition into reproductive senescence. The deficit in brain metabolism was sustained thereafter. Decline in glucose transport coincided with significant decline in neuronal glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity with a concomitant rise in phosphorylated/inactivated pyruvate dehydrogenase. Lactate utilization declined in parallel to the decline in glucose transport suggesting lactate did not serve as an alternative fuel. An adaptive response in the nonTg hippocampus was a shift to transport and utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel. In the 3xTgAD brain, utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel was evident at the earliest age investigated and declined thereafter. The 3xTgAD adaptive response was to substantially increase monocarboxylate transporters in neurons while decreasing their expression at the BBB and in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that the earliest change in the metabolic system of the aging female brain is the decline in neuronal glucose transport and metabolism followed by decline in mitochondrial function. The adaptive shift to the ketogenic system as an alternative fuel coincided with decline in mitochondrial function. Translationally, these data provide insights into the earliest events in bioenergetic aging of the female brain and provide potential

  14. ROS are critical for endometrial breakdown via NF-κB-COX-2 signaling in a female mouse menstrual-like model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Chen, Xihua; He, Bin; Liu, Shuyan; Li, Yunfeng; Wang, Qianxing; Gao, Haijun; Wang, Shufang; Liu, Jianbing; Zhang, Shucheng; Xu, Xiangbo; Wang, Jiedong

    2014-09-01

    Progesterone withdrawal triggers endometrial breakdown and shedding during menstruation. Menstruation results from inflammatory responses; however, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in menstruation remains unclear. In this study, we explored the role of ROS in endometrial breakdown and shedding. We found that ROS levels were significantly increased before endometrial breakdown in a mouse menstrual-like model. Vaginal smear inspection, morphology of uterine horns, and endometrial histology examination showed that a broad range of ROS scavengers significantly inhibited endometrial breakdown in this model. Furthermore, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the intracellular translocation of p50 and p65 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was blocked by ROS scavengers and real-time PCR showed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression was decreased by ROS scavengers. Similar changes also occurred in human stromal cells in vitro. Furthermore, Western blotting and real-time PCR showed that one ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), promoted translocation of p50 and p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased COX-2 mRNA expression along with progesterone maintenance. The nuclear factor κB inhibitor MG132 reduced the occurrence of these changes in human stromal cells in vitro. Viewed as a whole, our results provide evidence that certain ROS are important for endometrial breakdown and shedding in a mouse menstrual-like model and function at least partially via nuclear factor-κB/COX-2 signaling. Similar changes observed in human stromal cells could also implicate ROS as important mediators of human menstruation.

  15. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (pstress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This study provides seminal evidence that exercise

  16. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Najimi, Seyedeh Asma; Farbood, Yaghoob

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with the loss of endocrine function. In this study, Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex), which has antioxidant effects and high levels of phytoestrogen, was investigated with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and antioxidant indices in natural aging and in a d-galactose induced aging model in female mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with d-galactose (500 mg/kg/d for 45 days). Extract of Vitex (600 mg/kg/bid for 7 days by gavage) was used to treat d-galactose-induced aging and natural aging in mice. Seventy-two female NMRI mice (48 3-month-old normal mice and 24 18-24-month-old mice), weighing 30-35 g were randomly divided into six groups: control, Vitex, d-galactose, Vitex + d-galactose, Aging, and Vitex + Aging. The antioxidant indices and sex hormone levels were subsequently measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Body weight and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels were significantly increased in the d-galactose aging and natural aging groups, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and estrogen level were significantly decreased in these same groups. d-Galactose can also disrupt the estrous cycle and damage the uterus and ovarian tissues. Vitex could effectively attenuate these alterations. Vitex improved some aging events in the reproductive system of female mice. Therefore, because of its apparent antiaging effects, Vitex can be suitable for some aging problems such as oxidative stress, female sex hormone deficiency, and an atrophic endometrium. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  17. The effects of high-fat diet, branched-chain amino acids and exercise on female C57BL/6 mouse Achilles tendon biomechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, G. P.; Platt, K. M.; Corbett, J.; Reeves, J.; Hardy, A. L.; Elenes, E. Y.; Charnigo, R. J.; Hunter, S. A.; Pearson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goals of this study were: 1) to determine if high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female mice would negatively impact biomechanical and histologic consequences on the Achilles tendon and quadriceps muscle; and 2) to investigate whether exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would affect these parameters or attenuate any negative consequences resulting from HFD consumption. Methods We examined the effects of 16 weeks of 60% HFD feeding, voluntary exercise (free ...

  18. Room temperature housing results in premature cancellous bone loss in growing female mice: implications for the mouse as a preclinical model for age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniec, U T; Philbrick, K A; Wong, C P; Gordon, J L; Kahler-Quesada, A M; Olson, D A; Branscum, A J; Sargent, J L; DeMambro, V E; Rosen, C J; Turner, R T

    2016-10-01

    Room temperature housing (22 °C) results in premature cancellous bone loss in female mice. The bone loss was prevented by housing mice at thermoneutral temperature (32 °C). Thermogenesis differs markedly between mice and humans and mild cold stress induced by standard room temperature housing may introduce an unrecognized confounding variable into preclinical studies. Female mice are often used as preclinical models for osteoporosis but, in contrast to humans, mice exhibit cancellous bone loss during growth. Mice are routinely housed at room temperature (18-23 °C), a strategy that exaggerates physiological differences in thermoregulation between mice (obligatory daily heterotherms) and humans (homeotherms). The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether housing female mice at thermoneutral (temperature range where the basal rate of energy production is at equilibrium with heat loss) alters bone growth, turnover and microarchitecture. Growing (4-week-old) female C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice were housed at either 22 or 32 °C for up to 18 weeks. C57BL/6J mice housed at 22 °C experienced a 62 % cancellous bone loss from the distal femur metaphysis during the interval from 8 to 18 weeks of age and lesser bone loss from the distal femur epiphysis, whereas cancellous and cortical bone mass in 32 °C-housed mice were unchanged or increased. The impact of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone was not limited to C57BL/6J mice as C3H/HeJ mice exhibited a similar skeletal response. The beneficial effects of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone were associated with decreased Ucp1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue, increased bone marrow adiposity, higher rates of bone formation, higher expression levels of osteogenic genes and locally decreased bone resorption. Housing female mice at 22 °C resulted in premature cancellous bone loss. Failure to account for species differences in thermoregulation may seriously confound interpretation of studies

  19. Exercise differentially affects metabolic functions and white adipose tissue in female letrozole- and dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Rodrigo R; Maliqueo, Manuel; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Hu, Min; Ivarsson, Niklas; Carlström, Mattias; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G; Maciel, Gustavo A R; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2017-06-15

    Here we hypothesized that exercise in dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or letrozole (LET)-induced polycystic ovary syndrome mouse models improves impaired insulin and glucose metabolism, adipose tissue morphology, and expression of genes related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, Notch pathway and browning in inguinal and mesenteric fat. DHT-exposed mice had increased body weight, increased number of large mesenteric adipocytes. LET-exposed mice displayed increased body weight and fat mass, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased frequency of small adipocytes and increased expression of genes related to lipolysis in mesenteric fat. In both models, exercise decreased fat mass and inguinal and mesenteric adipose tissue expression of Notch pathway genes, and restored altered mesenteric adipocytes morphology. In conclusion, exercise restored mesenteric adipocytes morphology in DHT- and LET-exposed mice, and insulin sensitivity and mesenteric expression of lipolysis-related genes in LET-exposed mice. Benefits could be explained by downregulation of Notch, and modulation of browning and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Ahangarpour; Seyedeh Asma Najimi; Yaghoob Farbood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging is associated with the loss of endocrine function. In this study, Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex), which has antioxidant effects and high levels of phytoestrogen, was investigated with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and antioxidant indices in natural aging and in a d-galactose induced aging model in female mice. Methods: The mice were subcutaneously injected with d-galactose (500 mg/kg/d for 45 days). Extract of Vitex (600 mg/kg/bid for 7 days by gavage) was...

  1. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  2. Estrogen-dependent expression of sine oculis homeobox 1 in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sijeong [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hwang [Fertility Center of CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13496 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyemin [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Miseon [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Ryun; Song, Haengseok [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kwonho, E-mail: kwonho.hong@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngsok, E-mail: youngsokchoi@cha.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-08

    The sine oculis homeobox 1 (SIX1) is a member of the Six gene family. SIX1 is involved in tissue development by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, function of SIX1 in the uterus remains unknown. Here, we found that Six1 expression is regulated along the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. Six1 expression was significantly increased at estrus stage and decreased at the rest of stages. SIX1 is detected in the luminal and glandular epithelium of uterine endometrium at the estrus stage. Estrogen injection increased Six1 expression in the ovariectomized mouse uterus, whereas progesterone had no effect on its expression. Estrogen receptor antagonist inhibited estrogen-induced Six1 expression. Our findings imply that SIX1 may play a role as an important regulator to orchestrate the dynamic of uterine endometrium in response to estrogen level during the estrous cycle. These results will give us a better understanding of uterine biology. - Highlights: • Six1 expression is regulated during the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. • Six1 is highly expressed at the estrus stage of estrous cycle. • SIX1 is detected in luminal/glandular epithelium of the uterus at the estrus stage. • Estrogen stimulates Six1 expression in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner.

  3. Reversal of the hair loss phenotype by modulating the estradiol-ANGPT2 axis in the mouse model of female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yujiro; Obayashi, Yuko; Ono, Tomoji; Serizawa, Tetsushi; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2018-07-01

    Despite high demand for a remedy, the treatment options for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) are limited. FPHL is frequent in postmenopausal women. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which lack β-estradiol (E2) and manifest hair loss mimicking FPHL, E2 supplementation has been shown to increase hair density. However, the mechanism by which E2 exhibits its biological activity remains elusive. To identify the downstream targets of E2 in the context of FPHL pathophysiology and discover a potential therapeutic agent for the E2-dependent subtype of FPHL. Human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were cultured with E2, and a microarray analysis was performed to identify the genes regulated by E2. Using OVX mice, the identified gene product was intradermally administered and then quantitative image analysis of hair density was conducted. In silico analysis to link E2 and the identified gene was performed. Global gene expression and bioinformatics analyses revealed that the genes associated with the angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) pathway were upregulated by E2 in hDPCs. ANGPT2 was significantly downregulated in OVX mice than in sham-operated mice (P < 0.01). Importantly, hair density was higher in OVX mice treated with ANGPT2 than in control mice (P < 0.05). In silico analysis showed DNA sequences with high possibility of estrogen receptor binding in the promoter region of ANGPT2. The E2-ANGPT2 axis is present in hair follicles. ANGPT2 provides a strategy for the management of E2-dependent and postmenopausal subsets of FPHL. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of dietary selenium on the disposition of arsenate in the female B6C3F{sub 1} mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, E.M.; Hughes, M.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Levander, O.A. [Nutrient Requirements and Functions Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1997-06-27

    Interactions between arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) at the metabolic level are multifaceted and complex. These interactions are of practical significance because populations in various parts of the world are simultaneously exposed to inorganic As in drinking water and Se mainly in the diet at varying levels. The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether differing dietary Se status would alter the profile of urinary metabolites or their time course for elimination after exposure to arsenate [As(V)]. Weanling female 86C3F, mice were maintained for 28 d on either a control diet of powdered rodent meal sufficient in Se (A 0.2 ppm) or Torula yeast-based (TYB) diets deficient (B, 0.02 ppm Se), sufficient (C, 0.2 ppm Se), or excessive (D, 2.0 ppm Se) in Se; mice then received by oral gavage 5 mg (As)/kg as sodium [{sup 73}As] arsenate. The time course for elimination of total arsenic and metabolites in urine was measured over a 48-h period, and total arsenic was determined in feces and tissues at 48 h. Mice on the Se excess diet excreted a significantly higher percentage of urinary As as inorganic As, with a significantly decreased ratio of organic to inorganic As compared to Se-sufficient mice, suggesting that As methylation was decreased. Mice on the Se-deficient diet appeared to eliminate As(V), arsenite, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine more slowly than Se-sufficient mice; however, further studies are required to confirm this finding. Mice on the Se-sufficient meal diet (A) excreted significantly less (by percent) arsenate-derived radioactivity in urine and more in feces compared to mice on the Se-sufficient TYB diet (C), with total elimination being similar for both groups. This indicates that mice on the meal diet absorbed significantly less As(V) than mice on the TYB diet, and this may be due to more fiber or {open_quotes}bulk{close_quotes} in the meal diet. 35 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  6. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  7. Differential contributions of ApoE4 and female sex to BACE1 activity and expression mediate Aβ deposition and learning and memory in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu eHou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia, disproportionately affects women in both prevalence and severity. This increased vulnerability to AD in women is strongly associated with age-related ovarian hormone loss and apolipoprotein E 4 allele (ApoE4, the most important genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. Up to date, the mechanism involved in the interaction between ApoE4 and sex/gender in AD is still unclear. This study evaluated the sex-dependent ApoE4 effects on learning and memory, Aβ deposition and potential mechanisms, using mice bearing both sporadic (ApoE4 and familial (APPSwe, PS1M146V, tauP301L; 3xTg AD risk factors and compared with sex- and age-matched 3xTg or nonTg mice. Compared to nonTg mice, transgenic mice of both sexes showed spatial learning and memory deficits in the radial arm water maze and novel arm discrimination tests at 20 months of age. However, at 10 months, only ApoE4/3xTg mice showed significant learning and memory impairment. Moreover, molecular studies of hippocampal tissue revealed significantly higher protein levels of Aβ species, β-site APP cleavage enzyme (BACE1 and Sp1, a transcription factor of BACE1, in female ApoE4/3xTg when compared with female nonTg, female 3xTg and male ApoE4/3xTg mice. Significantly increased BACE1 enzymatic activities were observed in both male and female mice carrying ApoE4; however, only the females showed significant higher BACE1 expressions. Together, these data suggest that ApoE4 allele is associated with increased BACE1 enzymatic activity, while female sex plays an important role in increasing BACE1 expression. The combination of both provides a molecular basis for high Aβ pathology and the resultant hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits in female ApoE4 carriers.

  8. Estrogen- and Satiety State-Dependent Metabolic Lateralization in the Hypothalamus of Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Toth

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus is the highest center and the main crossroad of numerous homeostatic regulatory pathways including reproduction and energy metabolism. Previous reports indicate that some of these functions may be driven by the synchronized but distinct functioning of the left and right hypothalamic sides. However, the nature of interplay between the hemispheres with regard to distinct hypothalamic functions is still unclear. Here we investigated the metabolic asymmetry between the left and right hypothalamic sides of ovariectomized female rats by measuring mitochondrial respiration rates, a parameter that reflects the intensity of cell and tissue metabolism. Ovariectomized (saline injected and ovariectomized+estrogen injected animals were fed ad libitum or fasted to determine 1 the contribution of estrogen to metabolic asymmetry of hypothalamus; and 2 whether the hypothalamic asymmetry is modulated by the satiety state. Results show that estrogen-priming significantly increased both the proportion of animals with detected hypothalamic lateralization and the degree of metabolic difference between the hypothalamic sides causing a right-sided dominance during state 3 mitochondrial respiration (St3 in ad libitum fed animals. After 24 hours of fasting, lateralization in St3 values was clearly maintained; however, instead of the observed right-sided dominance that was detected in ad libitum fed animals here appeared in form of either right- or left-sidedness. In conclusion, our results revealed estrogen- and satiety state-dependent metabolic differences between the two hypothalamic hemispheres in female rats showing that the hypothalamic hemispheres drive the reproductive and satiety state related functions in an asymmetric manner.

  9. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  10. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  11. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A

    2016-12-05

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce arcuate Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A.

    2016-01-01

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. PMID:27507595

  13. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  14. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  15. Electroporation of Postimplantation Mouse Embryos In Utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Carcagno, Abel

    2018-02-01

    Gene transfer by electroporation is possible in mouse fetuses within the uterus. As described in this protocol, the pregnant female is anesthetized, the abdominal cavity is opened, and the uterus with the fetuses is exteriorized. A solution of plasmid DNA is injected through the uterine wall directly into the fetus, typically into a cavity like the brain ventricle, guided by fiber optic illumination. Electrodes are positioned on the uterus around the region of the fetus that was injected, and electrical pulses are delivered. The uterus is returned to the abdominal cavity, the body wall is sutured closed, and the female is allowed to recover. The manipulated fetuses can then be collected and analyzed at various times after the electroporation. This method allows experimental access to later-stage developing mouse embryos. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. A cytocidal tissue kallikrein isolated from mouse submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Nagumo, N; Tomita, M; Shimamura, T

    1989-11-06

    A cytocidal factor against mouse thymocytes was purified from the submandibular glands of female BALB/c mice using Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. SDS-PAGE and amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the cytocidal factor was mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK)-6. mGK-6 showed an optimal enzyme activity at pH 10 and a cytocidal activity against thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  18. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  19. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  20. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  1. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  2. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  3. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  4. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  5. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  6. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  8. The Mouse That Soared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a

  9. RSPO1/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates oogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis in the mouse fetal ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Gregoire, Elodie P.; Lavery, Rowena; Taketo, Makoto M.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Adams, Ian R.; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of germ cells into male gonocytes or female oocytes is a central event in sexual reproduction. Proliferation and differentiation of fetal germ cells depend on the sex of the embryo. In male mouse embryos, germ cell proliferation is regulated by the RNA helicase Mouse Vasa homolog

  10. RSPO1/beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway Regulates Oogonia Differentiation and Entry into Meiosis in the Mouse Fetal Ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chassot, A.A.; Gregoire, E.P.; Lavery, R.; Taketo, M.M.; de Rooij, D.G.; Adams, I.R.; Chaboissier, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of germ cells into male gonocytes or female oocytes is a central event in sexual reproduction. Proliferation and differentiation of fetal germ cells depend on the sex of the embryo. In male mouse embryos, germ cell proliferation is regulated by the RNA helicase Mouse Vasa homolog

  11. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  12. Number and location of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in mouse DNA of normal tissue and of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, B; Hynes, N E

    1980-01-01

    The Southern DNA filter transfer technique was used to characterize the genomic location of the mouse mammary tumor proviral DNA in different inbred strains of mice. Two of the strains (C3H and CBA) arose from a cross of a Bagg albino (BALB/c) mouse and a DBA mouse. The mouse mammary tumor virus-containing restriction enzyme DNA fragments of these strains had similar patterns, suggesting that the proviruses of these mice are in similar genomic locations. Conversely, the pattern arising from the DNA of the GR mouse, a strain genetically unrelated to the others, appeared different, suggesting that its mouse mammary tumor proviruses are located in different genomic sites. The structure of another gene, that coding for beta-globin, was also compared. The mice strains which we studied can be categorized into two classes, expressing either one or two beta-globin proteins. The macroenvironment of the beta-globin gene appeared similar among the mice strains belonging to one genetic class. Female mice of the C3H strain exogenously transmit mouse mammary tumor virus via the milk, and their offspring have a high incidence of mammary tumor occurrence. DNA isolated from individual mammary tumors taken from C3H mice or from BALB/c mice foster nursed on C3H mothers was analyzed by the DNA filter transfer technique. Additional mouse mammary tumor virus-containing fragments were found in the DNA isolated from each mammary tumor. These proviral sequences were integrated into different genomic sites in each tumor. Images PMID:6245257

  13. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  14. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  15. Selecting Female Mice in Estrus and Checking Plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Richard; Gertsenstein, Marina; Nagy, Kristina Vintersten; Nagy, Andras

    2016-08-01

    The female mouse estrous cycle is divided into four phases: proestrus (development of ovarian follicles), estrus (ovulation), metestrus (formation of corpora lutea), and diestrus (beginning of follicle development for next ovulation and elimination of previous oocytes). The appearance of the epithelium of the external genitalia is used to identify the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse. This is usually easier to see in strains with either no or only light skin pigmentation. By examining the color, moistness, and degree of swelling of the vagina, females in estrus can readily be identified. To set up the matings, females are examined in the afternoon, and those in estrus are placed into the cages with males (one or two females in each cage with one male). Usually, 50% or more of the selected females will mate. The presence of a vaginal copulation plug next morning indicates that mating has occurred, but it does not mean that a pregnancy will result even if proven breeder fertile males were used. It is important to check vaginal plugs early in the morning because they fall out or are no longer detectable ~12 h after mating or sometimes earlier. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Sado, Takashi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2009-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has many potential applications in the fields of basic and applied sciences. However, it has a disadvantage that can never be overcome technically-the inflexibility of the sex of the offspring. Here, we report an accidental birth of a female mouse following nuclear transfer using an immature Sertoli cell. We produced a batch of 27 clones in a nuclear transfer experiment using Sertoli cells collected from neonatal male mice. Among them, one pup was female. This "male-derived female" clone grew into a normal adult and produced offspring by natural mating with a littermate. Chromosomal analysis revealed that the female clone had a 39,X karyotype, indicating that the Y chromosome had been deleted in the donor cell or at some early step during nuclear transfer. This finding suggests the possibility of resuming sexual reproduction after a single male is cloned, which should be especially useful for reviving extinct or endangered species.

  17. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-01-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 o C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  18. Female urethral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Masahiko; Kondo, Atsuo; Sakakibara, Toshihumi

    1988-01-01

    Urethral carcinoma in 2 females has been treated with irradiation together with adjunct chemotherapy. In case 1, a 73-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated with irradiation of 4,000 rad and peplomycin of 60 mg intravenously given. She has been free from the disease for the past 43 months. In case 2, a 61-year-old female with transitional cell carcinoma was initially treated with irradiation of 5,000 rad together with peplomycin 90 mg, which was followed by another 5,000 rad irradiation. The tumor recurred and the patient was operated on for cystourethrectomy and partial resection of the vagina. A further chemotherapy of cisplatin, peplomycin, and mitomycin C was instituted. She died of the tumor recurrence 23 months after the first visit to our clinic. Diagnosis and treatment modalities on the female urethral carcinoma are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  20. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  1. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  2. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  3. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...

  4. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  5. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  6. Online Female Escort Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Griffith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.

  7. Inherited effects from mouse immature oocytes following low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Khan, R.; Raabe, O.G.; Walsh, K.J.; Wiley, L.M.

    1992-07-01

    Immature oocytes represent the genetic pool in female mice as well as in women and therefore are principal cells of concern for genetic studies. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic effects in female mice can be masked by the hypersensitive plasma membrane lethality target of immature oocytes. Studies have also shown that genetic effects can be detected when the plasma mambrane is sufficiently spared. Here, new data obtained using the mouse preimplantation embryo chimera assay are presented and discussed in light of previous findings for irradiated mouse oocytes

  8. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  9. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  10. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  11. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  12. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  13. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  14. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  15. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  16. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L.; Janssens, Veerle; Ven, Wim J.M. van de; Petit, Marleen M.R.

    2009-01-01

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp -/- females. Fertility of Lpp -/- males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp -/- x Lpp -/- crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp -/- mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  17. Genetic conflict outweighs heterogametic incompatibility in the mouse hybrid zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufková Petra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mus musculus musculus/M. m. domesticus contact zone in Europe is characterised by sharp frequency discontinuities for sex chromosome markers at the centre of wider clines in allozyme frequencies. Results We identify a triangular area (approximately 330 km2 where the musculus Y chromosome introgresses across this front for up to 22 km into domesticus territory. Introgression of the Y chromosome is accompanied by a perturbation of the census sex ratio: the sex ratio is significantly female biased in musculus localities and domesticus localities lacking Y chromosome introgression. In contrast, where the musculus Y is detected in domesticus localities, the sex ratio is close to parity, and significantly different from both classes of female biased localities. The geographic position of an abrupt cline in an X chromosome marker, and autosomal clines centred on the same position, seem unaffected by the musculus Y introgression. Conclusion We conclude that sex ratio distortion is playing a role in the geographic separation of speciation genes in this section of the mouse hybrid zone. We suggest that clines for genes involved in sex-ratio distortion have escaped from the centre of the mouse hybrid zone, causing a decay in the barrier to gene flow between the two house mouse taxa.

  18. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    -founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...

  19. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    labeled as toxic, can he or she be rehabilitated?; Are there leadership styles that can be promoted to combat toxic leadership?; and Are the senior...examines leadership styles that are favorable for female leaders, and offers Transformational/Adaptive leadership as a style promising rehabilitative tools

  20. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  1. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  2. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  3. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  4. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  5. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  6. F1 hybrids of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mouse strains respond differently ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cross was decided between C57BL/6 female and BALB/c ... on the mouse 7.4k cDNA microarray slide (University Health ... The ratio of two-fold increase (2.0) or decrease (−2.0) in ... were carried out to validate data from the cDNA micror- ray.

  7. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  8. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  9. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M

    2012-04-07

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal.

  10. Heterozygous CDKL5 Knockout Female Mice Are a Valuable Animal Model for CDKL5 Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Claudia; Gennaccaro, Laura; Trazzi, Stefania; Bastianini, Stefano; Bettini, Simone; Martire, Viviana Lo; Ren, Elisa; Medici, Giorgio; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Rimondini, Roberto; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2018-01-01

    CDKL5 disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like five) gene. CDKL5 disorder primarily affects girls and is characterized by early-onset epileptic seizures, gross motor impairment, intellectual disability, and autistic features. Although all CDKL5 female patients are heterozygous, the most valid disease-related model, the heterozygous female Cdkl5 knockout (Cdkl5 +/−) mouse, has been little characterized. The lack of...

  11. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  12. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  13. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  14. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D'Andrea, Alan; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  15. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  16. Gender markedly modulates behavioral thermoregulation in a non-human primate species, the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, J; Perret, M; Aujard, F

    2010-11-02

    Age and gender are known to significantly modulate thermoregulatory capacities in mammals, suggesting strong impacts on behavioral adjustments, which are used to minimize the energy costs of thermoregulation. We tested the effects of sex and age on spontaneous choice of ambient temperature (Ta) in a non-human primate species, the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). The animals acclimated to both winter and summer photoperiods, two seasons significantly modifying thermoregulation function, were experimented in a thermal gradient device. During winter, adult males did not show preference for warm Tas whereas old males did. In contrast, female mouse lemurs of both age categories exhibited great preferences for warm Tas. Acclimation to summer revealed that males selected colder Ta for the day than during the night. Such behavior did not exist in females. Old females explored and selected warmer nests than adult ones. This study raised novel issues on the effect of gender on thermoregulatory capacities in the mouse lemur. Females probably use behavioral adjustments to limit energy expenditure and might prefer to preserve energy for maternal investment by anticipation of and during the breeding season. Further experiments focusing on female thermoregulatory capacities are needed to better understand the energy challenge that may occur during winter and summer in female mouse lemurs, and whether this trade-off changes during aging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rac1 is dispensable for oocyte maturation and female fertility in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Xiu; Meng, Tie-Gang; Fan, Li-Hua; Yao, Yuan-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Oocyte maturation, the important process to produce female haploid gamete, accompanies with polarity establishment and highly asymmetric cell division to emit minor polar body within little cytoplasm. Microfilaments play central roles in polarity establishment and asymmetric cell division. Several actin regulators like WASP protein family as well as small GTPases function in microfilament dynamics, involving the process. Rac1, one member of RhoGTPases, has been reported to regulate the polarity and asymmetric cell division in mouse oocytes in vitro. The physiological role of Rac1 in mouse oocyte remains unknown. By conditional knockout technology, we specifically deleted Rac1 gene in mouse oocyte, and found that Rac1 deletion exerted little effect on mouse oocyte maturation including polarity establishment and asymmetric division, and the mutant mice showed normal fertility.

