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Sample records for estonian graptolitic argillites

  1. The distribution of some rare metals in the process of separation of organic matter from Estonian dictyonema argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvadre, R.; Ahelik, V.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of rare metals Mo, U and V in the process of separation of organic matter from Maardu and Toolse argillite s is discussed. The beneficiation process of argillite consists of the hydro cycling treatment, in the course of which organic matter is separated as a light fraction, followed by direct flotation of organic matter and pyrite concentrates. Determinations of Mo and U were made by X-ray fluorescence, V by titration and pyrite by titration of iron. It can be concluded that rare metals Mo, U and V were concentrating in organic matter, their recovery in pyrite and quartz was negligible, depending on the degree of pyrite separation. The recovery of rare metals, especially that of V in the mineral phase, was more considerable in the processing of Maardu argillite, whose content of clay minerals was higher than that of Toolse argillite. 4 tabs., 6 refs

  2. Studies of the Eleana Argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.

    1977-01-01

    Waste-rock interaction studies of the Eleana have become focused on its response to the emplacement of a near-surface heater. Thermal expansion to 500 0 C appears to vary as a function of both quartz content and orientation in even the most massive argillite, although the directional dependence of the massive type is only 10%. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding in a layered sample behave quite similarly to other samples up to 450 0 C, above which they contract, while samples cut in other orientations undergo a non-linear, and increasing expansion. Unconfined compression tests of massive argillite indicate a critical strength of up to 8300 psi. Work is being planned to determine thermal expansion, strength, and argillite elastic properties to temperatures of 500 0 C and pressures of up to 4200 psi. Heat capacities of powdered samples have been determined to 500 0 C, and show considerable variability as a function of mineralogy, and clay and water contents. When analyzed in air, one sulfide-rich sample goes through an exothermic sulfide oxidation at 425 0 C. Between 150 and 420 0 C, however, argillite heat capacities are fairly uniform and almost constant. Thermal conductivities at ambient temperature have been measured for more than 50 samples. Taken without regard to the layering, they average 2.69 W/m 0 C. Conductivities measured parallel to the layering average 3.04 W/m 0 C. Integrated thermo-mechanical modeling will begin at the start of FY 1978

  3. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  4. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James

    1980-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  5. Valued Estonian Music CDs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Artur Kapp "Symphonische Werke", Eduard Tubin "Symphonies No.9, No.10 and No.11", "Estonian Preludes", "Eesti heliloojad. Hortus Musicus", "Eesti Muusika Päevad", "Tallinn Saxophone Quartet. Estonian Contemporary Music", "Triskele. Kolga-Jaani vaimulikud rahvalaulud", "Helmekaala. Linnupuu Anne", "Modern Fox mängib Raimond Valgret",

  6. An original state equation for argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, S.; Dormieux, L.; Skoczylas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillite is available in large quantities in France and exhibits a very small permeability: that is the reason why it is an excellent candidate for the storage of nuclear waste depositories. This study focuses particularly on argillite from Meuse-Haute-Marne (East of France) located 500 m deep. Following the observation that Biot theory does not permit us to explain some of our experiments, we propose in this contribution to use the tools of continuum micro-mechanics in order to develop a macroscopic state equation that would be consistent with our experimental data. In order to apply homogenization tools to argillite, the first step is to describe the microstructure of this material. Argillite can be modelled as a multi-scale material: - At the macro-scale, argillite looks like a homogenized material. - At the meso-scale, a shale matrix surrounding some inclusions can be distinguished. - At the micro-scale, the shale matrix reveals to be made of a solid phase and of a partially saturated porous network; capillary effects are taken into account at this scale. - At the nano-scale, the solid phase is not homogeneous but is a set of particles that are parallel platelets with an electrolyte in-between; the solid phase is not physically inert with regard to water in the porous network; first, liquid pressure in the electrolyte exists and is equal to liquid pressure in the porous network; then, the unbalance between the ion concentration in-between the platelets building up the solid phase and the ion concentration in the porous network implies an overpressure in the electrolyte. This complex model of argillite leads us though several homogenization steps to an original macroscopic state equation. We propose to compare this state equation with experimental data. Results of a poro-mechanical test run on a partially saturated sample of argillite are shown. One can read that the deformations of the sample are identical

  7. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Duy Thuong; Dormieux, Luc; Lemarchand, Eric; Skoczylas, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillite is a very low permeability geo-material widely encountered: that is the reason why it is an excellent candidate for the storage of long-term nuclear waste depositories. This study focuses on argillites from Meuse-Haute-Marne (East of France) which forms a geological layer located approximately 400 m and 500 m depth. We know that this material is made up of a mixture of shale, quartz and calcite phases. The multi-scale definition of this material suggests the derivation of micro-mechanics reasonings in order to better account for the mechanisms occurring at the local (nano and micro-) scale and controlling the macroscopic mechanical behavior. In this work, up-scaling techniques are used in the context of thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings. The first step consists in clarifying the morphology of the microstructure at the relevant scales (particles arrangement, pore size distribution) and identifying the mechanisms that take place at those scales. These local informations provide the input data of micro-mechanics based models. Schematic picture of the microstructure where the argillite material behaves as a dual-porosity, with liquid in both micro-pores and interlayer space in between clay solid platelets, seems a reasonable starting point for this micro-mechanical modelling of clay. This allows us to link the physical phenomena (swelling clays) and the mechanical properties (elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio). At the pressure applied by the fluid on the solid platelets appears as the sum of the uniform pressure in the micro-pores and of a swelling overpressure depending on the distance between platelets and on the ion concentration in the micro-pores. The latter is proved to be responsible for a local elastic modulus of physical origin. This additional elastic component may strongly be influenced by both relative humidity and temperature. A first contribution of this study is to analysing this local elastic

  8. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  9. Advances in the Ordovician graptolite biostratigraphy of the St Petersburg area, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyarkova, Anna A.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ordovician shallow-water shelf deposits rich in benthic fauna are exposed along the Russian part of the Baltic–Ladoga Klint. Graptolites occur only at some stratigraphic levels, being comparatively numerous in marls and clays and very rare in carbonate layers. Since the 19th century graptolites have been collected from exposures of the Pakerort, Hunneberg, Billingen, and Volkhov regional stages (Tremadocian–Dapingian, while in the Uhaku–Idavere stratigraphic interval (Darriwilian–lower Sandbian rare graptolites have been found in boreholes. Up to now, only some collections have been systematically studied. On the basis of new graptolite finds, recently the Pterograptus elegans Biozone was established in the upper Aseri Stage and the Nemagraptus gracilis Biozone in the lower Kukruse Stage. Detailed sampling of the Shundorovo Formation (upper Idavere Stage resulted in the discovery of numerous diplograptids at five stratigraphic levels, in association with various dendroids. These diplograptids were provisionally assigned to ?Archiclimacograptus antiquus lineatus Elles & Wood. A systematic description of the late Darriwilian and early Sandbian diplograptids is under preparation.

  10. Iodine transfer in the Tournemire argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittebroodt, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of an underground radioactive waste disposal, 129 I constitutes for the argillaceous media one of the most penalizing elements owing to its very long life and its very low affinity. The objective of this work is to characterize the iodide transfer through the Tournemire argillite (Aveyron, France), in order to study thoroughly the iodide diffusive behaviour through an argillaceous matrix. An experimental methodology, which was based on a multi experimental method approach (batch, radial diffusion and through diffusion experiments), was applied for three different tracers: iodide, bromide, HTO. In the first part of this work, we show that the comparison between the HTO diffusion parameters and the anionic species highlights the existence of an anionic exclusion phenomenon which restricts the access of the anionic species to an accessible porosity inferior to the total rock porosity. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that our retention and diffusion experiments indicate the existence of a significant affinity between 125 I and the Tournemire argillite. The 125 I retention appears to be irreversible, or with a kinetically very slow desorption within the duration of our experiments. Moreover, this retention intensity seems to be dependent on different experimental parameters such as the initial concentration of iodide or the ionic strength of the synthetic pore-water solution. (author)

  11. Estonian Tax Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian tax structure changes during the last decade and critically assesses the current situation. The country’s tax mix is rather unique among EU countries – it has one of the highest proportions of consumption taxes in total taxes and the lowest level of capital and profit taxes. Such an unbalanced tax structure creates risks for public finances, limits revenue collection and distorts the business environment.

  12. Estonian energy forest project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.; Kirt, E.; Kull, K.; Lasn, R.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, J.; Ross, V.; Sulev, M.

    1994-04-01

    In February 1993 an agreement of Swedish-Estonian scientific co-operation on energy forest was signed. In may five energy forest plantations (altogether 2 ha) were established in Estonia with Swedish selected clones of Salix viminalis and Salix dasyclados. The research within this project is carried out within three main directions. The studies of basic ecophysiological processes and radiation regime of willow canopy will be carried out in Toravere. The production ecology studies, comparison of the productivity of multiple clones on different soil types is based on the plantations as vegetation filter for wastewater purification is studied on the basis of plantations in Vaeike-Maarja and Valga (author)

  13. Estonian Airi uued soodsad pakkumised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi kodulehelt on võimalik osta lennupileteid koostööpartnerite poolt pakutavatele mandritevahelistele lendudele ning broneerida internetis hotellituba Euroopa suurima hotelli broneerimise teenust pakkuva ettevõtte Booking.com kaudu

  14. [Mati Erelt. Estonian Language] / Katrin Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Estonian language / [Estonian Academy of Sciences] ; edited by Mati Erelt.Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2003. 412, [1] lk. : ill., kaart. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series, 0868-4731 ; vol. 1)

  15. Estonian wind climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, Ain

    1999-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

  16. Middle Telychian (upper Llandovery, Silurian) graptolites from boreholes of northwestern Libya: Their biostratigraphic significance and palaeogeographical implication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorch, Petr; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2007), s. 535-540 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/1322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Libya * Ghadamis Basin * Graptolites * biostratigraphy * palaeobiogeography * Silurian * Middle Telychian Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2007

  17. Evenness and species abundance in graptolite communities: a new proxy for climate change during the end ordovician mass extinction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hawkins, A. D.; Mitchell, C. E.; Sheets, H. D.; Loxton, J.; Belscher, K.; Melchin, M. J.; Finney, S.; Štorch, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2011), s. 83-83 ISSN 0016-7592. [2011 GSA Annual Meeting and Exposition. 09.10.2011-12.10.2011, Minneapolis] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : graptolites * Ordovician * climate change Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2011AM/finalprogram/abstract_196574.htm

  18. A new graptolite species of .i.Cyrtograptus./i. from the uppermost Llandovery of Ziyang, Shaanxi Province, China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, J.; Štorch, Petr; Wang, X.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, 1/2 (2015), s. 215-220 ISSN 1871-174X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Silurian * Llandovery * Cyrtograptus fui n. sp. * Ziyang * Graptolites Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2015

  19. The Early Ludfordian leintwardinensis graptolite Event and the Gorstian-Ludfordian boundary in Bohemia (Silurian, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorch, Petr; Manda, Š.; Loydell, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2014), s. 1003-1043 ISSN 0031-0239 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0703 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biostratigraphy * extinction * Gorstian-Ludfordian boundary * graptolites * leintwardinensis Event * Silurian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.240, year: 2014

  20. Ten years of Toarcian argillite - carbon steel in situ interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzeres, Alexandre [IRSN, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Maillet, Anais [IRSN, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, Batiment B35 - 5, avenue Albert Turpain, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France); Gaudin, Anne [UMR CNRS 6112, LPGN, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); El Albani, Abderrazak; Vieillard, Philippe [UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, Batiment B35 - 5, avenue Albert Turpain, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    In situ interaction experiments over periods of 2, 6, and 10 years between Toarcian argillite and carbon steel discs were carried out in the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL), yielding a dataset of the materials' geochemical evolution under conditions representative of the future geological disposal of high-level long-lived radioactive wastes. The carbon steel discs were exposed to corrosion due to trapped oxygen. The corrosion rates indicate that the oxidizing transient lasted between 2 and 6 years. A systematic dissolution of calcium phases (Ca-smectite sheets in I/S and calcite) was observed in the iron diffusion halos. The iron release induced mineralogical dissolution and precipitation reactions, which partly clogged the argillite porosity. (authors)

  1. Estonian white paper on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburg, Arvi

    1997-01-01

    Energy policy, environmental protection and economy form a triangle of tightly linked sectors, and any solution of some energy problem can be solved only in the light of all the above mentioned factors. There are several energy master plans for Estonia, the first of them dating back to the years of the Soviet Union and ending the list with the plan to cover the years up to 2000. By now the basic principles of the Estonian energy policy have been prepared and Estonian Energy Concept is being worked out. The main goal of Estonian energy policy is ensure an effective and environmentally benign energy supply for the country. It means safety in energy supply, effective production and supply together with sufficient environmental protection. Energy Council in the role of an advisory voluntary organization for inspection of the energy system and finding measures to improve its efficiency is established with parliament members included. The Estonian Energy Research Institute and the Oil--Shale Research Institute serve as a scientific advisory board for the government in energy policy. It's important to emphasise that privatisation is no panacea, solving all the problems, and therefore we are facing hard to move in the right direction, satisfying all the consumers of energy

  2. Logistics in Estonian business companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiisler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes logistics survey in Estonia carried out in 2007 as a part of the LogOnBaltic project. The level of logistics in Estonian manufacturing, trading and logistics companies is explored through logistics costs, performance indicators, outsourcing, ICT use and logistics self-estimation of the companies responded. Responses from 186 Estonian companies were gathered through a web-based survey (38% of manufacturing, 38% of trading and 24% of logistics sector. Logistics costs as the percentage of turnover make in average 13.8% in manufacturing and 13.3% in trading. Transportation and inventory carrying cost form around 70% of overall logistics costs. Considering the logistics indicators surveyed, Estonian companies show up with relatively low perfect order fulfillment rates, short customer order fulfillment cycles and effective management of cash flows. The most widely outsourced logistics function is international transportation followed by domestic transportation, freight forwarding and reverse logistics. By 2010, the outsourcing of IT systems in logistics followed by inventory management, warehousing and product customization is expected to increase more substantially. The awareness of logistics importance is still low among Estonian companies. Only 27–44% of those agree that logistics has a considerable impact on profitability, competitive advantage, top management or customer service level.

  3. In situ Tournemire argillite / iron metal interactions: results after 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillet, A.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of a long lived radioactive waste storage concept in deep geological layer developed by Andra, IRSN leads an in situ study on the Experimental Station of Tournemire, in association with EDF to determine the interactions steel/argillite in a natural context. After 10 years of interaction, two drillings overcoring performed to characterize the processing of the Tournemire argillite in contact with carbon and stainless steels and to compare reactive phenomena highlighted and those induced by simulations tools combining chemistry and transport. Argillite/carbon steel samples show a significant corrosion of steel disk. Iron released, in the form of rings and cracks in the rock, disrupts the argillite in contact resulting in mineralogical and structural changes. Iron oxides precipitation and a calcite and smectitic leaf of mixed-layers I/S dissolution are identified. A succession of areas: metal/metal corroded/argillite disturbed/argillite is highlighted and porosity variations are observed on the interfaces between two areas. Geochemical simulations show that major changes are initiated speedily during establishment of the system and the oxygen trapped in the closed system is consumed by the corrosion of steel but mostly it diffuses into the surrounding material through concentration gradient. Argillite/stainless steel samples have a very low pitting corrosion of steel disk. This does not seem to affect the mineralogy of the argillite in contact. (author)

  4. Argillite And Crystalline Disposal Research: Accomplishments And Path-Forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Kevin A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The intention of this document is to provide a path-forward for research and development (R&D) for two host rock media-specific (argillite and crystalline) disposal research work packages within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The two work packages, Argillite Disposal R&D and Crystalline Disposal R&D, support the achievement of the overarching mission and objectives of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Technologies Program. These two work packages cover many of the fundamental technical issues that will have multiple implications to other disposal research work packages by bridging knowledge gaps to support the development of the safety case. The path-forward begins with the assumption of target dates that are set out in the January 2013 DOE Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (http://energy.gov/downloads/strategy-management-and-disposal-used-nuclear-fuel-and-high-levelradioactive- waste). The path-forward will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to available funding and the progress of multiple R&D tasks in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign and the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program. This path forward is developed based on the report of “Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Disposal Research and Development Roadmap (FCR&D-USED- 2011-000065 REV0)” (DOE, 2011). This document delineates the goals and objectives of the UFDC R&D program, needs for generic disposal concept design, and summarizes the prioritization of R&D issues.

  5. Evidence and identification of microorganisms in argillite from Tournemire (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urios, L.; Magot, M.; Marsal, F.; Pellegrini, D.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Generalised corrosion is one of the main processes taken into account in the dimensioning of non-alloy steel overpacks for high level nuclear waste packages. However, the presence of microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria in the host rock in contact with these non-alloy materials may also influence localised corrosion processes, leading to a premature loss of the overpack watertightness. Available void and presence of free water are key conditions for bacterial development, which are not often met in an argillaceous environment. Nevertheless, microbial activity has been proven to occur in argillaceous formations such as the Opalinus Clay in the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory. Indigenous sulfate-reducing bacteria have also been put into evidence in MX-80 bentonite, a clayey material likely to be used as engineered barrier in many countries for nuclear waste repositories. The French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been conducting a research program at the Tournemire experimental platform on the biodiversity of Toarcian argillite, aiming at assessing the potential development of a microbial activity in deep clayey environments, disturbed or not by an excavation. The occurrence of microbial processes in this formation was first shown by the study of time evolution of the chemical and isotopic composition of fracture groundwaters collected in several boreholes. These investigations suggested that aqueous sulfates and their isotopic composition were controlled by bacterial sulfate reduction. The presence of living sulfate-reducing bacteria in water samples from an air-drilled borehole crossing a tectonic fracture (MB1) was later shown. Thus, a characterisation of the microbial biodiversity of the Toarcian argillite was launched. Samples have been collected in different locations of the Tournemire experimental platform: pieces of wall of the gallery, as well as cores from

  6. Evidence and identification of microorganisms in argillite from Tournemire (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urios, L.; Magot, M. [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, IPREM UMR 5254, Equipe Environnement et Microbiologie, IBEAS, F-64013 PAU (France); Marsal, F.; Pellegrini, D. [IRSN, DSU/SSIAD/BERIS, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Generalised corrosion is one of the main processes taken into account in the dimensioning of non-alloy steel overpacks for high level nuclear waste packages. However, the presence of microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria in the host rock in contact with these non-alloy materials may also influence localised corrosion processes, leading to a premature loss of the overpack watertightness. Available void and presence of free water are key conditions for bacterial development, which are not often met in an argillaceous environment. Nevertheless, microbial activity has been proven to occur in argillaceous formations such as the Opalinus Clay in the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory. Indigenous sulfate-reducing bacteria have also been put into evidence in MX-80 bentonite, a clayey material likely to be used as engineered barrier in many countries for nuclear waste repositories. The French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been conducting a research program at the Tournemire experimental platform on the biodiversity of Toarcian argillite, aiming at assessing the potential development of a microbial activity in deep clayey environments, disturbed or not by an excavation. The occurrence of microbial processes in this formation was first shown by the study of time evolution of the chemical and isotopic composition of fracture groundwaters collected in several boreholes. These investigations suggested that aqueous sulfates and their isotopic composition were controlled by bacterial sulfate reduction. The presence of living sulfate-reducing bacteria in water samples from an air-drilled borehole crossing a tectonic fracture (MB1) was later shown. Thus, a characterisation of the microbial biodiversity of the Toarcian argillite was launched. Samples have been collected in different locations of the Tournemire experimental platform: pieces of wall of the gallery, as well as cores from

  7. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  8. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  9. Estonian Air / Kirsti Vainküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainküla, Kirsti, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air reklaamib end Taani linna Aalborgi raadiojaama ilmateates. Lennukompanii pressiesindaja Epp Alatalu sõnul on firma Taanis reklaamimise põhjus see, et liinil Tallinn-Kopenhaagen sõitjate hulgas ei ole peaaegu üldse taanlasi

  10. 1.6. The kinetics of hydrochloric acid decomposition of argillite of Chashma-Sang Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Mirzoev, D.Kh.; Boboev, Kh.E.