  18. Mouse Resource Browser-a database of mouse databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouberakis, Michael; Chandras, Christina; Swertz, Morris; Smedley, Damian; Gruenberger, Michael; Bard, Jonathan; Schughart, Klaus; Rosenthal, Nadia; Hancock, John M.; Schofield, Paul N.; Kollias, George; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory mouse has become the organism of choice for discovering gene function and unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases through the application of various functional genomic approaches. The resulting deluge of data has led to the deployment of numerous online resources and the

  19. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  20. Comparison of three mouse strains by radiosensitivity of hemato-immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Deguan; Wu, Hongying; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Yueying; Lu, Lu; Meng, Aimin

    2008-01-01

    IRM-2, developed in our Lab, is an inbred strain mouse created by cross of a ICR/JCL female and 615 male mouse. Compared to the parent strains, the IRM-2 mouse exhibit increased resistance to radiation. We examine the damage of hemato-immune system induced by radiation in IRM-2, ICR and 615 mice in order to elucidate the radiation resistant mechanism of IRM-2 mouse. The hemato-immune function and radiosensitivities of three mouse strains (IRM-2, ICR/JCL, 615) have been compared using the following parameters: the white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood (PB), the bone marrow nucleated cells (BMC) per femur. Percent of phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophage (PM) was checked by chicken red blood cells. Lymphocyte phenotype in PB were analyzed by flow cytometry. Damage induced by radiation were analysed in the bone marrows cells, splenocytes and thymocyte exposed to irradiation in vitro by cell viability assay (ATP Bioluminescence assay) and apoptosis assay (Annexin V/PI). The WBC and BMC of IRM-2 mice were significantly higher than those in ICR mice and 615 mice, respectively (P<0.01). The ratio of CD4/CD8 in PB of IRM-2 mouse was lower than those in ICR and 615, P<0.01. Cell viability showed difference after 18 hs incubation post radiation in three mouse strains. The results of our primary study suggest that the hemato-immune function in IRM-2 mouse is different to its parent strains. The IRM-2 mouse provides an animal model to conducted further investigation to explore the role of hemato-immune system in radiation resistance. (author)

  1. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  2. Male mice emit distinct ultrasonic vocalizations when the female leaves the social interaction arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu eYang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice emit large number of complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when interacting with adult females. Call numbers and call categories differ greatly among inbred mouse strains. Little is known about USV emissions when the social partner departs. To investigate whether call repertoires and call rates are different when the male is interacting with a female and after the removal of the female, we designed a novel male-female social interaction test in which vocalizations were recorded across three phases. During phase 1, the male subject freely interacts with an unfamiliar estrus female mouse in a clean cage for 5 minutes. During phase 2, the female is removed while the male remains in the cage for 3 minutes. During phase 3, the same female is returned to the cage to rejoin the male subject mouse for 3 minutes. C57BL/6J (B6, FVB.129P2-Pde6b(+ Tyr(c-ch/Ant (FVB, and BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR male subject mice were tested in this paradigm. All three strains emitted USVs during the absence of the estrous female, although at lower rates. When the female was reintroduced in phase 3, numbers of USVs were similar to the initial introductory phase 1. Strain comparisons indicated fewer calls in pairs of BTBR males and stimulus females than in pairs of B6 males and stimulus females and pairs of FVB males and stimulus females. In the absence of the female, all FVB males vocalized, while only one third of B6 males and one third of BTBR males vocalized. In all three strains, changes in call repertoires were detected after the female was removed. Call categories reverted to the phase 1 pattern when the female was returned in phase 3. Present findings indicate that males of commonly used inbred strains emit USVs when a partner female leaves the testing arena, suggesting that removing a salient social stimulus may be a unique approach to elicit USVs from mice. Our three-phase paradigm may also be useful for studying attention to social cues, and qualitative

  3. Cell lineage analysis of the mammalian female germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Reizel

    Full Text Available Fundamental aspects of embryonic and post-natal development, including maintenance of the mammalian female germline, are largely unknown. Here we employ a retrospective, phylogenetic-based method for reconstructing cell lineage trees utilizing somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites, to study female germline dynamics in mice. Reconstructed cell lineage trees can be used to estimate lineage relationships between different cell types, as well as cell depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote. We show that, in the reconstructed mouse cell lineage trees, oocytes form clusters that are separate from hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, both in young and old mice, indicating that these populations belong to distinct lineages. Furthermore, while cumulus cells sampled from different ovarian follicles are distinctly clustered on the reconstructed trees, oocytes from the left and right ovaries are not, suggesting a mixing of their progenitor pools. We also observed an increase in oocyte depth with mouse age, which can be explained either by depth-guided selection of oocytes for ovulation or by post-natal renewal. Overall, our study sheds light on substantial novel aspects of female germline preservation and development.

  4. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Hafner, Katlyn S., E-mail: katlynhafner@gmail.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2014-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  5. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Hafner, Katlyn S.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  6. Micronuclei induced by municipal landfill leachate in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangke; Sang Nan; Zhao Youcai

    2004-01-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow by municipal landfill leachate was studied in vivo. Results showed that mouse exposure via drinking water containing various concentrations of leachate caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a concentration (Chemical oxygen demand measured with potassium dichromate oxidation, COD Cr )-dependent manner. MN induction in female and male mice was different at higher concentrations. This implies that leachate is a genotoxic agent in mammalian cells and that exposure to leachate in an aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to human beings

  7. Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WR Farida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive.  The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004   Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

  8. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN FETUS OF MOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasrollahzadeh

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available litis study is based on embryotoxic effects of ethanol on embryos and discussing the morphologic and hhtahtgic changes and defects an mouse. Tlie female animals were divided in three groups. Hie first group untreated as a control group but the second and third group received 10% and 20% solutions of ethanol respectively. Animals get use to certain level of ethanol solution and in the 10th day, the pregnancy period has been started. Then on the 19th day of gestation, the embryos were taken out from their mother's uterus and were examined for morphologic, histologic and skeletal disorders. In the first examination, the major defect was weight and length reduction in the second and third groups. these deffects, were severe in the second group in compare to third group that might be related to little consumption of the ethanol solution, due to bitter taste. In conclusion the teratogenic effect of alcohol on skeleton and joint is clear.

  9. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2004), s. D482-D483 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse SAGE libraries * web -based database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2004

  10. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  12. Cultures of preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1987-01-01

    In the preimplantation mouse embryos the chromosomal damage develops through several postradiation cell cycles and mitoses. New chromosome aberrations are seen during the second and third postradiation mitoses. Also, more micronuclei appear during later postradiation interphases. This is in agreement with the assumption that unrepaired chromosomal radiation damage develops during the cell generation cycle to such a form (i.e. double-strand breaks in DNA) that chromosomal breaks occur. This proposition is strengthened by the observation that radiation-induced damage is more rapidly expressed after neutron exposure (first or second postradiation mitosis) than after exposure to X rays at the one- or two-cell stage. The preimplantation mouse embryo culture is an inviting system for additional studies at the molecular level, especially now that within the last few years more sensitive methods have been developed for study of DNA and protein structure, regulation, and synthesis. The results from these studies of cultures of preimplantation mouse embryos present a favorable case for the study of complex biological systems under very defined conditions in vitro for extrapolation to effects in vivo

  13. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  14. Mutation frequencies in female mice and the estimation of genetic hazards of radiation in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The female germ cell stage of primary importance in radiation genetic hazards is the immature, arrested oocyte. In the mouse, this stage has a near zero or zero sensitivity to mutation induction by radiation. However, the application of these mouse results to women has been questioned on the ground that the mouse arrested oocytes are highly sensitive to killing by radiation, while the human cells are not; and, furthermore, that the mature and maturing oocytes in the mouse, which are resistant to killing, are sensitive to mutation induction. The present results have a 2-fold bearing on this problem. First, a more detailed analysis of oocyte-stage sensitivity to killing and mutation induction shows that there is no consistent correlation, either negative or positive, between the two. This indicates that the sensitivity to cell killing of the mouse immature oocyte may not be sufficient reason to prevent its use in predicting the mutational response of the human immature oocyte. Second, if the much more cautious assumption is made that the human arrested oocyte might be as mutationally sensitive as the most sensitive of all oocyte stages in the mouse, namely the maturing and mature ones, then the present data on the duration of these stages permit more accurate estimates than were heretofore possible on the mutational response of these stages to chronic irradiation

  15. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  16. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    52.6% of cases were convinced with FGM. Conclusion: FGM was a risk factor for dysmenorrhea, obstructed labor and postpartum hemorrhage. Cases had lower mean sexual function; moreover, half of them convinced with FGM practice and with its continuation. Keywords: Female genital mutilation; Female sexual function; ...

  17. Female condom awareness, use and concerns among Nigerian female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunlola, M A; Morhason-Bello, I O; Owonikoko, K M; Adekunle, A O

    2006-05-01

    A cross-sectional study of female condom awareness, usage and concerns among the female undergraduates of the University of Ibadan was conducted in September 2004. The results of 850 out of the 879 female students interviewed were used for analysis (96.6%). Over 80% had knowledge of the female condom as a form of modern contraception and the majority of them learnt about it through the mass media (39.9%) and health workers (34.4%). However, only 11.3% had ever used the female condom, with most (40%) using it to prevent both unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV (STI/HIV). The sexual partners' approval was appreciable, accounting for about 42.7% among those that had experience of the female condom usage. Major concerns mentioned such as difficulty of inserting it into the vagina and lack of sexual satisfaction, were not different from those in earlier studies. The result of this study looks promising judging from a high awareness level of the female condom, even though its usage is low. The female condom may be an alternative strategy to combat unsafe sexual practises and its sequelae in a country like Nigeria that is male dominated.

  18. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Utrophin Compensates dystrophin Loss during Mouse Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Chih; Chin, Yu-Feng; Lundy, David J.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chi, Ya-Hui; Kuo, Paolin; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the dystrophin gene. The mdx/utrn ?/? mouse, lacking in both dystrophin and its autosomal homologue utrophin, is commonly used to model the clinical symptoms of DMD. Interestingly, these mice are infertile but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Using dystrophin deficient mdx mouse and utrophin haplodeficient mdx/utrn +/? mouse models, we demonstrate the contribution of Dp427 (f...

  20. Oocyte toxicity: female germ-cell loss from radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    In some mammals, female germ cells are extraordinarily sensitive to killing by exposure to ionizing radiation, especially during development. Immature oocytes, which constitute the lifetime germ-cell pool of the female, have an LD 50 in juvenile mice of only 6 rad (compared with typical LD 50 s of 100-300 rad for most other cell types studied). Essentially, the entire germ-cell supply in female squirrel monkeys is destroyed prenatally by exposure of only 0.7 rad/day. Severe but lesser destruction has been found in other species. However, evidence suggests (though not ruled out for all developmental stages) that unusually high sensitivity probably does not occur in the human female. Germ cells can also be killed by certain chemicals, and similarities exist between chemical and radiation effects. More than 75 compounds have been quantitatively studied in mice, with determination of OTI values (OTI = oocyte toxicity index = mouse LD 50 /oocyte LD 50 ) to measure the degree of preferential oocyte killing. High sensitivity in mice does not mean necessarily high sensitivity in women. Of special interest is the recent discovery that the lethal target in the extremely sensitive mouse immature oocyte is probably the plasma membrane, not DNA. Since mouse data form the main basis from which human genetic hazard (for both radiation and chemicals) is estimated, this has important implications for the determination of genetic risk in women

  1. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  2. Social Ultrasonic Vocalization in Awake Head-Restrained Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Benjamin; Hertz, Stav; Perets, Nisim; London, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats, and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding, and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM) to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM) and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in a free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM) and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter-syllable interval distribution, and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing the vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have a higher proportion of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  3. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okker-Reitsma, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [ 3 H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  5. Female desistance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodermond, E.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Slotboom, A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether, and if so how, male-based theories of desistance also apply to female offenders, this article reviews 44 studies on female desistance. Where available, gender differences in desistance are considered. Having children and supportive relationships is found to be important for

  6. Cannabidiol Prevents the Development of Cold and Mechanical Allodynia in Paclitaxel-Treated Female C57Bl6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Sara Jane; Ramirez, Michael David; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen Ann

    2011-01-01

    The taxane chemotherapeutic paclitaxel frequently produces peripheral neuropathy in humans. Rodent models to investigate mechanisms and treatments are largely restricted to male rats, whereas female mouse studies are lacking. We characterized a range of paclitaxel doses on cold and mechanical allodynia in male and female C57Bl/6 mice. Because the nonpsycho-active phytocannabinoid cannabidiol attenuates other forms of neuropathic pain, we assessed its effect on paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Pa...

  7. Desire and the female analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference.

  8. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  9. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of vinclozolin induced mouse adult onset disease and associated sperm epigenome biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R; Haque, Md M; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  11. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  12. Expressions of Uroplakins in the Mouse Urinary Bladder with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong Hoo; Byun, Youngmin; Lee, Gilho

    2009-01-01

    Even though uroplakins (UPs) are believed to serve a strong protective barrier against toxic materials, cyclophosphamide (CP) causes extensive cystitis. We investigated the expression of UPs in the urothelium in CP induced mouse cystitis. A total of 27 ICR female mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg CP/kg. Nine CP-treated mice and 6 controls were sequentially killed at 12, 24, and 72 hr post injection. Extensive cystitis and an increased vesical weight were seen. These a...

  13. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model*

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Guo-qing; Heng, Boon-chin; Ng, Soon-chye

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57×CBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 µmol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and sub...

  14. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  15. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  16. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  17. Take care of your mouse!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    “Stop --- Think --- Click" is the basic recommendation for securely browsing the Internet and for securely reading e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. We would like to thank all those who donated their mouse to the CERN Animal Shelter for Computer Mice (http://cern.ch/c-a-s). For those who still use a mouse, please stay vigilant and  alert: do not click on links whose origin you do not trust or which look like gibberish. Do not install untrusted software or plug-ins, since software from untrusted sources may infect or compromise your computer, or violate copyrights. Finally, take particular care with e-mails: Do not open unexpected or suspicious e-mails or attachments. Delete them if they do not concern you or if they appear strange. If in doubt, or if you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact Computer.Security@cern.ch

  18. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mouse allergen exposure and immunologic responses: IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG and IgG4 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Smith, Abigail L.; Eggleston, Peyton A.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is evidence that contact with mice is associated with IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific antibody responses, the exposure-response relationships remain unclear. To determine whether IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG (mIgG) and mIgG4 levels

  20. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  1. Mouse adenovirus type 1 infection of macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.L.; Welton, A.R.; Harwood, K.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Spindler, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) causes acute and persistent infections in mice, with high levels of virus found in the brain, spinal cord and spleen in acute infections. MAV-1 infects endothelial cells throughout the mouse, and monocytes/macrophages have also been implicated as targets of the virus.

  2. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  3. Redundancy in Kiss1 Expression Safeguards Reproduction in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Simina M.; Moriyama, Ryutaro M.; Caligioni, Claudia S.; Yang, Jasmine J.; Cho, Caroline M.; Concepcion, Tessa L.; Oakley, Amy E.; Lee, In Hae; Sanz, Elisenda; Amieux, Paul S.; Caraty, Alain; Palmiter, Richard D.; Navarro, Victor M.; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Clifton, Donald K.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) signaling to GnRH neurons is widely acknowledged to be a prerequisite for puberty and reproduction. Animals lacking functional genes for either kisspeptin or its receptor exhibit low gonadotropin secretion and infertility. Paradoxically, a recent study reported that genetic ablation of nearly all Kiss1-expressing neurons (Kiss1 neurons) does not impair reproduction, arguing that neither Kiss1 neurons nor their products are essential for sexual maturation. We posited that only minute quantities of kisspeptin are sufficient to support reproduction. If this were the case, animals having dramatically reduced Kiss1 expression might retain fertility, testifying to the redundancy of Kiss1 neurons and their products. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether males and females differ in the required amount of kisspeptin needed for reproduction, we used a mouse (Kiss1-CreGFP) that has a severe reduction in Kiss1 expression. Mice that are heterozygous and homozygous for this allele (Kiss1Cre/+ and Kiss1Cre/Cre) have ∼50% and 95% reductions in Kiss1 transcript, respectively. We found that although male Kiss1Cre/Cre mice sire normal-sized litters, female Kiss1Cre/Cre mice exhibit significantly impaired fertility and ovulation. These observations suggest that males require only 5% of normal Kiss1 expression to be reproductively competent, whereas females require higher levels for reproductive success. PMID:23736293

  4. TC in female pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about the role of imaging in the female pelvis. The CT is an important key in the diagnosis of gynecological malignant pathologies such as Ovarian, endometrial cervical, bladder, vaginal and vulvar cancer

  5. A Case of Female Intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... At operation a reasonably small uterus (5 X 3 X 2 cm), was found with ... tissue made a detailed anatomical dissection and investi- .... relative term, because no human being is completely male or female. ... while pregnant.

  6. Burnout in Female Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Vu, Lisa; Beck, Keli; Moore, Justin B

    2017-04-01

    Despite approximately equal numbers of male and female medical school graduates, women are entering academic medicine at a lower rate than their male colleagues. Of those who do assume a faculty position, female faculty members report higher levels of burnout, often attributable to gender-specific difficulties in clinical expectations and maintenance of work-life balance. Many of these struggles are attributable to issues that are amenable to supportive policies, but these policies are inconsistent in their availability and practice. This commentary presents evidence for inconsistencies in the day-to-day experience of female faculty members, and proposes solutions for the mitigation of the challenges experienced more often by female faculty members with the goal of diversifying and strengthening academic medicine.

  7. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  8. In utero exposure to nanosized carbon black (Printex90) does not induce tandem repeat mutations in female murine germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Shipley, Thomas; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of particles has been shown to induce mutations in the male germline in mice following both prenatal and adult exposures in several experiments. In contrast, the effects of particles on female germ cell mutagenesis are not well established. Germline mutations are induced during active...... cell division, which occurs during fetal development in females. We investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB) on induction of mutations in the female mouse germline during fetal development, spanning the critical developmental stages of oogenesis. Pregnant C57BL/6...... mutation rates in the resulting F2 generation were determined from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 female mice (178 CB-exposed and 258 control F2 offspring). ESTR mutation rates in CB-exposed F2 female offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 female control offspring....

  9. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    Full Text Available The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus. These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6-10 weeks and intermediate (13-19 weeks adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26-34 weeks. Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given

  10. Radiation damage in the mouse female germ cell: a two-part study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, B.

    1978-07-01

    In 1977 the average annual airborne gross beta activity in Livermore Valley air samples was 1.2 x 10 -13 μCi/ml, nearly twice the average observed during 1976 (7.6 x 10 -14 μCi/ml). The increase was partly due to an atmosphere nuclear test by the Peoples Republic of China. Concentrations of various radionuclides ( 235 U, 238 U, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and tritium in samples of surface air, surface waters, groundwater, soils, and food are reported. Results of aerial radiological surveys are included

  11. Radiosensitivity of mouse germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Toyoko; Maemori, Mamiko; Seki, Naohiko; Tobari, Izuo

    1991-01-01

    To estimate radiosensitivity of mouse germ cells the analysis of chromosome aberrations was performed at diakinesis-metaphase I of spermatocytes and first-cleavage metaphase of one-cell embryos after exposure to radiations at various stages of primary spermatocytes and spermatids. The result provided evidence that there are two major types of DNA damage in X-irradiated sperm : (1) short-lived DNA lesions ; the lesions are subject to repair inhibition by agents added in G 1 , and are converted into chromosome-type aberrations during G 1 , and (2) long-lived DNA lesions ; the lesions persist until S phase and repair of the lesions is inhibited by caffeine, hydroxyurea and arabinofuranosyl cytosine in G 2 . The characteristic of X-ray damage induced in spermiogenic stage and repair mechanism for the damage in the fertilized egg were discussed comparing with the results with two chemicals, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and mitomycin C (MMC). (J.P.N.)

  12. Polycystic Ovary Induction in Mouse by Testosterone Enanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalhori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Polycystic ovary is the most common cause of infertility in Women. Animal models are required for understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary. The objective of this study then was to develop an animal model for inducing the polycystic ovaries using testosterone enanthate.Materials & Methods: In this study, for inducing the polycystic ovary phenotype, female rats about12-14 days-old were injected daily with testosterone enanthate for 2 and 4 weeks (experiment groups: 1 and 2, while the control groups (1 and 2 were injected only with vehicle.The ovaries from both groups were fixed and then were used for histological studies.Results: Testosterone enanthate treatment causes the histological changes in mouse ovary and significantly increased the percentage of preantral and cystic follicles and decreased the percentage of antral follicles in the experiment group, comparing with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: It concluded that testosterone enanthate can induces polycystic ovary in mouse.

  13. Case Study: Polycystic Livers in a Transgenic Mouse Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Artwohl, James E.; Ward, Christopher J.; Diekwisch, Thomas G. H.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2014-04-01

    Three mice (2 male, 1 female; age, 5 to 16 mo) from a mouse line transgenic for keratin 14 (K14)-driven LacZ expression and on an outbred Crl:CD1(ICR) background, were identified as having distended abdomens and livers that were diffusely enlarged by numerous cysts (diameter, 0.1 to 2.0 cm). Histopathology revealed hepatic cysts lined by biliary type epithelium and mild chronic inflammation, and confirmed the absence of parasites. Among 21 related mice, 5 additional affected mice were identified via laparotomy. Breeding of these 5 mice (after 5 mo of age) did not result in any offspring; the K14 mice with olycystic livers failed to reproduce. Affected male mice had degenerative testicular lesions, and their sperm was immotile. Nonpolycystic K14 control male mice bred well, had no testicular lesions, and had appropriate sperm motility. Genetic analysis did not identify an association of this phenotype with the transgene or insertion site.

  14. Asymmetric Reprogramming Capacity of Parental Pronuclei in Mouse Zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that reprogramming factors are sequestered in the pronuclei of zygotes after fertilization, because zygotes enucleated at the M phase instead of interphase of the first mitosis can support the development of cloned embryos. However, the contribution of the parental pronucleus derived from either the sperm or the oocyte in reprogramming remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the parental pronuclei have asymmetric reprogramming capacities and that the reprogramming factors reside predominantly in the male pronucleus. As a result, only female pronucleus-depleted (FPD mouse zygotes can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state and support the full-term development of cloned embryos; male pronucleus-depleted (MPD zygotes fail to support somatic cell reprogramming. We further demonstrate that fusion of an additional male pronucleus into a zygote greatly enhances reprogramming efficiency. Our data provide a clue to further identify critical reprogramming factors in the male pronucleus.

  15. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  16. Effect of low-dose irradiation on pregnant mouse haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.R.; McCarthy, E.G.; MacVittie, T.J.; Baum, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of low-dose gamma radiation to haemopoietic progenitor cell compartments of the marrow and spleen of virgin female mice and pregnant mice were studied. Microplasma clot cultures were used to assess burst-forming uniterythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) activity, and double-layer agar cultures were established to evaluate granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) and macrophage colony-forming cell (M-CFC). The apparent shift in maternal erythropoiesis from the bone marrow to the enlarged spleen was reflected by an increase in CFU-E and BFU-E per spleen and a concomitant decrease in CFU-E and BFU-E per femur. Whereas maternal GM-CFC values per femur increased 36%, maternal GM-CFC per spleen increased by 172% compared to virgin values. Total-body irradiation to the day-10.5 pregnant mouse caused a further suppression of day-14.5 medullary erythropoiesis (i.e. decreased CFU-E values) compared to the virgin female mouse. An ability of the maternal spleen to support further compensatory erythropoiesis following increasing doses of radiation was demonstrated. Four days after 1.0 Gy exposure, maternal values for GM-CFC per femur or spleen decreased to nonirradiated virgin mice values. M-CFC per maternal femur decreased to nonirradiated virgin mice values. M-CFC per maternal femur decreased following 1.5 Gy, but M-CFC per spleen appeared to be unaffected with doses from 0.5 to 2.0 Gy. (author)

  17. High frequency/ultrasonic communication in a critically endangered nocturnal primate, Claire's mouse lemur (Microcebus mamiratra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiniaina, Alida F; Scheumann, Marina; Rina Evasoa, Mamy; Braud, Diane; Rasoloharijaona, Solofonirina; Randrianambinina, Blanchard; Zimmermann, Elke

    2018-05-02

    The critically endangered Claire's mouse lemur, only found in the evergreen rain forest of the National Park Lokobe (LNP) and a few lowland evergreen rain forest fragments of northern Madagascar, was described recently. The present study provides the first quantified information on vocal acoustics of calls, sound associated behavioral context, acoustic niche, and vocal activity of this species. We recorded vocal and social behavior of six male-female and six male-male dyads in a standardized social-encounter paradigm in June and July 2016 at the LNP, Nosy Bé island. Over six successive nights per dyad, we audio recorded and observed behaviors for 3 hr at the beginning of the activity period. Based on the visual inspection of spectrograms and standardized multiparametric sound analysis, we identified seven different call types. Call types can be discriminated based on a combination of harmonicity, fundamental frequency variation, call duration, and degree of tonality. Acoustic features of tonal call types showed that for communication, mouse lemurs use the cryptic, high frequency/ultrasonic frequency niche. Two call types, the Tsak and the Grunt call, were emitted most frequently. Significant differences in vocal activity of the Tsak call were found between male-female and male-male dyads, linked primarily to agonistic conflicts. Dominant mouse lemurs vocalized more than subdominant ones, suggesting that signaling may present an honest indicator of fitness. A comparison of our findings of the Claire's mouse lemur with published findings of five bioacoustically studied mouse lemur species points to the notion that a complex interplay between ecology, predation pressure, and phylogenetic relatedness may shape the evolution of acoustic divergence between species in this smallest-bodied primate radiation. Thus, comparative bioacoustic studies, using standardized procedures, are promising to unravel the role of vocalization for primate species diversity and evolution

  18. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  19. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  20. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  1. Mitochondrial functionality in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Gąsior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo. The presence of normal number of functional mitochondria is also crucial for proper implantation and pregnancy maintaining. This article addresses issues of mitochondrial role and function in mammalian oocyte and presents new approaches in studies of mitochondrial function in female germ cells.

  2. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  3. Female circumcision: persistence amid conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, J H

    1998-01-01

    The continuing practice of female circumcision (removal of varying degrees of external genitalia) was perhaps the most emotional issue discussed at the Ninth International Congress on Women's Health Issues, held in June in Alexandria, Egypt. The results of two studies presented at the Congress have resulted to an argument. Others view female circumcision as a traditional folk practice, similar to scarring of the skin or elongation of the lips among certain African tribes and should not be subjected to "cultural imperialism" from abroad. Instead, the procedure could best be eradicated through focused education--telling patients that it is not required by Islam and that it can be detrimental to health. However, this suggestion was hotly debated by members of the audience who insisted that female circumcision should be considered as a form of child abuse and thus properly addressed as a political issue.

  4. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... FGM act) and female sexual function index (a 19-item self-reported questionnaire for assessing ... married educated women had FGM with their 272 matched controls (their matching was .... Urine retention. 73. 30.6 ... strata.14 This was also proved by the current work (39.3% of ... It is a single author paper.

  5. Decolonizing the Female Sexuality: What Nigerian Female Writers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's experience of oppressions in the sphere of sexuality, it argues, is central to the issue of a liberal existence, and such oppressions are largely premised on traditional epistemologies which are basically patriarchal. Drawing upon various female-authored literary texts from Nigeria, it illustrates how Nigerian feminist ...