    2016-01-01

    Present article of book is devoted to kinetics of hydrochloric acid decomposition of argillite of Chashma-Sang Deposit. It was defined that with temperature increasing the extraction rate of Al_2O_3 and Fe_2O_3 increases. The dependence of extraction rate of Al_2O_3 and Fe_2O_3 on process duration at hydrochloric acid decomposition of argillite was studied. The activation energy of the process was defined.

  11. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  12. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  13. The late Aeronian graptolite sedgwickii Event. Associated positive carbon isotope excursion and facies changes in the Prague Synform (Barrandian area, Bohemia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorch, Petr; Frýda, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 6 (2012), s. 1089-1106 ISSN 0016-7568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : carbon isotope record * community evenness * extinction * graptolites * Silurian * species richness Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.270, year: 2012

  14. Graptolites of the Králův Dvůr Formation (mid Katian to earliest Hirnantian, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraft, P.; Štorch, Petr; Mitchell, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2015), s. 195-225 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301110908 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : graptolite * Ordovician * Katian * Hirnantian * Prague Basin * biostratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.700, year: 2015

  15. Graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy of the upper Telychian-lower Sheinwoodian (Llandovery-Wenlock) strata, Jabalon River section, Corral de Calatrava, central Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loydell, D. K.; Sarmiento, G. N.; Štorch, Petr; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 2 (2009), s. 187-198 ISSN 0016-7568 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : graptolites * Conodonta * Silurian * biostratigraphy * Central Iberian Zone (Spain) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2009

  16. Graptolite assemblages and stratigraphy of the lower Silurian Mrákotín Formation, Hlinsko Zone, NE interior of the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štorch, Petr; Kraft, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2009), s. 51-74 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : graptolites * stratigraphy * Llandovery * Hlinsko Zone * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2009

  17. Graptolite graveyard: Re-Os dating of macroplankton at the Lower-Middle Ordovician boundary (Floian-Dapingian stage boundary), Tøyen Shale, southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, V.; Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.; Ahlberg, P.; Maletz, J.

    2017-12-01

    There exist only 16 radiometric ages for the entire 42 m.y. Ordovician Period. Stage boundaries are biostratigraphically defined by the first appearance of agreed on graptolite and conodont species. Cosmopolitan graptolites are common in the Ordovician and their relatively brief stratigraphic durations make them ideal for global correlations. The Floian-Dapingian stage boundary (Lower-Middle Ordovician boundary) is very poorly constrained, with an absence of radiometric dates for several million years below the boundary and poor statistics on ages in the lower Dapingian [1]. Here we use the Ordovician Tøyen Shale, widespread across southern Sweden and Norway with a highly-refined graptolite biostratigraphy, to add a new age constraint [2]. With drill core from Lerhamn, Sweden (samples from 35.75-36.70 m depth), we employ a novel approach to directly date the fauna. We physically extracted a well-preserved 5-cm fossil of macroplankton (graptolite) from organic-rich shales (up to 4% TOC) for Re-Os dating. The graptolite and its hosting shale together define a well-constrained Model 1 isochron of 469.4 ± 1.7 Ma (2s, MSWD = 1.7, n = 9) and an initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) of 0.802 ± 0.002 for seawater. The Osi documents sustained radiogenic Os input to seawater from the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian through the Early Ordovician, in concert with the Sr isotope seawater curve. The analyzed graptolite belongs to the species Pseudophyllograptus augustifolius, a member of the upper Floian fauna [2]. Our nominal age for the dated graptolite and the shale is lower Dapingian according to the 2017 GTS [1]. Therefore, the Re-Os age suggests the Floian-Dapingian stage boundary may be younger than currently accepted. As defined in the GTS, the Dapingian stage is only 2.7 m.y. (470.0 ± 1.4 to 467.3 ± 1.1 Ma); combined uncertainties could give the Dapingian a mere 0.2 m.y. duration (or a maximum of 5 m.y). Although uncertainties overlap, our first dating of the Lower-Middle Ordovician

  18. On the compression behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerani, M.; Delage, P.; Monfared, M.; Sulem, J.; Tang, A.M.; Schroeder, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of research into radioactive waste disposal, it was decided to investigate some aspects of the volume change behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, a possible host rock in which the ANDRA underground laboratory of Bure (East of France) has been excavated. To do so, high pressure oedometers able to apply a maximum load of 113 MPa were used. Oedometers are widely used in Soil mechanics but not so much in Rock mechanics. In spite of applying combined stress/strain conditions (controlled vertical stress with no radial strain allowed) in which the radial stress is not controlled, their advantage is to be simple and robust to use (easy long term stress control and strain measurements). They provide a simple way to investigate the elastoplastic behaviour of soils, particularly regarding the elastic modulus, yield point and plastic compressibility. A high pressure oedometer developed at UR Navier/CERMES was used. The apparatus is a double lever arm device able to apply a maximum axial stress of 113 MPa on a specimen contained in a rigid ring of diameter 38 mm. The sample is 10 mm high. Vertical strains are monitored by using an electronic strain transducer connected to a data acquisition system. Previous calibration of the system was carried out by running a test with no sample in the ring so as to account for the effects of the compression of the top and bottom porous disks, of cell and of the piston. A reversible response of the system was observed after applying various loading cycles between 0 and 113 MPa. The specimen was trimmed by using a diamond corer of corresponding diameter and placed inside the oedometer ring. The top and bottom faces of the sample were polished by using sand paper so as to get two flat, regular and parallel faces. The ring was placed into the oedometer cell with dry porous stones and specimen was loaded under 1 MPa to ensure good contact with the porous stones and the

  19. Experimental evidence for self-sealing of fractures in argillites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In argillaceous rocks, self-sealing of fractures generated by the excavation of underground repositories can be expected due to combined impact of rock compression, backfill resistance, and clay swelling during the post-closure phase. The sealing process is determined by the deformability and swelling capacity of the host rock and the backfill as well as by the boundary conditions. As a crucial factor for the long-term safety of repositories, the sealing behaviour of fractures in argillites has been experimentally investigated by GRS on the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite (COX) and the Opalinus clay (OPA) under relevant repository conditions. Comprehensive laboratory tests were carried out on artificially-fractured samples of different sizes (diameter/length = 50/50 - 280/600 mm) and shapes (cylinder and hollow cylinder) under various confining stresses, fluid pressures, and temperatures. The sealing of fractures was detected by measurement of deformation, permeability and wave velocity variations. Following previous studies in which the sealing of fractured samples was determined by gas flow at ambient temperature, additional tests were performed by flowing synthetic pore water through fractures under different confining stresses and at elevated temperatures. Typical results of the tests are presented in this paper. Current results of the ongoing long-term permeability measurements on fractured COX and OPA samples (D/L = 50/50 mm) are summarized, some of which were pre-heated up to high temperatures of 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. In those tests, synthetic pore water was flowed through at injection pressure of 1 MPa, confining stresses of 2 to 3 MPa, and elevated temperatures from 20 to 90 deg. C. All fractured samples showed the same high initial gas permeability of 3.10 -12 m 2 . As the water was injected, the permeability dropped down by three to five orders of magnitude to 10 -15 to 10 -18 m 2 , depending on the

  20. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  1. Digimodernistlik eesti kirjanik / The Digimodernist Estonian Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Viires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the cultural situation following postmodernism in the first decade of the 21st century. To characterise this situation, the umbrella term “post-postmodernism” is used, as well as “neomodernism”, “altermodern”, “metamodernism”, “hypermodernity”, “performatism”, “critical realism” etc. All these approaches are, in a wider sense, united by their aim of opposing postmodernist cynicism and irony, and bringing back truth, simplicity and clarity. It has also been found that literature has returned or is returning to realism, and various cultural phenomena are emerging, which have been designated by the concept “new sincerity”.In descriptions of the current cultural situation, this trend seeking truth and simplicity is supported by approaches which emphasise the significance of technological developments during the last decade. A prominent figure here is Alan Kirby, who launched the term “digimodernism”, mainly linked with the adaptation and spread of Web 2.0 at the beginning of the 21st century: the blogosphere, Wikipedia, Twitter and Facebook.The article seeks answers to the question of whether we can talk about digimodernism in Estonian literature in the 2000s. In the 1990s Estonian writers were quite reluctant to undertake computer-technological experiments, and there are only a few examples of Estonian digital literature, whereas a change occurred in the 2000s. Many Estonian writers have had and still have their own blogs and surprisingly many have joined Facebook. The term “twitterature” is also familiar to Estonian writers. The article tackles the dominant topics in the blogs of Estonian writers and analyses their possible collective creative work on Facebook. A question is raised as to whether it is possible that the fragmentary narrative structure of blogs and Facebook has influenced mainstream literature.The article concludes that one essential change in Estonian literature in the

  2. Distribution regularities and prospecting of carbonate-siliceous-argillitic rock type uranium deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Fengmin; Pan Yan

    2012-01-01

    The carbonate-siliceous-argillitic rock type uranium deposit is one of the important types of uranium deposits in China. Exogenic permeability type and hydrothermal type are dominated in genetic type. Four mineralization zones, two independent mineralization districts, two potential mineralization zones can be classified in China, uranium mineralization districts can be classified further. They are classified as four levels through the potential metallogenic evaluation on the mineralization districts, an important prospective area in the near future. In order to develop and make use of carbonate-siliceous-argillitic rock type uranium resources, exploration and study should be listed in the development planning on uranium geology. (authors)

  3. Measuring the permeability of Eleana argillite from area 17, Nevada Test Site, using the transient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1978-01-01

    Using the transient method, we determine the permeability of high-quartz Eleana argillite from the Nevada Test Site as a function of effective pressure. By comparing calculated and observed pressure decay in the upstream reservoir, we have determined the permeability of intact and fractured specimens at effective pressures ranging from 1.0 to 24.0 MPa. Over this pressure range, Eleana argillite has a low permeability (10 -16 to 10 -19 cm 2 ) when intact and a higher permeability (10 -12 to 10 -17 cm 2 ) with one induced through-going fracture

  4. Valued Estonian Music CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal välja antud eesti muusika heliplaatidest Arvo Pärt "Summa", Lepo Sumera "Chamber Music", "Baltic Voices 1.", "Sequenzen - Europäische Orgelmusik des 20. Jahrhundrets mit...", "El silenco ئ Silence. Kuldar and Marje Sink. Songs of Mother and Son", "Riho Sibul. Estonian Dream Big Band", "Rull's Royce ئ Rull's Choice"

  5. Resource and utilization of Estonian hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, P.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the Estonian hydropower resources and their utilization at present as well as prospective for the future are presented in this paper. A short overview of advantages of small hydropower stations and related issues is given. Some technological aspects are treated briefly. (authors)

  6. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  7. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  8. The graptolite, conodont and sedimentary record through the late Ludlow Kozlowskii Event (Silurian) in the shale-dominated succession of Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manda, Š.; Štorch, Petr; Slavík, Ladislav; Frýda, J.; Kříž, J.; Tasáryová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 3 (2012), s. 507-531 ISSN 0016-7568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0703; GA ČR GAP210/10/2351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : graptolites * conodonts * Silurian * biostratigraphy * Kozlowskii Event * extinction * peri-Gondwana Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.270, year: 2012

  9. Interaction of radionuclides with argillite from the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Lynch, A.W.

    1979-02-01

    Distribution coefficients have been determined for 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce, 99 Tc, 152 Eu, 238 Pu, 244 Cm, and 243 Am between argillite from the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and several aqueous phases. Radionuclide concentrations in the range of 1 to 0.001 μCi/ml were used with contact times of 14, 28, and 56 days. Reaction mechanism, concentration effects, exchange capacity, equilibration times, and particle size effects were addressed in a more comprehensive study of the interaction of argillite with Cs in deionized water. The experimental parameters used in the distribution coefficient measurements were based in part on this work. The aqueous phases included a simulated groundwater with composition based on the analysis of a NTS groundwater, the same simulant and deionized water which were pre-equilibrated with powdered argillite, and a groundwater simulant with approximately the same qualitative composition of the NTS simulant, but with a higher ionic strength. A system to provide continuous pH control by CO 2 addition during equilibration of the argillite-solution mixtures was designed and assembled. Initial experiments were done with Cs and Eu and the effects of pH on their distribution coefficients are discussed

  10. Simulation of anions diffusion in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite by description of the rock microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Callovo-Oxfordian argillite has been proposed as host rock for deep underground radioactive wastes storage. The aim of this study is to determine the report of effective diffusion coefficients De(anion)/De(water) at the micrometer scale considering the spatial distribution of minerals in the rock. (A.L.B.)

  11. Gas and water flow in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.; Talandier, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Understanding the impact and fate of this gas phase is of significant importance within performance assessment and for the accurate long-term prediction of repository evolution. This paper describes the initial results from an ongoing experimental study to measure the two-phase flow behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from the Bure underground research laboratory (URL) in France, using the custom-designed BGS permeameter. The primary objectives of the study are to measure: (i) the hydraulic conductivity and intrinsic permeability; (ii) the capillary displacement pressure; (iii) the effective gas permeability and relative permeability to gas for a range of conditions; and (iv) the post-test gas saturation. During testing, the specimen, a cylinder of 54 mm thickness, cut perpendicular to bedding, is subject to an isotropic confining stress, with fluids injected through the base of the specimen. A novel feature of the apparatus is the use of porous annular guard-ring filters around the inflow and outflow filters. The pressures in these two 'guard-rings' can be independently monitored to provide data on the distribution of pressure and anisotropy of the sample. Initial measurements, performed on a specimen orientation perpendicular to the bedding plane, have been divided into three components: re-saturation and consolidation; hydraulic properties; gas behaviour. During the initial period of equilibration, re-saturation of the sample were noted. Net volume change due to re-saturation closely agreed with pre-test geotechnical measurements of water saturation, suggesting the bulk of the gas phase was resident in non-dilatant pores and that the specimen was fully saturated at the onset of testing. A two step consolidation test was then performed with confining pressure raised to 11 MPa for 5 days and then to 12.5 MPa for a further 8 days. Values for drained bulk modulus based on the total volume of fluid

  12. Testing Proximate Cause Hypotheses for the End-Ordovician Mass Extinction: Do Patterns of Change in Biomarker Signatures Support a Linkage Between Graptolite and Phytoplankton Community Changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N.; Thomas, E.; Mitchell, C. E.; Aga, D.; Wombacher, R.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of our study is to analyze the biomarkers in the Vinini Creek section based on a set of samples in which graptolite community change has been identified. The study will test several competing hypotheses about the cause of the observed changes in the environmental proxies and the graptolite community structure and composition. The study interval in the Late Ordovician (444.7-443.4 Ma) was a glacial period with varying climate and sea level changes that are marked by geochemical signatures. Climate change drove changes in deep-ocean circulation and upwelling zones during the concomitant mass extinction and it appears that the graptolites inhabiting the mesopelagic zone were the most vulnerable during these events. Due to the high vulnerability of the graptolites in the Vinini Creek section, biomarkers in the section are especially important for interpreting changing ocean conditions. Changing productivity in the upwelling zones of modern oceans is reflected in the microbial community, which forms the base of the food chain and drives biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, microbes can be traced using organism-specific biomarkers. Steranes (C27-C29) are biomarkers for eukaryotic organisms (e.g., green algae) and hopanes (C27-C35) are biomarkers for bacteria. We will determine hopane-sterane ratios, which reflect measurable relative contributions of bacteria and eukaryotes to sedimentary organic matter as a result of fluctuations in the strength of the oxygen minimum zone and associated denitrification processes. Previous work at lower resolution in this section suggests a decrease in denitrification and increase in abundance of eukaryotes (e.g., green algae) relative to bacteria within the Hirnantian glacial lowstand interval, roughly synchronously with the mass extinction. These relationships suggest that climatically driven changes in nutrient cycling and phytoplankton communities drove the mass extinction. If this is so, then changes in graptolite community

  13. Ageing effect on deep-buried argillites stored after coring: study cases of Opalinus Clays and Callovo-Oxfordian argillites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techer, I.; Clauer, N.; Liewig, N.

    2010-01-01

    by scanning electron microscope observations to identify the related mineral alterations. Significant changes were observed in the mineral compositions of the whole rocks and in the chemical and Sr-isotopic composition of the leachates when the storage duration in ambient temperature or during heating increased. The main variations were: (1) a significant decrease of the element contents in the leachates, meaning in turn the decrease of the released elements from minerals constitutive of the rocks when duration increased. This decrease was rapid in the COX argillite, after storage at ambient temperature and exposition at 95 deg. C, and was followed by a progressive trend to a new stable state. In the Opalinus Clays, the decrease was progressive and accompanied by a decrease of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the leachates, but no trend towards a new stable state could be observed; (2) an alteration of pyrite followed by a precipitation of Ca-sulfate, which appeared to start in the core of the crystals towards the rims; it also lead to the replacement of Fe-sulfides by Fe-oxides; (3) a probable precipitation of new mineral phases in the rocks, such as Fe-oxy-hydroxides and/or jarosite that could not be visualized by electron microscopic observation because of their very limited amount and very small grain size. All the modifications call for an oxidation of pyrite probably combined with dehydration of the rock, inducing changes in the pH conditions of interstitial fluids. They probably also induced an oxidation of the organic matter, which was enhanced by temperature increase. The study allowed identification of the changes occurring in the rocks exposed to atmosphere that are recorded in the mineralogical feature and in the chemical and Sr isotopic composition of their soluble mineral phases. Leaching appears to be an appropriate procedure for identifying and quantifying such reactions that are explained by oxidation and dehydration processes of the mineral and organic

  14. Emission from Estonian oil shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunela, L.; Haesaenen, E.; Kinnunen, V.; Larjava, K.; Mehtonen, A.; Salmikangas, T.; Leskelae, J.; Loosaar, J.

    1995-01-01

    Flue gas emissions from pulverized oil shale fired boilers of Estonian and Baltic power plants have been studied. The concentrations of NO x , CO, C x H y , HCI, Hf and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gases have been found to be relatively low and acceptable according to German emission limits, for instance. Desulphurization degree of flue gases by SO 2 absorption with ash has been found to vary defending on boiler type and operation conditions. In spite of significant sulphur capture (average values for different boilers in the range between 68 and 77 % of the initial sulphur content of the fuel), SO 2 concentrations in flue gases remain still very high (up to 2600 mg/m 3 , 10% O 2 ). Very high concentrations of particles, especially at Estonian Power Plant (up o 6250 mg/m 3 , 10 % 0 2 ) have been detected. Heavy metal emissions were too high by the reason of particle control insufficiency as well. Yearly emission estimates of this study support the former Estonian ones within the range of 10-15 %. (author)

  15. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour and damage of clay-stones: application to the East argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aublive-Conil, N.

    2003-03-01

    The storage in deep geological formation is one of the solutions retained by France for the management of highly long life radioactive waste. The retained host rock is a clay-stone named East argillite located in the departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne. A thermodynamic formulation is used to propose a rheological model, which reproduces the mechanical behavior of clay-stones. Initially, an anisotropic damage plastic model was formulated in order to describe material degradations. Then, the damage plastic model is reformulated in order to taken into account the damage influence on the hydraulic behavior of porous material. The numerical simulations correctly reproduce the mechanical behavior of East Argillites but also the anisotropy of the hydraulic behavior introduced by the damage effect. (author)

  16. A study on the dynamic behavior of the Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.; Kaiser, P. K.; Suorineni, F.; Su, K.