  6. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  7. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  8. Defining the molecular pathologies in cloaca malformation: similarities between mouse and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Runck

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anorectal malformations are congenital anomalies that form a spectrum of disorders, from the most benign type with excellent functional prognosis, to very complex, such as cloaca malformation in females in which the rectum, vagina and urethra fail to develop separately and instead drain via a single common channel into the perineum. The severity of this phenotype suggests that the defect occurs in the early stages of embryonic development of the organs derived from the cloaca. Owing to the inability to directly investigate human embryonic cloaca development, current research has relied on the use of mouse models of anorectal malformations. However, even studies of mouse embryos lack analysis of the earliest stages of cloaca patterning and morphogenesis. Here we compared human and mouse cloaca development and retrospectively identified that early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca might underlie the most severe forms of anorectal malformation in humans. In mouse, we identified that defective sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling results in early dorsal-ventral epithelial abnormalities prior to the reported defects in septation. This is manifested by the absence of Sox2 and aberrant expression of keratins in the embryonic cloaca of Shh knockout mice. Shh knockout embryos additionally develop a hypervascular stroma, which is defective in BMP signaling. These epithelial and stromal defects persist later, creating an indeterminate epithelium with molecular alterations in the common channel. We then used these animals to perform a broad comparison with patients with mild-to-severe forms of anorectal malformations including cloaca malformation. We found striking parallels with the Shh mouse model, including nearly identical defective molecular identity of the epithelium and surrounding stroma. Our work strongly suggests that early embryonic cloacal epithelial differentiation defects might be the underlying cause of severe forms of anorectal malformations

  9. Failure of catalase to protect against aflatoxin B1-induced mouse lung tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guindon, Katherine A.; Foley, Julie F.; Maronpot, Robert R.; Massey, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    The carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) induces 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation in mouse lung, an effect that can be prevented by treatment with polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-CAT). G → T transversion mutation in K-ras, an early event in AFB 1 -induced mouse lung carcinogenesis, is thought to result from AFB 1 -8,9-exo-epoxide binding to DNA to form AFB 1 -N 7 -guanine, but may also result from formation of 8-OHdG. Therefore, oxidative DNA damage may be important in AFB 1 carcinogenicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether PEG-CAT would prevent AFB 1 tumorigenicity. Mouse lung tumorigenesis was assessed following treatment of female A/J mice with 300 kU/kg PEG-CAT ip and/or 50 mg/kg AFB 1 . Mice were killed 7 months post-treatment and tumors greater than 1 mm in diameter were excised. Unexpectedly, the mean number of tumors per mouse in the PEG-CAT + AFB 1 group (8.81 ± 3.64, n = 47) was greater than that of the group treated with AFB 1 alone (7.05 ± 3.45, n = 42) (P 1 were larger than those from mice treated with AFB 1 alone (P 1 and PEG-CAT + AFB 1 groups (P > 0.05). In vitro incubation with mouse liver catalase (CAT) resulted in conversion of [ 3 H]AFB 1 into a DNA-binding species, a possible explanation for the results observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that PEG-CAT is not protective against AFB 1 carcinogenicity in mouse lung despite preventing DNA oxidation

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and phosphorylation undergo large fluctuations in mouse brain during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Mines, Marjelo A; Song, Ling; Jope, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Dysregulated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) may contribute to the pathophysiology of mood disorders and other diseases, and appears to be a target of certain therapeutic drugs. The growing recognition of heightened vulnerability during development to many psychiatric diseases, including mood disorders, led us to test if there are developmental changes in mouse brain GSK3 and its regulation by phosphorylation and by therapeutic drugs. Methods GSK3 levels and phosphorylation were measured at seven ages of development in mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Results Two periods of rapid transitions in GSK3 levels were identified, a large rise between postnatal day 1 and two to three weeks of age, where GSK3 levels were as high as four-fold adult mouse brain levels, and a rapid decline between two to four and eight weeks of age, when adult levels were reached. Inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3, particularly GSK3β, was extremely high in one-day postnatal mouse brain, and rapidly declined thereafter. These developmental changes in GSK3 were equivalent in male and female cerebral cortex, and differed from other signaling kinases, including Akt, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 levels and phosphorylation. In contrast to adult mouse brain, where administration of lithium or fluoxetine rapidly and robustly increased serine-phosphorylation of GSK3, in young mice these responses were blunted or absent. Conclusions High brain levels of GSK3 and large fluctuations in its levels and phosphorylation in juvenile and adolescent mouse brain raise the possibility that they may contribute to destabilized mood regulation induced by environmental and genetic factors. PMID:23167932

  11. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a ... We describe a simple method to generate relatively pure cardiomyocytes from mouse ... In this study, we described the generation of transgenic.

  13. Melatonin receptors: latest insights from mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillame, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications towards type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1/MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

  14. Circadian oscillators in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Rovsing, Louise; Møller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    with conditional cell-specific clock gene deletions. This prompted us to analyze the molecular clockwork of the mouse neocortex and cerebellum in detail. Here, by use of in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that clock genes are expressed in all six layers of the neocortex and the Purkinje...... and granular cell layers of the cerebellar cortex of the mouse brain. Among these, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Arntl, and Nr1d1 exhibit circadian rhythms suggesting that local running circadian oscillators reside within neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellar cortex. The temporal expression profiles of clock genes...... are similar in the neocortex and cerebellum, but they are delayed by 5 h as compared to the SCN, suggestively reflecting a master-slave relationship between the SCN and extra-hypothalamic oscillators. Furthermore, ARNTL protein products are detectable in neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellum...

  15. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human......We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  16. Interactions of mouse pinworms and trichomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Choutková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Oxyurid nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata are both common mouse intestinal parasites; in the same location several species of trichomonads occur. Tritrichomonas muris is the most often found, but there are also some others: Tritrichomonas minuta, Pentatrichomonas hominis or Hexamastix muris. It is known that, under some circumstances, trichomonads can be found in the intestine of mouse pinworms, as reported by Theiler and Farber (1936) for T. muris in A. tetraptera and S....

  17. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  18. Optimization of the virtual mouse HeadMouse to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce TEIXIDO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a virtual mouse called HeadMouse in order to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities. HeadMouse is an absolute virtual mouse that converts head movements in cursor displacement and facial gestures in click actions. The virtual mouse combines different image processing algorithms: face detection, pattern matching and optical flow in order to emulate the behaviour of a conventional computer mouse. The original implementation of HeadMouse requires large computational power and this paper proposes specific optimizations in order to enable its use by children with disabilities in standard low cost classroom computers.

  19. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  20. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  1. An Update on Gifted Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  2. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  3. [Characteristic features of female murderers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Mariusz; Teleśnicki, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    65 female murderers were observed in the Forensic Psychiatry Ward. In 61 cases the victims were closely connected with the victim. The intellectual capacity of these women was similar to the average population. 41 women were abused before murder. Only in 7% of cases pathological abnormalities in CNS were not observed. In the examined group 5% were classified as insane.

  4. Work of female rural doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Jo

    2004-04-01

    To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are

  5. Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J; Fodor, Anthony A; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (approximately 8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity.

  6. Effects of androgen on immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor and Connexin 43 in mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Li, Jianhua; An, Yulin; Zhang, Shuiwen

    2015-10-01

    Androgens have essential roles in the regulation of follicular development and female fertility. Androgen excess is the leading defect in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and involved in the ovarian dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regarding regulatory role of androgen in the follicular development of female mouse. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses were performed to detect androgen receptor (AR) and Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in ovaries from both control and testosterone-treated group mice. In this study, localizations of AR and Cx43 were dramatically altered in testosterone-treated mouse ovaries. In addition, AR expression was significantly increased, whereas Cx43 expression was markedly decreased after testosterone treatment. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone with concomitant reduction of MII oocytes. Overall, these results suggest the involvement of androgen in the regulation of AR and Cx43 localizations in mouse ovary. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone may affect normal folliculogenesis. Together these findings will enable us to begin understanding the important roles of AR and Cx43 actions in the regulation of follicular development, as well as providing insights into the role of AR and Cx43 actions in the androgen-associated reproductive diseases such as PCOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors 55 FeCl3 and [2- 14 C]glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated [2-14C]glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool

  8. Responses of the mouse to microwave radiation during estrous cycle and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugh, R.; Ginns, E.I.; Ho, H.S.; Leach, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    A new facility for microwave irradiation of mice that will provide reproducible dosimetry is described. The waveguide used provided the integral dose rate to experimental animals under stable and controlled environmental conditions of relative humidity and temperature, variables which have been found to be critical in microwave studies. In terms of average absorbed lethal dose, the female mouse was found to be more sensitive to microwave irradiation during estrus than during diestrus. Teratogenesis (e.g., exencephalies) after sublethal irradiation of pregnant mice at 8 gestation days resulted from absorbed doses within the range of 3 to 5 calories per gram of body weight, and was never an all-or-none response. The incidence and variety of effects produced (hemorrhage, resorption, stunting, and fetal death) indicate that the cause and effect relationships are neither linear nor well enough established and understood to permit prediction of the biological effects either in the mouse of other species. As the absorbed dose of radiant energy is increased to the 8-day pregnant mouse, the probability of it producing at least one exencephaly is likewise increased. Nevertheless, the determination of the absorbed dose of microwave energy in each mouse is one step closer to determining the precise absorbed-dose-effect relationship for microwave exposures. A total of 1096 mice were exposed to microwave radiation and separately monitored to gather the related data. (U.S.)

  9. Pancreatic protective and hypoglycemic effects of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruit hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Najimi, Seyedeh Asma

    2017-01-01

    D-galactose induces pancreatic disorder along with aging mouse model. Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) has potential pancreatic protective effect. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas protective effects of VAC hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging female mice. In the present experimental study, 72 adult female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (weighing 30–35 g) were divided into 6 groups of control, VAC hydroalcoholic extract, D-galactose,...

  10. Flexible adaptation of male germ cells from female iPSCs of endangered Tokudaia osimensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Arata; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Izu, Haruna; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Inokuchi, Mizuho; Honsho, Kimiko; Lee, Ah-Reum; Nabekura, Hiroki; Ohta, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Saitou, Mitinori; Jogahara, Takamichi; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-05-01

    In mammals, the Y chromosome strictly influences the maintenance of male germ cells. Almost all mammalian species require genetic contributors to generate testes. An endangered species, Tokudaia osimensis , has a unique sex chromosome composition XO/XO, and genetic differences between males and females have not been confirmed. Although a distinctive sex-determining mechanism may exist in T. osimensis , it has been difficult to examine thoroughly in this rare animal species. To elucidate the discriminative sex-determining mechanism in T. osimensis and to find a strategy to prevent its possible extinction, we have established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and derived interspecific chimeras using mice as the hosts and recipients. Generated iPSCs are considered to be in the so-called "true naïve" state, and T. osimensis iPSCs may contribute as interspecific chimeras to several different tissues and cells in live animals. Surprisingly, female T. osimensis iPSCs not only contributed to the female germ line in the interspecific mouse ovary but also differentiated into spermatocytes and spermatids that survived in the adult interspecific mouse testes. Thus, T. osimensis cells have high sexual plasticity through which female somatic cells can be converted to male germline cells. These findings suggest flexibility in T. osimensis cells, which can adapt their germ cell sex to the gonadal niche. The probable reduction of the extinction risk of an endangered species through the use of iPSCs is indicated by this study.

  11. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Social representations of female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  13. MWCNTs of different physicochemical properties cause similar inflammatory responses, but differences in transcriptional and histological markers of fibrosis in mouse lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are an inhomogeneous group of nanomaterials that vary in lengths, shapes and types of metal contamination, which makes hazard evaluation difficult. Here we present a toxicogenomic analysis of female C57BL/6 mouse lungs following a single intratracheal instil...

  14. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level.

  15. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  16. Effects of nanotoxicity on female reproductivity and fetal development in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianling; Zhang, Qiu; Wang, Zhiping; Yan, Bing

    2013-04-29

    The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  17. Effects of Nanotoxicity on Female Reproductivity and Fetal Development in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  18. Social transfer of alcohol withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Andre T; Smith, Monique L; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2018-03-27

    The expression of pain serves as a way for animals to communicate potential dangers to nearby conspecifics. Recent research demonstrated that mice undergoing alcohol or morphine withdrawal, or inflammation, could socially communicate their hyperalgesia to nearby mice. However, it is unknown whether such social transfer of hyperalgesia can be observed in other species of rodents. Therefore, the present study investigated if the social transfer of hyperalgesia occurs in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). We observe that adult female prairie voles undergoing withdrawal from voluntary two-bottle choice alcohol drinking display an increase in nociception. This alcohol withdrawal-induced hypersensitiity is socially transferred to female siblings within the same cage and female strangers housed in separate cages within the same room. These experiments reveal that the social transfer of pain phenomenon is not specific to inbred mouse strains and that prairie voles display alcohol withdrawal and social transfer-induced hyperalgesia.

  19. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  20. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha regulates a male-specific cytochrome P450 in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Brett; Choudhury, Agharul I; Horley, Neill; Bruce, Mary; Tomlinson, Simon R; Roberts, Ruth A; Gray, Tim J B; Barrett, David A; Shaw, P Nicholas; Kendall, David; Bell, David R

    2004-09-15

    We set out to find if the strain-specific, male-specific hepatic expression of Cyp4a protein in mouse was due to expression of Cyp4a12 and to understand the genetic basis for reported differences in expression. 12-Lauric acid hydroxylase (LAH) activity was found to show higher levels in male ddY, but not C57Bl/6, mouse liver microsomes. The expression of Cyp4a12 mRNA was studied using RNAase protection assays in male and female liver and kidney of nine mouse strains. Cyp4a12 was found to be highly expressed in male liver and kidney, but at much lower levels in female liver and kidney, in all strains studied. Western blotting with an antibody specific for Cyp4a12 confirmed that Cyp4a12 was expressed in a male specific fashion in C57Bl/6 mouse liver. RNAase protection analysis for Cyp4a10 and 14 in ddY mice revealed that neither of these genes showed male-specific expression. To further investigate genetic factors that control male-specific Cyp4a12 expression, PPARalpha+/+ and -/- mice were studied, showing that total P450 and 12-LAH activity was male-specific in +/+, but not -/- mice. RNAase protection assays were used to confirm that Cyp4a12 was lower in -/- mice. However, the male-specific Slp and MUP-1 genes retained hepatic male-specific levels of expression in +/+ and -/- mice, showing that the decrease in Cyp4a12 was not a general effect on male-specific expression. Thus, PPARalpha has a specific effect on constitutive expression of Cyp4a12.

  1. UTX and UTY demonstrate histone demethylase-independent function in mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl B Shpargel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available UTX (KDM6A and UTY are homologous X and Y chromosome members of the Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27 demethylase gene family. UTX can demethylate H3K27; however, in vitro assays suggest that human UTY has lost enzymatic activity due to sequence divergence. We produced mouse mutations in both Utx and Uty. Homozygous Utx mutant female embryos are mid-gestational lethal with defects in neural tube, yolk sac, and cardiac development. We demonstrate that mouse UTY is devoid of in vivo demethylase activity, so hemizygous X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos should phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. However, X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos develop to term; although runted, approximately 25% survive postnatally reaching adulthood. Hemizygous X(+ Y(Uty- mutant males are viable. In contrast, compound hemizygous X(Utx- Y(Uty- males phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. Therefore, despite divergence of UTX and UTY in catalyzing H3K27 demethylation, they maintain functional redundancy during embryonic development. Our data suggest that UTX and UTY are able to regulate gene activity through demethylase independent mechanisms. We conclude that UTX H3K27 demethylation is non-essential for embryonic viability.

  2. Invocation Receptivity in Female of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females  (40.63 %.  Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.

  3. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  4. Interplay between Endometriosis and Pregnancy in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Andrea Bilotas

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of endometriosis on fertility and the levels of the IL-2 and IFN-γ in the peritoneal fluid in a mouse model; to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on endometriotic lesion growth, apoptosis and cell proliferation.Two month old C57BL/6 female mice underwent either a surgical procedure to induce endometriosis or a sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery mice were mated and sacrificed at day 18 of pregnancy. Number of implantation sites, fetuses and fetal weight were recorded. Endometriotic lesions were counted, measured, excised and fixed. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were evaluated in lesions by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for PCNA respectively. Levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were assessed by ELISA in the peritoneal fluid.Pregnancy rate (i.e. pregnant mice/N decreased in mice with endometriosis. However there were no significant differences in resorption rate, litter size and pup weight between groups. IFN-γ augmented in endometriosis mice independently of pregnancy outcome. Additionally IFN-γ increased in pregnant endometriosis mice compared to pregnant sham animals. While IFN-γ increased in non pregnant versus pregnant mice in the sham group, IL-2 was increased in non pregnant mice in the endometriosis group. The size of endometriotic lesions increased in pregnant mice while apoptosis increased in the stroma and cell proliferation decreased in the epithelium of these lesions. Additionally, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis and decidualization were increased in the same lesions.Pregnancy rate is reduced in this mouse model of endometriosis. Levels of IL-2 are increased in the peritoneal fluid of mice with endometriosis suggesting a role of this cytokine in infertility related to this disease. The size of endometriotic lesions is increased in pregnant mice; however pregnancy has a beneficial effect on lesions by decreasing cell proliferation and by increasing apoptosis, decidualization and necrosis.

  5. Interplay between Endometriosis and Pregnancy in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotas, Mariela Andrea; Olivares, Carla Noemí; Ricci, Analía Gabriela; Baston, Juan Ignacio; Bengochea, Tatiana Soledad; Meresman, Gabriela Fabiana; Barañao, Rosa Inés

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of endometriosis on fertility and the levels of the IL-2 and IFN-γ in the peritoneal fluid in a mouse model; to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on endometriotic lesion growth, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Two month old C57BL/6 female mice underwent either a surgical procedure to induce endometriosis or a sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery mice were mated and sacrificed at day 18 of pregnancy. Number of implantation sites, fetuses and fetal weight were recorded. Endometriotic lesions were counted, measured, excised and fixed. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were evaluated in lesions by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for PCNA respectively. Levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were assessed by ELISA in the peritoneal fluid. Pregnancy rate (i.e. pregnant mice/N) decreased in mice with endometriosis. However there were no significant differences in resorption rate, litter size and pup weight between groups. IFN-γ augmented in endometriosis mice independently of pregnancy outcome. Additionally IFN-γ increased in pregnant endometriosis mice compared to pregnant sham animals. While IFN-γ increased in non pregnant versus pregnant mice in the sham group, IL-2 was increased in non pregnant mice in the endometriosis group. The size of endometriotic lesions increased in pregnant mice while apoptosis increased in the stroma and cell proliferation decreased in the epithelium of these lesions. Additionally, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis and decidualization were increased in the same lesions. Pregnancy rate is reduced in this mouse model of endometriosis. Levels of IL-2 are increased in the peritoneal fluid of mice with endometriosis suggesting a role of this cytokine in infertility related to this disease. The size of endometriotic lesions is increased in pregnant mice; however pregnancy has a beneficial effect on lesions by decreasing cell proliferation and by increasing apoptosis, decidualization and necrosis.

  6. High-fertility phenotypes: two outbred mouse models exhibit substantially different molecular and physiological strategies warranting improved fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Martina; Michaelis, Marten; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sobczak, Alexander; Schoen, Jennifer; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are valuable tools in fertility research. Worldwide, there are more than 400 transgenic or knockout mouse models available showing a reproductive phenotype; almost all of them exhibit an infertile or at least subfertile phenotype. By contrast, animal models revealing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described. This article summarizes data on two outbred mouse models exhibiting a 'high-fertility' phenotype. These mouse lines were generated via selection over a time period of more than 40 years and 161 generations. During this selection period, the number of offspring per litter and the total birth weight of the entire litter nearly doubled. Concomitantly with the increased fertility phenotype, several endocrine parameters (e.g. serum testosterone concentrations in male animals), physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, accelerated puberty, and life expectancy), and behavioral parameters (e.g. behavior in an open field and endurance fitness on a treadmill) were altered. We demonstrate that the two independently bred high-fertility mouse lines warranted their improved fertility phenotype using different molecular and physiological strategies. The fertility lines display female- as well as male-specific characteristics. These genetically heterogeneous mouse models provide new insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms that enhance fertility. In view of decreasing fertility in men, these models will therefore be a precious information source for human reproductive medicine. Translated abstract A German translation of abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/4/427/suppl/DC1.

  7. Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eZierau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Female sex hormones have long been suspected to have an effect on mast cell (MC behaviour. This assumption is based on the expression of hormone receptors in MCs as well as on the fact that many MC-related pathophysiological alterations have a different prevalence in females than in males. Further, serum IgE levels are much higher in allergic female mice compared to male mice. Ovariectomized rats developed less airway inflammation compared to sham controls. Following estrogen replacement ovariectomized rats re-established airway inflammation levels’ found in intact females. In humans, a much higher asthma prevalence was found in women at reproductive age as compared to men. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone have been directly correlated with the clinical and functional features of asthma. Around 30 to 40% of women who have asthma experienced worsening of their symptoms during the perimenstrual phase, the so-called perimenstrual asthma. Postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk of new onset of asthma. Beside, estrus cycle dependent changes on female sex hormones are related to changes on MC number in mouse uterine tissue and estradiol and progesterone were shown to induce uterine MC maturation and degranulation. We will discuss here the currently available information concerning the role of these female sex hormones on MC behavior.

  8. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Liu, Xiufeng; Xu, Bin; Chai, Riyi; Zhou, Pan; Ju, Chuan; Sun, Jun; Brindley, Paul J.; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs), ATP and hypoxanthine) on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi) from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi) from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi) from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well-defined components

  9. Educating about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.

  10. Charismatic female leadership and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Research on the leadership and electorates of populist right-wing parties emphasizes that most of these parties are charismatic and male-dominated, both as regards their leadership and voters. However, while studies about the gender gap focus mainly on demand-side factors, such as electoral support......, socio-economic characteristics and the voters' attitudes towards issues such as immigration, those that analyse the role and position of gender issues are still rare. Similarly, or even more, overlooked is an analysis of the rhetoric, style, charisma and discourse of populist female leaders...

  11. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  13. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr...

  14. Immunohistochemical visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Mølgaard; Ulrichsen, Maj; Boggild, Simon

    2014-01-01

    , and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies...... of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location...

  15. Simple and efficient expression of codon-optimized mouse leukemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To obtain a higher yield of mouse leukemia inhibitory factor to maintain the proliferation potential of pluripotent ... It induces mouse myeloid leukemic M1 cells of terminal ... induces the production of acute phase proteins by lipocyte ...

  16. Developing Novel Automated Apparatus for Studying Battery of Social Behaviors in Mutant Mouse Models for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    coloured blobs ) and RFID data (open circles) are then independently processed offline to extract the X–Y coordinates of each identified mouse within the...such as in most rodents, fish and insects. Radio-frequency identified (RFID) tagging has been success- fully applied to track the position of uniquely...large animal groups (for example, insect colonies, fish schools)40. Methods Animals. Adult male and female mice from the C57BL/6Jx129sv and BTBR Toþ4

  17. What's wrong with female circumcision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D

    1994-03-16

    Why should the multicultural society of Canada outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) as proposed by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock or allow avoidance of the procedure to be a legitimate reason for gaining refugee status? Is this anti-FGM position simply an ethnocentric stance that would be called racism in other circumstances? Canadian objections to FGM can not arise from objections about mutilation of a child's sexual organs because male circumcision is legal in Canada, although it, too, is medically questionable. Perhaps Rock is being patriarchal in reserving his concern for females. In Somali culture, women determine the nature and extent of FGM, so Rock may simply be exhibiting his inability to understand other cultures. On the other hand, it is politically incorrect for Canadian government workers to criticize other cultures, and immigrants are assured that their values and beliefs will be accommodated in Canada. Thus, polygamy among Somali immigrants is ignored. The question is why should FGM be a major exception and invoke efforts at repression instead of a respect for diversity.

  18. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  19. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  20. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin

  1. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female ... Cultural traditions and social pressures can.

  2. Integrative Analysis of Sex-Specific microRNA Networks Following Stress in Mouse Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Madeline L; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A; Aleyasin, Hossein; Lorsch, Zachary S; Cates, Hannah M; Flanigan, Meghan E; Menard, Caroline; Heshmati, Mitra; Wang, Zichen; Ma'ayan, Avi; Shen, Li; Hodes, Georgia E; Russo, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Adult women are twice as likely as men to suffer from affective and anxiety disorders, although the mechanisms underlying heightened female stress susceptibility are incompletely understood. Recent findings in mouse Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) suggest a role for DNA methylation-driven sex differences in genome-wide transcriptional profiles. However, the role of another epigenetic process-microRNA (miR) regulation-has yet to be explored. We exposed male and female mice to Subchronic Variable Stress (SCVS), a stress paradigm that produces depression-like behavior in female, but not male, mice, and performed next generation mRNA and miR sequencing on NAc tissue. We applied a combination of differential expression, miR-mRNA network and functional enrichment analyses to characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional landscape of sex differences in NAc stress response. We find that male and female mice exhibit largely non-overlapping miR and mRNA profiles following SCVS. The two sexes also show enrichment of different molecular pathways and functions. Collectively, our results suggest that males and females mount fundamentally different transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses to SCVS and engage sex-specific molecular processes following stress. These findings have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of stress-related disorders in women.

  3. Antiandrogen Treatment Ameliorates Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes in the Letrozole-Induced Mouse Model of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Genevieve E; Malik, Shaddy; Mellon, Pamela L

    2018-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone, anovulation, and obesity. In the current study, we sought to determine whether androgen receptor (AR) actions are responsible for any of the phenotypes observed in LET mice. C57BL/6 female mice were subcutaneously implanted with LET or placebo control and subsequently treated with the nonsteroidal AR antagonist flutamide or vehicle control. Flutamide treatment in LET females reversed elevated T levels and restored ovarian expression of Cyp17a1 (critical for androgen synthesis) to normal levels. Pituitary expression of Lhb was decreased in LET females that received flutamide treatment, with no changes in expression of Fshb or Gnrhr. Flutamide treatment also restored estrous cycling and reduced the number of ovarian cyst-like follicles in LET females. Furthermore, body weight and adipocyte size were decreased in flutamide-treated LET females. Altogether, our findings provide strong evidence that AR signaling is responsible for many key reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and further establish the LET mouse model as an important tool for the study of androgen excess.

  4. Sequence and chromosomal localization of the mouse brevican gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, U; Meyer, H; Brakebusch, C

    1997-01-01

    Brevican is a brain-specific proteoglycan belonging to the aggrecan family. Phage clones containing the complete mouse brevican open reading frame of 2649 bp and the complete 3'-untranslated region of 341 bp were isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library, and cosmid clones containing the mouse...

  5. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be...

  6. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  7. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  8. Causes of Sexual Promiscuity Among Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated causes of sexual promiscuity among female undergraduate students in university of Lagos. The sample comprised 150 female undergraduate students randomly selected from all the five female hostels in University of Lagos. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was administered to test the three ...

  9. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Is the International Resource for Information on the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, MeiYee; Shaw, David R

    2018-01-01

    Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, http://www.informatics.jax.org/ ) web resources provide free access to meticulously curated information about the laboratory mouse. MGI's primary goal is to help researchers investigate the genetic foundations of human diseases by translating information from mouse phenotypes and disease models studies to human systems. MGI provides comprehensive phenotypes for over 50,000 mutant alleles in mice and provides experimental model descriptions for over 1500 human diseases. Curated data from scientific publications are integrated with those from high-throughput phenotyping and gene expression centers. Data are standardized using defined, hierarchical vocabularies such as the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology, Mouse Developmental Anatomy and the Gene Ontologies (GO). This chapter introduces you to Gene and Allele Detail pages and provides step-by-step instructions for simple searches and those that take advantage of the breadth of MGI data integration.