    Excavation of underground tunnels can be conducted by tunnel boring machines (TBM) or drill-and-blast. TBMs cause minimum damage to excavation walls. Blasting effects on excavation walls depend on the care with which the blasting is executed. For blast-induced damage in excavation walls, two issues have to be addressed: rate of loss of confinement (rate of excavation) and dynamic loading from wave propagation that causes both intended and unintended damage. To address these two aspects, laboratory dynamic tests were conducted for the determination of the dynamic properties of the Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite. In the present study, 17 tensile (Brazilian) and 15 compression split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted. The test revealed that the dynamic strengths of the argillite are strain rate dependent. The average dynamic increase factors (ratio of dynamic strength to static strength) for tensile and compressive strength are about 3.3 and 2.4, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to visualize the initiation of failure and subsequent deformation of the specimens. The direct compression specimens were found to deform and fail uniformly around the circumference of the specimen, by a spalling process. The SHPB Brazilian tests indicated that failure occurred in tension along the line of load application. Radial fractures were also observed. The test results can be used for the development of a dynamic constitutive model for the argillite for the prediction of damage in underground excavation utilizing the drill-and blast method.

  17. Contributions to micromechanical model of the non linear behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Chakra Guery, A.

    2007-12-01

    This work is performed in the general context of the project of underground disposal of radioactive waste, undertaken by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Due to its strong density and weak permeability, the formation of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite is chosen as one of possible geological barriers to radionuclides. The objective of the study to develop and validate a non linear homogenization approach of the mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The material is modelled as a composite constituted of an elasto(visco)plastic clay matrix and of linear elastic or elastic damage inclusions. The macroscopic constitutive law is obtained by adapting the incremental method proposed by Hill. The derived model is first compared to Finite Element calculations on unit cell. It is then validated and applied for the prediction of the macroscopic stress-strain responses of the argillite at different geological depths. Finally, the micromechanical model is implemented in a commercial finite element code (Abaqus) for the simulation of a vertical shaft of the underground laboratory. This allows predicting the distribution of damage state and plastic strains and characterizing the excavation damage zone (EDZ). (author)

  18. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueues, Meelis

    2000-01-01

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  19. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  20. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  1. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  2. Modelling the influence of water content on the mechanical behaviour of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Y.; Zhang, F.; Shao, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The clay formation provides the geological background to many industrial and engineering applications. Especially in recent years, these types of material have been largely studied because they can be considered as potential host geological barrier for the underground storage of high level radioactive wastes. In view of this, several underground laboratories have been constructed in different countries. For instance: the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory (France), excavated in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite; the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland), constructed in Opalinus clay; the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (Belgium), located in Boom clay; the AECL underground research laboratory (Canada), achieved in the Lac du Bonnet granite batholith. The research realised in the underground laboratories allows us to obtain extensive experimental measurements and helps us to get a good understanding of the generalised behaviour of theses clays when subjected to complex solicitations (thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical). In the underground storage, the experimental investigation and numerical prediction show that coupled hydro-mechanical processes will occur in the geological barrier for a very long time due to excavation/ ventilation and subsequence backfilling/sealing. In the excavation and exploitation stage, the unloading of host rock creates an EDZ zone and induces an increase local of permeability by several orders of magnitude around the galleries. Moreover, additional damage may be induced by the desaturation/re-saturation processes during ventilation/backfilling phase. On the other hand, the behaviour of clay formation is affected also by the presence of water and the pore pressure evolution. It is necessary to achieve a good understanding of the coupled hydro-mechanical behaviour to of clay formation for the designer of an underground storage. This paper focus on the

  3. Long term behaviour of compacted argillite submitted to an alkaline fluid circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuisinier, O.; Masrouri, F.; Deneele, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the French concept of deep nuclear wastes repository, the galleries should be backfilled with excavated argillite after the site exploitation period. After several thousands of years, the degradation of the concrete lining of the galleries will generate alkaline fluid (pH > 12) that will diffuse through the backfill. The object of the study is to describe the influence of such solute diffusion on the microstructure of compacted argillite. Saturated-portlandite water was circulated through compacted samples for 3, 6 and 12 months at 20 or 60 deg. C. First, the mechanical behaviour of the samples was determined after the fluid circulation period. The microstructure of the samples was also analysed via mercury intrusion porosimetry tests, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Since it is planned to introduce additives (bentonite, calcareous sand or lime) in the remoulded argillite to backfill the deep galleries, such mixtures were also studied. The results showed that MA particles are sensitive to the alkaline fluid circulation at the microstructural level. In the case of the calcareous sand, no major changes of the microstructure nor the mechanical behaviour were observed. The pure argillite underwent slight modifications that can be related to a limited dissolution of its clayey particles. Conversely, intense alteration of the MX-80 particles was evidenced with a strong increase of the macro-pore void ration while the mechanical behaviour was slightly altered by the fluid circulation. Lime addition improved the mechanical characteristics of the argillite through the precipitation of cementitious compounds. The microstructure of the lime-treated argillite was also altered by the fluid circulation. That study evidenced that alkaline fluid circulation led to the dissolution clayey particles, leading to the increase of the macro-pore void ratio. Some of the dissolved compounds allowed the formation of

  4. Influence of the incorporation of grog and argillite in a clayey body for production of ceramic paver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpini, V.; Pinheiro, R.M.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work has for objective to evaluate the influence argillite and grog addition, obtained from defective bricks fired al low temperatures, into a clayey body for production of ceramic paver. Cylindrical specimens were uniaxial mold-press and then fired at 850 deg C in a laboratory furnace. The evaluated properties were: water absorption, diametral shrinkage and uniaxial compressive strength. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated electron scanning microscopy. The results showed that the argillite significantly decreased the water absorption and the shrinkage of the clayey body. The grog also decreased the shrinkage, but also decreased the mechanical strength. With respect to the water absorption, the grog not change this property of the composition elaborated with clays and argillite. (author)

  5. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  6. Estonian Air lõpetab Pariisi ja Vilniuse lennud / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Talvisele lennuplaanile üleminev Estonian Air lõpetab otselennud Tallinnast Vilniusesse ja Pariisi. Estonian Airi presidendi Borge Thornbechi sõnul kavatseb firma suurendada talvehooajal turismilendude mahtu

  7. Cresco sai lahti võlast SASile ja osalusest Estonian Airis / Rivo Sarapik, Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts ning SAS-i asepresident Benny Zakrisson kirjutasid alla Estonian Airi ostu-müügitehingule. Investeerimispank Cresco, millele kuulus 17% Estonian Airist, jääb välja Estonian Airi omanikeringist ning SAS-i nõue Crescole tühistatakse

  8. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  9. Joakim Helenius: Estonian Air võtku eeskuju airBalticust / Siim Sultson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sultson, Siim

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Airi ühe võimaliku nõukogu esimehe Jaokim Heleniuse hinnangul on väikeste lennufirmade, nagu Estonian Air ja airBaltic jaoks päris palju tegutsemisruumi. Estonian Airil tuleb leida oma nišš ja kindel, kuid omanäoline strateegia

  10. Microbial diversity of the 180 million-year-old Toarcian argillite from Tournemire, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urios, Laurent; Marsal, François; Pellegrini, Delphine; Magot, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Even though the microbiology of various subsurface environments has been investigated for more than 30 a, the microbial diversity of deep argillaceous media is still poorly known. In the context of radioactive waste disposal in clayey formations, the consequence of microbial activity is of concern regarding e.g. the corrosion of metallic components. The purpose of the present work was to characterise the cultivable microbial diversity of different zones of the Toarcian argillite of Tournemire (France) as a preliminary indication regarding the potential of development of microbes in such subterrestrial environments. Cores were drilled in the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and in the deeper undisturbed zone of the argillite layer, as well as in a zone intersected by a geological fault. Samples from the wall of the drift were also collected. Microorganisms were cultivated from all samples, but the biodiversity differed depending mainly on the O 2 and moisture content. Aerobic bacteria were identified on the wall, in the EDZ and in the wet faulted area, whereas SO 4 -reducing bacteria were isolated from the wet faulted area only. Anaerobic heterotrophs were cultivated from all zones. One hundred and twelve isolates were identified. Small ribosomal subunit gene sequences showed that bacteria of the undisturbed zone were affiliated to three genera only, whereas the three other sampled zones harbour more diverse microflora, including isolates closely related to taxons characterized from subsurface, deep marine and polar environments.

  11. Mechanical modeling of nuclear waste disposal in argillite at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical calculations for a near surface heater experiment in argillite conducted at the Nevada Test Site were performed using the finite element code ADINA assuming a two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry. The existence and extent of the region of tensional opening of joints surrounding the heater, predicted by the mechanical model, were confirmed by posttest borehole inspection, permeability measurements, and drillback. Exrapolation of near surface heater model to repository depths reveals the necessity for prior knowledge of the mechanical properties and state of stress in-situ. The extent of the joint opening zone, for example, is not altered by changes in the elastic modulus at the near surface, but is significantly decreased beyond certain depths depending upon the in-situ elastic modulus. Results of these calculations are presented. To further define the behavior at depth, and place bounds on the joint opening zone, far-field calculations were performed for a generic repository in argillite. Both spent fuel and high level waste heat sources were considered at different burial densities and depths. Results of a parametric study are presented in which the mechanical properties, in-situ stresses, and waste heat sources were varied

  12. Microbial corrosion of steel in Toarcian argillite: potential influence of bio-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urios, L.; Desneux, J.; Magot, M.; Perez, A.; Mercier, F.; Dillmann, P.; Wittebroodt, C.; Dauzeres, A.; Marsal, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the context of a geological disposal of radioactive waste in clayey formations, the consequences of microbial activity are of concern regarding the corrosion of metallic components, such as the overpack surrounding vitrified waste. Generalized corrosion is one of the main processes taken into account in the dimensioning of these overpacks. However, the presence of microorganisms such as sulfate- or thiosulfate-reducing bacteria in the host rock in contact with these non-alloy materials may enhance localized corrosion processes, leading to a premature and undesirable loss of watertightness. Moreover, the passive corrosion layer, which is formed progressively during the generalized corrosion process and induces a decrease of corrosion rates, may react with iron-reducing bacteria and thus reactivate corrosion. The formation of bio-films may also lead to significant modifications of environment at the biofilm/metal interface in terms of pH, dissolved oxygen, organic and inorganic species, that may lead to electrochemical reactions that could potentially increase corrosion rates. There is thus a need for further investigations of the potential consequences on the physico-chemical conditions within geological disposal facilities. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been conducting research programs since 1991 in the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL), a railway tunnel which crosses a Toarcian argillaceous formation. This geological layer is particularly interesting for its physical and chemical properties close to those of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite. The importance of microbial processes in this formation was first shown by the study of time evolution of the chemical and isotopic compositions of fracture groundwaters collected in several boreholes. These investigations suggested that aqueous sulphates and their isotopic composition were controlled by bacterial

  13. Test results and supporting analysis of a near-surface heater experiment in the Eleana argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Lappin, A.R.; Thomas, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the in-situ thermomechanical response of argillite to heating was obtained from a near-surface heater test in the Eleana Formation, at the United States Department of Energy, Nevada Test Site. The experiment consisted of a 3.8 kW, 3-m long x 0.3-m diameter electrical heater in a central hole surrounded by peripheral holes containing instrumentation to measure temperature, gas pressures, and vertical displacement. A thermal model of the experiment agreed well with experimental results; a comparison of measured and predicted temperatures indicates that some nonmodeled vertical transport of water and water vapor occurred near the heater, especially at early times. A mechanical model indicated that contraction of expandable clays in the argillite produced a region 1.5 - 2.0 m in radius, in which opening of preexisting joints occurred as a result of volumetric contraction. Results of thermal and mechanical modeling, laboratory property measurements, experimental temperature measurements, and post-test observations are all self-consistent and provide preliminary information on the in-situ response of argillaceous rocks to the emplacement of heat-producing nuclear waste

  14. Alteration of the Tournemire argillite (France) submitted to an alkaline plume: through-diffusion and advection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devol-Brown, I.; Tinseau, E.; Rebischung, F.; De Windt, L.; Bartier, D.; Motellier, S.; Techer, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Tournemire experimental platform of IRSN in Aveyron is based on a tunnel and several galleries. The tunnel was excavated between 1882 and 1886 through Domerian marls and Toarcian argillites. Its walls were recovered by lime that is yet in contact with the argillites. The program associated to the study of the engineered analogues provided by the Tournemire experimental platform is presented in another paper. In parallel, lab experiments (diffusion and advection) are performed in smaller time (1 year) and space scale to control some parameters and complete engineered analogues results. This paper details the scientific program developed on these diffusion and advection lab samples. The diffusion study was designed to provide better understanding of the phenomena that govern diffusion processes during the transient phase between site and alkaline conditions. The advection study was designed to evaluate the influence of an advective hydraulic regime on the interaction argillite/alkaline fluid in comparison with the diffusive one. In all experiments, pH and concentrations (cations, anions) were monitored in time. Mineralogical and petrographic analyses (XRD, SEM, TEM) of the argillite cores were performed before and after the experiments for characterizing the mineral alterations and their potential role on the alkaline plume migration

  15. Hydro-mechanical coupling and transport in Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite: experimental and multi-scale approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, S.

    2010-07-01

    This thesis deals with the hydro-mechanical behaviour of argillite. Classical Biot theory is shown to be badly adapted to the case of argillite. An original state equation is then built by use of homogenization tools, and takes into account the microstructure of argillite as well as physical phenomena happening inside the material, like the swelling overpressure inside the clay particles or the capillary effects in the porous network. This state equation explains some experiments which were not by the classical Biot theory. It is then improved by integrating the experimental data that are the dependency of the elasticity tensor with the saturation degree and the existence of a porosity surrounding the inclusions. Combined with the monitoring of length variation under hydric loading, this relevant state equation permits one to determine the Biot tensor of argillite. Since this state equation is coupled with the hydric state of the material, one is interested in modelling the variation of the saturation degree during a drying process. Two transport models are studied and compared, then a model for the porous network is proposed in order to explain the unusual permeability measurements. (author)

  16. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  17. Osmotic flow and over pressures within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite in the eastern part of the Paris Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croise, J. [Colenco Power Engineering AG, Groundwater Protection and Waste Disposal, Baden (Switzerland); Vinsotz, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Lab. de Recherche Souterrain RD960, 55 - Bure (France); Noya, D. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Nottingham NG (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    A middle Jurassic shale, the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite (420-560 m b.g.), is currently being intensively investigated at the ANDRA site, about 300 km eastern from Paris, and particularly with respect to its hydrogeological and hydrochemical properties. The argillite rests between the Oxfordian Limestone above and the Dogger Limestone below. Observations from the different deep boreholes located at the site can be summarized as follows: the measured apparent hydraulic head across the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite show excess values of several tens of meters in comparison to the upper and lower aquifers, a fact which is referred to as anomalous overpressure in the shale literature; the salinity of the pore water in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and the Dogger is much larger than that of the Oxfordian. The salinity levels in the Callovo-Oxfordian and the Dogger are similar. Among all physical processes which can be proposed as explanation for the formation of overpressure in shales, osmosis driven by a chemical potential (total dissolved solids) gradient is a possible candidate. As a matter of fact, the presence of contrasts in water composition and clay minerals content, as observed here, lead to osmotic effects. This paper presents the results of simulations using steady-state approximations and transient simulations (software OSMO, a numerical simulator developed by the British Geological Survey). It is shown that based on the extensive database of argillite measurements applicable to the study (including porosity values, specific surface determinations, pore water compositions, and effective diffusion coefficients), the chemo-osmosis is a process which can at least explain partly the anomalous overpressures observed. (authors)

  18. HM modelling of in-situ gas injection tests in bentonite and argillite: the PGZ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, P.; Charlier, R.; Radu, J.P.; La Vaissiere, R. de; Talandier, J.; Collin, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. During long-term repository of high and intermediate level nuclear waste in deep argillaceous geological formation, steel containers will corroded and organic material will be irradiated. The two processes lead mostly to hydrogen production. This study deals with the numerical modelling of the gas migration in both the host formation and a bentonite plug, with an emphasis on coupling between the gas transfer and the mechanical strains and stresses. More particularly the study aims to support the design of the PGZ in situ experiment that will be performed by Andra in its underground laboratory at Bure. The objective of the experiment is the analysis of the dynamics of the bentonite plug re-saturation, studying the competition between the liquid water coming from the argillite and a gas injection. The modelled experiment consists of a borehole drilled in rock clay, inside which a plug of MX-80 bentonite is set. The bentonite is naturally re-saturated by water coming from the host formation. At the same time a gas pressure, higher than the initial water pressure in the host rock, is imposed at both ends of the plug. The developed model takes into account the coupling between the mechanical behaviour and the water and gas transfers in undisturbed geo-materials. It manages explicitly liquid and vapour water, gaseous and dissolved hydrogen. Elastoplastic and non-linear elastic model are used to model the behaviour of, respectively, the argillaceous rock and the bentonite. The numerical results show the small desaturation obtained in bentonite and argillite. The influence of the coupling of the mechanic on the water and gas transfers is thus limited (due to the Bishop's effective stress). The swelling of the bentonite plug is not hindered by the gas migration and the confining effect of the engineered barrier is maintained. An analysis is made of the influence of the main transfer rock properties on the gas pressure

  19. Liberalism - Key to Entrepreneurial and Innovation Success: Estonian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Ignatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its independence in 1991 Estonia has successfully overpassed the challenges of the transition period being in the present of one the most technologically developed nations of Europe. The present research is intended to evaluate the relationship between Estonian pro-market regulation, entrepreneurship and innovation. In order to reach relevant conclusions in this regard there have been used both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis. In such a way, it could be comprehensively reviewed the process of Estonian economic development from a relatively underdeveloped USSR republic to an advanced innovation driven economy. The results show that pro-market governmental regulation has favourably influenced Estonian entrepreneurship, while it fostered country’s innovation capacities. It has been concluded that the economic “miracle” of Estonia has been at a great extent determined by proper government regulation oriented towards economic liberalisation.

  20. Iron/argillite interactions in radioactive waste disposal context: Oxidising transient and bacterial activities influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, Camille; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Maillet, Anais

    2014-01-01

    The design of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal facility developed by Andra (2005) in France involves emplacing metallic materials (containers, overpacks, liner) into a geological argillaceous formation. During the operational phase, ventilation of handling drifts will keep oxidising conditions at the front of disposal tunnels. Therefore, an oxidising transient may take place in parts of these tunnels in the post-closure phase possibly over several years. During this transient period, the environment of the disposal cell will evolve towards reducing and saturated conditions close to the equilibrium state of the original underground argillaceous formation. Moreover, high temperature conditions above 50 deg. C may be encountered in this environment over a few hundred years. Uniform corrosion represents the main type of degradation of metallic materials for the long term. The oxidising transient will be characterised by high corrosion rates (e.g. localised corrosion) due to the presence of oxygen whereas during the following anoxic stage, the main alteration factor will originate from the pore water associated with lower corrosion rates. In any case, metallic materials corrosion will lead to the release of aqueous iron, which may induce alteration of the favourable confining properties of the clayey materials. In this context, reactive pathways related to the metal corrosion under oxidising conditions and then followed by reducing conditions remain to be further understood (evolution of pH, redox and influence of temperature). Furthermore, some other significant issues remain open, in particular the dissolution/precipitation processes, the argillite perturbation extent and the effects of these transformations on the confining properties of materials. The presence of micro-organisms in deep argillaceous environment and the introduction of new bacterial species in the repository during the operational phase raise the question of their survival under real

  1. Ethnic Self-Esteem and Intergroup Attitudes Among the Estonian Majority and the non-Estonian Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaris Raudsepp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focussed on the relationships between ethnic self-esteem and various indicators of intergroup attitudes in a representative sample of adult population of Estonia (N=1142. Attitudinal variables that discriminated most between persons with high and low ethnic self-esteem were identified. Among Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to positive ingroup bias, readiness for outgroup contact, perceived threat from the outgroup, attitudes to non-Estonian minority, and attitudes toward minority integration. Among non-Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to readiness for outgroup contact, ethnic sterotypes, and various attitudes towards minority integration. An attempt was made to reconstruct the system of intergroup attidues of prototypical persons with high and low ethnic selfesteem and to describe psychological implications of high and low ethnic self-esteem for members of majority and minority groups. Various theoretical models (social identity theory, integrated threat theory, social dominane theory were used for interpretation of the results.