  10. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  11. the production of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells ... cells into the cavity of the blastocyst, it will be possible to test the effect of .... to the use of efficient immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporin – was ...

  12. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L.; Youssef, S. A.; de Bruin, A.

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of geroscience,

  13. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. WJ He, SC Li, LL Ye, H Liu, QW Wang, WD Han, XB Fu, ZL Chen. Abstract. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro, including cardiomyocytes. Successful applications of ...

  14. An update on the mouse liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlak Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decoding of the liver proteome is subject of intense research, but hampered by methodological constraints. We recently developed an improved protocol for studying rat liver proteins based on 2-DE-MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. This methodology was now applied to develop a mouse liver protein database. Results Liver proteins were extracted by two different lysis buffers in sequence followed by a liquid-phase IEF pre-fractionation and separation of proteins by 2 DE at two different pH ranges, notably 5-8 and 7-10. Based on 9600 in gel digests a total of 643 mouse liver proteins with high sequence coverage (> 20 peptides per protein could be identified by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. Notably, 255 proteins are novel and have not been reported so far by conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis proteome mapping. Additionally, the results of the present findings for mouse liver were compared to published data of the rat proteome to compile as many proteins as possible in a rodent liver database. Conclusion Based on 2-DE MALDI-TOF-MS a significantly improved proteome map of mouse liver was obtained. We discuss some prominent members of newly identified proteins for a better understanding of liver biology.

  15. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  16. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  17. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  18. Myelination competent conditionally immortalized mouse Schwann cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saavedra, José T.; Wolterman, Ruud A.; Baas, Frank; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous mouse myelin mutants are available to analyze the biology of the peripheral nervous system related to health and disease in vivo. However, robust in vitro biochemical characterizations of players in peripheral nerve processes are still not possible due to the limited growth capacities of

  19. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Buset, J.; Neefs, M.; Vankerkom, J.; Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H.; Hildebrandt, G.; Baatout, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  20. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: pjacquet@sckcen.be [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Buset, J.; Neefs, M. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vankerkom, J. [Division of Environmental Research, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hildebrandt, G. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 9a, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Baatout, S. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-05-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  1. Dopamine D5 receptor modulates male and female sexual behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, A E; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Cabrera, D M; Sibley, D R; Rissman, E F

    2005-07-01

    Dopamine exerts its actions through at least five receptor (DAR) isoforms. In female rats, D5 DAR may be involved in expression of sexual behavior. We used a D5 knockout (D5KO) mouse to assess the role of D5 DAR in mouse sexual behavior. Both sexes of D5KO mice are fertile and exhibit only minor disruptions in exploratory locomotion, startle, and prepulse inhibition responses. This study was conducted to characterize the sexual behavior of male and female D5KO mice relative to their WT littermates. Female WT and D5KO littermates were ovariectomized and given a series of sexual behavior tests after treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Once sexual performance was optimal the dopamine agonist, apomorphine (APO), was substituted for P. Male mice were observed in pair- and trio- sexual behavior tests. To assess whether the D5 DAR is involved in rewarding aspects of sexual behavior, WT and D5KO male mice were tested for conditioned place preference. Both WT and D5KO females can display receptivity after treatment with EB and P, but APO was only able to facilitate receptivity in EB-primed WT, not in D5KO, mice. Male D5KO mice display normal masculine sexual behavior in mating tests. In conditioned preference tests, WT males formed a conditioned preference for context associated with either intromissions alone or ejaculation as the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast, D5KO males only showed a place preference when ejaculation was paired with the context. In females, the D5 DAR is essential for the actions of dopamine on receptivity. In males, D5 DAR influences rewarding aspects of intromissions. Taken together, the work suggests that the D5 receptor mediates dopamine's action on sexual behavior in both sexes, perhaps via a reward pathway.

  2. Female habitual self-mutilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R; Conterio, K

    1989-03-01

    Data are presented on 240 female habitual self-mutilators. The typical subject is a 28-year-old Caucasian who first deliberately harmed herself at age 14. Skin cutting is her usual practice, but she has used other methods such as skin burning and self-hitting, and she has injured herself on at least 50 occasions. Her decision to self-mutilate is impulsive and results in temporary relief from symptoms such as racing thoughts, depersonalization, and marked anxiety. She now has or has had an eating disorder, and may be concerned about her drinking. She has been a heavy utilizer of medical and mental health services, although treatment generally has been unsatisfactory. In desperation over her inability to control her self-mutilative behavior this typical subject has attempted suicide by a drug overdose.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in recent years toward deciphering the molecular and genetic underpinnings of the pubertal process. The availability of powerful new methods to interrogate the human genome has led to the identification of genes that are essential for puberty to occur. Evidence has also emerged suggesting that the initiation of puberty requires the coordinated activity of gene sets organized into functional networks. At a cellular level, it is currently thought that loss of transsynaptic inhibition, accompanied by an increase in excitatory inputs, results in the pubertal activation of GnRH release. This concept notwithstanding, a mechanism of epigenetic repression targeting genes required for the pubertal activation of GnRH neurons was recently identified as a core component of the molecular machinery underlying the central restraint of puberty. In this chapter we will discuss the potential contribution of various mechanisms of epigenetic regulation to the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  5. Adult Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ Male and Female Mice Display a Spectrum of Genital Malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei He

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest. Additionally, all non-Hh based genetic models investigating DSD display normal females, leaving female urogenital development largely unknown. Here, we generated compound mutant mice, Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+, which exhibit a spectrum of urogenital malformations in both males and females upon birth, and also carried them well into adulthood. Analysis of embryonic day (E18.5 and adult mice revealed shortened anogenital distance (AGD, open ventral urethral groove, incomplete fusion of scrotal sac, abnormal penile size and structure, and incomplete testicular descent with hypoplasia in male mice, whereas female mutant mice displayed reduced AGD, urinary incontinence, and a number of uterine anomalies such as vaginal duplication. Male and female fertility was also investigated via breeding cages, and it was identified that male mice were infertile while females were unable to deliver despite becoming impregnated. We propose that Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ mice can serve as a genetic mouse model for common DSD such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and incomplete fusion of the scrotal sac in males, and a spectrum of uterine and vaginal abnormalities along with urinary incontinence in females, which could prove essential in revealing new insights into their equivalent diseases in humans.

  6. A test of bone mobilization relative to reproductive demand: skeletal quality is improved in cannibalistic females with large litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Wendy R

    2012-01-01

    In species with repeated bouts of reproduction, a female's ability to retain sufficient tissue for self-maintenance is essential to her survival and capacity for future reproduction. Loss of bone mineral content results in bone fragility and the possibility of reduced survival, so females should guard against the overuse of their bone mineral during reproduction. Given these constraints, I predicted that bone mobilization would increase with litter size in mice but plateau before maximum litter size was reached. To test this idea, I manipulated the litter sizes of house mice on the day of parturition to 3, 8, 13, and 18 offspring. At weaning, I euthanized the females and calculated whole-body and bone mineral composition. The total mineral content of females' femurs dropped as litter size increased to the average litter size for this strain of mouse (13) but surprisingly, femoral mineral content was higher for females assigned the largest litter sizes (18). Seven of the nine females assigned 18 young cannibalized some of their offspring. For females assigned to these larger litters, femoral ash content was not correlated with number of young consumed, suggesting that mineral recycling had little effect on final bone mineral content. However, nursing effort (accounting for young lost to cannibalism) was correlated with maternal femoral ash at weaning. These finding suggest that the high bone mineral content of females assigned the largest litters was associated with a reduction in endogenous mineral allocated to the litter.

  7. Construction of Chinese reference female phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yinxiangzi; Liu Lixing; Xia Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Voxel-based Chinese Reference female Phantom (VCRP-woman) is developed from an individual female phantom which was based on high resolution cross-sectional color photographs. An in-house C ++ program was developed to adjust the phantom. Finally, a reference female phantom with have the same height, weighte and similar organs masses with the Chinese reference adult female data. The adjusted phantom is then imported to MCNPX to calculate the organs absorbed dose and effective dose conversion coefficients. Results are compared between VCRP-woman and the ICRP adult reference female phantom. (authors)

  8. Effects of kappa opioid receptors on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Cindee F.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Campi, Katharine L.; Doig, Ian E.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Pride, Michael; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of kappa opioid receptors (KOR) on motivated behavior are well established based on studies in male rodents, but relatively little is known about the effects of KOR in females. We examined the effects of KOR activation on conditioned place aversion and social interaction in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Important differences were observed in long-term (place aversion) and short-term (social interaction) effects. Females but not males treated with a 2.5mg/kg dose of U50,488 formed a place aversion, whereas males but not females formed a place aversion at the 10 mg/kg dose. In contrast the short term effects of different doses of U50,488 on social interaction behavior were similar in males and females. Acute injection with 10 mg/kg of U50,488 (but not lower doses) reduced social interaction behavior in both males and females. The effects of U50,488 on phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) and p38 MAP kinase were cell type and region specific. Higher doses of U50,488 increased the number of pERK neurons in the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminals in males but not females, a nucleus implicated in male aggressive behavior. In contrast, both males and females treated with U50,488 had more activated p38 cells in the nucleus accumbens shell. Unexpectedly, cells expressing activated p38 co-expressed Iba-1, a widely used microglia marker. In summary we found strong sex differences in the effects of U50,488 on place aversion whereas the acute effects on U50,488 induced similar behavioral effects in males and females. PMID:24445073

  9. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Animal models for studying female genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model.

  12. Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee

    2015-01-01

    for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal...... into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary...

  13. Gender- and age-dependent gamma-secretase activity in mouse brain and its implication in sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Placanica

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is an age-related disorder. Aging and female gender are two important risk factors associated with sporadic AD. However, the mechanism by which aging and gender contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic AD is unclear. It is well known that genetic mutations in gamma-secretase result in rare forms of early onset AD due to the aberrant production of Abeta42 peptides, which are the major constituents of senile plaques. However, the effect of age and gender on gamma-secretase has not been fully investigated. Here, using normal wild-type mice, we show mouse brain gamma-secretase exhibits gender- and age-dependent activity. Both male and female mice exhibit increased Abeta42ratioAbeta40 ratios in aged brain, which mimics the effect of familial mutations of Presenilin-1, Presenlin-2, and the amyloid precursor protein on Abeta production. Additionally, female mice exhibit much higher gamma-secretase activity in aged brain compared to male mice. Furthermore, both male and female mice exhibit a steady decline in Notch1 gamma-secretase activity with aging. Using a small molecule affinity probe we demonstrate that male mice have less active gamma-secretase complexes than female mice, which may account for the gender-associated differences in activity in aged brain. These findings demonstrate that aging can affect gamma-secretase activity and specificity, suggesting a role for gamma-secretase in sporadic AD. Furthermore, the increased APP gamma-secretase activity seen in aged females may contribute to the increased incidence of sporadic AD in women and the aggressive Abeta plaque pathology seen in female mouse models of AD. In addition, deceased Notch gamma-secretase activity may also contribute to neurodegeneration. Therefore, this study implicates altered gamma-secretase activity and specificity as a possible mechanism of sporadic AD during aging.

  14. Evaluation of 10 aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebelli, R; Carere, A; Leopardi, P; Conti, L; Fassio, F; Raiteri, F; Barone, D; Ciliutti, P; Cinelli, S; Vericat, J A

    1999-03-01

    Ten halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, 1-chlorohexane, 2,3-dichlorobutane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropane, hexachloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and 1,1,3-trichloropropene), previously assayed in genetic assays in fungi, were evaluated in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in order to assess their genotoxicity in vivo. All chemicals were administered once i.p. at 40 and 70-80% of their respective LD50 to male and female CD-1 mice, 24 and 48 h before killing. All treatments produced evident clinical symptoms, but no marked depression of bone marrow proliferation. No statistically significant increases in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes over the control values were observed at any sampling time with any of the 10 halogenated hydrocarbons assayed. The comparison of the results obtained in this study with the findings provided by in vitro micronucleus assays on the same chemicals, reported by other authors, indicate that mouse bone marrow is weakly sensitive to the genotoxic effects induced by halogenated hydrocarbons in other test systems. This suggests that the role of such an assay in carcinogen screening may be questionable for this chemical class. An examination of mouse bone marrow micronucleus test results with the halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons classified as carcinogens by IARC supports this conclusion.

  15. Smc1β is required for activation of SAC during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yilong; Zhou, Changyin; Cui, Zhaokang; Dai, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Mianqun; Lu, Yajuan; Xiong, Bo

    2017-03-19

    Smc1β is a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit that is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination. Previous studies have shown that Smc1β-deficient mice in both sexes are sterile. Ablation of Smc1β during male meiosis leads to the blockage of spermatogenesis in pachytene stage, and ablation of Smc1β during female meiosis generates a highly error-prone oocyte although it could develop to metaphase II stage. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding how Smc1β maintains the correct meiotic progression in mouse oocytes have not been clearly defined. Here, we find that GFP-fused Smc1β is expressed and localized to the chromosomes from GV to MII stages during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Knockdown of Smc1β by microinjection of gene-specific morpholino causes the impaired spindle apparatus and chromosome alignment which are highly correlated with the defective kinetochore-microtubule attachments, consequently resulting in a prominently higher incidence of aneuploid eggs. In addition, the premature extrusion of polar bodies and escape of metaphase I arrest induced by low dose of nocodazole treatment in Smc1β-depleted oocytes indicates that Smc1β is essential for activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity. Collectively, we identify a novel function of Smc1β as a SAC participant beyond its role in chromosome cohesion during mouse oocyte meiosis.

  16. Effect of induced peritoneal endometriosis on oocyte and embryo quality in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Ziyyat, A; Naoura, I; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Aractingi, S; Darai, E; Lefevre, B

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of peritoneal endometriosis on oocyte and embryo quality in a mouse model. Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced in 33 B6CBA/F1 female mice (endometriosis group, N = 17) and sham-operated were used as control (sham group, N = 16). Mice were superovulated 4 weeks after surgery and mated or not, to collect E0.5-embryos or MII-oocytes. Evaluation of oocyte and zygote quality was done by immunofluorescence under spinning disk confocal microscopy. Endometriosis-like lesions were observed in all mice of endometriosis group. In both groups, a similar mean number of MII oocytes per mouse was observed in non-mated mice (30.2 vs 32.6), with a lower proportion of normal oocytes in the endometriosis group (61 vs 83 %, p endometriosis group (21 vs 35.5, p = 0.02) without difference in embryo quality. Our results support that induced peritoneal endometriosis in a mouse model is associated with a decrease in oocyte quality and embryo number. This experimental model allows further studies to understand mechanisms of endometriosis-associated infertility.

  17. Radiation-Induced Alterations in Mouse Brain Development Characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Cormier, Kyle; Lu, Fred G.; Lerch, Jason P.; Wong, C. Shun; Nieman, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify regions of altered development in the mouse brain after cranial irradiation using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Female C57Bl/6 mice received a whole-brain radiation dose of 7 Gy at an infant-equivalent age of 2.5 weeks. MRI was performed before irradiation and at 3 time points following irradiation. Deformation-based morphometry was used to quantify volume and growth rate changes following irradiation. Results: Widespread developmental deficits were observed in both white and gray matter regions following irradiation. Most of the affected brain regions suffered an initial volume deficit followed by growth at a normal rate, remaining smaller in irradiated brains compared with controls at all time points examined. The one exception was the olfactory bulb, which in addition to an early volume deficit, grew at a slower rate thereafter, resulting in a progressive volume deficit relative to controls. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed demyelination in white matter and loss of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Conclusions: MRI can detect regional differences in neuroanatomy and brain growth after whole-brain irradiation in the developing mouse. Developmental deficits in neuroanatomy persist, or even progress, and may serve as useful markers of late effects in mouse models. The high-throughput evaluation of brain development enabled by these methods may allow testing of strategies to mitigate late effects after pediatric cranial irradiation.

  18. Radiation-Induced Alterations in Mouse Brain Development Characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Cormier, Kyle [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Lu, Fred G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Lerch, Jason P. [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Nieman, Brian J., E-mail: bjnieman@phenogenomics.ca [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify regions of altered development in the mouse brain after cranial irradiation using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Female C57Bl/6 mice received a whole-brain radiation dose of 7 Gy at an infant-equivalent age of 2.5 weeks. MRI was performed before irradiation and at 3 time points following irradiation. Deformation-based morphometry was used to quantify volume and growth rate changes following irradiation. Results: Widespread developmental deficits were observed in both white and gray matter regions following irradiation. Most of the affected brain regions suffered an initial volume deficit followed by growth at a normal rate, remaining smaller in irradiated brains compared with controls at all time points examined. The one exception was the olfactory bulb, which in addition to an early volume deficit, grew at a slower rate thereafter, resulting in a progressive volume deficit relative to controls. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed demyelination in white matter and loss of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Conclusions: MRI can detect regional differences in neuroanatomy and brain growth after whole-brain irradiation in the developing mouse. Developmental deficits in neuroanatomy persist, or even progress, and may serve as useful markers of late effects in mouse models. The high-throughput evaluation of brain development enabled by these methods may allow testing of strategies to mitigate late effects after pediatric cranial irradiation.

  19. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, Roy J.; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C.

    Introduction: The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function

  20. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus-Related Lymphomagenesis in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kasama, Yuri; Salem, Nagla Elwy; Machida, Keigo; Kohara, Michinori

    2011-01-01

    B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a typical extrahepatic manifestation frequently associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The mechanism by which HCV infection leads to lymphoproliferative disorder remains unclear. Our group established HCV transgenic mice that expressed the full HCV genome in B cells (RzCD19Cre mice). We observed a 25.0% incidence of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (22.2% in male and 29.6% in female mice) within 600 days of birth. Interestingly, RzCD19Cre mice with substantially elevated serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit (sIL-2Rα) levels (>1000 pg/mL) developed B cell lymphomas. Another mouse model of lymphoproliferative disorder was established by persistent expression of HCV structural proteins through disruption of interferon regulatory factor-1 (irf-1_/_/CN2 mice). Irf-1_/_/CN2 mice showed extremely high incidences of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Moreover, these mice showed increased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and Bcl-2 as well as increased Bcl-2 expression, which promoted oncogenic transformation of lymphocytes. PMID:22084693

  2. Yiguanjian cataplasm attenuates opioid dependence in a mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuai; Gao, Hong; Fan, Yuchen; Zhang, Guanghua; Sun, Fengkai; Zhao, Jing; Li, Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of Yiguanjian (YGJ) cataplasm on the development of opioid dependence in a mouse model of naloxone-induced opioid withdrawal syndrome. One hundred Swiss albino mice, of equal male to female ratio, were randomly and equally divided into 10 groups. A portion (3 cm2) of the backside hair of the mice was removed 1 day prior to the experiment. Morphine (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered twice daily for 5 days. YGJ cataplasm was prepared and pasted on the bare region of the mice immediately before morphine administration on day 3 and subsequently removed at the end day 5. On day 6, naloxone (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to precipitate opioid withdrawal syndrome. Behavioral observation was performed in two 30-min phases immediately after naloxone injection. The YGJ cataplasm significantly and dose-dependently attenuated morphine-naloxone- induced experimental opioid withdrawal, in terms of withdrawal severity score and the frequencies of jumping, rearing, forepaw licking, and circling behaviors. However, YGJ cataplasm treatment did not alter the acute analgesic effect of morphine. YGJ cataplasm could attenuate opioid dependence and its associated withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, YGJ cataplasm could serve as a potential therapy for opioid addiction in the future.

  3. Female Offspring From Chronic Hyperandrogenemic Dams Exhibit Delayed Puberty and Impaired Ovarian Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Shen, Mingjie; Xue, Ping; DiVall, Sara A; Segars, James; Wu, Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Female offspring of many species exposed to high doses of androgens in utero experience endocrine dysfunction during adulthood. The phenotype of offspring from females with prepregnancy hyperandrogenemia and impaired ovulation, however, has not been examined. We developed a mouse model of hyperandrogenemia by implanting a low-dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT) pellet 15 days before conception. Female offspring born to dams with hyperandrogenemia (DHT daughters) had delayed puberty (P DHT (non-DHT daughters, PND37.5). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in the DHT daughters were fourfold higher (P DHT daughters (controls). DHT daughters showed an extended time in metestrus/diestrus and a shorter time in the proestrus/estrus phase compared with non-DHT daughters (P DHT daughters compared with non-DHT daughters (P DHT daughters compared with non-DHT daughters. Daughters from hyperandrogenemic females exhibited elevated prepubertal FSH levels, diminished ovarian response to superovulation, impaired estrous cyclicity, delayed onset of puberty, and reduced ovarian reserve, suggesting that fetal androgen exposure had lasting effects on female reproductive function. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  4. Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer

  5. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  6. The average Indian female nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Surendra B; Kale, Satish M; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to delineate the anthropometric measurements of the noses of young women of an Indian population and to compare them with the published ideals and average measurements for white women. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of 100 young Indian women ages 18 to 35 years with Indian parents and no history of previous surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized frontal, lateral, oblique, and basal photographs of the subjects' noses were taken, and 12 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. The results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, nine nasal indices were calculated and compared with the standards for North American white women. The nose of Indian women differs significantly from the white nose. All the nasal measurements for the Indian women were found to be significantly different from those for North American white women. Seven of the nine nasal indices also differed significantly. Anthropometric analysis suggests differences between the Indian female nose and the North American white nose. Thus, a single aesthetic ideal is inadequate. Noses of Indian women are smaller and wider, with a less projected and rounded tip than the noses of white women. This study established the nasal anthropometric norms for nasal parameters, which will serve as a guide for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Indian women.

  7. Inherited effects from irradiated mouse immature oocytes detected in aggregation embryo chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Raabe, O.G.; Walsh, K.J.; Wiley, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained using the mouse-preimplantation-embryo-chimera assay are presented that show a transmitted effect following low-dose irradiation of immature oocytes in vivo. Six-week-old female mice were irradiated using 137 Cs-γ-rays (0.05 Gy, 0.15 Gy, and unexposed controls). At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks post exposure, the mice were mated and aggregation chimeras made from the 4-cell embryos. Three independent experiments have now been carried out, all showing a significant embryonic cell-proliferation disadvantage of the embryos obtained from the females treated 7 weeks previously, i.e., embryos from oocytes that were immature at the time of radiation exposure. No effect was detected at 1-6 weeks when embryos were obtained from maturing oocytes. Also, the effect was not seen at 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks post exposure. The implications of these results are discussed in the light of previous studies on mouse oocytes

  8. Natural and molecular history of prolactinoma: insights from a Prlr-/- mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Valérie; Villa, Chiara; Auguste, Aurélie; Lamothe, Sophie; Guillou, Anne; Martin, Agnès; Caburet, Sandrine; Young, Jacques; Veitia, Reiner A; Binart, Nadine

    2018-01-19

    Lactotroph adenoma, also called prolactinoma, is the most common pituitary tumor but little is known about its pathogenesis. Mouse models of prolactinoma can be useful to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal lactotroph cell proliferation and secretion. We have previously developed a prolactin receptor deficient ( Prlr -/- ) mouse, which develops prolactinoma. The present study aims to explore the natural history of prolactinoma formation in Prlr -/- mice, using hormonal, radiological, histological and molecular analyses to uncover mechanisms involved in lactotroph adenoma development. Prlr -/- females develop large secreting prolactinomas from 12 months of age, with a penetrance of 100%, mimicking human aggressive densely granulated macroprolactinoma, which is a highly secreting subtype. Mean blood PRL measurements reach 14 902 ng/mL at 24 months in Prlr -/- females while PRL levels were below 15 ng/mL in control mice ( p model in ACI rats, we pinpointed 218 concordantly differentially expressed (DE) genes involved in cell cycle, mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, dopaminergic synapse and estrogen signaling. Pathway/gene-set enrichment analyses suggest that the transcriptomic dysregulation in both models of prolactinoma might be mediated by a limited set of transcription factors (i.e., STAT5, STAT3, AhR, ESR1, BRD4, CEBPD, YAP, FOXO1) and kinases (i.e., JAK2, AKT1, BRAF, BMPR1A, CDK8, HUNK, ALK, FGFR1, ILK). Our experimental results and their bioinformatic analysis provide insights into early genomic changes in murine models of the most frequent human pituitary tumor.

  9. A mouse model of hereditary coproporphyria identified in an ENU mutagenesis screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee J. Conway

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis screen in mice was performed to identify novel regulators of erythropoiesis. Here, we describe a mouse line, RBC16, which harbours a dominantly inherited mutation in the Cpox gene, responsible for production of the haem biosynthesis enzyme, coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPOX. A premature stop codon in place of a tryptophan at amino acid 373 results in reduced mRNA expression and diminished protein levels, yielding a microcytic red blood cell phenotype in heterozygous mice. Urinary and faecal porphyrins in female RBC16 heterozygotes were significantly elevated compared with that of wild-type littermates, particularly coproporphyrinogen III, whereas males were biochemically normal. Attempts to induce acute porphyric crises were made using fasting and phenobarbital treatment on females. While fasting had no biochemical effect on RBC16 mice, phenobarbital caused significant elevation of faecal coproporphyrinogen III in heterozygous mice. This is the first known investigation of a mutagenesis mouse model with genetic and biochemical parallels to hereditary coproporphyria.

  10. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Fabiola F; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P; Korach, Kenneth S; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-04-05

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock-in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

  11. Assessment of plasminogen synthesis in vitro by mouse tumor cells using a competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, R.O.; Bell, T.E.; Young, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive, specific competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasmin(ogen) has been developed in order to determine whether mouse tumor cells can synthesize plasminogen in vitro. The rabbit anti-BALB/c mouse plasminogen antibodies used in the assay react with the plasminogen present in serum from BALB/c, C3H, AKR and C57BL/6 mice, and also recognized mouse plasmin. The competition radiommunoassay can detect as little as 50 ng of mouse plasminogen. No competition was observed with preparations of fetal calf, human and rabbit plasminogens. A variety of virus-transformed and mouse tumor cell lines were all found to contain less than 100 ng mouse plasminogen/mg of cell extract protein. Thus, if the plasminogen activator/plasmin system is important in the growth or movement of this group of tumor cells, the cells will be dependent upon the circulatory system of the host for their plasminogen supply. (Auth.)

  12. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  13. Risk assessment in man and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Gallistel, Charles R

    2009-02-17

    Human and mouse subjects tried to anticipate at which of 2 locations a reward would appear. On a randomly scheduled fraction of the trials, it appeared with a short latency at one location; on the complementary fraction, it appeared after a longer latency at the other location. Subjects of both species accurately assessed the exogenous uncertainty (the probability of a short versus a long trial) and the endogenous uncertainty (from the scalar variability in their estimates of an elapsed duration) to compute the optimal target latency for a switch from the short- to the long-latency location. The optimal latency was arrived at so rapidly that there was no reliably discernible improvement over trials. Under these nonverbal conditions, humans and mice accurately assess risks and behave nearly optimally. That this capacity is well-developed in the mouse opens up the possibility of a genetic approach to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying risk assessment.