  2. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of crushed COx argillite used as backfilling material in HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chaosheng; Shi Bin; Cui Yujun; Anh-Minh Tang

    2010-01-01

    At present, the crushed Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite powder is proposed as an alternative backfilling material in France, which will be constructed in the engineering barrier of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. In this investigation, the compression behavior of two crushed COx argillite powders (coarser one and finer one) was studied by running l-D compression tests with several loading-unloading cycles. After the final dry density 2.0 g/cm 3 was reached, the specimen was flooding with distilled water and the evolution of axial stress was studied during saturation process. The effects of initial axial stress level and grain size distribution (GSD) on hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted specimen were analyzed. The results show that the compression curves are significantly influenced by the GSD of the soils. To obtain the same degree of compaction, the axial stress applied to finer soil is much higher than that of coarser soil. In addition, the compression index of the finer soil is bigger than that of coarser soil. The swelling index at initial water content increases with the dry density and seems to be independent of the GSD. During saturation, the initial lower axial stress causes obvious swelling behavior for both the coarser and finer powder samples and the corresponding axial stress increase gradually. At initial higher axial stress condition, monotone collapse behavior is observed for the coarser powder samples. Whereas the axial stress decrease firstly, then increase and finally decrease again for the finer powder samples. After saturation, the equilibrium axial stresses of finer powder samples are higher than that of coarser powder samples. (authors)

  3. Predicting the diagenetic evolution of argillite repositories: application of flow-through reaction cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warr, L.; Clatter, N.; Liewig, N.

    2005-01-01

    In order to successfully predict the diagenetic evolution of argillite repositories we need to know i) which reactions occur under a defined set of conditions, ii) how these reactions modify the material properties of the argillite seal, and iii) how fast these chemical reactions take place. Based on the application of thermodynamics, and the construction of activity diagrams for low temperature mineral phases (e.g. Velde 1992), fair predictions of mineral stability can be made under a given set of physical and chemical conditions. Such predictions are strengthened by examining natural mineral reactions preserved in the geological record, in combination with results obtained from controlled laboratory experiments. Changes in the material behavior can also be reasonably assessed, as the basic physical and chemical properties of argillaceous rocks of varying mineralogy are well documented in the petrophysical and engineering literature (e.g. Bell, 1999). Probably the most difficult task, however, is to assess the rates of the chemical reactions involved. This difficulty reflects our poor knowledge of the reaction kinetics for these low-temperature, fine-grained mineral materials, and apparent differences between rates estimated from natural and experimental systems. A new approach to monitoring the reaction kinetics of fine-grained minerals in percolating solution has been developed using flow-through reaction (wet-cell) chambers. These devices can be routinely mounted onto the X-ray diffractometer for in-situ measurements of the sample. With the aid of a cap to maintain constant volume, the device can be subjected to diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions (<150 C). First results are here presented for the alteration of Callovo-Oxfordian shales in a reactive simple young fluid (strongly alkaline, pH ca. 13) at 90 C, designed to simulate the alteration of concrete at the repository site. (authors)

  4. Evolution of the argillite / CEM I interface at 70 C.: in situ tests and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalan, P.; Dauzeres, A.; Barker, E.; De Windt, L.; Detilleux, V.; Desveaux, P.

    2015-01-01

    French radioactive waste disposal concept involves cementitious materials in a clayey host-rock. The presence of exothermic wastes in the storage cells may induce a temperature of about 70 Celsius degrees at the material interfaces. At present, experiment thermal conditions have been undertaken at about 20 C. degrees and studies at higher temperature are really scarce, especially experiments considering diffusion through the cement / clay interface. The still on-going study presented here is focusing on argillite / CEM-I interface. A one-year experiment under in situ conditions at the Tournemire experimental station (IRSN) was carried out and meanwhile, preliminary reactive transport modelling with HYTEC helped to understand the impact of a high temperature on the physico-chemical behaviour of cement / clay interface. The first results showed decalcification of cement and diffuse carbonation as well as a possible illite precipitation of clay-type phases. A C-S-H ribbon appeared at the interface between the two materials and a layer grew between the C-S-H ribbon and the cementitious material. This layer contained zeolites and behaved as a diffusive barrier. After one year of in situ interactions, the disturbance thickness was about 350 microns in CEM-I cement paste and about 100 microns in argillite. The modelling reproduced relatively well the experimentally observed processes but the extension of the disturbance is too wide and the zeolite layer is misplaced according to the experimental observations. This study highlights the lack of data at highest temperature on the reaction kinetics, diffusion coefficients but also on porosity variations. (authors)

  5. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Estonian Golf & Country Club'i etnomodernistlik golfikeskus ja klubihoone Jõelähtmel. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuristuudio Siim & Kreis. Autor Andres Siim. Konstruktor: Resand. Sisekujundaja Juta Lember (SAB Lember & Padar). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 3 värv. välis ja 3 sisevaadet

  6. Estonian Golf & Country Clubi klubihoone / Andres Siim, Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siim, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Harjumaal Jõelähtme vallas rajab Estonian Golf & Country Club uut Jägala-Jõesuu spordi- ja puhkekeskust, mille südameks saab puidust golgiklubi hoone, mida tutvustavad klubihoone arhitekt ja üks inseneridest. Ill.: vaade ehitusele, projekti kaks vaadet, lõige

  7. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  8. Top 10 Estonian albums of 2004 / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Arvo Pärt "Pro et contra", Various composers "Baltic Voices 2", Raimo Kangro "Displays", Toivo Tulev "Be Lost in the Call", Indrek Vau and Mati Mikalai "Estonian Trumpet Music", Erdmann/Sooäär "Dessert Time, Peer Gynt & Other Stories", Alo Mattiisen "50 parimat laulu", Riho Sibul "Must", Rein Rannap "Tantsib klaveril", Eesti Keeled "Kella tiksumist..."

  9. Value Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Tammik, Anu

    2017-01-01

    For systematic implementation of value education in educational institutions, the national programme "Values Development in Estonian Society 2009-2013" (Ministry of Education and Research 2009) was prepared in Estonia. However, it was launched only in 2010, and the authors intended to ascertain the values of the heads of preschool child…

  10. Equilibrium partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite as a function of relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassin, Arnault [BRGM-ISTO-UMR 7327, 3av. C. Guillemin, B.P. 36009, Orleans, 45060 (France); Marty, Nicolas; Henry, Benoit; Tremosa, Joachim; Gailhanou, Helene; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, 3av. C. Guillemin, B.P. 36009, Orleans, 45060 (France); Made, Benoit; Altmann, Scott [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet,Chatenay-Malabry,92298 (France)

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the behavior of a clay mineral-rich rock submitted to different physical-chemical perturbations is important for assessing the safety of nuclear waste disposal facilities in the corresponding geological formations. In this work we studied the effect of rock desaturation on the CO{sub 2} partial pressure signature of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite. This integrated study, which combines experiments and geochemical modeling, points out the primary role of capillary forces on the chemical equilibria. In particular, it was possible to model, without any fitting parameters, the experimental decrease of pCO{sub 2} as a function of decreasing water content in the argillite. Moreover, this application to a complex natural system is an example of confirmation of the theoretical concepts of geochemistry in capillary contexts and is promising for dealing with other natural and industrial systems. (authors)

  11. Modelling the effective diffusion coefficient of anions in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite knowing the microstructure of the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.

    2009-01-01

    After having presented the issue of radioactive waste storage, the concept of geological storage and its application in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory, and described the Callovo-Oxfordian geological formation and the argillite transport properties, this research thesis aims at developing a prediction of these properties at a macroscopic scale for water and anions. A first part presents the different experimental means implemented to acquire the diffusion coefficients for the studied materials (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and purified Puy illite), and the spatial organisation of minerals by LIBS probe-based mapping to highlight a relationship between rock microstructure and its transport macroscopic properties. The next part presents the models which have been developed at the nanometer and micrometre scale to predict the diffusion coefficients. Experimental results are then compared with computed values

  12. Experimental study of the anisotropic properties of argillite under moisture and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.S.; Chanchole, S.; Wang, L.L.; Bornert, M.; Gatmiri, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Due to various factors, such as sedimentation, layered morphology of clay mineral, in-situ stress, etc., the behavior of argillite rocks is often anisotropic. In order to study the anisotropy of the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite considered as a possible host rock for high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository in France, a series of tests including uniaxial compression and dehydration and hydration at different constant applied stress levels, are carried out using a specific setup combining mechanical and moisture loading devices. During these hydro-mechanical tests, this specific setup can also continuously capture images of the sample surfaces to be subsequently analyzed using Digital Image Correlation techniques (DIC) in order to determine full-field strains. In this study, three sampling directions are used with the angle θ between the bedding plane and the cylindrical sample axis equal to 45 deg., 60 deg. and 90 deg.. To investigate the mechanical anisotropy, uniaxial compressive tests with mechanical loading and unloading cycles are performed on several different samples at the same moisture level. The results show that the mechanical parameters (apparent modulus, failure stress) depend on loading orientation relative to the stratification plane. For a given water content, the failure stress reaches maximum values for θ =90 deg. and minimum values for θ =45 deg.. To study the hydric anisotropy, dehydration and hydration tests under stress-free conditions are performed on two cylindrical samples (θ=90 deg. and θ=60 deg.). Three cycles of hydration and dehydration are carried out by varying the relative humidity between 40% and 95%. The sample weight, the deformation measured by strain gages and the relative humidity are continuously recorded during the test by means of another specific setup described in [Pham et al., 2007]. Fig.1a illustrates the evolution of the strains of the sample EST28030-No

  13. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  14. Estonian Air püüdis viimase hetkeni Top Toursi päästa / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air kaalus Top Toursile appiminekut, sest reisifirma oli Estonian Airil üks olulisemaid koostööpartnereid. Abi oleks puudutanud ennekõike uutele lendudele allahindluse tegemist, räägiti ka võimalikust krediidist

  15. Argillite / cementitious materials interaction: in-situ investigations and modeling of engineered analogues from the Tournemire experimental station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techer, I.; Bartier, D.; Dauzeres, A.; Boulvais, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep geological disposal of high-activity and long-period radioactive wastes is designed by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) with a confinement system based on the multiplication of argillaceous and cement-bearing barriers called 'engineered barriers'. The role of these barriers is to avoid the release of radioelements into the biosphere, as well as to prevent the potential addition of external fluids to the waste materials. In a deep clay-rich medium, cementitious materials will compose most of the building structures and will be emplaced at the immediate contact with the natural argillaceous formation. Cementitious materials are known to produce hyper-alkaline pore fluids (with pHs ranging between 10 and 13.5) during their aging. Their introduction in a deep clayey disposal is thus expected to induce a chemical disequilibrium which imprint on the safety assessment of the storage must be characterized. One way to evaluate the potential disturbing of a clayey formation at the contact to a cementitious material and thus towards the percolation of hyper-alkaline fluids consists with the investigation of natural analogues or engineered analogues. These systems deals with clayey formations that have been maintained over several years to hundred of years at the contact with a natural or engineered cementitious material. The Tournemire Experimental Platform of the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) (Aveyron, SE France) presents many contexts of so-defined engineered analogues. For instance, exploration boreholes that were drilled vertically from the tunnel basement into the Toarcian argillite in 1990/1991 were filled soon after their drilling with CEM II cement paste and concrete. Today, the over coring of such concreted boreholes gives opportunities to examine the cementitious and the clayey materials and to discuss potential changes of their intrinsic

  16. Small scale heater tests in argillite of the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1979-11-01

    Near-surface heater tests were run in the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site, in an effort to evaluate argillaceous rock for nuclear waste storage. The main test, which employed a full-scale heater with a thermal output approximating commercial borosilicate waste, was designed to operate for several months. Two smaller, scaled tests were run prior to the full-scale test. This report develops the thermal scaling laws, describes the pretest thermal and thermomechanical analysis conducted for these two tests, and discusses the material properties data used in the analyses. In the first test, scaled to a large heater of 3.5 kW power, computed heater temperatures were within 7% of measured values for the entire 96-hour test run. The second test, scaled to a large heater having 5.0 kW power, experienced periodic water in-flow onto the heater, which tended to damp the temperature. For the second test, the computed temperatures were within 7% of measured for the first 20 hours. After this time, the water effect became significant and the measured temperatures were 15 to 20% below those predicted. On the second test, rock surface spallation was noted in the bore hole above the heater, as predicted. The scaled tests indicated that in-situ argillite would not undergo major thermostructural failure during the follow-on, 3.5 kW, full-scale test. 24 figures, 6 tables

  17. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers. I. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Mati

    1999-01-01

    The most comprehensive epidemiological project ever performed in Estonia - The Estonian Study of Chernobyl Cleanup Workers - was the joint effort of researchers from Estonia, Finland and USA. Until September 1999, the results of this study were published in English only. To familiarize the readership of 'Eesti Arst' with the major study findings, the abridged versions of four original papers from 'Radiation Research' are presented in the current issue of the journal. For the Estonian epidemiologists, the work under this project that consists of eight sub projects was a real challenge. In the course of the study, skills were developed in writing a study protocol, preparing a questionnaire, progress reporting, documenting the structure of databases, record linkage, and problem solving. It was an exciting experience to work with top scientists like William Bigbee, John Boice, Timo Hakulinen, Ronald Jensen and Gayle Littlefield. (author)

  18. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  19. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...

  20. Quaternary deposits and weathered bedrock material as a source of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersell Valter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia is high, being among the highest in Europe. In almost 33 per cent of Estonian land area, the content of radon in soil-contained air exceeds the safe limit for unrestricted construction (50 kBq/m3. In such high radon-risk areas the concentration of radon in soil-contained air ranges from 50 to 400 kBq/m3, in a few cases reaching up to 2,100 kBq/m3 exceeding the permitted level for residential areas. The situation is particularly serious in the northernmost part of the country, where uranium-rich graptolite argillite (Dictyonema shale and the Obolus phosphorite are close to ground surface and their particles are constituent parts of Quaternary deposits. Radon emissions from bedrock have been investigated in detail, but to date Quaternary strata as a source of radon emissions are poorly studied. According to our measurements the highest concentrations of radon are related to tills containing clasts and fines of graptolite argillite and phosphorite. Glacial deposits include also granitoidal material, containing U, Th and K, which have been transported by glaciers from the outcrop areas of crystalline basement rocks in Finland and the Gulf of Finland. Due to weathering, outwash and repeated redeposition other genetic types are poorer in radioactive elements and they are weaker sources of radon.

  1. Exhibition of photography from the Estonian diaspora / Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maar, Ellu, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Photography from the Estonian Diaspora / Väliseesti foto" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.10.-19.11.2010, kuraatorid Eha Komissarov ja Ellu Maar. Näitus tutvustas 1944. a. Eestist lahkunud või juba võõrsil sündinud fotograafide (Eric Soovere, Karl Hintzer, Priit Vesilind, Rein Välme jt.) loomingut ja valikut väliseesti fotoarhiividest

  2. Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Storm / Anna Smolchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smolchenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis, kohtumisest Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedeviga, Eesti delegatsiooni saalist väljamarssimisest Venemaa riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi sõnavõtu ajal. Ilmunud ka: St. Petersburg Times 1. juuli 2008, pealk.: Estonian Leader's Freedom Call Creates Controversy (lüh.). Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  3. Efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILIEV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of Estonian grain farms after Estonia’s transition to a market economy and during the accession period to the European Union (EU. The non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used to estimate the total technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of Estonian grain farms in 2000–2004. Mean total technical efficiency varied from 0.70 to 0.78. Of the grain farms 62% are operating under increasing returns to scale. Solely based on the DEA model it is not possible to determine optimum farm scale and the range of Estonian farm sizes operating efficiently is extensive. The most pure technically efficient farms were the smallest and the largest but the productivity of small farms is low compared to larger farms because of their small scale. Therefore, they are the least competitive. Since pre-accession period to the EU, large input slacks of capital have replaced the former excessive use of labour and land. This raises the question about the effects on efficiency of the EU’s investment support schemes in new member states.;

  4. Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Herzog

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Estonian Government moved a memorial commemorating the Soviet liberation of the country from the Nazis to a less prominent and visible location in Tallinn. This decision triggered rioting among Russian-speaking minorities and cyber terrorism targeting Estonia's critical economic and political infrastructure. Drawing upon the Estonian cyber attacks, this article argues that globalization and the Internet have enabled transnational groups—such as the Russian diaspora—to avenge their grievances by threatening the sovereignty of nation-states in cyberspace. Sophisticated and virtually untraceable political "hacktivists" may now possess the ability to disrupt or destroy government operations, banking transactions, city power grids, and even military weapon systems. Fortunately, western countries banded together to effectively combat the Estonian cyber attacks and minimize their effects. However, this article concludes that in the age of globalization, interdependence, and digital interconnectedness, nation-states must engage in increased cooperative cyber-defense activities to counter and prevent devastating Internet attacks and their implications.

  5. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  6. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  7. Geological repository layout for radioactive high level long lived waste in argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussen, JL

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high level long lived waste. This presentation is focussed on the underground facilities which constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout which has been elaborated is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in terms of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimization of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. The link between the surface and the underground is ensured by 4 shafts. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in

  8. Long term behaviour of glass and steel in interaction with argillites in deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Lartigue, J.E.; Devallois, V.; Pointeau, V.; Trotignon, L.; Michau, N.; Cochepin, B.; Munier, I.

    2010-01-01

    . C) was conducted in order to identify the parameters controlling the overall reactivity of the system. This sensitivity analysis included kinetic parameters for selected minerals, diffusion coefficient, corrosion rate, and gas partial pressure. Another set of calculations was also performed in non-isothermal conditions using the variable temperature field resulting from the heat produced by the waste packages. Modeling results in the reference case show that the glass alteration products mainly consist of zeolites (gyrolite, natrolite) and pure silica minerals (chalcedony). Steel corrosion products are distributed as follows: iron oxides (magnetite or goethite) at the core of the canister; iron silicates (cronstedtite), aluminosilicates (chamosite, Fe-saponite), and sulphide (pyrrhotite) precipitate at the interface between glass and argillites. In the argillites, primary minerals such as dolomite, smectites and calcite are destabilized close to the canister surface. These minerals disappear in favour of gyrolite, natrolite, chalcedony and philippsite-K. The sensitivity analysis shows that the relative amount and evolution in space and time of these secondary minerals strongly depend on the corrosion rate and the release of gas (H 2 and possibly CH 4 ) in the system. The relative intensity of the transport process (diffusion coefficient) and mineral reaction rates (kinetic rate and reactive surface area) also strongly influence the evolution of the system (nature of secondary phases, porosity, gas pressure...). These reaction pathways and para-genesis predicted by the calculations are qualitatively supported by 'short-term' (∼1 year) experiments. A significant reduction of porosity is systematically predicted at the interface between the different materials and is also locally observed in the different materials depending on the simulation conditions, e.g. depending on the corrosion rate. An overall decrease of the reactivity of the system is also

  9. Uniting the Divided Continent. The Estonian National Committee of the European Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Heikkilä

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the exiled Estonian politicians in the European Movement in the early Cold War period. The ultimate goal of exiled Estonians was to restore their state’s independence. In order to promote this, Estonian leaders sought connections with Western leaders. The European Movement was the only organisation involving actors from both the East and the West, and this corresponded to the Estonian discourse on Europe as a whole. Therefore, the European Movement was appreciated, although its limited opportunities for decisive actions were also recognised. East and West European interest in the European Movement declined as West European integration rapidly intensified through the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC and particularly after the January 1952 Eastern European Conference in London. By 1957, disappointment in the inability of European unification to help regain Estonian independence became evident.