  14. The scarless heart and the MRL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber-Katz, Ellen; Leferovich, John; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise

    2004-05-29

    The ability to regenerate tissues and limbs in its most robust form is seen in many non-mammalian species. The serendipitous discovery that the MRL mouse has a profound capacity for regeneration in some ways rivalling the classic newt and axolotl species raises the possibility that humans, too, may have an innate regenerative ability. The adult MRL mouse regrows cartilage, skin, hair follicles and myocardium with near perfect fidelity and without scarring. This is seen in the ability to close through-and-through ear holes, which are generally used for lifelong identification of mice, and the anatomic and functional recovery of myocardium after a severe cryo-injury. We present histological, biochemical and genetic data indicating that the enhanced breakdown of scar-like tissue may be an underlying factor in the MRL regenerative response. Studies as to the source of the cells in the regenerating MRL tissue are discussed. Such studies appear to support multiple mechanisms for cell replacement.

  15. A mouse model of prenatal ethanol exposure using a voluntary drinking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Andrea M; Chynoweth, Julie; Tyler, Lani A; Caldwell, Kevin K

    2003-12-01

    The incidence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is estimated to be as high as 1 in 100 births. Efforts to better understand the basis of prenatal ethanol-induced impairments in brain functioning, and the mechanisms by which ethanol produces these defects, will rely on the use of animal models of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). Using a saccharin-sweetened alcohol solution, we developed a free-choice, moderate alcohol access model of prenatal alcohol exposure. Stable drinking of a saccharin solution (0.066%) was established in female mice. Ethanol then was added to the saccharin in increasing concentrations (2%, 5%, 10% w/v) every 2 days. Water was always available, and mice consumed standard pellet chow. Control mice drank saccharin solution without ethanol. After a stable baseline of ethanol consumption (14 g/kg/day) was obtained, females were impregnated. Ethanol consumption continued throughout pregnancy and then was decreased to 0% in a step-wise fashion over a period of 6 days after pups were delivered. Characterization of the model included measurements of maternal drinking patterns, blood alcohol levels, food consumption, litter size, pup weight, pup retrieval times for the dams, and effects of FAE on performance in fear-conditioned learning and novelty exploration. Maternal food consumption, maternal care, and litter size and number were all found to be similar for the alcohol-exposed and saccharin control animals. FAE did not alter locomotor activity in an open field but did increase the time spent inspecting a novel object introduced into the open field. FAE mice displayed reduced contextual fear when trained using a delay fear conditioning procedure. The mouse model should be a useful tool in testing hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying the learning deficits present in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Moreover, a mouse prenatal ethanol model should increase the opportunity to use the power of genetically defined and genetically altered mouse

  16. Response of mouse foetus to radiation from Na sup(99m)TcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Gloria, I.V.; Harper, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Technetium has assumed ecological importance as a source of law-level radiation, with the use of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medicine and production of sup(99m)Tc in power generation reactions. Technetium introduced as pertechnetate into the bloodstream of pregnant females is transported across the placental barrier to the foetus, where a portion appears to be incorporated into biomolecules. When combined as biomolecules, radionuclides that decay by electron capture or isomeric transition show a lethality greater than that predicted in cell cultures and radiation therapy. The decay of sup(99m)Tc by isomeric transition, together with the above considerations, places a high priority on the investigation of its radiation effects due to clinical doses of up to 25 mCi. Female mice were given daily intravenous injections of 0, 5, 50 and 500 μCi of sup(99m)Tc as pertechnetate in isotonic saline throughout gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation. At two months of age, the progeny were mated with randomly selected litter mates to produce a second generation; the process was repeated for production of the third generation. Only the first generation was irradiated. An injection of 5 μCi/mouse and 10 mCi/human both approximately equal 0.2 μCi/g of body weight; however, the mouse foetus receives an estimated radiation dose of 0.05 rad, and the human 1 rad. Throughout the gestation period, a mouse at the 5 μCi level receives about 100 μCi of sup(99m)Tc, resulting in approximately 1 rad to the foetus. Significant reduction of body weight was noted in all experimental groups. The greatest effects were seen in the progeny of mothers treated during gestation only. These preliminary results reinforce the existing concern about use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in pregnant or potentially pregnant subjects

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Macrophages Through Activation of MAPK and NF-κB Pathways Partially Mediated by TLR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Xin; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen; Yang, Zhengtao; Yang, Ju; Li, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis infection, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in female and male globally. However, the mechanisms by innate immunity against T. vaginalis infection have not been fully elucidated. Toll-like receptor2 (TLR2) has been shown to be involved in pathogen recognition, innate immunity activation, and inflammatory response to the pathogens. Nonetheless, the function of TLR2 against T. vaginalis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR2 in mouse macrophages against T. vaginalis. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that T. vaginalis stimulation increased the gene expression of TLR2 in wild-type (WT) mouse macrophages. T. vaginalis also induced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in WT mouse macrophages, and the expression of these cytokines significantly decreased in TLR2-/- mouse macrophages and in WT mouse macrophages pretreated with MAPK inhibitors SB203580 (p38) and PD98059 (ERK). Western blot analysis demonstrated that T. vaginalis stimulation induced the activation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB signal pathways in WT mouse macrophages, and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB significantly decreased in TLR2-/- mouse macrophages. Taken together, our data suggested that T. vaginalis may regulates proinflammatory cytokines production by activation of p38, ERK, and NF-κB p65 signal pathways via TLR2 in mouse macrophages. TLR2 might be involved in the defense and elimination of T. vaginalis infection. PMID:29692771

  18. Use of mouse thigh as a radiobiological model of radiation-induced skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.; Hagkyriakou, H.; Martin, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The effects of radiation exposure on skin have been widely studied. One of the most useful and relatively easy methods for evaluating radiation-induced skin reactions is the mouse thigh model. This model is non-invasive and has the advantage of not requiring the use of anaesthetic. In the current adaptation of the mouse thigh model, female C3H/HeJ ARC mice (from the Animal Resource Centre, W.A.) were used. The mice were restrained in specially designed jigs where the right leg was held in place by a metal hook. Lead shielding ensured that only the right ventral thigh was exposed to the radiation beam. A 6MeV electron beam from a Varian 2100 Linac (20Gy / minute) was used, thus minimising the time for which the mice were restrained. Eight to twelve days after exposure to the radiation, the first skin reactions can be seen. These are scored according to a scale ranging from 0 (no visible reaction) to 3.5 (breakdown of the entire area with severe exudation). The skin reactions (erythema and moist desquamation) peak approximately 18-22 days after radiation exposure and may remain at peak for only 1-3 days. Therefore, the reactions need to be scored daily and this continues, generally until day 35, or until all moist desquamation has healed. The maximum score in a score versus time profile for each mouse in a group of 5-6 animals are averaged. Radiation-dose response data will be presented. Using the mouse thigh model, hair loss can also be measured (usually on about day 30-35) using a scale from 0-4, where 0 depicts no evident hair loss and 4 represents complete epilation. Leg contraction can also be measured as a late effect by comparison with the length of the unirradiated leg

  19. A voxel-based mouse for internal dose calculations using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, A; Lisbona, A; Thedrez, P; Sai Maurel, C; Le Forestier, D; Barbet, J; Bardies, M

    2007-02-21

    Murine models are useful for targeted radiotherapy pre-clinical experiments. These models can help to assess the potential interest of new radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, we developed a voxel-based mouse for dosimetric estimates. A female nude mouse (30 g) was frozen and cut into slices. High-resolution digital photographs were taken directly on the frozen block after each section. Images were segmented manually. Monoenergetic photon or electron sources were simulated using the MCNP4c2 Monte Carlo code for each source organ, in order to give tables of S-factors (in Gy Bq-1 s-1) for all target organs. Results obtained from monoenergetic particles were then used to generate S-factors for several radionuclides of potential interest in targeted radiotherapy. Thirteen source and 25 target regions were considered in this study. For each source region, 16 photon and 16 electron energies were simulated. Absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-factors were calculated for 16 radionuclides of interest for targeted radiotherapy. The results obtained generally agree well with data published previously. For electron energies ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 MeV, the self-absorbed fraction varies from 0.98 to 0.376 for the liver, and from 0.89 to 0.04 for the thyroid. Electrons cannot be considered as 'non-penetrating' radiation for energies above 0.5 MeV for mouse organs. This observation can be generalized to radionuclides: for example, the beta self-absorbed fraction for the thyroid was 0.616 for I-131; absorbed fractions for Y-90 for left kidney-to-left kidney and for left kidney-to-spleen were 0.486 and 0.058, respectively. Our voxel-based mouse allowed us to generate a dosimetric database for use in preclinical targeted radiotherapy experiments.

  20. Long-term exposure to intranasal oxytocin in a mouse autism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Solomon, M; Jacob, S; Crawley, J N; Silverman, J L; Larke, R H; Sahagun, E; Puhger, K R; Pride, M C; Mendoza, S P

    2014-11-11

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide involved in mammalian social behavior. It is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies in healthy rodents (prairie voles and C57BL/6J mice) have shown that there may be detrimental effects of long-term intranasal administration, raising the questions about safety and efficacy. To investigate the effects of OT on the aspects of ASD phenotype, we conducted the first study of chronic intranasal OT in a well-validated mouse model of autism, the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J inbred strain (BTBR), which displays low sociability and high repetitive behaviors. BTBR and C57BL/6J (B6) mice (N=94) were administered 0.8  IU/kg of OT intranasally, daily for 30 days, starting on day 21. We ran a well-characterized set of behavioral tasks relevant to diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism, including juvenile reciprocal social interactions, three-chambered social approach, open-field exploratory activity, repetitive self-grooming and fear-conditioned learning and memory, some during and some post treatment. Intranasal OT did not improve autism-relevant behaviors in BTBR, except for female sniffing in the three-chambered social interaction test. Male saline-treated BTBR mice showed increased interest in a novel mouse, both in chamber time and sniffing time, whereas OT-treated male BTBR mice showed a preference for the novel mouse in sniffing time only. No deleterious effects of OT were detected in either B6 or BTBR mice, except possibly for the lack of a preference for the novel mouse's chamber in OT-treated male BTBR mice. These results highlight the complexity inherent in understanding the effects of OT on behavior. Future investigations of chronic intranasal OT should include a wider dose range and early developmental time points in both healthy rodents and ASD models to affirm the efficacy and safety of OT.

  1. Engineering a new mouse model for vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J

    2012-07-01

    Although the precise mechanisms that trigger vitiligo remain elusive, autoimmune responses mediate its progression. The development of therapies has been impeded by a paucity of animal models, since mice lack interfollicular melanocytes, the primary targets in vitiligo. In this issue, Harris et al. describe a mouse model in which interfollicular melanocytes are retained by Kit ligand overexpression and an immune response is initiated by transplanting melanocyte-targeting CD8+ T cells.

  2. Mouse Chromosome Engineering for Modeling Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    van der Weyden, Louise; Bradley, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements occur frequently in humans and can be disease-associated or phenotypically neutral. Recent technological advances have led to the discovery of copy-number changes previously undetected by cytogenetic techniques. To understand the genetic consequences of such genomic changes, these mutations need to be modeled in experimentally tractable systems. The mouse is an excellent organism for this analysis because of its biological and genetic similarity to humans, and the e...

  3. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barbarulo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility complex (MHC-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC development, and thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.

  4. Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Vaiceliunaite, Agne; Erisken, Sinem; Franzen, Florian; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Responses of many neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli exceeding the classical receptive field (RF), an important property that might underlie the computation of visual saliency. Traditionally, it has proven difficult to disentangle the underlying neural circuits, including feedforward, horizontal intracortical, and feedback connectivity. Since circuit-level analysis is particularly feasible in the mouse, we asked whether neural signatures of spatial integration in ...

  5. Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiceliunaite, Agne; Erisken, Sinem; Franzen, Florian; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura

    2013-08-01

    Responses of many neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli exceeding the classical receptive field (RF), an important property that might underlie the computation of visual saliency. Traditionally, it has proven difficult to disentangle the underlying neural circuits, including feedforward, horizontal intracortical, and feedback connectivity. Since circuit-level analysis is particularly feasible in the mouse, we asked whether neural signatures of spatial integration in mouse V1 are similar to those of higher-order mammals and investigated the role of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory interneurons. Analogous to what is known from primates and carnivores, we demonstrate that, in awake mice, surround suppression is present in the majority of V1 neurons and is strongest in superficial cortical layers. Anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane, however, profoundly affects spatial integration: it reduces the laminar dependency, decreases overall suppression strength, and alters the temporal dynamics of responses. We show that these effects of brain state can be parsimoniously explained by assuming that anesthesia affects contrast normalization. Hence, the full impact of suppressive influences in mouse V1 cannot be studied under anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane. To assess the neural circuits of spatial integration, we targeted PV+ interneurons using optogenetics. Optogenetic depolarization of PV+ interneurons was associated with increased RF size and decreased suppression in the recorded population, similar to effects of lowering stimulus contrast, suggesting that PV+ interneurons contribute to spatial integration by affecting overall stimulus drive. We conclude that the mouse is a promising model for circuit-level mechanisms of spatial integration, which relies on the combined activity of different types of inhibitory interneurons.

  6. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimír; Sakakibara, Y.; Brzáková, Adéla; Ferencová, Ivana; Motlík, Jan; Kitajima, T.; Schultz, R. M.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2016), s. 546-558 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : double strand DNA breaks * DNA damage * MRE11 * meiotic maturation * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.530, year: 2016

  7. Development of the mouse cochlea database (MCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Peter A; Rapson, Ian; Voie, Arne

    2008-09-01

    The mouse cochlea database (MCD) provides an interactive, image database of the mouse cochlea for learning its anatomy and data mining of its resources. The MCD website is hosted on a centrally maintained, high-speed server at the following URL: (http://mousecochlea.umn.edu). The MCD contains two types of image resources, serial 2D image stacks and 3D reconstructions of cochlear structures. Complete image stacks of the cochlea from two different mouse strains were obtained using orthogonal plane fluorescence optical microscopy (OPFOS). 2D images of the cochlea are presented on the MCD website as: viewable images within a stack, 2D atlas of the cochlea, orthogonal sections, and direct volume renderings combined with isosurface reconstructions. In order to assess cochlear structures quantitatively, "true" cross-sections of the scala media along the length of the basilar membrane were generated by virtual resectioning of a cochlea orthogonal to a cochlear structure, such as the centroid of the basilar membrane or the scala media. 3D images are presented on the MCD website as: direct volume renderings, movies, interactive QuickTime VRs, flythrough, and isosurface 3D reconstructions of different cochlear structures. 3D computer models can also be used for solid model fabrication by rapid prototyping and models from different cochleas can be combined to produce an average 3D model. The MCD is the first comprehensive image resource on the mouse cochlea and is a new paradigm for understanding the anatomy of the cochlea, and establishing morphometric parameters of cochlear structures in normal and mutant mice.

  8. Lethality of radioisotopes in early mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macqueen, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of pre-implantation mouse embryos was found to be prevented by exposure of the embryos to [ 35 S]methionine, but not to [ 3 H]methionine. Such embryos have also been shown to be highly sensitive to [ 3 H]thymidine. These observations are discussed with reference to the path lengths and energies of electrons emitted from the different radioisotopes. (author)

  9. GPR30 activation decreases anxiety in the open field test but not in the elevated plus maze test in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anchan, Divya; Clark, Sara; Pollard, Kevin; Vasudevan, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    The GPR30 is a novel estrogen receptor (ER) that is a candidate membrane ER based on its binding to 17beta estradiol and its rapid signaling properties such as activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Its distribution in the mouse limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the estrogenic modulation of anxiety behaviors in the mouse. A previous study showed that chronic administration of a selective agonist to the GPR30 receptor, G-1, in the female rat can improv...

  10. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  11. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Mouse Models of Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology. The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) database is an expertly curated, comprehensive compendium of mouse models of human cancer. Through the enforcement of nomenclature and related annotation standards, MTB supports aggregation of data about a cancer model from diverse sources and assessment of how genetic background of a mouse strain influences the biological properties of a specific tumor type and model utility. Cancer Res; 77(21); e67-70. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-01-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model

  13. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce fem...

  14. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  15. Deletion of the forebrain mineralocorticoid receptor impairs social discrimination and decision-making in male, but not in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Ter Horst

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction with unknown individuals requires fast processing of information to decide whether it is friend or foe. This process of discrimination and decision-making is stressful and triggers secretion of corticosterone activating mineralocorticoid receptors (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR. The MR is involved in appraisal of novel experiences and risk assessment. Recently, we have demonstrated in a dual-solution memory task that MR plays a role in the early stage of information processing and decision-making. Here we examined social approach and social discrimination in male and female mice lacking MR from hippocampal-amygdala-prefrontal circuitry and controls. The social approach task allows the assessment of time spent with an unfamiliar mouse and the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. The male and female test mice were both more interested in the social than the non-social experience and deletion of their limbic MR increased the time spent with an unfamiliar mouse. Unlike controls, the male MRCaMKCre mice were not able to discriminate between an unfamiliar and the familiar mouse. However, the female MR mutant had retained the discriminative ability between unfamiliar and familiar mice. Administration of the MR antagonist RU28318 to male mice supported the role of the MR in the discrimination between an unfamiliar mouse and a non-social stimulus. No effect was found with a GR antagonist. Our findings suggest that MR is involved in sociability and social discrimination in a sex-specific manner through inhibitory control exerted putatively via limbic-hippocampal efferents. The ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is of uttermost importance for territorial defense and depends on a role of MR in decision-making.

  16. Deletion of the forebrain mineralocorticoid receptor impairs social discrimination and decision-making in male, but not in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Horst, Judith P; van der Mark, Maaike; Kentrop, Jiska; Arp, Marit; van der Veen, Rixt; de Kloet, E Ronald; Oitzl, Melly S

    2014-01-01

    Social interaction with unknown individuals requires fast processing of information to decide whether it is friend or foe. This process of discrimination and decision-making is stressful and triggers secretion of corticosterone activating mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The MR is involved in appraisal of novel experiences and risk assessment. Recently, we have demonstrated in a dual-solution memory task that MR plays a role in the early stage of information processing and decision-making. Here we examined social approach and social discrimination in male and female mice lacking MR from hippocampal-amygdala-prefrontal circuitry and controls. The social approach task allows the assessment of time spent with an unfamiliar mouse and the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. The male and female test mice were both more interested in the social than the non-social experience and deletion of their limbic MR increased the time spent with an unfamiliar mouse. Unlike controls, the male MR(CaMKCre) mice were not able to discriminate between an unfamiliar and the familiar mouse. However, the female MR mutant had retained the discriminative ability between unfamiliar and familiar mice. Administration of the MR antagonist RU28318 to male mice supported the role of the MR in the discrimination between an unfamiliar mouse and a non-social stimulus. No effect was found with a GR antagonist. Our findings suggest that MR is involved in sociability and social discrimination in a sex-specific manner through inhibitory control exerted putatively via limbic-hippocampal efferents. The ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is of uttermost importance for territorial defense and depends on a role of MR in decision-making.

  17. Altered reward sensitivity in female offspring of cocaine-exposed fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Delaney K; Rice, Richard C; Martinez Rivera, Arlene; Donohoe, Mary; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2017-08-14

    Recent rodent studies have demonstrated that parental cocaine exposure can influence offspring behavior, supporting the idea that environmental insults can impact subsequent generations. However, studies on the effects of paternal cocaine exposure are limited and multiple inconsistencies exist. In the current study, we behaviorally characterize the effects of paternal cocaine exposure in a C57BL/6J intergenerational mouse model. Male sires were administered cocaine hydrochloride (20mg/kg) or saline (0.01mL/g) once a day for 75days, and bred with drug naïve females twenty-four hours after the final injection. Offspring, separated by sex, were tested in a battery of behaviors. We found that paternal cocaine exposure altered sensitivity to the rewarding and stimulant effects of psychostimulants and natural reward (sucrose) in female offspring; female cocaine-sired offspring showed blunted cocaine preference using cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) at a low dose (5mg/kg), but displayed similar preference at a higher dose (10mg/kg) compared to saline-sired controls. Additionally, cocaine-sired female offspring exhibited higher psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine (10mg/kg) and amphetamine (2mg/kg) and consumed more sucrose. Cocaine-sired males exhibited increased psychomotor effects of cocaine and amphetamine. Male offspring also displayed an anxiety-like phenotype. No effect of paternal cocaine exposure was observed on depressive-like, learning and memory or social behavior in male or female offspring. Collectively, our findings show that paternal, chronic cocaine exposure induces intergenerational behavioral effects in male and female offspring with greatest impact on sensitivity to psychostimulants and sucrose in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pregnancy outcomes in female hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Elena; Moen, Bente E; García, Ana M; Sánchez-Paya, José; Baste, Valborg

    2010-12-01

    The hairdressing occupation may entail exposure to a wide range of chemical products, psychosocial and physical stress. All these factors may affect the health of a pregnant hairdresser and her offspring. Our aim was to analyse whether employment in this profession is associated with adverse reproductive effects. Female hairdressers working in the 248 hairdressing salons in Alicante (Spain), who became pregnant for the first time after 1990 were included (n = 94). The incidence of spontaneous abortions, number of children born and their birth weight and preterm delivery among hairdressers was compared with a control group of shop assistants and office workers (n = 138). Information was collected through personal interviews at their work place. A structured questionnaire was used gathering information concerning exposure variables including the use of chemical products, ventilation at the salons, work-related stress and hours of standing work. In addition, socio-demographic factors and smoking information were obtained. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using logbinomial regression. Hairdressers showed a non-significant increased risk of spontaneous abortions (RR = 1.6, 95%CI 0.9-2.7). There were no differences in preterm delivery and birth weight of the children born of mothers in the two groups. Among hairdressers, the RR of spontaneous abortion among those with high perceived work-related stress was 2.4 (95%CI: 0.2-28.3) relative to those with low or normal perceived stress. A slightly increased risk of spontaneous abortion among hairdressers was found, mainly associated with perceived work-related stress. Observed results deserve further research.

  19. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  20. RSPO1/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates oogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis in the mouse fetal ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Amandine Chassot

    Full Text Available Differentiation of germ cells into male gonocytes or female oocytes is a central event in sexual reproduction. Proliferation and differentiation of fetal germ cells depend on the sex of the embryo. In male mouse embryos, germ cell proliferation is regulated by the RNA helicase Mouse Vasa homolog gene and factors synthesized by the somatic Sertoli cells promote gonocyte differentiation. In the female, ovarian differentiation requires activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in the somatic cells by the secreted protein RSPO1. Using mouse models, we now show that Rspo1 also activates the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in germ cells. In XX Rspo1(-/- gonads, germ cell proliferation, expression of the early meiotic marker Stra8, and entry into meiosis are all impaired. In these gonads, impaired entry into meiosis and germ cell sex reversal occur prior to detectable Sertoli cell differentiation, suggesting that β-catenin signaling acts within the germ cells to promote oogonial differentiation and entry into meiosis. Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/β-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm.

  1. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  2. sexuality, contraception and unintended pregnancy among female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    knowledge of family planning. Condom ... relationship between respondents with multiple ... cause of healthy life lost. ... power imbalance between women ... working on female reproductive health ..... consequences among student nurses.

  3. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  4. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  5. Queering gender in contemporary female Bildung narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnircová Soňa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores, in the context of feminist discussions about the Bildungsroman, a contemporary British novel that offers shocking images of female coming of age at the turn of the millennium. Queering gender and introducing male elements into the heroine’s process of maturation, the analysed novel appears to raise questions about the continuous relevance of the feminist distinction between male and female version of the genre. The paper however argues that although significantly rewriting both female Bildung and pornographic narratives, Helen Walsh’s Brass can still be read as a variation of the female Bildungsroman and an example of its contemporary developments.

  6. The Retention of Female Unrestricted Line Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pecenco, Elena G

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the retention of female Naval officers, focusing on the relationship between officer selection metrics and retention beyond minimum service obligation and the effect of lateral...

  7. Infertility as a consequence of spermagglutinating Staphylococcus aureus colonization in genital tract of female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siftjit Kaur

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown Staphylococcus aureus to be one of the most prevalent organism in male and female genital tract but most practitioners dismiss it as mere contamination which is assumed to be of no significance. However, it is now suggested that the presence of this organism should not be ignored, as incubation of spermatozoa with S. aureus results in reduced sperm motility. Although S. aureus has been reported to cause immobilization of spermatozoa, however, its role in infertility has yet to be elucidated. The present study was designed to establish a spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus isolated from the cervix of a woman with unexplained infertility, in mouse and evaluate its effect on fertility outcome. Female Balb/c mice were inoculated intravaginally with different doses of S. aureus (10(4, 10(6 or 10(8cfu/20 µl for 10 consecutive days. Microbial colonization monitored every 3(rd day by vaginal cultures, revealed that strain could efficiently colonize mouse vagina. Mating on day 12, with proven breeder males led to 100% decrease in fertility as compared to control. Even a single dose of 10(6 or 10(8cfu could lead to vaginal colonization which persisted for 10 days followed by gradual clearing till 21 days, vaginal cultures were negative thereafter. Female mice mated on day 7 (culture positive, were rendered infertile, however, the mice mated on day 22 (culture negative, retained fertility and delivered pups indicating its role in provoking infertility. Further, except infertility, no other clinical manifestation could be seen apparently or histologically. However, when a non-spermagglutinating/immobilizing standard strain of S. aureus MTCC6625 was inoculated intravaginally at 10(8cfu for 10 days followed by mating on day 12, fertility was observed in all the female mice. This supports the hypothesis that infertility observed in the former groups was as a result of colonization with spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus.

  8. The α-fetoprotein knock-out mouse model suggests that parental behavior is sexually differentiated under the influence of prenatal estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Pawluski, Jodi L.; Brock, Olivier; Douhard, Quentin; Bakker, Julie

    2010-01-01

    In rodent species, sexual differentiation of the brain for many reproductive processes depends largely on estradiol. This was recently confirmed again by using the α-fetoprotein knockout (AFP-KO) mouse model, which lacks the protective actions of α-fetoprotein against maternal estradiol and as a result represents a good model to determine the contribution of prenatal estradiol to the sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Female AFP-KO mice were defeminized and masculinized with regard to their neuroendocrine responses as well as sexual behavior. Since parental behavior is also strongly sexually differentiated in mice, we used the AFP-KO mouse model here to ask whether parental responses are differentiated prenatally under the influence of estradiol. It was found that AFP-KO females showed longer latencies to retrieve pups to the nest and also exhibited lower levels of crouching over the pups in the nest in comparison to WT females. In fact, they resembled males (WT and AFP-KO). Other measures of maternal behavior, for example the incidence of infanticide, tended to be higher in AFP-KO females than in WT females but this increase failed to reach statistical significance. The deficits observed in parental behavior of AFP-KO females could not be explained by any changes in olfactory function, novelty recognition or anxiety. Thus our results suggest that prenatal estradiol defeminizes the parental brain in mice. PMID:20109458

  9. Pharmacokinetic and Genomic Effects of Arsenite in Drinking Water on Mouse Lung in a 30-Day Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Chilakapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2 objectives of this subchronic study were to determine the arsenite drinking water exposure dependent increases in female C3H mouse liver and lung tissue arsenicals and to characterize the dose response (to 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm arsenite in drinking water for 30 days and a purified AIN-93M diet for genomic mouse lung expression patterns. Mouse lungs were analyzed for inorganic arsenic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. The total lung mean arsenical levels were 1.4, 22.5, 30.1, 50.9, 105.3, and 316.4 ng/g lung tissue after 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively. At 85 ppm, the total mean lung arsenical levels increased 14-fold and 131-fold when compared to either the lowest noncontrol dose (0.05 ppm or the control dose, respectively. We found that arsenic exposure elicited minimal numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 77, 38, 90, 87, and 87 DEGs after 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively, which were associated with cardiovascular disease, development, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. After 30 days of arsenite exposure, this study showed monotonic increases in mouse lung arsenical (total arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations but no clear dose-related increases in DEG numbers.