  10. Physicochemical aspects of decomposition of silica-alumina ores of argillites and green clays of Chashma-Sang Deposit of the Republic of Tajikistan by hydrochloric and nitric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayumov, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of work is to study the processes of decomposition of silica-alumina ores of argillites and green clays of Chashma-Sang Deposit of the Republic of Tajikistan by hydrochloric and nitric acids in temperature interval 20-98 deg C with the using of methods of selective extraction of valuable materials; elaboration of rational conditions of decomposition of raw material. Physicochemical properties of initial aluminium comprising ores, intermediate and final products of processing of argillites and green clays have been studied. Kinetic parameters of processes at acidic decomposition of argillites and green clays have been studied as well. The kinetic parameters of processes of decomposition of green clays and argillites by nitric and hydrochloric acids have been calculated. The flowsheet of complex processing of green clays and argillites of Chashma-Sang Deposit has been elaborated.

  11. ARGAZ: a new device for experimental study of the coupling between hydrogen production and hydrogen transfer through saturated Callovian-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, C.; Bataillon, C.; Touze, G.; Vigier, P.; Talandier, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A specific experimental device has been designed to produce hydrogen at the metal-argillite interface by electrochemistry. The target is for one hand to reproduce the production of hydrogen occurring when a metal is corroded by the water contained in the porosity of the mud-stone. On the other hand, the transfer of the hydrogen through the mud-stone can be studied. The specific features of the experiment are the following: - Hydrogen is generated inside a cell by electrochemistry, at the interface between the argillite and a metallic surface; no gas injection is required; - Electrochemistry gives the possibility to control the hydrogen production rate; - Hydrogen generation implies water consumption: the water comes from the porosity of the bulk argillite, near the interface; - That one-dimensional experiment has been built around a cylindrical sample of bulk and undamaged argillite coming from the Callovian-Oxfordian formation. Inside the device a cylindrical sample of argillite is placed above a nickel plate. Around the argillite, a ring of compacted bentonite ensures a mechanical confinement. When saturated, the bentonite will apply a swelling pressure close to the total pressure encountered by the sample in the geological formation. The hydrogen is generated at the interface nickel-argillite. The nickel plate is one of the two electrodes required for electrochemistry. At the top face of bentonite, iron electrode is used to close the electrical circuit. The hydrogen produced at the bottom face of the mud-stone is expected to go across the argillite towards the top face. A porous plate connected with a sampling bottle allows the capture of hydrogen. The argillite sample has a diameter of 50 mm, and a height of 50 mm. It is obtained by over-coring a core sample, and by a careful machining leading to a perfect geometry and surface quality. The production rate of hydrogen can be calculated from the current intensity

  12. Rb-Sr geochronology of coarse-grained greywackes and argillites from the Coffs Harbour Block, eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Korsch, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Coffs Harbour Block, eastern Australia, includes a sequence of turbidity-current-deposited greywackes and argillites dominated by quartz-poor to quartz-intermediate, volcanic-lithic and feldspathic types. The rocks have a common provenance consisting of dacite with minor andesite and rhyolite, derived from a continental margin volcanic arc. Rb-Sr whole-rock dating of coarse-grained greywackes and argillites suggests that low-grade regional metamorphism (prehnite-pumpellyite to lowest greenschist facies) has completely equilibrated sediments of all grain sizes, giving an age of 318 +- 8 Ma. A subsequent metamorphism which produced thermal biotite on a regional scale over the southern part of the area, re-equilibrated only the fine-grained sediments 238 +- 5 Ma ago; the coarse-grained sediments were unaffected isotopically and still lie on the older isochron. The wide variations in sandstone petrographic modes imply that the older isochron represents neither the age of volcanism in the magmatic arc nor the age of sedimentation at the deposition site, but rather dates the time of earlier metamorphism. (orig.)

  13. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  14. Development of a viscoplastic constitutive model for deep rocks: concepts And application to the MHM argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Alexandra; Laigle, Francois

    2012-01-01

    cancellation of volumetric strains rate, in particular of dilation for high shear strains, - An ultimate friction angle related to the critical state angle, - Volumetric strains contractant or dilatant, depending on the state of stress. The delayed behaviour is implemented by the definition of a long term strength threshold, and allows taking into account: - The effect of the excavation average rate, - The effect of a stopping in excavation works, - The long-term behavior of an unsupported face heading. This advanced constitutive model is described in the paper from a conceptual point of view. The aim is not to define theoretical equations but only to expose the main physical concepts implemented. To illustrate the relevance of the model, an application to the Meuse/Haute-Marne Argillite is given from a simple example. (authors)

  15. Thermal Analysis of a Nuclear Waste Repository in Argillite Host Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, T.; Gomez, S. P.; Matteo, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geological repository requires analysis of heat distribution as a result of decay heat. Such an analysis supports design of repository layout to define repository footprint as well as provide information of importance to overall design. The analysis is also used in the study of potential migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. In this study, thermal analysis for high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel in a generic repository in argillite host rock is presented. The thermal analysis utilized both semi-analytical and numerical modeling in the near field of a repository. The semi-analytical method looks at heat transport by conduction in the repository and surroundings. The results of the simulation method are temperature histories at selected radial distances from the waste package. A 3-D thermal-hydrologic numerical model was also conducted to study fluid and heat distribution in the near field. The thermal analysis assumed a generic geological repository at 500 m depth. For the semi-analytical method, a backfilled closed repository was assumed with basic design and material properties. For the thermal-hydrologic numerical method, a repository layout with disposal in horizontal boreholes was assumed. The 3-D modeling domain covers a limited portion of the repository footprint to enable a detailed thermal analysis. A highly refined unstructured mesh was used with increased discretization near heat sources and at intersections of different materials. All simulations considered different parameter values for properties of components of the engineered barrier system (i.e. buffer, disturbed rock zone and the host rock), and different surface storage times. Results of the different modeling cases are presented and include temperature and fluid flow profiles in the near field at different simulation times. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and

  16. E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Sokolov

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...

  17. Modeling Cl- concentration and δ37Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel; Matray, Jean-Michel; Bensenouci, Fethic; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles; Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ 37 Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ 37 Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ 37 Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  18. Modeling Cl{sup -} concentration and δ{sup 37}Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel [Universite de Nimes / Site GIS - 30035 Nimes cedex 01 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, CEREGE UMR7330, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Matray, Jean-Michel [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bensenouci, Fethic [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Michelot, Jean-Luc [IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue. West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ{sup 37}Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ{sup 37}Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ{sup 37}Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  19. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  20. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  1. Acquisition of noun derivation in Estonian and Russian L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of derivation is not a well-studied area in first language research and a comparative approach to the acquisition of derivation in different languages doesn’t exist. There is no information on how a child acquires derivation in a language with a rich and regular system of derivational patterns, or in a language where derivation is productive, but the system of derivational patterns is opaque. According to general ideas of complexity in a language, the child should start to use simplex stems first and, only after that, complex ones, that is, complexity should increase in the course of acquisition. Our paper is intended to address these issues, based on longitudinal child data from typologically different languages, Estonian and Russian. The results revealed significant differences in the acquisition of noun derivation in the two languages under observation. The system of noun derivation is acquired at a faster pace in Russian, while Estonian children have far fewer noun derivatives in their speech and they use different derivation suffixes with less regularity. Even so, the so-called building block model may be applied for both languages only partially.

  2. Sealing efficiency of an argillite-bentonite plug subjected to gas pressure, in the context of deep underground nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In France, the deep underground nuclear waste repository consists of a natural barrier (in an argillaceous rock named argillite), associated to artificial barriers, including plugs of swelling clay (bentonite)-sand for tunnel sealing purposes. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug in contact with argillite, in presence of both water and gas pressures. To assess the sealing ability of partially water-saturated bentonite/sand plugs, their gas permeability is measured under varying confining pressure (up to 12 MPa). It is observed that tightness to gas is achieved under confinement greater than 9 MPa for saturation levels of at least 86-91%. We than assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug placed in a tube of argillite or of Plexiglas-aluminium (with a smooth or a rough interface). The presence of pressurized gas affects the effective swelling pressure at values P gas from 4 MPa. Continuous gas breakthrough of fully water-saturated bentonite-sand plugs is obtained for gas pressures on the order of full swelling pressure (7-8 MPa), whenever the plug is applied along a smooth interface. Whenever a rough interface is used in contact with the bentonite-sand plug, a gas pressure significantly greater than its swelling pressure is needed for gas to pass continuously. Gas breakthrough tests show that the interface between plug/argillite or the argillite itself are two preferential pathways for gas migration, when the assembly is fully saturated. (author)

  3. Estonian horticultural peat marketing: sales promotion and price formation. 2. part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Hele

    1999-01-01

    When forming prices, Estonian peat companies' decisions should be based on marginal cost analysis. Unfortunately most Estonian companies sell peat to intermediaries and cannot influence its price. Estonian peat producers have to choose between either selling peat directly or selling through a central marketing organization. Both systems have their pros and cons. Direct selling gives more freedom to individual producers but is more risky. Central marketing makes cost saving possible and is more effective and stable, but may alienate producers from clients and markets. Whichever marketing system Estonian peat companies choose, the most important elements in their marketing strategy should be: careful market analysis, personal sales, attending trade shows, catalogues, quality service and offering transportation services. (author)

  4. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children a...

  5. [Marge Rennit. Eesti muuseumid / Estonian museums] / Tapio Mäkeläinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäkeläinen, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustus: Eesti muuseumid = Estonian museums / [Eesti Muuseumiühing ; koostaja Marge Rennit ; tõlkija Tiina Mällo ; toimetaja Ivi Tammaru ; eessõna: Piret Õunapuu ; kujundaja Marek Allvee]. Tallinn : Oomen, 2008

  6. Problems of contemporary ecology. Temporal changes in Estonian nature and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1997-01-01

    This conference was held 8-9 May 1997 at Tartu, Estonia. The proceedings of the 7. Estonian Conference in Ecology contain the results of mostly original research in environmental science, conservation and natural philosophy

  7. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulain, S.

    2006-12-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  8. Interpreting strain measurements when drilling anisotropic rocks: return of experience from using CSIRO cells in Tournemire argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ouanas, Abdelmonem

    2010-01-01

    In Geomechanics, determining the state of stress and the rheology of rock massif can be obtained by measuring the strain response of the ground under the effect of a known stress. A method among others is to use a cell integrated (with strain gauges oriented in different directions) installed in a borehole and secured to the mass through an epoxy glue. This measurement is used, notably, to determine the stress state in situ by the 'overcoring' method and the elastic parameters of the rock from the 'biaxial' test. Between November 2005 and January 2006, a geomechanical testing campaign was conducted in the argillaceous formation of the Tournemire experimental site (Aveyron, France) using CSIRO Hi cells. The strain measurements obtained during overcoring and biaxial tests have shown unusual phenomena, which have made difficult the determination of anisotropic elastic parameters of the rock and the access to the site stress. Therefore, through researches for explanations of the origin of these phenomena, this thesis aimed to improve and contribute to the understanding of the Tournemire argillite behaviour and to upgrade the measurement protocol as well as the interpretation of cells CSIRO's strain. The approach was, firstly, to issue a number of hypotheses to explain certain phenomena observed in literature. In a second step, these hypotheses were tested through analytical and numerical modelling of the biaxial and overcoring tests then through the realization of new experiments in situ within laboratory on argillite, and also on materials tests (cement, sample of glue). It is concluded that the unusual phenomena observed are essentially the result of the conditions for implementing in situ CSIRO's cell. The study particularly focused on the artefacts induced by the visco-plastic behaviour of the epoxy glue when it is incompletely polymerised. The role of damage on the rock generated by drilling operations is also discussed. Some practical recommendations for

  9. Experimental study on poro-mechanical behavior of saturated Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite subjected to triaxial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dawei; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Shouyi; Shao, Jianfu

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Due to its low permeability (10 -18 to 10 -20 m 2 ), the Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite is chosen as the candidate host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by 'Agence Nationale de gestion des Dechets Radioactifs' (ANDRA). During the excavation of the underground tunnel in argillite formation, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) is expected to develop due to the stress redistribution during excavation and subsequent rock convergence. The nucleation and propagation of microcracks in EDZ can consequently affect the poro-mechanical behavior of the host rock. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study the poro-mechanical behavior of Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite under the influence of stress induced microcracks. For this purpose, this paper presents the original experimental results of drained and undrained triaxial compression tests as well as evolution of Biot's coefficient during hydrostatic and deviatoric loading of saturated Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite. The size of samples used in the present work is 20x20 mm in order to reduce the saturating time. The axis of the cylindrical sample is perpendicular to the bedding planes. The test system is placed in an insulated room and a temperature control system is used to maintain a constant temperature of 20 ±0.2 C. The saturation condition is an important factor for the determination of the mechanical and poro-elastic properties of saturated argillite. Thus, for each sample, after putting into the triaxial cell, the confining pressure is loaded to 2 MPa and we inject distilled water both at the injection and outlet faces in order to insure the pore pressure at the two faces hold at 1 MPa. This procedure will be keep to 72 hours. Then, the pore pressure at the injection face is increased to 1.5 MPa, and we record the pore pressure at the outlet face. Once the pore pressure at the outlet face reaches the same value at injection face, the sample is

  10. The Dominance of Indirect Taxes in Estonian State Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  11. Jäätmetega kimpus Estonian Cell annab muda põldudele kompostiks / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Kundas asuv Estonian Celli tehas jagab ümberkaudsetele talunikele jäätmetest lahtisaamiseks kompostimissegu. Seadused ei sätesta, kuidas Estonian Cellis tekkivaid jäätmeid töödelda. Kommenteerib Peeter Eek: Aasta läbi ei saa muda põllule viia

  12. The Category of Time in Fairy Tales: Searching for Folk Calendar Time in the Estonian Fairy Tale Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairi Kaasik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how folk calendar holidays are represented in Estonian fairy tales. It introduces some views presented in folklore studies about the concept of time in fairy tales and finds parallels with them in the Estonian context. The analysis relies on the digital corpus of Estonian fairy tales (5400 variants, created from the texts found in the Estonian Folklore Archives by the Fairy Tale Project of the Department of Estonian and Comparative Folklore, University of Tartu. Folk calendar holidays occur in Estonian fairy tales relatively seldom; most often these are holidays that occupy a significant place in the Estonian folk calendar (Christmas, St. John’s Day, Easter, St. George’s Day. Calendar holidays are notably mentioned more often in tale types which remain on the borderline between the fairy tale and the legend or the fairy tale and the religious tale. In Estonian fairy tales, calendar holidays are used on three levels of meaning: (1 the holiday is organically associated with the tale type; it has an essential role in the plot of the tale; (2 to a certain extent, the holiday could be replaced by another holiday having an analogous meaning; (3 the holiday forms an unimportant or occasional addition to the tale.

  13. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  14. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  15. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  16. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  17. Confinement properties evolution of the cap-rocks argillite-type under CO2 enriched-fluids: impact of the natural and artificial discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, G.

    2012-01-01

    This research is part of the studies of feasibility of CO 2 storage in deep geological strata, focusing more particularly on the evolution of the confinement properties of cap-rocks type argillite subjected to CO 2 enriched fluids. The argillite of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) were used as analog rocks, having identified what their weak points could be face to storage, namely their mineralogy, natural fractures filled with calcite and the presence of interfaces cement/argillite expected in filled injection wells. The 'through diffusion' experimental setup has been adapted to estimate (i) the possible modification of diffusive transport parameters recorded before and after acid attack for different radioactive tracers (tritium and chlorine-36) and non-radioactive tracers (deuterium and bromide) used to characterize samples of argillite of Tournemire and cement paste and (ii) the evolution of the chemical compositions of the solutions in the upstream and downstream reservoirs of diffusion cells during acid attacks. Finally, the analysis of solids was carried out in part by SEM-EDS, XRD and X-μTomography. Firstly, for all the samples studied, the values of the transport parameters determined before acid attack (effective diffusion coefficient and porosity) are consistent with those of the literature. In addition, it appears that all materials have reacted strongly to acid attacks. Thus, argillites saw their diffusion parameters increase up to a factor of two, especially for anionic tracers, and, whatever the proportion of carbonate minerals initially present in samples of argillite. The post-mortem observations have led to the identification of a zone of dissolution of carbonate minerals in them, but whose extension (400 microns or less) can not alone explain the significant degradation of the containment properties. Only unobservable phenomena during investigation scale, such as wormhole effects in porous network could be the cause. In addition, the samples of

  18. Compiling the Dictionary of Word Associations in Estonian: From scratch to the database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Vainik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the project titled “The Dictionary of Word Associations in Estonian” undertaken by the author at the Institute of the Estonian Language. The general aim of the Dictionary is to provide insights into Estonians’ common-sense mind. It is meant to be a tool of self-reflection for Estonian native speakers and a guide for the foreigners who are eager enough to make themselves familiar with the Estonian cultural patterns of thought. The Dictionary will be published online. The number of keywords was initially limited to approximately 800. Specific emphasis is given to the stage of data collection by implementing the principles of citizen science.

  19. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  20. The figure of the teacher in Estonian school discourse

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    Ott Puumeister

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns itself with the figure of the teacher in Estonian society. We do not concentrate on the educational system as a whole, but on one specific and crucial element in this apparatus - the teacher. We begin by offering a brief historical overview of the conditions of pedagogues in the 20th century before moving on to describe the adoption of neo-liberal free market policies since the 1990s and the effects these policies had and still have on education. Our main concern is to understand the teacher as an actor in power relations; to achieve this understanding we have selected as our examples 1 surveillance techniques in school environment that have direct relations to the state and the market; and 2 the 2012 educational workers' strike that made it quite clear that the teachers have been fixed to a position of wage workers. The overall and more abstract aim of the paper is to think about the social role of the teacher in Estonia.

  1. MODELLING DICLOFENAC AND IBUPROFEN RESIDUES IN MAJOR ESTONIAN SEASIDE CITIES

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    Erki Lember

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model was developed to model the fate of two common pharmaceutical residues: diclofenac and ibuprofen in eight Estonian seaside cities that discharge their wastewaters directly into the Baltic Sea. The consumption rates of the active ingredients of diclofenac and ibuprofen from 2006-2014 were analysed. A decrease of 19.9% for diclofenac consumption and an increase of 14.1% for ibuprofen were found. The fate of diclofenac and ibuprofen were modelled by considering the human metabolism removal rate for pharmaceuticals, the removal rate of diclofenac and ibuprofen in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP and annual flow rates. An average decrease from 1 to 0.8 µg/l (decrease of 20% for diclofenac and an increase from 11.4 to 13.4 µg/l (increase of 14.9% for ibuprofen for the concentration in the effluents of the WWTP were modelled. The model gives us a good overview about the theoretical concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and is helpful for evaluating environmental impacts.

  2. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  3. Chernobyl is still haunting us. Radionuclides in Estonian mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Martin, L.; Aaspollu, J.; Tekko, S.

    1993-01-01

    The disaster that happened at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 caused a sharp rise in radioactive pollution over an extensive area in the region of the Baltic Sea. To estimate the distribution and the concentration of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in Estonian ecosystems, samples of mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the upper horizons of soil were gathered from 63 test sites during 1991. We were particularly interested in the amounts of radionuclides in mushrooms because these are used as food by people. Dangerously high radionuclide concentrations were found in mushrooms gathered in North-East Estonia. Heightened concentrations were registered here and there all over the territory of Estonia, especially in mushrooms gathered in Central and South-Western Estonia. The Cs-137 content in mushrooms depends on its content in other components of the ecosystems, first and foremost on the concentrations of radiocaesium in mosses and litter, which, therefore, can be used as indicators in prognostication the radioactive pollution of mushrooms in a certain region. As Cs-137 migrates between various ecosystem components, it is necessary to check the radioactivity of the forest products used for food for still a number of years to come. The Sr-90 level was low in all the ecosystem components examined. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  4. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016 will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks Report 2016. Also, the arguments why some topics have played or are currently playing key role in the Estonian security perception will be presented and discussed.

  5. Contribution to a hydro-chemo-mechanical multi-mechanisms model based on the multi-scale and multi components structure of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, J.C.; Trinh, M.H.; Imbert, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The fundamental features of the Callovo Oxfordian argillite, namely the structure and the pore size distribution are considered to propose a model consistent with its mechanical behavior. The model deals with the main mechanisms selected: damage, plasticity and swelling. Structure of Argillites as fundamental base of mechanical behavior Callovian-Oxfordian argillites present specific characteristics: - a strong mineralogical heterogeneity made up from 23% to 25% of quartz, 20% to 27% of carbonate, 40% to 50% of argillaceous minerals and 5% to 10% various mineral; - a low porosity comprised between 12 to 15%, associated with the following pore size distribution: 14% of nano-pores, majority 81% of meso-pores and 5% of macro-pores; - a low Biot coefficient, around 0.6; - no cementing (within the meaning of a concrete). Four basic mechanisms are considered likely to explain the structure of argillite in place: - mechanical consolidation obtained by increasing external stress, - chemical consolidation by reduction in dielectric constant (leaching of chlorides), - thermal consolidation, - filling of the macro-porosity by precipitation of a carbonated phase (calcite). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the weight of these mechanisms. Results show that mechanic and thermal consolidations, in the fields of stress and temperature encountered in situ by argillite during geological history, and chemical consolidation could not alone explain the state the high density without macro porosity. An assumption advanced to explain is the filling of macro porosity by non argillaceous mineral precipitation, in particular calcite that would confer to in situ argillite an apparent over-consolidation from a mechanical point of view. This assumption is partially validated by some experiments: - Percolation tests were made with hydrochloric acid on bulky and sound argillite to remove the carbonates in the macro-porosity; they

  6. The problems and development potential of revenue autonomy in Estonian municipalities. Kohalike omavalitsuste tuluautonoomia probleemid ja arenguvõimalused Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a regionally heterogeneous country like Estonia, it is a difficult task to create a local government revenue structure that guarantees even supply of public services across the entire country and, at the same time, revenue autonomy for the municipalities. In the theoretical part of the current article the suitability of different sources of own revenues are analysed in the context of Estonian municipalities. The empirical part of the article compares the financing principles of Estonian municipalities with other EU countries. Finally, the proportions of different own sources of revenues in the budgets of Estonian local governments are examined and suggestions are made for changing the current system

  7. Investigation of Coupled Processes and Impact of High Temperature Limits in Argillite Rock: FY17 Progress. Predecisional Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Rutqvist, Jonny; Xu, Hao; Kim, Kunwhi; Voltolini, Marco; Cao, Xiaoyuan

    2017-07-03

    The focus of research within the Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) (formerly called Used Fuel Disposal) Campaign is on repository-induced interactions that may affect the key safety characteristics of EBS bentonite and an argillaceous rock. These include thermal-hydrologicalmechanical- chemical (THMC) process interactions that occur as a result of repository construction and waste emplacement. Some of the key questions addressed in this report include the development of fracturing in the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and THMC effects on the near-field argillaceous rock and buffer materials and petrophysical characteristics, particularly the impacts of temperature rise caused by waste heat. This report documents the following research activities. Section 2 presents THM model developments and validation, including modeling of underground heater experiments at Mont Terri and Bure underground research laboratories (URLs). The heater experiments modeled are the Mont Terri FE (Full-scale Emplacement) Experiment, conducted as part of the Mont Terri Project, and the TED in heater test conducted in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone (COx) at the Meuse/Haute-Marne (MHM) underground research laboratory in France. The modeling of the TED heater test is one of the Tasks of the DEvelopment of COupled Models and their VAlidation against EXperiments (DECOVALEX)-2019 project. Section 3 presents the development and application of thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) modeling to evaluate EBS bentonite and argillite rock responses under different temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C). Model results are presented to help to understand the impact of high temperatures on the properties and behavior of bentonite and argillite rock. Eventually the process model will support a robust GDSA model for repository performance assessments. Section 4 presents coupled THMC modeling for an in situ test conducted at Grimsel underground laboratory in Switzerland in the Full

  8. Characterization of the failure in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under plane strain compression using full field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuelle, P.

    2012-01-01

    orthogonal to the plane strain direction, is in contact with a hard transparent window. The deformation of this surface is representative of the deformation in the whole specimen, up to and beyond strain localization. Therefore the evolution of the strain field in the sample can be measured by digital image correlation (DIC) of photographs taken of this surface. It is noted that the cell can sustain a confining pressure up to 100 MPa and so the regime of deformation in soft rocks from brittle through to ductile can be studied. Moreover, the stress path that is imposed to the specimen is not an axisymmetric state and is more realistic with respect to the paths followed in the field. In the selected results, we analysed the process of failure in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite. First, strain localization under the form of shear bands propagate through the specimen, and then cracks born and propagate in the middle of the band. Complex patterns of cracks, with sets of conjugated cracks are observed in some case. The effect of the mean stress applied during tests on the failure is also observed. The kinetic of crack propagation is studied quantitatively, using the displacement field measured by DIC. The displacement gap on cracks is decomposed in a sliding component and a opening. The mechanical response of argillite specimens is also presented, with the link between post peak response (stress softening) and localization. (authors)

  9. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  10. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  11. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  12. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  13. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  14. Estonian Airi ümber käib lehmakauplemine / Tõnu Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Tõnu

    2008-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustes Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema vaid siis, kui riik müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse, 34%. Vt. samas: SAS ei taha lennufirma eest maksta üle 150 miljoni. Diagramm: Majandusnäitajad, omanikud

  15. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  16. Sustainable development outlooks of the Estonian energy sector for convergence with the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev

    2002-01-01

    The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)

  17. Estonian Vocational Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Kaikkonen, Leena; Koiv, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research conducted with two samples of teachers from Estonian Vocational Schools. The first sample comprised a group of teachers who had received professional development directly related to the management of students with special educational needs in vocational education settings. Their attitudes and…

  18. Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevskaya Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development in Russian-Estonian relations during the crises of 2007 and 2014, taking into consideration the balance between political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, and to work out recommendations to adjust them. The questions put forward by the authors of this article could not be more topical at the time, when Russian economic situation is obviously getting worse and capital flight (to the neighboring EU Member States is likely to increase. The method of the study is comparative analysis of the impact on economic ties made by Russian-Estonian crisis of 2007 and the current international tension around Ukraine. The regional fossil fuel market and the possibilities of Gazprom involvement in its development are also analyzed. It is concluded that political motives are still important for Estonian decisionmaking, though they are balanced out by measures of business support (despite some of these measures being taken by the EU bodies. The role of political factor for the Russian side is increasing. It is acknowledged that there is a growing number of missed economic opportunities in the Russian Northwest.

  19. The Estonian diaspora in South-West Russia in the 1920—30s: migration results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupin Yuri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the spatial features of the settling of Russian Estonians in the Northwest region at the “zenith” of diaspora on the basis of 1920, 1926, and 1939 censuses. The author identifies the principal settling areas and points out the geographical preconditions for the rapid decline of the diaspora.

  20. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  1. Organizational culture based on the example of an Estonian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saame, Iisi; Reino, Anne; Vadi, Maaja

    2011-01-01

    The concept of organisational culture (also referred to later as OC) is one of the approaches in modern organisational analysis exploring the values, attitudes and beliefs behind human behaviour in the workplace. OC as a social phenomenon is considered to be important for the sustainability of every organisation. In the service sector, OC may affect the nature and quality of the services provided. The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to highlight the patterns of OC in a hospital; and, on the other hand, to outline relationships between OC and patient satisfaction. The study was conducted in Tartu University Hospital, one of the most influential health care organisations in Estonia. This paper has original value by presenting an insight into organisational culture in the Estonian health care sector, and the findings of the study will expand knowledge of OC in the health care sector in general. The OC instrument applied in a quantitative cross-sectional study was earlier developed according to the Competing Values Framework (CVF). Data from 456 medical and non-medical professionals were analysed using non-parametric tests of descriptive statistics. A factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's compatibility for analysing the OC pattern in the health care sector. The dominant culture type in all the groups investigated was the Internal Processes type, mainly followed by the Rational Goal type, while different cultural patterns were observed in professional groups. The factor analysis yielded a three-subscale solution. Clinics with high patient satisfaction did not score more than clinics with low patient satisfaction in terms of the Human Relations type. In future studies a random sample design and a multidisciplinary approach to OC research should be followed in order to further explore OC patterns in hospitals and their consequences for different aspects of hospital performance.

  2. Power without manpower: Forecasting labour demand for Estonian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriküll, Jaanika; Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Espenberg, Kerly

    2012-01-01

    As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.

  3. Estonian Business Schooli magistriharidus nüüd ka koju kätte / Madis Habakuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis

    2007-01-01

    Sügisest hakkab Estonian Business School koos Mainori Kõrgkooliga pakkuma magistriõpet majandushariduseta inimestele, kus soovijatel on võimalus õppida EBSi Master of Business Administration programmi järgi

  4. [Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918] / Tõnu Tannberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Encapsulated voices : Estonian sound recordings from the German prisoner-of-war camps in 1916-1918 (Das Baltikum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 5). Hrsg. von Jaan Ross. Böhlau Verlag. Köln, Weimar und Wien 2012

  5. Väärikas Estonian Air jäi kampaaniaga hätta / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2010-01-01

    Estonian Air müüs veebikaupluse cherry.ee kaudu soodsaid kinkekaarte. Vastuolu tekkis asjaolust, et nõudlus kinkekaartide järele oli suurem kui pakkumine. Lennukompanii katkestas soodsate kinkekaartide müügi

  6. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  7. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  8. Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogerman, P N

    1931-01-01

    Estonian oil shale is one of the oldest and richest oil shales in the world. The deposits occur in the Middle-Ordovician strata having a total thickness of 2.2 meters. The ultimate composition of the kerogen varied within the following limits: carbon 76.5 to 76.7 percent, hydrogen 9.1 to 9.2 percent, nitrogen 0.2 to 0.4 percent, sulfur 1.6 to 2.2 percent, chlorine 0.5 to 0.7 percent, and oxygen (by difference) 11.2 to 12.2 percent. The composition of kukersite kerogen corresponds nearly to the empirical formula (C/sub 8/H/sub 11/O)n. One of the most significant differences between kukersite, coal, and lignite is the amount of alkali-soluble substances present. Kukersite has almost no humic acids. Samples of kukersite were brominated and chlorinated. The halogenated shales showed a solubility in absolute alcohol of 26 percent compared to only 0.31 percent for untreated shale. Enriched shale (4.5 percent ash) did not react with chlorine as much as did raw shale. Apparently the mineral matter acted catalytically during chlorination. The amount of soluble extract obtained by solvent treatment of kukersite ranged from 0.22 percent with chloroform to 2.20 percent with tetrachloroethane. Heat was the most effective agent for the depolymerization of kukersite kerogen. The percentage loss of weight due to drying in air was much less than in the presence of carbon dioxide. The results indicated that on drying in air, the powdered shale loses water and a volatile substance, probably the oxides of carbon, up to 80/sup 0/C. Carbon dioxide was also found to be present in the gases eliminated at the temperature of initial decomposition. Pulverized shale, heated for 6 hours at 220/sup 0/C, lost 2.6 percent of its weight; its solubility in carbon disulfide was 2.11 percent. Kukersite kerogen was formed from compounds that were resistent to bacteriological decomposition, such as waxes and resins, plus decomposition products of proteins, cellulose, and putrefaction products of

  9. Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Orru, Mall

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the distribution of trace elements in Estonian mires. Sixty four mires, representative of the different landscape units, were analyzed for the content of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using AAS; Cd by GF-AAS; Hg by the cold vapour method; and V, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Th, and U by XRF) as well as other peat characteristics (peat type, degree of humification, pH and ash content). The results of the research show that concentrations of trace elements in peat are generally low: V 3.8 ± 0.6, Cr 3.1 ± 0.2, Mn 35.1 ± 2.7, Co 0.50 ± 0.05, Ni 3.7 ± 0.2, Cu 4.4 ± 0.3, Zn 10.0 ± 0.7, As 2.4 ± 0.3, Sr 21.9 ± 0.9, Mo 1.2 ± 0.2, Cd 0.12 ± 0.01, Hg 0.05 ± 0.01, Pb 3.3 ± 0.2, Th 0.47 ± 0.05, U 1.3 ± 0.2 μg g - 1 and S 0.25 ± 0.02%. Statistical analyses on these large database showed that Co has the highest positive correlations with many elements and ash content. As, Ni, Mo, ash content and pH are also significantly correlated. The lowest abundance of most trace elements was recorded in mires fed only by precipitation (ombrotrophic), and the highest in mires fed by groundwater and springs (minerotrophic), which are situated in the flood plains of river valleys. Concentrations usually differ between the superficial, middle and bottom peat layers, but the significance decreases depending on the type of mire in the following order: transitional mires - raised bogs - fens. Differences among mire types are highest for the superficial but not significant for the basal peat layers. The use of peat with high concentrations of trace elements in agriculture, horticulture, as fuel, for water purification etc., may pose a risk for humans: via the food chain, through inhalation, drinking water etc.

  10. Az észt névtervezés az észt nyelvpolitikai modell tükrében [The name management in the mirror of the Estonian LPP-model

    OpenAIRE

    Pomozi, Péter; Földesi, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    The Estonian model of language planning and policy, which has been serving the development and protection of the Estonian language in its current form since 2004, is one of the most successful of such strategies in Europe. It owes it success to the broad social and scientific consensus reached in questions of language policy, regardless of changes in government. The Development Plan of the Estonian Language divides Estonian language planning and policy into three parts: status planning, corpu...

  11. The Role of Language in (Recreating Tatar Diaspora Identity: The Case of the Estonian Tatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Klaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the meanings assigned to Tatar language among the Tatar diaspora in Estonia. According to interviews with Estonian Tatars as well as descriptions of field material from Tatarstan, language is an important aspect of Tatar ethnic identity. This paper will track common discourses about the Tatar language and the way it is connected to Tatar ethnic identity. Issues concerning Tatar language are used to demonstrate various ways of enacting Tatarness in Estonia. It is shown that Estonian Tatars worry about the vitality and purity of Tatar language, but for some, marginalization of dialects is also an issue. People categorized with the same identity labels by self and others can experience and enact their Tatarness in a variety of different ways.

  12. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  13. Strategies for Estonian rural family enterprises. Eesti maapiirkonna pereettevõtete strateegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.

  14. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Laretei, Käbi. Eksiil; Toona, Elin. Lotukata; Park, Eeva. Naeru õpilane; Luik, Viivi. Inimese kapike; Laaman, Ilona. Vesi ahjus; Viiding, Juhan (Üdi, Jüri). Kogutud luuletused; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Paju, Juhan. Hõõguv rist; Estonian short stories / toim. Kajar Pruul ja Darlene Reddaway; Traat, Mats. Kartaago kiirrong; Kauksi Ülle. Säng; Kross, Jaan. Paigallend; Puhvel, Madli. Symbol of dawn; Kaplinski, Jaan. Võimaluste võimalikkus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Usk on uskmatus

  15. Estonian Perceptions of Security: Not Only About Russia and the Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Veebel Viljar; Ploom Illimar

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the Estonian perceptions of security and on the defence situation both globally and locally. The dynamic results of the public opinion surveys on security risks conducted in Estonia over the last 10 years (2006-2016) will be presented. In addition, to understand whether some of the security risks could be over- or underestimated in Estonia, these results will be compared with the views expressed recently by the World Economic Forum, particularly the Global Risks R...

  16. The Challenges Organic Food Processors Meet at Small Emerging Market – Estonian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapuu, Kerttu; Pehme, Sirli; Peetsmann, Elen; Matt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming and demand for organic products is continually a growing trend all over the world (Willer et al., 2013). In Estonia the share of organic land is 15% of all agricultural land and the number of organic farmers is also growing (Vetemaa, Mikk 2013). Estonian organic food market is still in forming stage being affected by local organic farming development, marketing situation, economic situation and consumer attitudes. Organic processing has clearly not kept up with organic farming...

  17. Assessment of the Estonian Research Development Technology and Innovation Funding System

    OpenAIRE

    Nedeva, Maria; Georghiou, Luke

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the assessment of the RDTI funding system in Estonia as specified by the Terms of Reference are as follows: 1) to conduct a review of the current R&D funding system in Estonia; 2) to review the objectives of the Estonian R&D Strategy 2002-2006; 3) to review best practice in R&D funding elsewhere; and 4) to propose an efficient, transparent and accountable R&D funding system.

  18. Is Estonian oil shale beneficial in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno

    1998-01-01

    Oil shale mining production reached its maximum level of 31.35·10 6 tonnes per year in 1980. After the eighties there was a steady decline in mining. The first scientific prognoses of the inescapable decrease in oil shale mining were published in 1988. According to this, the Estonian oil shale industry would vanish in the third decade of the next century. From the beginning of the nineties, the consumption and export of electricity have dropped in Estonia. The minimum level of oil shale mining was 13.5·10 6 tonnes per year. This occurred in 1994/1995. Some increase in consumption of electric power and oil shale began at the end of 1995. Oil shale processing began to increase gradually in 1993. Oil shale is the most important fuel in Estonia today. In 1997, oil shale provided 76% of Estonia's primary energy supply and accounted for 57% of its economic value. Oil shale is the cheapest fuel in Estonia. Nowadays, oil shale provides an essential part of the fuel supply in Estonia because it is considerably cheaper than other fuels. Oil shale costs EEK 12.16 per G J. At the same time, coal costs EEK 23.41 per G J and peat costs EEK 14.80 per G J (year 1997). There are three important customers of oil shale: the electric power company Eesti Energia, the oil processing company Kiviter and the factory Kunda Nordic Cement. In 1995, the power company utilised 81% of the oil shale mass and 77% of its heating value. The state energy policy inhibits increases in the oil shale price even though the mining infrastructure is decaying. Government price policies subside oil shale processing. The energy of oil shale processing is 1.9 times cheaper than the heating value of raw oil shale for power stations. It could be considered as a state subsidisation of oil and cement export at the expense of electricity. The subsidy assigned to oil processing was of EEK 124·10 6 and to the cement industry of EEK 8.4·10 6 in year 1997 (based on heating value). State regulation of prices and

  19. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  20. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  1. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding smoking among Estonian and Finnish physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Rahu, Kaja; Barengo, Noël C; Rahu, Mati; Sandström, Patrick H; Jormanainen, Vesa J; Myllykangas, Markku T

    2005-01-01

    To compare smoking behaviour, attitudes and opinions towards smoking and smoking cessation among Estonian and Finnish physicians. A cross-sectional postal survey using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out among 2,480 Estonian and 2,075 Finnish physicians. Daily smoking prevalence was higher among Estonian physicians than among their Finnish counterparts in both male (18.6% and 6.7%) and female (6.6% and 3.6%). Compared to Estonia, physicians in Finland more often agreed that smoking is very harmful to their health, that trying to convince people to stop smoking is their responsibility and that smoking prevention should be part of the normal and special training of health professionals. In both countries, non-smoking physicians held more unfavourable attitudes towards smoking than those who were smoking. Physicians' own smoking patterns and quitting behaviour are important because physicians serve as models for their patients and play a key role in the reinforcement of smoke-free health facilities. These results remain a challenge to medical educators, especially in Estonia. Estonia needs to improve medical education in terms of motivating physicians to ask about the smoking patterns of their patients and of training medical students and resident physicians to counsel their patients to stop smoking.