  10. The Virtual Mouse Brain: A Computational Neuroinformatics Platform to Study Whole Mouse Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melozzi, Francesca; Woodman, Marmaduke M; Jirsa, Viktor K; Bernard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Connectome-based modeling of large-scale brain network dynamics enables causal in silico interrogation of the brain's structure-function relationship, necessitating the close integration of diverse neuroinformatics fields. Here we extend the open-source simulation software The Virtual Brain (TVB) to whole mouse brain network modeling based on individual diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)-based or tracer-based detailed mouse connectomes. We provide practical examples on how to use The Virtual Mouse Brain (TVMB) to simulate brain activity, such as seizure propagation and the switching behavior of the resting state dynamics in health and disease. TVMB enables theoretically driven experimental planning and ways to test predictions in the numerous strains of mice available to study brain function in normal and pathological conditions.

  11. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  12. The female condom: controlled by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The polyurethane female condom is stronger than the latex male condom. Thus, the single-use female condom is less likely to break and has a longer shelf life than the single-use male condom. The ring at the closed end of the condom helps women insert the condom and secures the condom inside the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina and protects the labia and the base of the penis. Female condom use reduces the likelihood of transmission of infectious diseases. The female condom is as effective at preventing pregnancy as the male condom and the diaphragm. Its life-table pregnancy rate in a multicenter clinical trial in the US and Latin America was 15.1% (12.4% in US and 22.% in Latin America). The 6-month failure rate during perfect use was 4.3%. In laboratory studies, no sexually transmitted organism, including HIV, penetrated the female condom. In a human use study, 14% of controls and 14.7% of non-perfect users were reinfected with trichomonas while none of the perfect users were reinfected. Advantages of the female condom follow: allows for greater sensitivity and greater protection than the male condom, is controlled by the female, can be used with any lubricant (even oil-based lubricants), and can be inserted well before intercourse. Disadvantages include cost (5 times costlier than the male condom), unsightly coverage of female genitalia, noisy during use, and breakage (although breakage rates were lower than for latex condoms: 1% vs. 2-5%). Method acceptability studies among various populations show that the inner rings and movement of the female condom during use were the most common complaints. Many women liked the female condom and would recommend it to others. Only a few women complained about insertion problems, yet it took some women at least two tries to insert the female condom.

  13. Mouse immature oocytes irradiated in vivo at 14-days of age and evaluated for transmitted effects using the aggregation embryo chimera assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Raabe, O.G.; Walsh, K.J.; Wiley, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    A previous study using the mouse-preimplantation-embryo-chimera assay demonstrated a reproducible transmitted effect (proliferation disadvantage observed in early embryos) from females irradiated as 49-day-old adults using 0.15 Gy of gamma rays and then mated seven weeks later, i.e., embryos were from oocytes that were immature at time of irradiation. Because mouse immature oocytes are known to be much more radiosensitive to cell killing in juveniles than in adults, a follow-on study was performed here using 14-day-old juvenile mice. In contrast to adults, the exposure of juveniles to 0.15 Gy of gamma rays did not result in a detectable transmitted proliferation disadvantage when animals were mated 7 or 12 weeks later. This observation is discussed in light of previous studies on mouse immature oocytes and embryo chimeras

  14. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  15. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kontula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The

  16. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  17. Laparoscopic evaluation of female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiderr, G.; Rani, S.; Zehra, N.; Munir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sub-fertility is inability to ensure child bearing when it is wanted. Prevalence of sub-fertility in industrialised countries has been quoted as 20%, and seems to be on the rise. Traditional way to assess the uterine cavity, tubal structure and tubal patency was hysterosalpingography but it has now been largely superseded by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. The objective of this study was to highlight the role of laparoscopy in establishing diagnosis of female infertility. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Gynaecology Unit of Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan from August 28, 2000 to July 1, 2001. Total 200 sub-fertile patients attended the gynaecology OPD. Out of these 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy and dye test who were suspected cases of endometriosis, abnormal HSG and unexplained infertility. Those patients who had medical disorders and contraindication for laparoscopy were excluded from study. Detailed history of every patient was recorded on a proforma and physical examination was performed. Laparoscopy was scheduled in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Data were analysed using SPSS 11. Frequency and percentages were calculated to describe the results. Results: Out of 200 sub-fertile patients total 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy. Twenty (66%) patients were in primary infertility group while 10 (33%) patients were in secondary infertility group. Eleven (55%) patients of primary infertility belong to age group of 18-25 years while 6(60%) patients of secondary infertility belong to age group of 26- 33 years. Mean duration of sub fertility at time of presentation in primary infertility group was 1.95 years while in secondary infertility was 2.70 years. In primary infertility group main associated symptoms were dysmenorrhoeal in 8 (40%), irregular cycles 5 (25%), and dyspareunia in 4 (20%). In secondary infertility group 3 (30%) patients had dysmenorrhoeal and dyspareunia while 2

  18. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  19. CD8+ T Cells Mediate Female-Dominant IL-4 Production and Airway Inflammation in Allergic Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Ito

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of bronchial asthma are higher in females than in males after puberty. Although antigen-specific CD8+ T cells play an important role in the development of asthma through their suppressive effect on cytokine production, the contribution of CD8+ T cells to sex differences in asthmatic responses remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the sex-specific effect of CD8+ T cells in the suppression of asthma using an ovalbumin mouse model of asthma. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, lung type 2 T-helper cytokine levels, and interleukin-4 (IL-4 production by bronchial lymph node cells were significantly higher in female wild-type (WT mice compared with male mice, whereas no such sex differences were observed between male and female cd8α-disrupted mice. The adaptive transfer of male, but not female, CD8+ T cells reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the recovered BAL fluid of male recipient mice, while no such sex difference in the suppressive activity of CD8+ T cells was observed in female recipient mice. Male CD8+ T cells produced higher levels of IFN-γ than female CD8+ T cells did, and this trend was associated with reduced IL-4 production by male, but not female, CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, IFN-γ receptor expression on CD4+ T cells was significantly lower in female mice than in male mice. These results suggest that female-dominant asthmatic responses are orchestrated by the reduced production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T cells and the lower expression of IFN-γ receptor on CD4+ T cells in females compared with males.

  20. FEMALE DRAMATISTS, DISTINCTION AND THE NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    azunwo eziwho emenik

    work beneficial to students of literary research and the humanities in general. ... They do but to a limit due to their status in the society which can be tied ... on female body images, uses „women‟s language‟, expresses the female psyche or .... time Zulu Sofola used the position of influence and prominence she enjoys, as a ...

  1. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  2. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  3. Gender and computer games : Exploring females' dislikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph

    On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female

  4. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  5. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay

  6. Are female top managers really paid less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    We study the gender pay gap for all top managers (CEO and executive directors) of listed UK companies and find mixed evidence: female CEOs do not face a pay gap, but the other female executive directors (e.g. CFO, COO, Deputy CEO) are discriminated against (while controlling for position, tenure,

  7. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  8. Barriers to Professional Advancement among Female Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Virginia E.

    It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male…

  9. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  10. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  11. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  12. Neurogenetics: sex and the female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-09-08

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual and Contraceptive Practices among Female Undergraduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: There is a high level of sexual activity and low contraceptive use among female undergraduate students in Southwest Nigeria. More reproductive health education and promotion is necessary to safeguard their sexual health. KEYWORDS: sexual behaviour, contraception, female undergraduates, Nigeria ...

  14. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  15. Supporting the emergence of female student entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Kruse, Merethe

    2011-01-01

    intends to activate unused entrepreneurial potential at the AAA and increase the number of female design students who start their own business, during or after completion of study. The aim is that an independent career is made available for all, and not only for groups of particularly resourceful 'born......' entrepreneurs, where female students are underrepresented. This paper will show how enterprising elements...

  16. Career Management Issues of Female Business Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Responses to a career management survey from 309 male and 79 female business expatriates revealed that, controlling for demographic differences, females could less often meet their career goals with the corporation. They were less likely to regard expatriation as a useful career move. Explanations were derived from relevant research literature.…

  17. Neurogenetics : sex and the female brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  18. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  19. Sexually dimorphic distribution of Prokr2 neurons revealed by the Prokr2-Cre mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Zaid; Sim, Hosung; Garcia-Galiano, David; Han, Xingfa; Bellefontaine, Nicole; Saunders, Thomas L; Elias, Carol F

    2017-12-01

    Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) is predominantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of PROKR2 in humans are associated with Kallmann syndrome due to the disruption of gonadotropin releasing hormone neuronal migration and deficient olfactory bulb morphogenesis. PROKR2 has been also implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH neurons post-migration and other physiological systems. However, the brain circuitry and mechanisms associated with these actions have been difficult to investigate mainly due to the widespread distribution of Prokr2-expressing cells, and the lack of animal models and molecular tools. Here, we describe the generation, validation and characterization of a new mouse model that expresses Cre recombinase driven by the Prokr2 promoter, using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Cre expression was visualized using reporter genes, tdTomato and GFP, in males and females. Expression of Cre-induced reporter genes was found in brain sites previously described to express Prokr2, e.g., the paraventricular and the suprachiasmatic nuclei, and the area postrema. The Prokr2-Cre mouse model was further validated by colocalization of Cre-induced GFP and Prokr2 mRNA. No disruption of Prokr2 expression, GnRH neuronal migration or fertility was observed. Comparative analysis of Prokr2-Cre expression in male and female brains revealed a sexually dimorphic distribution confirmed by in situ hybridization. In females, higher Cre activity was found in the medial preoptic area, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, medial amygdala and lateral parabrachial nucleus. In males, Cre was higher in the amygdalo-hippocampal area. The sexually dimorphic pattern of Prokr2 expression indicates differential roles in reproductive function and, potentially, in other physiological systems.

  20. Lifespan and reproduction in brain-specific miR-29-knockdown mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toru; Tanabe, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-18

    The microRNA miR-29 is widely distributed and highly expressed in adult mouse brain during the mouse's lifetime. We recently created conditional mutant mice whose miR-29 was brain-specifically knocked down through overexpression of an antisense RNA transgene against miR-29. To explore a role for brain miR-29 in maximizing organismal fitness, we assessed somatic growth, reproduction, and lifespan in the miR-29-knockdown (KD) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. The KD mice were developmentally indistinguishable from WT mice with respect to gross morphology and physical activity. Fertility testing revealed that KD males were subfertile, whereas KD females were hyperfertile, only in terms of reproductive success, when compared to their gender-matched WT correspondents. Another phenotypic difference between KD and WT animals appeared in their lifespan data; KD males displayed an overall increasing tendency in post-reproductive survival relative to WT males. In contrast, KD females were prone to shorter lifespans than WT females. These results clarify that brain-targeted miR-29 knockdown affects both lifespan and reproduction in a gender-dependent manner, and moreover that the reciprocal responsiveness to the miR-29 knockdown between these two phenotypes in both genders closely follow life-course models based on the classical trade-off prediction wherein elaborate early-life energetic investment in reproduction entails accelerated late-life declines in survival, and vice versa. Thus, this study identified miR-29 as the first mammalian miRNA that is directly implicated in the lifetime trade-off between the two major fitness components, lifespan and reproduction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of fumonisin B1 cytotoxicity by nanosilicate platelets during mouse embryo development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jing Liao

    Full Text Available Nanosilicate platelets (NSP, the form of natural silicate clay that was exfoliated from montmorillonite (MMT, is widely used as a feed additive for its high non-specific binding capacity with mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1, and has been evaluated its safety for biomedical use including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and lethal dosage (LD. In the study, we further examined its toxicity on the development of CD1 mouse embryos and its capacity to prevent teratogenesis-induced by FB1. In vitro cultures, NSP did not disturb the development and the quality of intact pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, newborn mice from females consumed with NSP showed no abnormalities. NSP had an unexpected high adsorption capacity in vitro. In contrast to female mice consumed with FB1 only, a very low residual level of FB1 in the circulation, reduced incidence of neutral tube defects and significantly increased fetal weight were observed in the females consumed with FB1 and NSP, suggesting a high alleviation effect of NSP on FB1 in vivo. Furthermore, FB1 treatment disturbed the gene expression of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes (longevity assurance homolog 5, LASS 5; sphingosine kinase 1, Sphk1; sphingosine kinase 2, Sphk2; sphingosine 1- phosphate lyase, Sgpl1; sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase, Sgpp1 in the maternal liver, uterus, fetus, and placenta, but NSP administration reversed the perturbations. Based on these findings, we conclude that NSP is a feasible and effective agent for supplementary use in reducing the toxicity of FB1 to animals.

  2. Cytogenetic effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on SWR/J mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the cytogenetic effects of sildenafil citrate in SWR/J mouse bone marrow cells. Thirty-six males and 36 females were used and divided into four groups. Each group contained 18 animals (9 males and 9 females), weighing 30-35 g. These animals were orally administered with a single dose of 13, 26 or 40 mg/kg sildenafil citrate solution. A control group received normal saline in an identical condition. The animals were sacrificed at 12, 24 or 48 h, after the treatment. Chromosome aberrations were investigated in 50 metaphases per animal. No significant differences in the percentages of mitotic indices or in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed between treated male and female mice at any doses or at any time intervals used, therefore, data from the two sexes were pooled when analyzed statistically. No significant (p < 0.05) differences in the percentages of mitotic indices or in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed between sildenafil citrate-treated groups and the control group at any doses or at any time intervals used. However, the percentages of centromeric adhesions increased significantly (p < 0.01) in treated groups as compared with the control group at all doses and at all time intervals used. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that sildenafil citrate does not have cytogenetic effects on mouse bone marrow cells, but the centromeric adhesions induced by this drug need further studies to confirm them and to investigate the possible mechanism(s) responsible for such effect.

  3. Antenatal Diagnosis of an XXX Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Lawrence R.; Prichard, Lorraine L.; Bradshaw, Christy L.; Jones, Oliver W.; Peterson, Raymond M.; Dixson, Barbara K.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes the first antenatal diagnosis of an XXX female. Over 150 postnatal cases of XXX females have been described. There is no specific phenotype associated with the sex chromosome abnormality and most such persons are fertile. The frequency of XXX females in mental institutions is 3.9 per 1,000 female subjects whereas the frequency in consecutive newborn infants is 1.1 per 1,000 newborns. Chi-square analysis shows this difference cannot be due to chance. On the other hand, data from consecutive newborn studies suggest that intellectual development in XXX newborns is within normal range. Available evidence favors normal development in XXX female infants although the risk for developmental disabilities may be higher for the XXX than for the XX infant. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1154778

  4. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  5. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  6. Exposure to Brefeldin A promotes initiation of meiosis in murine female germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Jun; Chen, Bo; Feng, Xin-Lei; Ma, Hua-Gang; Sun, Li-Lan; Feng, Yan-Min; Liang, Gui-Jin; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Li, Lan; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, ontogenesis starts from a fusion of spermatozoon and oocyte, which are produced by reductive nuclear division of a diploid germ cell in a specialised but complex biological process known as meiosis. However, little is known about the mechanism of meiotic initiation in germ cells, although many factors may be responsible for meiosis both in male and female gonads. In this study, 11.5 days post coitum (dpc) female fetal mouse genital ridges were cultured in vitro with exposure to Brefeldin A (BFA) for 6h, and the changes in meiosis were detected. Synaptonemal-complex analysis implied that BFA played a positive role in meiosis initiation and this hypothesis was confirmed by quantitative PCR of meiosis-specific genes: stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) and deleted in a zoospermia-like (DAZL). At the same time, mRNA expression of retinoic acid synthetase (Raldh2) and retinoic acid (RA) receptors increased in female gonads with in vitro exposure to BFA. Transplanting genital ridges treated with BFA into the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice demonstrated that the development capacity of female germ cells was normal, while formation of primordial follicles was seen to be a result of accelerated meiosis after exposure to BFA. In conclusion, the study indicated that BFA stimulated meiosis initiation partly by RA signalling and then promoted the development of follicles.

  7. Heterozygous CDKL5 Knockout Female Mice Are a Valuable Animal Model for CDKL5 Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CDKL5 disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like five gene. CDKL5 disorder primarily affects girls and is characterized by early-onset epileptic seizures, gross motor impairment, intellectual disability, and autistic features. Although all CDKL5 female patients are heterozygous, the most valid disease-related model, the heterozygous female Cdkl5 knockout (Cdkl5 +/− mouse, has been little characterized. The lack of detailed behavioral profiling of this model remains a crucial gap that must be addressed in order to advance preclinical studies. Here, we provide a behavioral and molecular characterization of heterozygous Cdkl5 +/− mice. We found that Cdkl5 +/− mice reliably recapitulate several aspects of CDKL5 disorder, including autistic-like behaviors, defects in motor coordination and memory performance, and breathing abnormalities. These defects are associated with neuroanatomical alterations, such as reduced dendritic arborization and spine density of hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, Cdkl5 +/− mice show age-related alterations in protein kinase B (AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling, two crucial signaling pathways involved in many neurodevelopmental processes. In conclusion, our study provides a comprehensive overview of neurobehavioral phenotypes of heterozygous female Cdkl5 +/− mice and demonstrates that the heterozygous female might be a valuable animal model in preclinical studies on CDKL5 disorder.

  8. FEMALE MICE ARE RESISTANT TO Fabp1 GENE ABLATION-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN ENDOCANNABINOID LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G.; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Peng, Xiaoxue; Kaczocha, Martin; Murphy, Eric J.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    Although liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) is not detectable in brain, Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) markedly increases endocannabinoids (EC) in brains of male mice. Since the brain EC system of females differs significantly from that of males, it was important to determine if LKO differently impacted the brain EC system. LKO did not alter brain levels of arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing ECs, i.e arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but decreased non-ARA-containing N-acylethanolamides (OEA, PEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) that potentiate the actions of AEA and 2-AG. These changes in brain potentiating EC levels were not associated with: i) a net decrease in levels of brain membrane proteins associated with fatty acid uptake and EC synthesis; ii) a net increase in brain protein levels of cytosolic EC chaperones and enzymes in EC degradation; or iii) increased brain protein levels of EC receptors (CB1, TRVP1). Instead, the reduced or opposite responsiveness of female brain EC levels to loss of FABP1 (LKO) correlated with intrinsically lower FABP1 level in livers of WT females than males. These data show that female mouse brain endocannabinoid levels were unchanged (AEA, 2-AG) or decreased (OEA, PEA, 2-OG) by complete loss of FABP1 (LKO). PMID:27450559

  9. Gender Inequality in Female-Dominated Occupation: The Earnings of Male and Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Richard R.; Schneider, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines earnings differentials between male and female teachers, using data from the 1987 Schools and Staffing Survey by the U.S. Department of Education. The estimated cost of being a female teacher is 5% in annual contract salary. In the female-dominated teaching profession, despite regulated pay scales and other structures to ensure pay…

  10. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  11. Neutron issues in the JANUS mouse program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, the JANUS program in the Biological and Medical Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has compiled a database on the response of both sexes of an F 1 hybrid mouse, the B6CF 1 (C57BL/6 x BALB/c), to external whole- body irradiation by 60 Co γ-rays and fission neutrons. Three basic patterns of exposure for both neutrons and γ-rays have been investigated: single exposures, 24 equal once-weekly exposures, and 60 equal once-weekly exposures. All irradiations were terminated at predetermined total doses, with dose calculated in centigrays at the midline of the mouse. Three endpoints will be discussed in this paper: (1) life shortening, (2) a point estimate for cumulative mortality, and (3) the hazard function. Life shortening is used as an analysis endpoint because it summarizes, in a single index, the integrated effect of all injuries accumulated by an organism. Histopathological analyses of the mice used in the ANL studies have indicated that 85% of the deaths were caused by neoplasms. Connective tissue tumors were the dominant tumor in the B6CF 1 mouse, with tumors of lymphoreticular origin accounting for approximately 80% of this class. The latter two endpoints will therefore be used to describe the life table experience of mice dying from the lymphoreticular class of tumors. Dose-response models will be applied to the three endpoints in order to describe the response function for neutron exposures, evaluate the effect of dose range and pattern of exposure on the response function for neutrons, and provide a set of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of the ANL database. 25 refs

  12. Structural covariance networks in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Bifone, Angelo; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of networks of correlation between regional gray matter volume as measured across subjects in a group of individuals has been consistently described in several human studies, an approach termed structural covariance MRI (scMRI). Complementary to prevalent brain mapping modalities like functional and diffusion-weighted imaging, the approach can provide precious insights into the mutual influence of trophic and plastic processes in health and pathological states. To investigate whether analogous scMRI networks are present in lower mammal species amenable to genetic and experimental manipulation such as the laboratory mouse, we employed high resolution morphoanatomical MRI in a large cohort of genetically-homogeneous wild-type mice (C57Bl6/J) and mapped scMRI networks using a seed-based approach. We show that the mouse brain exhibits robust homotopic scMRI networks in both primary and associative cortices, a finding corroborated by independent component analyses of cortical volumes. Subcortical structures also showed highly symmetric inter-hemispheric correlations, with evidence of distributed antero-posterior networks in diencephalic regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed six identifiable clusters of cortical and sub-cortical regions corresponding to previously described neuroanatomical systems. Our work documents the presence of homotopic cortical and subcortical scMRI networks in the mouse brain, thus supporting the use of this species to investigate the elusive biological and neuroanatomical underpinnings of scMRI network development and its derangement in neuropathological states. The identification of scMRI networks in genetically homogeneous inbred mice is consistent with the emerging view of a key role of environmental factors in shaping these correlational networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus: impact of gender and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus. Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years, middle-aged (4–5 years and old (6–10 years. Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction, the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur.

  14. Mouse allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and risk of mouse skin test sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, E. C.; Diette, G. B.; Krop, E. J. M.; Aalberse, R. C.; Smith, A. L.; Eggleston, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    High serum levels of cat-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with protection against allergic sensitization to cat, but whether this association applies to other animal allergens remains unclear. To determine if high levels of mouse-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with a decreased risk of

  15. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals

  16. Expression of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in mouse oocytes, eggs and ovarian follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-3-3 (YWHA proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. Seven mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3 are known (β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ and, σ. These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. We are particularly interested in the role of 14-3-3 in meiosis in mammalian eggs and the role 14-3-3 proteins may play in ovarian function. Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. Results We have determined that all of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in mouse eggs and ovarian follicular cells including oocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated oocytes and eggs confirmed the presence of all of the isoforms with characteristic differences in some of their intracellular localizations. For example, some isoforms (β, ε, γ, and ζ are expressed more prominently in peripheral cytoplasm compared to the germinal vesicles in oocytes, but are uniformly dispersed within eggs. On the other hand, 14-3-3η is diffusely dispersed in the oocyte, but attains a uniform punctate distribution in the egg with marked accumulation in the region of the meiotic spindle apparatus. Immunohistochemical staining detected all isoforms within ovarian follicles, with some similarities as well as notable differences in relative amounts, localizations and patterns of expression in multiple cell types at various stages of follicular development. Conclusions We found that mouse oocytes, eggs and follicular cells within the ovary express all seven isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein. Examination of the

  17. Motivation Factors for Female Entrepreneurship in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cantú Cavada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico. Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico. Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.

  18. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  19. Female headship, feminization of poverty and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimenyi, M S; Mbaku, J M

    1995-07-01

    Female-headed households are at greater risk of slipping into poverty than male-headed households. Indeed, sex and marital status of the head of household are the most important determinants of a family's poverty status in the US. Divorce, separation, death of a husband, and out-of-wedlock births can lead to female headship. Transfer payments, especially the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, are blamed for contributing to increased marital instability and out-of-wedlock births. The authors examined the role of welfare benefits in influencing female headship. Preliminary results using standard estimation procedures indicate that transfers do not significantly influence female headship. Standard estimation procedures are, however, erroneous because they ignore differences in propensities to establish mother-only households. Therefore, adjusting for differences in propensities to establish female-headed households, the level of welfare benefits is indeed an important factor in explaining the variation in the changes in the birth rates to unmarried women. The use of a weighted measure suggests that welfare benefits, by increasing female headship of women who otherwise have low propensities to be female heads, have played a significant role in the feminization of poverty.

  20. Male and Female Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Garza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and breast size are morphological traits that are associated with female attractiveness. Previous studies using line drawings of women have shown that men across cultures rate low WHRs (0.6 and 0.7 as most attractive. In this study, we used additional viewing measurements (i.e., first fixation duration and visual regressions to measure visual attention and record how long participants first focused on the female body and whether they regressed back to an area of interest. Additionally, we manipulated skin tone to determine whether they preferred light- or dark-skinned women. In two eye tracking experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of female nude images varying in WHR (0.5–0.9, breast size, and skin tone. We measured first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total time. The overall results of both studies revealed that visual attention fell mostly on the face, the breasts, and the midriff of the female body, supporting the evolutionary view that reproductively relevant regions of the female body are important to female attractiveness. Because the stimuli varied in skin tone and the participants were mainly Hispanic of Mexican American descent, the findings from these studies also support a preference for low WHRs and reproductively relevant regions of the female body.

  1. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  2. Mouse IDGenes: a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Michaela; Preusse, Martin; Zhang, Jingzhong; Schechter, Julia; Mayer, Daniela; Lentes, Bernd; Theis, Fabian; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Trümbach, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The study of developmental processes in the mouse and other vertebrates includes the understanding of patterning along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial- lateral axis. Specifically, neural development is also of great clinical relevance because several human neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism disorders or drug addiction and also brain malformations are thought to have neurodevelopmental origins, i.e. pathogenesis initiates during childhood and adolescence. Impacts during early neurodevelopment might also predispose to late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. The neural tube develops from its precursor tissue, the neural plate, in a patterning process that is determined by compartmentalization into morphogenetic units, the action of local signaling centers and a well-defined and locally restricted expression of genes and their interactions. While public databases provide gene expression data with spatio-temporal resolution, they usually neglect the genetic interactions that govern neural development. Here, we introduce Mouse IDGenes, a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain. The database is highly curated and offers detailed information about gene expressions and the genetic interactions at the developing mid-/hindbrain boundary. To showcase the predictive power of interaction data, we infer new Wnt/β-catenin target genes by machine learning and validate one of them experimentally. The database is updated regularly. Moreover, it can easily be extended by the research community. Mouse IDGenes will contribute as an important resource to the research on mouse brain development, not exclusively by offering data retrieval, but also by allowing data input. http://mouseidgenes.helmholtz-muenchen.de. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Purification of Oogonial Stem Cells From Adult Mouse and Human Ovaries: An Assessment of the Literature and a View Toward the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary claims that mitotically active female germ line or oogonial stem cells (OSCs) exist and support oogenesis during postnatal life in mammals have been debated in the field of reproductive biology since March 2004, when a mouse study posed the first serious challenge to the dogma of a fixed pool of oocytes being endowed at birth in more than 50 years. Other studies have since been put forth that further question the validity of this dogma, including the isolation of OSCs from neonat...