  2. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A; Salomaa, S [eds.; Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M; Veidebaum, T; Tekkel, M [eds.; Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T [ed.; Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, Jr, J D [ed.; Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  3. Temporal and spatial variability of Fe and Mn in perched groundwater flowing through weathered argillite underlying a steep forested hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flowing through weathered bedrock dictates the runoff chemistry to streams in many catchments yet; its chemical evolution has been rarely documented. In particular, observations of Fe and Mn dynamics in groundwater are extremely challenging due to their high reactivity. To preserve the sample integrity for these elements we have developed a new sampling scheme that is applicable to autosamplers; a gravitational filtration system (GFS). GFS is capable of filtering samples by gravity within 30 minutes after the sampling. The GFS samples showed a good agreement with reference samples, which were collected following the standard sampling method for trace metals (i.e. immediate filtration and acidification). Since October 2011, GFS has been employed to monitor Fe and Mn in perched groundwater that moves through weathered argillite in an intensively instrumented hillslope (Rivendell), in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve. The study site is located at the headwaters of the Eel River, northern California, characterized by a typical coastal Californian Mediterranean climate. We collected groundwater samples at 3 wells along the hillslope (upslope (W10), mid-slope (W3) and near the creek (W1)) with 1-3 day intervals. Additionally, rainwater and throughfall samples were collected at a meadow near the hillslope and at the middle of the hillslope, respectively. The results from our observations indicate that Fe and Mn exhibit distinct spatial and temporal behavior under variable hydrologic conditions. The concentrations of Fe in throughfall vs. rainwater were similar (0.45μM vs. 0.49μM), but Mn in throughfall was 10-fold higher than that in rainwater (1.2 μM vs. 0.1 μM). In the early rainy season, W10's water table was deep (-18m) and Fe and Mn in W10 were 30-150 nM and 1-2 μM, respectively. As the rainy season proceeds, W10's water table rose by 4-6m, indicating the arrival of new water. At this time, Mn in W10 decreased to ~0.1 μM, synchronizing with the water

  4. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  5. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour and damage of clay-stones: application to the East argillite; Modelisation du comportement mecanique des argiles raides avec prise en compte de l'endommagement: application aux argilites de l'Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aublive-Conil, N

    2003-03-15

    The storage in deep geological formation is one of the solutions retained by France for the management of highly long life radioactive waste. The retained host rock is a clay-stone named East argillite located in the departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne. A thermodynamic formulation is used to propose a rheological model, which reproduces the mechanical behavior of clay-stones. Initially, an anisotropic damage plastic model was formulated in order to describe material degradations. Then, the damage plastic model is reformulated in order to taken into account the damage influence on the hydraulic behavior of porous material. The numerical simulations correctly reproduce the mechanical behavior of East Argillites but also the anisotropy of the hydraulic behavior introduced by the damage effect. (author)

  6. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour and damage of clay-stones: application to the East argillite; Modelisation du comportement mecanique des argiles raides avec prise en compte de l'endommagement: application aux argilites de l'Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aublive-Conil, N

    2003-03-15

    The storage in deep geological formation is one of the solutions retained by France for the management of highly long life radioactive waste. The retained host rock is a clay-stone named East argillite located in the departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne. A thermodynamic formulation is used to propose a rheological model, which reproduces the mechanical behavior of clay-stones. Initially, an anisotropic damage plastic model was formulated in order to describe material degradations. Then, the damage plastic model is reformulated in order to taken into account the damage influence on the hydraulic behavior of porous material. The numerical simulations correctly reproduce the mechanical behavior of East Argillites but also the anisotropy of the hydraulic behavior introduced by the damage effect. (author)

  7. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  8. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  9. The treatment of lexical collocations in EFL coursebooks in the Estonian secondary school context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Vassiljev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates lexical collocations encountered in English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction in Estonian upper secondary schools. This is achieved through a statistical analysis of collocations featuring in three coursebooks where the collocations found are analysed in terms of their type, frequency and usefulness index by studying them through an online language corpus (Collins Wordbanks Online. The coursebooks are systematically compared and contrasted relying upon the data gathered. The results of the study reveal that the frequency and range of lexical collocations in a language corpus have not been regarded as an essential criterion for their selection and practice by any of the coursebook authors under discussion.

  10. Estonian experience in establishing the national radiation protection infrastructure in the newly independent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC) was established on 4 January 1996 as the regulatory authority for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources. The report explains the ERPC's structure and its main functions and activities, and provides information on the regulations that have been approved or are planned to be adopted. Reference is made to radiological emergency preparedness and, in particular, to the status of development of the system of regulatory control by authorization and inspection of radiation practices in the country. (author)

  11. Contributions to micromechanical model of the non linear behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite; Contributions a la modelisation micromecanique du comportement non lineaire de l'argilite du callovo-oxfordien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Chakra Guery, A

    2007-12-15

    This work is performed in the general context of the project of underground disposal of radioactive waste, undertaken by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Due to its strong density and weak permeability, the formation of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite is chosen as one of possible geological barriers to radionuclides. The objective of the study to develop and validate a non linear homogenization approach of the mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The material is modelled as a composite constituted of an elasto(visco)plastic clay matrix and of linear elastic or elastic damage inclusions. The macroscopic constitutive law is obtained by adapting the incremental method proposed by Hill. The derived model is first compared to Finite Element calculations on unit cell. It is then validated and applied for the prediction of the macroscopic stress-strain responses of the argillite at different geological depths. Finally, the micromechanical model is implemented in a commercial finite element code (Abaqus) for the simulation of a vertical shaft of the underground laboratory. This allows predicting the distribution of damage state and plastic strains and characterizing the excavation damage zone (EDZ). (author)

  12. Contributions to micromechanical model of the non linear behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite; Contributions a la modelisation micromecanique du comportement non lineaire de l'argilite du callovo-oxfordien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Chakra Guery, A

    2007-12-15

    This work is performed in the general context of the project of underground disposal of radioactive waste, undertaken by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Due to its strong density and weak permeability, the formation of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite is chosen as one of possible geological barriers to radionuclides. The objective of the study to develop and validate a non linear homogenization approach of the mechanical behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The material is modelled as a composite constituted of an elasto(visco)plastic clay matrix and of linear elastic or elastic damage inclusions. The macroscopic constitutive law is obtained by adapting the incremental method proposed by Hill. The derived model is first compared to Finite Element calculations on unit cell. It is then validated and applied for the prediction of the macroscopic stress-strain responses of the argillite at different geological depths. Finally, the micromechanical model is implemented in a commercial finite element code (Abaqus) for the simulation of a vertical shaft of the underground laboratory. This allows predicting the distribution of damage state and plastic strains and characterizing the excavation damage zone (EDZ). (author)

  13. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  14. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  15. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961. Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images. A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e

  16. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  17. Radon in Estonian buildings. Establishment of a measurement system and obtained results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, L.; Rulkov, A.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1996-12-01

    One purpose of this project was the establishment of a radon monitoring programme inside the state environmental monitoring programme. Another purpose was to investigate regions, expected to have high radon levels indoors. A new method for the long-term measurement of indoor radon was established and the staff for these measurements was trained. The results of the measurement can be used by Estonian decision-makers to work out rules and standards. There is no legislative act in the field of radiation in Estonian at this time. To summarize the results of the measurements we can say that indoor radon concentrations vary by region. The radon investigations must be continued to identify the risk areas and types of housing construction. The results of the state radon monitoring are provided to the municipalities, who advice the owners of planned new houses to select the right construction for the house. A new project will follow with an investigation of radon in randomly selected dwellings, training and equipment for radon measurement in soil, and general advice with regard to radon, as well as assistance in preparing information about radon. 7 refs, 5 figs

  18. Vene kirjandus venestusaja eesti koolides. Russian Literature in the Estonian Schools of the Russification Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of literary instruction in schools of the russification era at the beginning of the 20th century in Estonia; this was likewise the curriculum of literary study offered to the generation of educated youth which included the Young Estonians. Based on official documents, archival materials, and memoirs, and through analyses of anthologies, literary histories, and teaching methods in use at the time, we attempt to reconstruct the outlines of literary reading and requirements for students in various types of schools. When, as a result of school reform, Russian became the language of instruction; lessons in Russian became central in the curriculum, alongside the word of God; selections from Russian literature were read in the original language. In the lower grades, teaching was by the so-called ”natural method”, intended to guarantee swift achievement of fluency in ”living Russian language”; this was later replaced by systematic textual analysis, which distinguished between belles lettres and other types of texts. However, the study of literature was always subordinated to the goals of language instruction. In institutions of secondary education, study of Russian literature was separate from language instruction. Indeed, Russian literature was the only literature systematically studied in high schools (though one must keep in mind that not all schools completely followed the official program. Private schools were especially noticeable for their greater freedom, though all of them had to take general curriculum directives into account. Reading of literary texts connected with other languages thus had to remain almost purely illustrative. In view of the above, in the upper grades of elementary school and high school, students obtained a thorough introduction to the Russian classics. According to the official school curriculum, Russian literary history ended with Nikolai Gogol. Attempts were made to ignore

  19. Identity and Othering in Past and Present: Representations of the Soviet Era in Estonian Post-Soviet Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses representations of the ‘core Soviet era’ (1945-1985 in Estonian post-Soviet history textbooks (1989-2016. Attitudes towards the Soviet system have been a rich resource for identity building, and hence a powerful political tool across the whole of the post-Soviet block. Based on an analysis of sections about the Soviet era in Estonia in 21 textbooks, the paper takes a look at how textbooks reflect broader processes of social meaning making, identity building and othering after a profound social and political turn. In 1989 and during the early 1990s, perspectives and narratives in Estonian history textbooks were closely related to social memory and national politics, enacting a specific social representation of the Soviet era that dominated the Estonian-speaking public space during the 1990s. The Soviet era, Russia and local Russians became the main Others for Estonia and Estonians. Over time, public discourse has diversified. The national curriculum and textbooks, however, still maintain the canon that formed in 1990s and thus reflect earlier sentiments. Apart from the increasing salience of Soviet-era daily life in more recent textbooks, the thematic choices and emphases have changed little since the 1990s. Therefore, even if the style of writing has ‘cooled down’, issues of identity preservation, resistance and accommodation, together with a saliently negative representation of wrongdoings by the Soviet system, still prevail. On the one hand, this testifies to the resilience of an established tradition in the textbook genre in general. On the other hand, it reflects the dominance of an ethnocentric tradition in Estonian history textbook writing. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for interethnic relations in Estonia.

  20. Re-conceptualizing mother tongue tuition of Estonian abroad as a transnational phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Siiner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The governmental initiative called the Compatriots Programme, which supports language tuition in Estonian schools and societies abroad, reveals an increased interest in developing intergenerational language transmission in the growing Estonian diaspora. This transnational language political activity signals a new era in language policy, where nation states are increasingly decentralized by migration. The evaluation of the program furthermore reveals that organizing such schools requires a willingness to take language political agency, typically conducted by well-educated and well-integrated resourceful transnational multilingual parents. The present article outlines the results of an ethnographic study of the process of establishing the Estonian School in Copenhagen. This step has demanded a change in the mindset still prevailing in Estonia that language political activities, such as planning language acquisition, are solely the responsibility of the state. Since the prevailing language ideology in Denmark is not favorable towards multilingualism in migrant languages, intergenerational language transmission furthermore presupposes a feeling of ownership of the language and high language self-esteem. "Hargmaise keelepoliitika sünd. Eesti keeleõppe korraldamise võimalikkusest välismaal Taani näitel" Hargmaisus, kasvav väljarändajate arv ja sellega ka eesti keele rääkijate hulk välismaal on jätnud oma jälje eesti keelepoliitikale. Kui varem uuriti peamiselt seda, kuidas eesti keel muukeelses kontekstis muutub, siis viimasel kümnendil on riik asunud aktiivselt toetama eesti keele jätkuvat kasutamist välismaal, rahastades rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil haridusprogramme. Kuid millised faktorid määravad selle, kas uus eestlaste põlvkond oskab ja tahab eesti keelt rääkida? Artikkel hindab etnograafilises ja sotsiolingvistilises võtmes Kopenhaagenis kolm aastat tegutsenud Eesti Kooli ja Lasteklubi näitel, millised on keelekasutust

  1. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-06-01

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Heating Value of Estonian Oil Shale by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aints

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS combined with multivariate regression analysis of measured data were utilised for determination of the heating value and the chemical composition of pellets made from Estonian oil shale samples with different heating values. The study is the first where the oil shale heating value is determined on the basis of LIBS spectra. The method for selecting the optimal number of spectral lines for ordinary multivariate least squares regression model is presented. The correlation coefficient between the heating value predicted by the regression model, and that measured by calorimetric bomb, was R2=0.98. The standard deviation of prediction was 0.24 MJ/kg. Concentrations of oil shale components predicted by the regression model were compared with those measured by ordinary methods.

  3. Taxes, Estonian state budget and economic crises. Maksud, riigi eelarve ja majanduskriis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article.

  4. Comparative analysis of idiom selection and sequencing 5 in Estonian basic school EFL coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Anita Forssten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the selection and sequencing of the idioms encountered in two locally-produced and international coursebook series currently employed in Estonian basic schools. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive correlation between idioms’ difficulty and coursebooks’ language proficiency level. The hypothesis is tested through a statistical analysis of the idioms found which are categorized in terms of their analysability into three categories where category 1 includes analysable semi-literal idioms, category 2 comprises analysable semi-transparent idioms, and category 3 encompasses non-analysable opaque idioms, and then analysed through an online language corpus (British National Corpus. The results of the study reveal that the coursebook authors under discussion have disregarded idioms’ frequency as a criterion for selection or sequencing, whereas the factor utilized to some extent is the degree of analysability.

  5. Conceptual co-presence of motion and emotion in the Estonian terms of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heili Orav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out whether the conceptual connection of emotion and motion is holding in the domain of personality traits. In a quantitative study 40 Estonian terms of personality traits were investigated and a conclusion was driven that, indeed, the qualities of emotionality and motion are perceived as co-present characteristics. In further data analysis some visualized measures were applied in order to get further insights into the hidden structure of the data. The self-organizing map (SOM analysis revealed an additional dimension of axiological evaluations present in the semantics and the SOM meta-analysis technique revealed groups of near synonymous words as well as gave overview of the more general structure common in the two data sets. The latter was tentatively explained by the person’s habitual level of activation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.21

  6. Experimental formation of cronstedtite from Cox argillite-iron interaction at decreasing temperature in the 90 deg. C-40 deg. C range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Mosser-Ruck, Regine; Rozsypal, Christophe; Truche, Laurent; Randi, Aurelien; Bartier, Daniele; Cathelineau, Michel; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Mouton, Ludovic; Michau, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Cronstedtite crystals experimentally formed during a cooling experiment (90 deg.C-40 deg. C) simulating the time-temperature evolution of the iron-clay system around the steel overpacks in nuclear waste disposal, were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM study. Cronstedtite is a T-O phyllosilicate with general formula (Fe 2+ 3-x Fe 3+ x )(Si 2-x Fe 3+ x )O 5 (OH) 4 , with 0 2 ), Callovo-Oxfordian argillite (COx) of the Paris Basin (with a solution/COx mass ratio of 10) and metal iron (powder and plates, with an iron powder/COx mass ratio of 0.5). This system was put in Teflon-line autoclaves heated at (90±2) deg. C for 6 months; then the temperature was decreased every month by step of 10 deg. C until 40 deg. C. The XRD results on run products clearly show that the T-O phyllosilicates crystallize and replace the predominant clay in the starting argillite, e.g. illite-smectite mixed-layer clays when the experimental temperature decreases. The reflections at 7.1 Angstrom, 4.76 Angstrom, 3.55 Angstrom and 2.73 Angstrom indicate that the T-O phyllosilicate formed is cronstedtite, but this technique is not efficient to determine its polytype. The SEM analyses confirm the presence of cronstedtite and show the morphological evolution of crystals with the temperature. At 90 deg. C three morphologies are recognized: trigonal pyramids and cones with hexagonal or rounded cross-section (Fig. 1), these crystals coexist with hairy berthierine-like minerals, as described by [10] and [12] The three cronstedtite shapes are observed until 70 deg. C and at lower temperatures the pyramidal morphology is dominant. From the energy dispersive X-ray analyses, structural formula of cronstedtite were calculated. The Fe II / Fe III ratio was adjusted to fix the octahedron to 3 in the calculation of the structural formula. Slight differences in the chemical compositions of cronstedtites are noticed: the pyramidal crystals have more Fe 2+ in the

  7. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (biofilms are within the interface zones. A major restriction for the initial development of microbial colonies is the high pH controlled by the cement solution. Archea are able to survive

  8. Change in medical plant use in Estonian ethnomedicine: a historical comparison between 1888 and 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2011-05-17

    The aim of this paper is to compare the changes in the utilization of species from various hemeroby categories (indicating the degree of sensitivity of the plant to human impact) using historical data concerning the years 1888-1994. The authors digitised 8808 handwritten reports, reflecting local ethnopharmacological knowledge from 8 selected collections from the Estonian Folklore Archives of the Estonian Literary Museum. They were semi-quantitatively analyzed according to the sensitivity to human impact of 540 taxa that could possibly be related to the plant vernacular names given in the reports. Although in different periods of time the number of ethnopharmacologically used plants has changed, the proportion of plants utilized from each group has remained relatively same, consisting on average of: 23% anthropophytes, 42% apophytes, 32% hemeradiaphores and 3% hemerophobes. Comparison of the application of the most used plants revealed considerable changes of plant utilization, in which the varied use of the most popular anthropophytes increased and the applied scope of the most popular hemeradiaphores and hemerophobes decreased almost by twofold in one century. Case studies on seven taxa are presented, of them, use of Allium sativum L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Mentha xpiperita L. increased, whereas the use of Hordeum L., Orchidaceae, Paris quadrifolia L. and Briza media L. decreased greatly. This research contributes to the better understanding of the cognitive and human ecological concepts underlying the use of medicinal plants in Estonia. Strong increase in the ethnomedical utilization of plants depending on human influence, and a decrease in the use of taxa that do not prefer human activities indicates that, despite some of the population still have access to natural resources and diverse knowledge of the medical use of plants, the majority relies on a very narrow selection and a rather restricted herbal landscape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  9. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Design Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Participants Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Methods Age-stand...

  10. Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations. We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-α1/2 chains. Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.