  4. The effect of radiation dose on mouse skeletal muscle remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardee, Justin P.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Fix, Dennis K.; Gao, Song; Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Carson, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two clinically relevant radiation doses on the susceptibility of mouse skeletal muscle to remodeling. Alterations in muscle morphology and regulatory signaling were examined in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles after radiation doses that differed in total biological effective dose (BED). Female C57BL/6 (8-wk) mice were randomly assigned to non-irradiated control, four fractionated doses of 4 Gy (4x4 Gy; BED 37 Gy), or a single 16 Gy dose (16 Gy; BED 100 Gy). Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after the initial radiation exposure. The 16 Gy, but not 4x4 Gy, decreased total muscle protein and RNA content. Related to muscle regeneration, both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy increased the incidence of central nuclei containing myofibers, but only 16 Gy increased the extracellular matrix volume. However, only 4x4 Gy increased muscle 4-hydroxynonenal expression. While both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy decreased IIB myofiber mean cross-sectional area (CSA), only 16 Gy decreased IIA myofiber CSA. 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter IIA and IIB myofibers, while 4x4 Gy only increased the incidence of small diameter IIB myofibers. Both treatments decreased the frequency and CSA of low succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDH) fibers. Only 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter myofibers having high SDH activity. Neither treatment altered muscle signaling related to protein turnover or oxidative metabolism. Collectively, these results demonstrate that radiation dose differentially affects muscle remodeling, and these effects appear to be related to fiber type and oxidative metabolism

  5. Visual Information Present in Infragranular Layers of Mouse Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Ryan J; Hasenstaub, Andrea R

    2018-03-14

    The cerebral cortex is a major hub for the convergence and integration of signals from across the sensory modalities; sensory cortices, including primary regions, are no exception. Here we show that visual stimuli influence neural firing in the auditory cortex of awake male and female mice, using multisite probes to sample single units across multiple cortical layers. We demonstrate that visual stimuli influence firing in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. We then determine the laminar location of recording sites through electrode track tracing with fluorescent dye and optogenetic identification using layer-specific markers. Spiking responses to visual stimulation occur deep in auditory cortex and are particularly prominent in layer 6. Visual modulation of firing rate occurs more frequently at areas with secondary-like auditory responses than those with primary-like responses. Auditory cortical responses to drifting visual gratings are not orientation-tuned, unlike visual cortex responses. The deepest cortical layers thus appear to be an important locus for cross-modal integration in auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The deepest layers of the auditory cortex are often considered its most enigmatic, possessing a wide range of cell morphologies and atypical sensory responses. Here we show that, in mouse auditory cortex, these layers represent a locus of cross-modal convergence, containing many units responsive to visual stimuli. Our results suggest that this visual signal conveys the presence and timing of a stimulus rather than specifics about that stimulus, such as its orientation. These results shed light on both how and what types of cross-modal information is integrated at the earliest stages of sensory cortical processing. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/382854-09$15.00/0.

  6. Metabolic phenotype in the mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraschi-Diaz, Iris; Tauer, Josephine T; El-Rifai, Omar; Guillemette, Delphine; Lefebvre, Geneviève; Rauch, Frank; Ferron, Mathieu; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2017-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common heritable bone fragility disorder, usually caused by dominant mutations in genes coding for collagen type I alpha chains, COL1A1 or COL1A2 Osteocalcin (OCN) is now recognized as a bone-derived regulator of insulin secretion and sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Since OI is associated with increased rates of bone formation and resorption, we hypothesized that the levels of undercarboxylated OCN are increased in OI. The objective of this study was to determine changes in OCN and to elucidate the metabolic phenotype in the Col1a1 Jrt/+ mouse, a model of dominant OI caused by a Col1a1 mutation. Circulating levels of undercarboxylated OCN were higher in 4-week-old OI mice and normal by 8 weeks of age. Young OI animals exhibited a sex-dependent metabolic phenotype, including increased insulin levels in males, improved glucose tolerance in females, lower levels of random glucose and low adiposity in both sexes. The rates of O 2 consumption and CO 2 production, as well as energy expenditure assessed using indirect calorimetry were significantly increased in OI animals of both sexes, whereas respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher in OI males only. Although OI mice have significant physical impairment that may contribute to metabolic differences, we specifically accounted for movement and compared OI and WT animals during the periods of similar activity levels. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that OI animals have alterations in whole body energy metabolism that are consistent with the action of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Fertilization Induces a Transient Exposure of Phosphatidylserine in Mouse Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curia, Claudio A.; Ernesto, Juan I.; Stein, Paula; Busso, Dolores; Schultz, Richard M.; Cuasnicu, Patricia S.; Cohen, Débora J.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is normally localized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and the requirement of PS translocation to the outer leaflet in cellular processes other than apoptosis has been demonstrated recently. In this work we investigated the occurrence of PS mobilization in mouse eggs, which express flippase Atp8a1 and scramblases Plscr1 and 3, as determined by RT-PCR; these enzyme are responsible for PS distribution in cell membranes. We find a dramatic increase in binding of flouresceinated-Annexin-V, which specifically binds to PS, following fertilization or parthenogenetic activation induced by SrCl2 treatment. This increase was not observed when eggs were first treated with BAPTA-AM, indicating that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration was required for PS exposure. Fluorescence was observed over the entire egg surface with the exception of the regions overlying the meiotic spindle and sperm entry site. PS exposure was also observed in activated eggs obtained from CaMKIIγ null females, which are unable to exit metaphase II arrest despite displaying Ca2+ spikes. In contrast, PS exposure was not observed in TPEN-activated eggs, which exit metaphase II arrest in the absence of Ca2+ release. PS exposure was also observed when eggs were activated with ethanol but not with a Ca2+ ionophore, suggesting that the Ca2+ source and concentration are relevant for PS exposure. Last, treatment with cytochalasin D, which disrupts microfilaments, or jasplakinolide, which stabilizes microfilaments, prior to egg activation showed that PS externalization is an actin-dependent process. Thus, the Ca2+ rise during egg activation results in a transient exposure of PS in fertilized eggs that is not associated with apoptosis. PMID:23951277

  8. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    Full Text Available Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer granulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

  10. Growth Arrest-Specific 6 (Gas6) and TAM Receptors in Mouse Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uras, Fikriye; Küçük, Burhanettin; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Demir, Ahmet Muzaffer

    2015-03-05

    Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) is a newly discovered vitamin K-dependent protein, which is a ligand for TAM receptors [Tyro3 (Sky), Axl, and Mer] from the tyrosine kinase family. Gas6 knockout mice were resistant to venous and arterial thrombosis. There are contradictory reports on the presence of Gas6 and its receptors in mouse platelets. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Gas6 and its receptors were present in mouse platelets or not. Specific pathogen-free BALB/c male and female mice of 8-10 weeks old and 25-30 g in weight were anesthetized under light ether anesthesia and blood samples were taken from their hearts. RNAs were isolated from isolated platelets, and then mRNAs encoding Gas6 and TAM receptors were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein concentrations of Gas6 and TAM receptors in platelets were measured by ELISA, but not those of Mer, because of the absence of any commercial ELISA kit for mouse specimens. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of mRNAs encoding Gas6 and Mer in mouse platelets. However, although RT-PCR reactions were performed at various temperatures and cycles, we could not detect the presence of mRNAs encoding Axl and Tyro3 (Sky). Receptor protein levels of Axl and Tyro3 were below the detection limits of the ELISA method. We found the presence of mRNAs encoding Gas6 and the receptor Mer in mouse platelets, but not Axl and Tyro3. Gas6, Axl, and Tyro3 protein levels were below the detection limits of the ELISA. The presence of mRNA is not obvious evidence of protein expression in platelets that have no nucleus or DNA. Further studies are required to clarify the presence of Gas6/TAM receptors in platelets using real-time PCR and more sensitive immunological methods, and future studies on mechanisms will indicate whether the Gas6/TAM pathway is a strategy for treatment of disorders.

  11. The Impact of Female Attractiveness in Spy

    OpenAIRE

    Pangjaya, Veronika Juliani; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the impact of female attractiveness on the female character which is related to the way Spy sees attractive women and what the impacts to them are. There are criteria for female attractiveness that are displayed by the film such as physical attributes and traits. In order to show the criteria of attractive women and the responses that they get, I use stereotyping theory. Women who are physically attractive get better treatment, but in order to get that, they have to dres...

  12. Mouse preferential incising force orientation changes during jaw closing muscle hyperalgesia and is sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, C G; Morris-Wiman, J

    2016-12-01

    Mouse incising is controlled by a central pattern generator and this activity can change in the presence of pain. The incising frequency and maximum force generation decreases with pain. In this study, we used repetitive acidic injections in the left masseter muscle of male and female mice to determine differences between baseline and jaw muscle pain conditions and the effect of sex on preferential incising direction. A within subject design was used to evaluate data previously acquired using multi-axis force data (X, Y and Z) from the 4th baseline recording day and day 7 post-injection (day of maximal pain response) for each mouse of each sex. A total of 34 female and male (age 3-9months) CD-1 mice were evaluated. After mathematically rotating the X and Y axes to align the Y axis to be parallel to the wire struts of the cage top, data were analyzed to determine incising direction preference during baseline (non-pain) and pain (day 7) conditions and between sex. Radar plots of X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z axes depicted the average direction of incising preference between baseline and pain conditions for each sex. Statistical differences among groups were tested using a mixed model ANOVA. Similar to previous findings, female mice had a more robust difference in incising direction preference when comparing male and female pain conditions and this was most evident in the X-Z axes. The incising frequencies most commonly affected were 5.3, 6.2 and 7.6Hz. Male mice varied little in their incising direction preference between the baseline and pain conditions. In addition, statistical comparison of ratios of the percent of time spent incising in the Z versus X axes for each incising frequency found that the incising preference was not different when comparing 5.3 and 7.6Hz frequencies. Finally, female mice used a novel approach to minimize pain while incising by rotating their head and body nearly 180 degrees while males did not use this strategy as frequently. The preferred incising

  13. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  14. Juvenile manifestation of ultrasound communication deficits in the neuroligin-4 null mutant mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Anes; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Tantra, Martesa; Krueger, Dilja; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-08-15

    Neuroligin-4 (Nlgn4) is a member of the neuroligin family of postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. Loss-of-function mutations of NLGN4 are among the most frequent, known genetic causes of heritable autism. Adult Nlgn4 null mutant (Nlgn4(-/-)) mice are a construct valid model of human autism, with both genders displaying a remarkable autistic phenotype, including deficits in social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. In contrast to adults, autism-related abnormalities in neonatal and juvenile Nlgn4(-/-) mice have not been reported yet. The present study has been designed to systematically investigate in male and female Nlgn4(-/-) pups versus wildtype littermates (WT, Nlgn4(+/+)) developmental milestones and stimulus-induced ultrasound vocalization (USV). Neonatal development, followed daily from postnatal days (PND) 4 to 21, including physical development, neurological reflexes and neuromotor coordination, did not yield any differences between Nlgn4(-/-) and their WT littermates. USV in pups (PND8-9) in response to brief separation from their mothers revealed remarkable gender effects, and a genotype influence in females regarding latency to first call. In juveniles (PND22-23), USV monitoring upon exposure to an anesthetized female intruder mouse uncovered a clear genotype effect with reduced USV in Nlgn4(-/-) mice, and again a more prominent phenotype in females. Together, these data support an early manifestation of communication deficits in Nlgn4(-/-) mice that appear more pronounced in immature females with their overall stronger USV as compared to males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Accessory Olfactory System Facilitates the Recovery of the Attraction to Familiar Volatile Female Odors in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Yoshikage; Nishimura, Masakazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    2017-10-31

    Odors in female mice induce sexual arousal in male mice. Repeated exposure to female odors attenuates male attraction, which recovers when the odors are removed. The neuronal mechanisms for the recovery of male attraction have not been clarified. In this study, we examined how olfactory systems are involved in the recovery of male attraction to female odors following habituation in mice. Presentation with volatile female odors for 5 min induced habituation in males. To evaluate male attraction to familiar volatile female odors, we measured the duration for investigating volatile female odors from the same female mouse, which was presented twice for 5 min with 1-, 3-, or 5-min interval. Intranasal irrigation with ZnSO4 solution almost completely suppressed investigating behavior, indicating that the main olfactory system is indispensable for inducing the attraction to volatile female odors. In contrast, removal of the vomeronasal organ, bilateral lesions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), or pharmacological blockage of neurotransmission in the AOB did not affect the investigation time at the first odor presentation. However, each one of the treatments decreased the investigation time in the second presentation, compared to that in the first presentation, at longer intervals than control treatment, indicating that the disturbance of neurotransmission in the accessory olfactory system delayed the recovery of the attraction attenuated by the first presentation. These results suggest that the accessory olfactory system facilitates the recovery of the attraction to familiar volatile female odors in male mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Norris, Francesca; Cleary, Jon; Zhang, Edward; Treeby, Bradley; Cox, Ben; Johnson, Peter; Scambler, Pete; Lythgoe, Mark; Beard, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The ability to noninvasively image embryonic vascular anatomy in mouse models is an important requirement for characterizing the development of the normal cardiovascular system and malformations in the heart and vascular supply. Photoacoustic imaging, which can provide high resolution non invasive images of the vasculature based upon optical absorption by endogenous hemoglobin, is well suited to this application. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos were obtained ex vivo and in vivo. The images show intricate details of the embryonic vascular system to depths of up to 10 mm, which allowed whole embryos to be imaged in situ. To achieve this, an all-optical photoacoustic scanner and a novel time reversal image reconstruction algorithm, which provide deep tissue imaging capability while maintaining high spatial resolution and contrast were employed. This technology may find application as an imaging tool for preclinical embryo studies in developmental biology as well as more generally in preclinical and clinical medicine for studying pathologies characterized by changes in the vasculature.

  17. Esophageal Cancer: Insights from Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Tétreault

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in the development of surgical techniques in combination with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer are still poorly understood. Hence, understanding these mechanisms is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer. Mouse models constitute valuable tools for modeling human cancers and for the preclinical testing of therapeutic strategies in a manner not possible in human subjects. Mice are excellent models for studying human cancers because they are similar to humans at the physiological and molecular levels and because they have a shorter gestation time and life cycle. Moreover, a wide range of well-developed technologies for introducing genetic modifications into mice are currently available. In this review, we describe how different mouse models are used to study esophageal cancer.

  18. Stimulation of growth in the little mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, W H; Eicher, E M

    1976-10-01

    The new mouse mutation little (lit) in the homozygous state causes a pituitary deficiency involving at least growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. The resultant growth failure of lit/lit mice was shown to be reversed by experimental conditions that enhanced levels of GH or GH and prolactin in the circulation. Two measures of growth, actual weight gain and bone dimension, were significantly improved by the physiological processes of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, by extra-sellar graft of a normal mouse pituitary, and by treatment with GH but not prolactin. These data confirmed pituitary dysfunction as the basic defect caused by the mutation lit and showed that the GH deficiency is responsible for growth failure. However, the biological site of gene action, the pituitary or hypothalamus, has not been established. Little mice exhibit a number of characteristics similar to those of human genetic ateleotic dwarfism Type 1, namely genetic inheritance, time of onset of growth retardation, proportionate skeletal size reduction, and pituitary GH deficiency.

  19. Mouse models of long QT syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Guy; London, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Congenital long QT syndrome is a rare inherited condition characterized by prolongation of action potential duration (APD) in cardiac myocytes, prolongation of the QT interval on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), and an increased risk of syncope and sudden death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Mutations of cardiac ion channel genes that affect repolarization cause the majority of the congenital cases. Despite detailed characterizations of the mutated ion channels at the molecular level, a complete understanding of the mechanisms by which individual mutations may lead to arrhythmias and sudden death requires study of the intact heart and its modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Here, we will review studies of molecularly engineered mice with mutations in the genes (a) known to cause long QT syndrome in humans and (b) specific to cardiac repolarization in the mouse. Our goal is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of mouse models with long QT syndrome and to emphasize the advantages and limitations of these models. PMID:17038432

  20. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  1. First insights into the social organisation of Goodman's mouse lemur (Microcebus lehilahytsara)--testing predictions from socio-ecological hypotheses in the Masoala hall of Zurich Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürges, Vivian; Kitzler, Johanne; Zingg, Robert; Radespiel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Following current socio-ecological hypotheses, the social organisation of a species is mainly determined by resource quality and distribution. In the case of Microcebus spp., a taxon-specific socio-ecological model was formulated earlier to explain their variable social organisation. The aim of this study was to test predictions from this model in Goodman's mouse lemur based on a data set from animals living in the semi-free colony of Zurich Zoo. During a 2-month study, we observed 5 females and 5 males using radiotelemetry. We collected data on space use and social behaviour, on sleeping sites and on sleeping group composition. Predictions were only partly confirmed. As expected, Goodman's mouse lemurs were solitary foragers with an increased level of sociality due to crowding effects at the feeding stations. In contrast to the prediction, females and males formed unisexual sleeping groups, which were stable in females and of a fission-fusion type in males. Whereas the formation of sleeping groups by both sexes may be triggered by thermoregulatory benefits, the formation of unisexual sleeping groups may result from divergent interests of the sexes. We conclude that the existing model for the evolution of mouse lemur social organisation needs to be refined. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2015-07-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain.

  3. Androgen Receptor (AR) Physiological Roles in Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Lessons Learned from AR-Knockout Mice Lacking AR in Selective Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chawnshang; Lee, Soo Ok; Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Ta-Min

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgens/androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved primarily in the development of male-specific phenotypes during embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, sexual behavior, and fertility during adult life. However, this signaling has also been shown to play an important role in development of female reproductive organs and their functions, such as ovarian folliculogenesis, embryonic implantation, and uterine and breast development. The establishment of the testicular feminization (Tfm) mouse model exploiting the X-linked Tfm mutation in mice has been a good in vivo tool for studying the human complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, but this mouse may not be the perfect in vivo model. Mouse models with various cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) might allow us to study AR roles in individual types of cells in these male and female reproductive systems, although discrepancies are found in results between labs, probably due to using various Cre mice and/or knocking out AR in different AR domains. Nevertheless, no doubt exists that the continuous development of these ARKO mouse models and careful studies will provide information useful for understanding AR roles in reproductive systems of humans and may help us to develop more effective and more specific therapeutic approaches for reproductive system-related diseases. PMID:23782840

  4. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Bram F.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Paulis, Leonie E. M.; Geelen, Tessa; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300-400 msec. The method was

  5. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, B.F.; Moonen, R.P.M.; Paulis, L.E.M.; Geelen, T.; Nicolay, K.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300–400 msec. The method was

  6. Endonucleases : new tools to edit the mouse genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshake, Tobias; Baker, Darren J.; van de Sluis, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Mouse transgenesis has been instrumental in determining the function of genes in the pathophysiology of human diseases and modification of genes by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells remains a widely used technology. However, this approach harbors a number of disadvantages, as it

  7. Accesion number Protein name ENOA_MOUSE Alpha-enolase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandra Feijoo Bandin

    Mitochondrial inner membrane protein. CMC1_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar1. CMC2_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2. Biological process. Metabolic process. Glycolysis. Lipid metabolism. Respiratory electron transport chain. Others. Calcium ion homeostasis.

  8. Suppression of mouse-killing in rats following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Boyle, M.

    1976-01-01

    Suppression of mouse-killing was produced following pairings of mouse-presentations (CS) with 96 roentgens of ionizing radiation (US) at 0 (less than 2 min.) and 30 min. US-CS interstimulus intervals. No suppression was found at CS-US intervals of 30 min., 1 hr., and 2 hr., or at US-CS intervals of 1 hr. and 2 hr

  9. Rational Design of Mouse Models for Cancer Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landgraf, M.; McGovern, J.A.; Friedl, P.; Hutmacher, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is widely considered as a valid and affordable model organism to study human disease. Attempts to improve the relevance of murine models for the investigation of human pathologies led to the development of various genetically engineered, xenograft and humanized mouse models.

  10. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  11. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  12. The food processing contaminant glyoxal promotes tumour growth in the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Camilla; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Alexander, Jan; Murkovic, Michael; Husøy, Trine

    2016-08-01

    Glyoxal is formed endogenously and at a higher rate in the case of hyperglycemia. Glyoxal is also a food processing contaminant and has been shown to be mutagenic and genotoxic in vitro. The tumourigenic potential of glyoxal was investigated using the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model, which spontaneously develops intestinal tumours and is susceptible to intestinal carcinogens. C57BL/6J females were mated with Min males. Four days after mating and throughout gestation and lactation, the pregnant dams were exposed to glyoxal through drinking water (0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) or regular tap water. Female and male offspring were housed separately from PND21 and continued with the same treatment. One group were only exposed to 0.1% glyoxal from postnatal day (PND) 21. There was no difference in the number of intestinal tumours between control and treatment groups. However, exposure to 0.1% glyoxal starting in utero and at PND21 caused a significant increase in tumour size in the small intestine for male and female mice in comparison with respective control groups. This study suggests that glyoxal has tumour growth promoting properties in the small intestine in Min mice. Copyright © 2016 Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A major locus on mouse chromosome 18 controls XX sex reversal in Odd Sex (Ods) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangjun; Poirier, Christophe; Truong, Cavatina; Schumacher, Armin; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Bishop, Colin E

    2003-03-01

    We have previously reported a dominant mouse mutant, Odd sex (Ods), in which XX Ods/+ mice on the FVB/N background show complete sex reversal, associated with expression of Sox9 in the fetal gonads. Remarkably, when crossed to the A/J strain approximately 95% of the (AXFVB) F(1) XX Ods/+ mice developed as fully fertile, phenotypic females, the remainder developing as males or hermaphrodites. Using a (AXFVB) F(2) population, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan to identify the number and chromosomal location of potential Ods modifier genes. A single major locus termed Odsm1 was mapped to chromosome 18, tightly linked to D18Mit189 and D18Mit210. Segregation at this locus could account for the presence of sex reversal in 100% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as males, for the absence of sex reversal in approximately 92% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as females, and for the mixed sexual phenotype in approximately 72% of XX Ods/+ mice that develop with ambiguous genitalia. We propose that homozygosity for the FVB-derived allele strongly favors Ods sex reversal, whereas homozygosity for the A/J-derived allele inhibits it. In mice heterozygous at Odsm1, the phenotypic outcome, male, female or hermaphrodite, is determined by a complex interaction of several minor modifying loci. The close proximity of Smad2, Smad7 and Smad4 to D18Mit189/210 provides a potential mechanism through which Odsm1 might act.

  14. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  15. Imaging of the female urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, P.; Long, S.S.; Long, C.M.; Genadry, R.R.; Macura, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Female urethral diverticulum is a localized out-pouching of the urethra that is becoming increasingly prevalent, but often poses a diagnostic challenge. Traditionally, conventional voiding cystourethrography has been used to make the preoperative diagnosis. With the development of higher-resolution images acquired through ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the anatomy and various abnormalities of the female urethra can be better elucidated. This article focuses on the imaging features of female urethral diverticulum, with emphasis on diagnostic pearls, particularly using MRI. Female urethral diverticulum can be best identified by their location in the posterolateral urethra and by their communication with the urethral lumen. Improved imaging techniques combined with increased physician awareness of urethral diverticulum will lead to more prompt and accurate diagnosis of this entity, leading to better treatment of affected patients

  16. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Table 1(b) 519 (92%) of the ..... Behrendt, A. and Moritz, S. Posttraumatic stress. 12.

  17. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  18. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  19. Training and Extended Operations in Females

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruby, Brent

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this extension project was to complete three studies with male and female subjects during short term and seasonal exposure to an arduous work environment and to determine the effects...

  20. Reflections on Female Circumcision Discourse in Hargeysa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study aimed to explore diverse discourses on female circumcision and the relationship between discourses .... 'Halalays' has the stem halal in Arabic – referring to what is permitted in ...... Strand T, Norsk rikskringkasting. Suaads reise: en.

  1. The female innovation-generation consumer's evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The female innovation-generation consumer's evaluation of traditional and virtual displays in South. African clothing ..... only affect consumer behaviour by adding value to displayed ..... Promotional Management 19(5):652-632. FIORE, A.M. ...

  2. EXPERIENCES OF FEMALE ACADEMICS IN GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of the research for social work practice are discussed. .... to female academics' rise to the top of their careers in Ghana. ... Saleebey (1996) identifies resilience, empowerment and membership as the key principles of the ...

  3. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  4. The real females of human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L

    2012-11-01

    When "woman-the-gatherer" was first proposed as a counter to "man-the-hunter," we were only beginning to understand the many faces of primate females. In ensuing decades we have learned about the skills and talents of female chimpanzees in tool using, hunting, and transmitting behaviors from one generation to the next as teachers, and across space as newcomers to neighboring communities. The perspective of evolutionary time highlights the continuity of female lives from the origin of mammals to the origin of Homo sapiens. The combination of behavioral, fossil, and archeological information aid in reconstructing key ingredients acquired by females along the way that contributed to the success of our species. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Female self-employment and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noseleit, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Several analyses report a positive correlation between fertility and female self-employment; however, scholars disagree about the direction of this relationship. Knowing about the causal relationship is important because the relevant mechanisms and possible implications differ tremendously. This

  6. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  7. Recent advances in female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A R

    2000-06-01

    Female sexuality has received little scientific study. Recently, increased interest in this field has generated new research in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacotherapy of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). A new FSD classification system has been proposed. Although sexual difficulties are highly prevalent among women, the degree of associated distress is unknown. Risk factors for FSD are probably both psychologic and physiologic. Aging or menopause is associated with lubrication difficulties, which can be treated with hormone replacement. Hysterectomy seems more likely to result in improvement rather then deterioration of sexual functioning. Depression may be a predictor of sexual dysfunction after hysterectomy. Vasoactive agents are currently being evaluated as treatment for female sexual arousal disorder. The most important advance in the study of female sexual function is the recent surge of interest in this relatively unexplored field.

  8. Female Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolactin blood test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Female Infertility updates ... Serum progesterone Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Infertility Male Infertility National Institutes ...

  9. Effects of reproductive status on behavioral and endocrine responses to acute stress in a biparental rodent, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Miyetani; Malisch, Jessica L; Robinson, Cymphonee; de Jong, Trynke R; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-06-01

    In several mammalian species, lactating females show blunted neural, hormonal, and behavioral responses to stressors. It is not known whether new fathers also show stress hyporesponsiveness in species in which males provide infant care. To test this possibility, we determined the effects of male and female reproductive status on stress responsiveness in the biparental, monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Breeding (N=8 females, 8 males), nonbreeding (N=10 females, 10 males) and virgin mice (N=12 females, 9 males) were exposed to a 5-min predator-urine stressor at two time points, corresponding to the early postpartum (5-7 days postpartum) and mid/late postpartum (19-21 days postpartum) phases, and blood samples were collected immediately afterwards. Baseline blood samples were obtained 2 days prior to each stress test. Baseline plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations did not differ among male or female groups. CORT responses to the stressor did not differ among female reproductive groups, and all three groups showed distinct behavioral responses to predator urine. Virgin males tended to increase their CORT response from the first to the second stress test, while breeding and nonbreeding males did not. Moreover, virgin and nonbreeding males showed significant behavioral changes in response to predator urine, whereas breeding males did not. These results suggest that adrenocortical responses to a repeated stressor in male California mice may be modulated by cohabitation with a female, whereas behavioral responses to stress may be blunted by parental status. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (≥0.3/km2) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females ≥14 years old. Females ≥2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (≥14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P ≤ 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at the time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the previous year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the-year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate populations where productivity varies with lactation status of females at the time of breeding.

  11. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  12. Female Psychology in August Strindberg's the Stronger

    OpenAIRE

    Sutandio, Anton; Apriliani, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer interpretations of August Strindberg's The Stronger through the lens of female psychology. The Stronger is unique as it seemed very simple yet so intense and powerful with layers of interpretations. Written during 1888-1889, The Stronger, which only had two characters and only one speaking character, had become one of Strindberg's shortest yet important plays during his career. The female psychology approach used in the analysis would cover the discussion of gende...

  13. Female urethral diverticulum containing large calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Kimura

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary stones in female urethral diverticulum are rarely seen. We report a 79-year-old woman who presented with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms and vaginal cystocele with incontinence. The urethral stones in the diverticulum were successfully extracted through the trans-urethral route and anterior tension-free vaginal mesh was applied one month later. The patient has been well, with no lower urinary symptoms or incontinence for 4 months. Keywords: Female, Urethral diverticulum, Incontinence, Calculus

  14. On the convergence in female participation rates

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    Large regional differences exist in female participation across regions within Japan. This paper uses two datasets to show that a significant convergence in female participation took place from 1940 to 2010. Historically, urban areas have had low participation, whereas non-urban areas have had high participation. The participation rate rose steadily and significantly in urban areas and, to a lesser extent in non-urban areas, and as a result, regional differences shrank over time. The microdat...

  15. Female relative wages, household specialization and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Falling fertility rates have often been linked to rising female wages. However, over the last 40 years the US total fertility rate has been rather stable while female wages have continued to grow. Over the same period, women's hours spent on housework have declined, but men's have increased. I propose a model in which households are not perfectly specialized, but both men and women contribute to home production. As the gender wage gap narrows, the time allocations of men and women converge, a...

  16. Psychological stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: a study using the predatory stress model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.

  17. Radiolethal and genetic vulnerabilities of germ cells in the female mammal: Effects of tritium and other radiations compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Kwan, T.C.; Goldstein, L.S.; Dobson, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Our focus is on the nature of the lethality target in very sensitive cells. In the mouse, several types of radiations have now been used, including 3 H-Tdr incorporated into oocyte DNA, gamma rays delivered at various dose rates, 250 kVp x rays, neutrons of various energies, and three kinds of accelerated heavy ions (Si 14+ , Ar 18+ , Fe 26+ ). We have shown that the lethality target in mouse immature oocytes is non-nuclear; it is equal in cross-sectional area to the entire oocyte and is separated from the nucleus by about 4 μm. A substantial body of data now points to the plasma membrane as the lethality target in these particular cells. We have quantified both chromosome aberrations and dominant lethal mutations in oocytes from females exposed 8 to 12 weeks earlier. Results from these and other studies show that: (1) for immature oocyte killing in mice, chronically administered 3 HOH is of near maximum biological effectiveness, similar to the most effective neutrons and heavy ions (likely true also for female germ-cell killing in some prenatal primates), (2) tritium incorporated into DNA as 3 H-Tdr is about 100 times less effective in mouse immature oocyte killing than is tritium administered as 3 HOH, and (3) for mutagenicity in the mouse, immature oocytes appear to have approximately the same sensitivity as mature oocytes and show dose and LET responses similar to those obtained from genetic studies of other cells. The possible implications of these findings for women exposed to tritium are considered

  18. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  19. Mutation studies upon spermatogonial stem cells of mammals and genetic tests for non-disjunction in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattanach, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies upon strain differences in genetic response to radiation may facilitate extrapolation of mouse data to man. The objective of the project is to investigate the basis of the genetic responses obtained with different treatment regimes. Two systems of genetic (complementation) tests were developed using Robertsonian translocations in tester animals to detect non-disjunction and chromosome loss events in normal mice. The aim is to evaluate the two methods for detecting chromosome 11 loss, and compare the frequency of chromosomes 11 and 13 loss following X-irradiation of males and females. (R.P.) 6 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Adult female acne: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréno, B; Layton, A; Zouboulis, C C; López-Estebaranz, J L; Zalewska-Janowska, A; Bagatin, E; Zampeli, V A; Yutskovskaya, Y; Harper, J C

    2013-09-01

    In the adult female, acne is a chronic condition with a substantial negative psychological, social and emotional impact. Based on time of onset, two subtypes of adult female acne are recognized: 'persistent acne' is a continuation of the disease from adolescence, while 'late-onset acne' first presents in adulthood. The morphological characteristics of adult female acne are often distinct from adolescent acne. In adults, inflammatory lesions (particularly papules, pustules and nodules) are generally more prominent on the lower chin, jawline and neck, and comedones are more often closed comedones (micro cysts). Adult acne is mainly mild-to-moderate in severity and may be refractory to treatment. A holistic approach to acne therapy should be taken in adult females, which combines standard treatments with adjunctive therapy and cosmetic use. A number of factors specific to the adult female influence choice of treatment, including the predisposition of older skin to irritation, a possible slow response to treatment, a high likelihood of good adherence, whether of child-bearing age, and the psychosocial impact of the disease. Adherence to therapy should be encouraged through further patient education and a simplified regimen that is tailored to suit the individual patient's needs and lifestyle. This article reviews the specific characteristics of adult female acne, and provides recommendations for acne therapy in this patient group. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  2. Heterosexual men's attitudes toward the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A

    1999-04-01

    This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.

  3. Mouse SNP Miner: an annotated database of mouse functional single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramensky Vasily E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mapping of quantitative trait loci in rat and mouse has been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions associated with human disease-related phenotypes. However, identifying the specific phenotype-causing DNA sequence variations within a quantitative trait locus has been much more difficult. The recent availability of genomic sequence from several mouse inbred strains (including C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J has made it possible to catalog DNA sequence differences within a quantitative trait locus derived from crosses between these strains. However, even for well-defined quantitative trait loci ( Description To help identify functional DNA sequence variations within quantitative trait loci we have used the Ensembl annotated genome sequence to compile a database of mouse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, or splice site mutations (available at http://bioinfo.embl.it/SnpApplet/. For missense mutations we have used the PolyPhen and PANTHER algorithms to predict whether amino acid changes are likely to disrupt protein function. Conclusion We have developed a database of mouse SNPs predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations. Our analysis revealed that 20% and 14% of missense SNPs are likely to be deleterious according to PolyPhen and PANTHER, respectively, and 6% are considered deleterious by both algorithms. The database also provides gene expression and functional annotations from the Symatlas, Gene Ontology, and OMIM databases to further assess candidate phenotype-causing mutations. To demonstrate its utility, we show that Mouse SNP Miner successfully finds a previously identified candidate SNP in the taste receptor, Tas1r3, that underlies sucrose preference in the C57BL/6J strain. We also use Mouse SNP Miner to derive a list of candidate phenotype-causing mutations within a previously

  4. A comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational female marathoners and recreational female Ironman triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-02-28

    A personal best marathon time has been reported as a strong predictor variable for an Ironman race time in recreational female Ironman triathletes. This raises the question whether recreational female Ironman triathletes are similar to recreational female marathoners. We investigated similarities and differences in anthropometry and training between 53 recreational female Ironman triathletes and 46 recreational female marathoners. The association of anthropometric variables and training characteristics with race time was investigated using bi- and multi-variate analysis. The Ironman triathletes were younger (P marathoners. Overall weekly training hours were higher in the Ironman triathletes (P marathoners (P marathon split time for the Ironman triathletes (P = 0.01) and to marathon race time for the marathoners (P = 0.01). To conclude, although personal best marathon time is a strong predictor variable for performance in recreational female Ironman triathletes, there are differences in both anthropometry and training between recreational female Ironman triathletes and recreational female marathoners and different predictor variables for race performance in these two groups of athletes. These findings suggest that recreational female Ironman triathletes are not comparable to recreational female marathoners regarding the association between anthropometric and training characteristics with race time.

  5. Immunologic analyses of mouse cystathionase in normal and leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikel, I.; Faibes, D.; Uren, J.R.; Livingston, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbit antisera have been raised against mouse liver cystathionase and shown to possess enzyme neutralizing activity. Agar gel double immunodiffusion analyses demonstrated that both mouse liver cystathionase and rat liver cystathionase react with the antisera, the latter enzyme being completely cross-reactive with the former. Following radioiodination of the purified rat liver enzyme, a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed in which greater than 90% of the labeled protein could be specifically precipitated with the anti-mouse cystathionase antibodies. In this test the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were virtually indistinguishable, generating superimposable competition displacement curves on a protein mass basis. These results indicate that both enzymes are immunologically identical, thus validating the use of the rat in lieu of the murine liver enzyme as radiolabeled tracer in an assay for mouse cystathionase. In addition, competition radioimmunoassays demonstrated that the immunological reactivities of both the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were equally heat sensitive. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 1 ng of enzyme protein/0.22 mL of assay mixture, and the assay could be used to detect the presence of enzyme protein in tissue homogenates of single mouse organs. Mouse or rat cross-reactivity with human liver cystathionase was incomplete; but, with the exception of heart and spleen, parallel radioimmunoassay competition displacement curves were obtained for cystathionase from different mouse organs including thymus. Extracts of 7-, 9-, and 10-month-old spontaneous AKR mouse thymomas were tested in the radioimmunoassay along with extracts of age-matched thymuses which were grossly tumor free. A reaction of nonidentity was observed for all of the tumor extracts while a reaction identical with that of the pure liver enzyme was found with all of the normal thymus extracts

  6. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  7. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; Desai, Jigar; Lazar, Gloria; King, Benjamin; Rollins, Jarod; Spurr, Melissa; Joseph, Jamie; Kadambi, Sindhuja; Li, Yang; Cherry, Allison; Matteson, Paul G.; Paigen, Beverly; Millonig, James H.

    Korstanje R, Desai J, Lazar G, King B, Rollins J, Spurr M, Joseph J, Kadambi S, Li Y, Cherry A, Matteson PG, Paigen B, Millonig JH. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiol Genomics 35:

  8. Effect of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) Root In Precopulation Stage to the Fertility of Female Mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marlinza, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) have potency to be used to increase bodyendurance, to cure malaria drug, and to act as afrodisiak. However, the effect of pasak bumi onwomen fertility, especially at pre-copulation stage was not widely known. This research seeks toreveal the effect pasak bumi extract treated at pre-copulation phase on fertility. This experimentemploy mice (Mus Musculus L.) and was undertaken at Biology and Cemistry laboratories PMIPA, andVeterinary laboratory of Jambi Uni...

  9. A comparison of the distribution of 239-Pu and calcein in the ilium of the female CBA mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, G.R.; Green, D.; Sontag, W.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    It is well recognised that plutonium 239 and certain vital stains such as calcein behave similarly when injected i.v. into experimental animals. Both are rapidly cleared from blood, and concentrate on bone surfaces. Certain differences of behaviour are also known, such as the competitive concentration of plutonium in liver and other soft tissues; and differences in the distribution of site of location of the substances on bone surface. Plutonium tends to concentrate evenly on all bone surfaces in proportion to the blood supply to that region, leading to higher concentrations on endosteal than periosteal surfaces. Calcein deposits at sites of mineralisation, which occur on both endosteum and periosteum in response to the demands of growth and remodelling. Subsequent behaviour of both substances would appear to depend entirely on the growth and remodelling activities of the bone, the deposits remaining fixed in position until the containing bone is resorbed or buried by freshly formed bone. Many studies of the distribution and dosimetry of plutonium in experimental animals, mainly dogs, and mice have been recorded. There is however, a lack of information concerning the behaviour of the radionuclide in man. More information is available on the behaviour in man and experimental animals of the vital stains, some of which are well known anti-biotics. Consequently, there is much to be gained if a knowledge of the behaviour of vital stains such as calcein can be used to predict the distribution of plutonium in the human skeleton. (orig.)

  10. Enhanced Operant Extinction and Prefrontal Excitability in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Michael S; Judson, Matthew C; Kim, Hyojin; Rougie, Marie; Ferrer, Alejandra I; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Riddick, Natallia V; Moy, Sheryl S; Philpot, Benjamin D

    2018-03-14

    Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability, is caused by loss of maternal allele expression of UBE3A in neurons. Mouse models of AS faithfully recapitulate disease phenotypes across multiple domains, including behavior. Yet in AS, there has been only limited study of behaviors encoded by the prefrontal cortex, a region broadly involved in executive function and cognition. Because cognitive impairment is a core feature of AS, it is critical to develop behavioral readouts of prefrontal circuit function in AS mouse models. One such readout is behavioral extinction, which has been well described mechanistically and relies upon prefrontal circuits in rodents. Here we report exaggerated operant extinction in male AS model mice, concomitant with enhanced excitability in medial prefrontal neurons from male and female AS model mice. Abnormal behavior was specific to operant extinction, as two other prefrontally dependent tasks (cued fear extinction and visuospatial discrimination) were largely normal in AS model mice. Inducible deletion of Ube3a during adulthood was not sufficient to drive abnormal extinction, supporting the hypothesis that there is an early critical period for development of cognitive phenotypes in AS. This work represents the first formal experimental analysis of prefrontal circuit function in AS, and identifies operant extinction as a useful experimental paradigm for modeling cognitive aspects of AS in mice. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prefrontal cortex encodes "high-level" cognitive processes. Thus, understanding prefrontal function is critical in neurodevelopmental disorders where cognitive impairment is highly penetrant. Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with speech and motor impairments, an outwardly happy demeanor, and intellectual disability. We describe a behavioral phenotype in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome and related abnormalities in prefrontal cortex function. We

  11. Novel object exploration in the C58/J mouse model of autistic-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Mikkal G; Puchalski, Breann H; Bolanos, Veronica J; Wolfe, Kaitlin M; Green, Matthew C; Ryan, Bryce C

    2015-04-01

    Mouse models of autistic like behaviors are a valuable tool to use when studying the causes, symptoms, and potential treatments for autism. The inbred C58/J strain is a strain of interest for this model and has previously been shown to possess face validity for some of the core traits of autism, including low social behavior and elevated motor stereotypies. Higher order repetitive behaviors have not been extensively studied in this strain, or in mice in general. In this study, we looked for evidence of higher-order repetitive behaviors in the C58/J strain using a novel object assay. This assay utilized a mouse's natural exploratory behavior among unfamiliar objects to identify potential sequencing patterns in motor activity. The motor stereotypies displayed by the C58/J strain during testing were consistent with past studies. The C58/J strain also displayed a high preference for a single object in the round arena assays and the females demonstrating elevated sequencing patterns in the round arena. Although the C58/J strain did not show pervasive evidence of higher-order repetitive behaviors across all measures, there was evidence of higher order repetitive behaviors in certain situations. This study further demonstrates the potential of the C58/J mouse strains as a model for lower-order and potentially, higher-order repetitive behaviors. This study also demonstrates that the shape of the novel object arena can change the behavior displayed by the test animals. Further studies utilizing the C58/J strain and further validation of the novel object assay are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High-precision genetic mapping of behavioral traits in the diversity outbred mouse population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, R W; Robledo, R F; Recla, J M; Philip, V M; Bubier, J A; Jay, J J; Harwood, C; Wilcox, T; Gatti, D M; Bult, C J; Churchill, G A; Chesler, E J

    2013-01-01

    Historically our ability to identify genetic variants underlying complex behavioral traits in mice has been limited by low mapping resolution of conventional mouse crosses. The newly developed Diversity Outbred (DO) population promises to deliver improved resolution that will circumvent costly fine-mapping studies. The DO is derived from the same founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC), including three wild-derived strains. Thus the DO provides more allelic diversity and greater potential for discovery compared to crosses involving standard mouse strains. We have characterized 283 male and female DO mice using open-field, light–dark box, tail-suspension and visual-cliff avoidance tests to generate 38 behavioral measures. We identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits with support intervals ranging from 1 to 3 Mb in size. These intervals contain relatively few genes (ranging from 5 to 96). For a majority of QTL, using the founder allelic effects together with whole genome sequence data, we could further narrow the positional candidates. Several QTL replicate previously published loci. Novel loci were also identified for anxiety- and activity-related traits. Half of the QTLs are associated with wild-derived alleles, confirming the value to behavioral genetics of added genetic diversity in the DO. In the presence of wild-alleles we sometimes observe behaviors that are qualitatively different from the expected response. Our results demonstrate that high-precision mapping of behavioral traits can be achieved with moderate numbers of DO animals, representing a significant advance in our ability to leverage the mouse as a tool for behavioral genetics PMID:23433259

  13. Trb2, a mouse homolog of tribbles, is dispensable for kidney and mouse development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasato, Minoru; Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Okabayashi, Koji; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Oshima, Naoko; Asashima, Makoto; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    Glomeruli comprise an important filtering apparatus in the kidney and are derived from the metanephric mesenchyme. A nuclear protein, Sall1, is expressed in this mesenchyme, and we previously reported that Trb2, a mouse homolog of Drosophila tribbles, is expressed in the mesenchyme-derived tissues of the kidney by microarray analyses using Sall1-GFP knock-in mice. In the present report, we detected Trb2 expression in a variety of organs during gestation, including the kidneys, mesonephros, testes, heart, eyes, thymus, blood vessels, muscle, bones, tongue, spinal cord, and ganglions. In the developing kidney, Trb2 signals were detected in podocytes and the prospective mesangium of the glomeruli, as well as in ureteric bud tips. However, Trb2 mutant mice did not display any apparent phenotypes and no proteinuria was observed, indicating normal glomerular functions. These results suggest that Trb2 plays minimal roles during kidney and mouse development

  14. [Genes in the development of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he

    2013-12-01

    Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.

  15. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  16. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  17. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C

    2016-05-01

    The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. To review the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction especially since 2010 and to make specific recommendations according to the Oxford Centre for evidence based medicine (2009) "levels of evidence" wherever relevant. Recommendations were made for particular studies to be undertaken especially in controversial aspects in all six sections of the reviewed topics. Despite numerous laboratory assessments of female sexual function, genital assessments alone appear insufficient to characterise fully the complete sexual response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.

    2013-10-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  19. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  20. Characterization of mouse neuro-urological dynamics in a novel decerebrate arterially perfused mouse (DAPM) preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroki; Drake, Marcus J.; Fry, Christopher H.; Kanai, Anthony J.; Pickering, Anthony E.

    2018-01-01

    Aim To develop the decerebrate arterially perfused mouse (DAPM) preparation, a novel voiding model of the lower urinary tract (LUT) that enables in vitro-like access with in vivo-like neural connectivity. Methods Adult male mice were decerebrated and arterially perfused with a carbogenated, Ringer's solution to establish the DAPM. To allow distinction between central and peripheral actions of interventions, experiments were conducted in both the DAPM and in a “pithed” DAPM which has no brains...

  1. Perceived acceptability of female smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Yong, Hua-Hie; Li, Lin; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    Female smoking prevalence in China is very low but may rise with increased tobacco marketing towards women and changing norms. However, little is known about current perceptions of women smoking in China. This study sought to examine smokers' and non-smokers' perceived acceptability of female smoking and how it changed over time in China. Data come from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control China Survey, a face-to-face cohort survey of approximately 800 adult smokers and 200 non-smokers in each of seven cities in mainland China. At Wave 3 (2009), about 38% of smokers and 9% of non-smokers agreed that female smoking is acceptable with women being almost twice as likely to do so as men (67% vs 36% and 11% vs 6%, respectively). In addition to women, smokers who were younger and had more positive perceptions of smoking in general were more likely to say that female smoking is acceptable. This perception significantly increased from Wave 1 (2006) to Wave 3 (2009), as did the perception that smoking is a sign of sophistication, but other general perceptions of smoking did not significantly change between 2006 and 2009. Norms against female smoking appear to remain strong in China, but female smoking may be becoming more acceptable. It is important to monitor these perceptions to prevent a rise in female smoking prevalence along with an increase in tobacco-related death and disease among women in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Jones, Simon A; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J E; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Bigger, Brian W

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model.

  5. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  6. Radiation carcinogenesis in mouse thymic lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominami, Ryo; Niwa, Ohtsura

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen for various human tissues and a complete carcinogen that is able to initiate and promote neoplastic progression. Studies of radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas, one of the classic models in radiation carcinogenesis, demonstrated that even the unirradiated thymus is capable of developing into full malignancy when transplanted into the kidney capsule or subcutaneous tissue of irradiated mice. This suggests that radiation targets tissues other than thymocytes to allow expansion of cells with tumorigenic potential in the thymus. The idea is regarded as the ''indirect mechanism'' for tumor development. This paper reviews the indirect mechanism and genes affecting the development of thymic lymphomas that we have analyzed. One is the Bcl11b/Rit1 tumor suppressor gene and the other is Mtf-1 gene affecting tumor susceptibility. (author)

  7. Mutagenicity studies with the mouse spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, E.; Wild, D.; Eckhardt, K.; King, M.T.

    1983-04-01

    The mammalian spot test, which detects somatic gene mutations in mouse embryos, was investigated with selected chemicals to (a) further validate this test system ethylnitrosourea, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-acetylaminofluorene and colchicine (ENU, EMS, 2AAF), and (b) evaluate the mutagenic potential, in a whole-mammal system, of environmental compounds that had been previously recognized as mutagens in other mammalian or submammalian test systems (1,2-dichloroethane, hydroquinone, nitrofurantoin, o-phenylenediamine, fried sausage extract). Of these substances, ENU, EMS and 2AAF were significantly mutagenic, 1,2-dichloroethane was probably weakly mutagenic. The ENU data were used to estimate the number of pigment precursor cells present at the time of treatment (day 9.25). We also describe in this report the use of a fluorescence microscope for classification of hairs from spots on the coat of C57BL/6JHan X T hybrids.

  8. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  9. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia. PMID:26321752

  10. Unconventional transcriptional response to environmental enrichment in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredford Kerr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT is an X-linked postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 and one of the leading causes of mental retardation in females. RTT is characterized by psychomotor retardation, purposeless hand movements, autistic-like behavior and abnormal gait. We studied the effects of environmental enrichment (EE on the phenotypic manifestations of a RTT mouse model that lacks MeCP2 (Mecp2(-/y. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that EE delayed and attenuated some neurological alterations presented by Mecp2(-/y mice and prevented the development of motor discoordination and anxiety-related abnormalities. To define the molecular correlate of this beneficial effect of EE, we analyzed the expression of several synaptic marker genes whose expression is increased by EE in several mouse models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that EE induced downregulation of several synaptic markers, suggesting that the partial prevention of RTT-associated phenotypes is achieved through a non-conventional transcriptional program.

  11. [Effects of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction in treating psoriasis in a mouse psoriasis model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min-Jie; Gao, Shang-Pu; Li, Yong-Mei

    2009-06-01

    To study the effects of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine with the function of blood-cooling and detoxicating, in treating psoriasis in mice and to explore its mechanism. (1) Sixty mice were randomly divided into Liangxue Jiedu Decoction group, compound Indigo Naturalis capsule group, acitretin capsule group and normal saline group. Another 10 mice were selected as blank control. After 2-week administration, mice were sacrificed to obtain samples. After hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, tail scales with granular layers were calculated by an optical microscope. (2) Except for ten mice in blank group, sixty female mice were injected intraperitoneally with diethylstilbestrol once daily. After 3-day injection, mice were randomly divided into four groups and treated as above description. After 2-week treatment, all mice were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine (2 mg/kg), and sacrificed 6 h after the injection. The mitotic rate in virginal epithelium was calculated after HE staining. Compared with normal saline, Liangxue Jiedu Decoction could significantly inhibit the mitosis of mouse vaginal epithelium (P mouse tail-scale epidermis (P < 0.01). The mechanism of Liangxue Jiedu Decoction in treating psoriasis may be related to promoting granular cell growth and inhibiting proliferation of epidermic cells.

  12. Effect of Acrylamide on Oocyte Nuclear Maturation and Cumulus Cells Apoptosis in Mouse In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Liu

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a chemical compound with severe neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. Recent studies showed that ACR impairs the function of reproductive organs, e.g., epididymis and testes. In vitro maturation of mouse oocyte is a sensitive assay to identify potential chemical hazard to female fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of ACR on the nuclear maturation and cumulus cells apoptosis of mouse oocytes in vitro. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were incubated in a maturation medium containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 μM of ACR. Chromosome alignment and spindle morphology of oocytes was determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that oocytes exposed to different doses of ACR in vitro were associated with a significant decrease of oocyte maturation, significant increase of chromosome misalignment rate, occurrence of abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of oocyte parthenogenetic activation. Furthermore, apoptosis of cumulus cells was determined by TUNEL and CASPASE-3 assay. Results showed that apoptosis in cumulus cells was enhanced and the expression of CASPASE-3 was increased after cumulus-oocyte complexes were exposed to ACR. Therefore, ACR may affect the nuclear maturation of oocytes via the apoptosis of cumulus cells in vitro.

  13. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ningling; Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li; Xu, Hong; Li, Rong; Huang, Hefeng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  14. Modafinil abrogates methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammation and apoptotic effects in the mouse striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raineri

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is a drug of abuse that can cause neurotoxic damage in humans and animals. Modafinil, a wake-promoting compound approved for the treatment of sleeping disorders, is being prescribed off label for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. The aim of the present study was to investigate if modafinil could counteract methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammatory processes, which occur in conjunction with degeneration of dopaminergic terminals in the mouse striatum. We evaluated the effect of a toxic methamphetamine binge in female C57BL/6 mice (4 × 5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h apart and modafinil co-administration (2 × 90 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before the first and fourth methamphetamine injections on glial cells (microglia and astroglia. We also evaluated the striatal expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, which are known to mediate methamphetamine-induced apoptotic effects. Modafinil by itself did not cause reactive gliosis and counteracted methamphetamine-induced microglial and astroglial activation. Modafinil also counteracted the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels and prevented methamphetamine-induced increases in the pro-apoptotic BAX and decreases in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Our results indicate that modafinil can interfere with methamphetamine actions and provide protection against dopamine toxicity, cell death, and neuroinflammation in the mouse striatum.

  15. In Vivo Monitoring of Pancreatic β-Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We generated a transgenic mouse model (RIP-luc for the in vivo monitoring of pancreatic islet mass and function in response to metabolic disease. Using the rat insulin promoter fused to firefly luciferase, and noninvasive technology to detect luciferase activity, we tracked changes in reporter signal during metabolic disease states and correlated the changes in luciferase signal with metabolic status of the mouse. Transgene expression was found to be specific to the pancreatic islets in this transgenic model. Basal transgene expression was tracked in male and female mice fed either a chow or a high-fat diet and in response to treatment with streptozotocin. Pancreatic bioluminescent signal increased in mice fed a high-fat diet compared with chow-fed animals. In a model of chemically induced diabetes, the bioluminescent signal decreased in accordance with the onset of diabetes and reduction of islet β-cell number. Preliminary studies using islets transplanted from this transgenic model suggest that in vivo image analysis can also be used to monitor transplanted islet viability and survival in the host. This transgenic model is a useful tool for in vivo studies of pancreatic β-cells and as a donor for islet transplantation studies.

  16. Mapping social behavior-induced brain activation at cellular resolution in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Pradhan, Kith; Mende, Carolin; Taranda, Julian; Turaga, Srinivas C.; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Ng, Lydia; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Rockland, Kathleen; Seung, H. Sebastian; Osten, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP-positive neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse. PMID:25558063

  17. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, A J; Chatzeli, L; Proctor, G B; Tucker, A S

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  18. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ningling [Department of Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Hong, E-mail: xuhong1168@126.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Li, Rong [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Huang, Hefeng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-26

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. - Highlights: • HnRNP K localizes in the nucleus of GV-stage oocyte in a punctate distribution. • HnRNP K strongly accumulates in zygotic pronuclei as condensed spots. • The localization of hnRNP K during oogenesis and embryogenesis is characteristic. • HnRNP K might have an important role in oogenesis and embryonic development.

  19. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  20. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.