  11. How to Improve the Supportive Role of Estonian Innovation System toward Launching New Products by High Technology Companies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisi Sepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate how supportive is Estonian national innovation system toward the launching of new innovative products by high technology firms. The article intends to combine two broad areas of research – national innovation system approach and the different models of the new product launching. Based on the literature review and in-depth analysis of three case studies of Estonian high-tech company’s major barriers as well success factors of highly innovative product launches were identified. The barriers of the new product launching were linked with the systemic failures of the national innovation system. The most relevant failures of Estonian national innovation system inhibiting the new product development are capability and networking failures. The sources of innovation of high-technology firms are too narrow, linkages with domestic firms and higher education institutions as well with foreign firms are poorly developed. High-tech firms have also serious capacity problems due to the extremely weak support mechanism by national innovation system on the seed funding stage of product development and prototype building stage as well. Paper argues that resources needed for the innovation should not be looked too narrowly following linear innovation model approach. Instead interactive approach is needed, which combines capability building, network development, interactive learning with direct investments into fundamental research.

  12. Kolm Eesti Robinsoni: Daniel Defoe romaan eesti tõlkes / Three Estonian Robinsons: Daniel Defoe’s Novel in Estonian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene-Reet Soovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses three Estonian translations of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe into Estonian with the focus on the completeness of the translated texts and the characterisation given to these in paratextual information. While there are several translations and versions of the tex t available in E stonian that have either used a mediating language or do not proceed directly from Defoe’s novel, three editions explicitly list Defoe’s English-language Robinson Crusoe as their source text. These are Rudolf Sirge’s translation from 1950 and two editions translated by Valter Rummel that appeared in 1984 (reprinted in 2001 and 2007, respectively. The article sets out to discover the main differences between the three editions and the possible reasons that may have triggered their publication in Estonia at those particular times. In order to approach the issues, a general framework derived from descriptive translation studies is employed with an emphasis on Gideon Toury’s chrestomatic treatment of translation norms. Thus an attempt is made to detect the preliminary translational norms regarding translation policy, particularly the choice of texts to be translated, as well as the matricial norms that concern the fullness of the translated text and are part of operational norms manifested in the translator’s decisions which, in two of the cases at hand, may also have been decisions made by the editor or the censor. Rudolf Sirge’s translation appeared at a time when Estonia had fairly recently been incorporated into the Soviet Union and there was a lack of children’s literature ideologically appreciated by the regime. This may account for the packaging of the book as a work with a strong didactic bent, while its primary audience was taken to be children and young adults for whom the protagonist served as an example of a hard-working and tenacious hero to be emulated by young Soviets. The target text has been considerably shortened as

  13. Estonian exceptionalism

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Ulatuslikud kärped ja liitumine eurotsooniga toovad Eestist häid majandusuudiseid: töötus langeb, majandus kasvab, eksport tõuseb, eelarve on plussis, reitinguagentuur Fitch krediidireiting tõusis tasemele A+

  14. With or without articles? A comparison of article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hint

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the use and functions of definite and indefinite article-like determiners in Estonian and Finnish. Our main aim is to explore whether the factors that explain the choice of particular determiner forms are similar in Estonian and Finnish. We use a picture-sequence based elicitation experiment to collect spoken narratives from adult native speakers of Estonian and Finnish, and apply non-parametric tree and forest models to analyze the data. Our findings indicate that number of mention and animacy are important predictor variables in both languages, but their exact effect is divergent. We also find that in Finnish, case of the determiner NP proves to be an important factor, while in Estonian, syntactic role of the NP explains some aspects of determiner form choice. Nevertheless, the overall usage frequency of determiners is modest in the Estonian and Finnish data, and the process of grammaticalizing articles is only in initial stages in both languages. *** Artikliga, artiklita? Eesti ja soome keele artiklilaadsete määratlejate võrdlus Siinses uurimuses analüüsime võrdlevalt artiklilaadseid definiitseid ja indefiniitseid määratlejaid eesti ja soome keeles. Eelkõige kõrvutame eesti keele definiitset määratlejat see ja soome keele definiitseid määratlejaid se ja tämä ning eesti ja soome indefiniitset määratlejat üks/yks(i. Samuti vaatleme eesti keele possessiivpronoomeni oma ning soome 3sg possessiivsufiksi (-nsa/-nsä, -Vn referentsiaalseid omadusi. Uurimuse põhieesmärgiks on selgitada, millised on peamised määratlejate kasutust mõjutavad keelelised faktorid eesti ja soome keeles ning kas need faktorid on keeliti sarnased või erinevad. Ühtlasi otsime vastust küsimusele, kas eesti ja soome keeles on põhjust rääkida määratlejate grammatisatsioonist artikliteks. Uuritav keelematerjal pärineb pildiseeria põhjal kogutud suulistest narratiividest. Uurimuses osales 20 eesti ja 20 soome keele

  15. Hydro-mechanical coupling and transport in Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite: experimental and multi-scale approaches; Couplage hydro-me canique et transfert dans l'argilite de Meuse/Haute-Marne: approches experimentale et multi-echelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, S.

    2010-07-15

    This thesis deals with the hydro-mechanical behaviour of argillite. Classical Biot theory is shown to be badly adapted to the case of argillite. An original state equation is then built by use of homogenization tools, and takes into account the microstructure of argillite as well as physical phenomena happening inside the material, like the swelling overpressure inside the clay particles or the capillary effects in the porous network. This state equation explains some experiments which were not by the classical Biot theory. It is then improved by integrating the experimental data that are the dependency of the elasticity tensor with the saturation degree and the existence of a porosity surrounding the inclusions. Combined with the monitoring of length variation under hydric loading, this relevant state equation permits one to determine the Biot tensor of argillite. Since this state equation is coupled with the hydric state of the material, one is interested in modelling the variation of the saturation degree during a drying process. Two transport models are studied and compared, then a model for the porous network is proposed in order to explain the unusual permeability measurements. (author)

  16. Petrophysical characterization of Callovo-Oxfordian argillites from the deep borehole Andra EST433 of Montiers-Sur-Saulx (Meuse, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosenza, P.; Pret, D.; Camerlynck, C.; Fleury, M.; Geraud, Y.; Kremer, T.; Zamora, M.; Landrein, P.; Lebon, P.; Villieras, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Petro-fabric and physico-chemical properties of Meuse/Haute-Marne Callovo-Oxfordian argillite have been extensively studied (e.g. Trouiller, 2006). This research project is aiming at establishing micro-macro models to link microstructural patterns and macroscopic measurements. In this context, data are acquired on the same samples at different scales: (a) microscopic scale (identification of mineralogical phases, mineral mapping, surface area, pore size distribution) and (b) macroscopic scale (hydraulic conductivity, elastic wave velocities, resistivity, thermal conductivity). Ultimately the resulting micro-macro models would be used by Andra to construct 3D representation of the petrophysical properties within the Callovo-Oxfordian formation by the mean of logging data. This project is part of the research programme TAPSS2000 (Present and past transfers in a sedimentary aquifer - aquitard system: a 2000 meter deep drill-hole in the Mesozoic of the Paris Basin). Data acquisition is performed on 9 cores (taken from 558.5 m to 619.5 m deep) of the deep borehole ANDRA EST433 located at Moultiers-sur-Saulx (Meuse, France). These data on the microstructure and the macroscopic physical behaviour of Callovo-Oxfordian show the following features: - The higher the P-and S- wave velocities, the higher the radiologic density measured by X-Ray tomography. These high values of velocities and density are associated with carbonates, the most rigid phase among the rock-bearing minerals. P-wave velocity measurements do not exhibit significant scale effect (i.e., logging vs laboratory). - The most heterogeneous samples (with regard to their values of elastic wave velocities and radiologic density) are located in the upper part of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, where argillite is more carbonated. On the contrary, the most homogeneous cores that exhibit lower values of elastic wave velocities are located at deeper depths: they are

  17. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  18. Estonian energy system: Proposals for the implementation of a cogeneration strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.; Ingermann, K.; Kask, U.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Soviet era Estonia inherited oil-shale-based electricity plants, with a capacity of 3000 MW. Oil shale now provides Estonia with very low electricity prices. However, most of the stations are very old. Half of them were built before 1965, and sooner or later the old oil shale production units will have to be replaced. Estonia will then have to face serious increases in electricity production prices. At the same time Estonia has problems in restoring its district heating systems. The prices are rising and may consumers have converted to other heating sources such as electric heating. The major long-term strategic policy choices to make in Estonia are to decide (1) whether the oil shale power stations should be replaced by new centralized production units such as new oil shale stations or nuclear power, or (2) whether the electricity production should be decentralized. In the centralized solution (oil shale or nuclear power), the domestic heating will be left to boilers or electric heating leading to a very high primary energy supply. In the decentralized solution, Estonia could benefit from the advantage of cogeneration leading to very low fuel consumption. But this latter strategy depends on the restoration of the district heating systems. This article seeks to form a strategy to improve the efficiency of the Estonian energy system by increasing the use of cogeneration. (author)

  19. Vitality of the Estonian forests (results of the inventory and research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoles, K.

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting Estonian forests are: The environmental, specially atmospheric pollution, - the foundation of new forests as monoculture on unsuitable locations, - mechanical damages by unsuitable forest machinery, - unfavourable water conditions, - Heterobasidion or Armillaria rot roots. Local damages in consequence of air pollutants are distributed in environments of Tallinn, Kivioli, Kohtla-Jaerve and the thermal power stations (Narva), where the SO 2 -content in the air is on the average higher than 50 (80) μg/m 3 . Pine forests on dry sand soils (600 ha damaged in 1989) and the older spruce forests show the new type of forest decline. High Al-ion concentration, disturbances of the Ca-Mg-metabolism, an extreme nutrient deficit, (specially N-deficit) and periodical water deficit as well as pathogenic fungi are damaging the trees. Spruces show nonspecific defoliation, needle necrosis, needlefall, occurence of fungal diseases. More damaged are the spruce forests in regions with basic precipitations and high sulphur-deposition. (orig./UWA) [de

  20. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  1. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmets, L; Samm, A; Sisask, M; Kõlves, K; Aasvee, K; Värnik, A

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)." It aimed at describing and analyzing how the sexual behaviors of 13- to 15-year-old Estonian school children were associated with self-reported depressive feelings and suicidality. Distinctive behavioral traits in relation to age of first sexual intercourse were also investigated. Self-reported questionnaires from school children (n = 3,055) were analyzed. In total, 15.2% of school children reported being nonvirgin. Among 13-year-olds, 2.9% of girls and 6.8% of boys were nonvirgins. Approximately 25% of the 15-year-old girls and boys were nonvirgins. The likelihood of depressive feelings and suicidal ideation increased significantly in both genders with loss of virginity. Boys who had lost their virginity at 13 years or younger were 4.2 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts; comparable girls were 7.8 times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Compared to virgins, youths who had lost their virginity reported poor self-assessed health and more risk behaviors in themselves and their peers. Experiences of sexual intercourse increased the odds ratios for depressive feelings and suicidality. The earlier sexual intercourse was initiated, the greater were the odds of lower mental well-being. Risk behaviors emerged as a complex phenomenon requiring complex prevention.

  2. Supervision, mentorship and peer networks: how Estonian early career researchers get (or fail to get support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses issues related to supervision and support of early career researchers in Estonian academia. We use nine focus groups interviews conducted in 2015 with representatives of social sciences in order to identify early career researchers’ needs with respect to support, frustrations they may experience, and resources they may have for addressing them. Our crucial contribution is the identification of wider support networks of peers and colleagues that may compensate, partially or even fully, for failures of official supervision. On the basis of our analysis we argue that support for early career researchers should take into account the resources they already possess but also recognise the importance of wider academic culture, including funding and employment patterns, and the roles of supervisors and senior researchers in ensuring successful functioning of support networks. Through analysing the conditions for the development of early career researchers – producers of knowledge – our paper contributes to social epistemology understood as analysis of specific forms of social organisation of knowledge production.

  3. Seltsi muuseumist riigi keskmuuseumiks: ikka ajutiste lahendustega / Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Aru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the Estonian National Museum from 1909 to the presentThe Estonian National Museum was founded in Tartu in 1909 as part of the national movement. With its activities and connections in society, the ENM helped create Estonian society, the nation’s collective memory and identity.The ENM has always been – despite the changing locations, names, and content – one of the symbols of national identity. But at the same time, ENM has never had its own building designed specially for the museum’s purposes.Since 1909 there have been several attempts to establish a home for the ENM. At first (1909–1923, Estonian society wanted to establish the museum in the center of Tartu. The museum was intended to become a key institution of the growing nation and establishing the nation’s identity.At last in 1923 the ENM secured the Raadi manor, outside the center of the city, in a beautiful park, near the lake with its boats and water attractions. In this manor the first permanent exhibition of mainly 19th century Estonian peasant life was compiled, and the ENM operated in the Raadi manor from 1923–1940 as the “Estonian’s own museum” The years of alternating occupations, World War II, and political terror damaged and destroyed the whole society. The Raadi manor was destroyed in the war too, and the ENM itself was divided into two parts – the State Ethnographic Museum and the State Literary Museum. The collections of the ENM were given to Tallinn and to many different places inside and outside Tartu. Then began “the period of temporary location” that continues today. The museum is located in several places in the city of Tartu.In 1988, the prior name of the State Ethnographic Museum – the Estonian National Museum – was reinstated. Since the 1990s there have been many attempts to secure a special building for the ENM. Now, at last, as a result of serious economic pressure, we are closer to this goal than ever. During the last five

  4. Implementation of quality assurance and quality control in the Nuclear Analytical Laboratory of the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeoep, T.; Jakobson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratory of the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre is in the process of implementing the system of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) in the framework of the IAEA TC Project RER/2/004/ 'QA/QC of Nuclear Analytical Techniques'. The draft Quality Manual with annexes has been prepared accordingly to the ISO 17025 Guide, documents and other printed material delivered on the seminars of the project. The laboratory supply has been supplemented with necessary equipment for guaranteeing of quality. Proficiency testing included in the project has been performed successfully. (author)

  5. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    OpenAIRE

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-01-01

    Bernhard Linde (1886–1954) was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He...

  6. Jüri Okas’ ‘specific objects’: diverging discourses in Estonian Art in the 1970s.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurg, Andres.

    2003-01-01

    Previously in the University eprints HAIRST pilot service at http://eprints.st-andrews.ac.uk/archive/00000367/ Article 3 of 6 in issue devoted to the visual culture of the Scandinavian and Baltic region. This article will look at the early works of Estonian architect and artist Jüri Okas and will try to work between diverging languages and interpretations, reading works by Okas against the background of Anglo-american conceptualism and minimalism of the same period. The first part of th...

  7. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  8. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  9. “... if there’s a party, then there’s definitely alcohol”. Construction of partying practices and abstinence in Estonian youth forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parder Mari-Liisa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Adolescents’ abstinence from alcohol has not been much researched in terms of providing suggestions for prevention strategies. This study aims to fill that gap by offering a practice theory-inspired analysis of how the unwritten rules of partying practices are communicated between posters of Estonian youth forums.

  10. Corporate Governance from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory and in Light of Perceptions among Estonian Owners and Managers of Relations with Stakeholders / Mari Kooskora

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kooskora, Mari, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Äriühingute valitsemise kontseptsioon ja teoreetiline taust; Eesti omanike ja tippjuhtide ootused suhetes erinevate huvigruppidega ning äriühingute valitsemine huvigruppide teooriast lähtudes. Skeem: The stakeholder model. Tabelid: Contractual and community stakeholders; Overview of how perceptions of the main stakeholder groups among Estonian business leaders between 1995-2004 have changed

  11. Economic modelling of the capture-transport-sink scenario of industrial CO2 emissions: The Estonian-Latvian cross-border case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Pomeranceva, R.; Nulle, I.; Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial CO2 emissions and opportunities for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Region were studied within the EU GeoCapacity project supported by the European Union Framework Programme 6. Estonia produces the largest amounts of CO2 emissions in the region, due to the combustion of Estonian oil

  12. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  13. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasmäe Birgit

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

  14. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Personality traits and eating habits in a large sample of Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Deary, Ian J; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Diet has health consequences, which makes knowing the psychological correlates of dietary habits important. Associations between dietary habits and personality traits were examined in a large sample of Estonians (N = 1,691) aged between 18 and 89 years. Dietary habits were measured using 11 items, which grouped into two factors reflecting (a) health aware and (b) traditional dietary patterns. The health aware diet factor was defined by eating more cereal and dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruits. The traditional diet factor was defined by eating more potatoes, meat and meat products, and bread. Personality was assessed by participants themselves and by people who knew them well. The questionnaire used was the NEO Personality Inventory-3, which measures the Five-Factor Model personality broad traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, along with six facets for each trait. Gender, age and educational level were controlled for. Higher scores on the health aware diet factor were associated with lower Neuroticism, and higher Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness (effect sizes were modest: r = .11 to 0.17 in self-ratings, and r = .08 to 0.11 in informant-ratings, ps < 0.01 or lower). Higher scores on the traditional diet factor were related to lower levels of Openness (r = -0.14 and -0.13, p < .001, self- and informant-ratings, respectively). Endorsement of healthy and avoidance of traditional dietary items are associated with people's personality trait levels, especially higher Openness. The results may inform dietary interventions with respect to possible barriers to diet change.

  16. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  17. Omaeluloolisus eesti teatris: Merle Karusoo lavastustest. Life Narratives and Estonian Theatre: The Productions of Merle Karusoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Any consideration of Estonian theatre from the point of view of biographical theatre needs to include the work of playwright and director Merle Karusoo. Productions based on various life narratives (diaries, letters, biographical interviews form the core of her work that can be defined as biographical or memory theatre. Her work has also been viewed within the context of community theatre or political theatre; Karusoo has herself referred to her work as sociological theatre. Life narratives have functioned in Karusoo’s productions as the basis for restoring oppressed or denied collective discourses of memory. Her productions emerged within the framework of the more general process of restoration of historical heritage and the rehabilitation of collective memory at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. Life story can be viewed as the essence of Merle Karusoo’s theatre. The personal in the life story in the production activates the emotional memory of the audience; for older generations such theatre facilitates a legitimisation of remembering one’s life story in entirety, and for younger generations it functions as a vehicle of collective, historical and national memory. The current article outlines the main stages of Karusoo’s biographical theatre, highlights major productions of each stage and provides an overview of their reception. Karusoo’s theatre dates back to 1980s. Productions based on life stories of the generations born in 1950s and 1960s, Meie elulood (Our Biographies and Kui ruumid on täis ... (Full Rooms both in 1982, mediated fragments of life stories of 16 drama students, focusing on the processes of self-conception and -reflection of young persons. In the context of the Soviet regime that exerted firm ideological control over the private lives of its citizens, Karusoo’s productions struck an especially powerful and unusual chord. Karusoo’s biographical theatre has gathered momentum and assumed a more

  18. Euroopa-ihalusest taasiseseisvusperioodi autobiograafiates / European Identifications in Post-Soviet Estonian Life Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kurvet-Käosaar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb Euroopat kui identiteedi ja minaduse sõlmpunkti ja enesevahenduse mõõdet kolmes omaelulookirjutuslikus teoses, mille autoritel on väljapaistev positsioon eesti (kirjanduskultuuris: Jaan Krossi „Kallid kaasteelised“ (2003a, 2008, Jaan Kaplinski „Isale“ (2003 ja Tõnu Õnnepalu „Flandria päevik“ (2007. Artikkel keskendub sellele, kuidas küsimused suhestumise trajektooridest Euroopa mäluruumiga haakuvad Krossi, Kaplinski ja Õnnepalu teostes esiletuleva enesemääratlusliku raamiga, neist lähtuvate vastastikuse kõnetuse võimaluste ja oma aegruumi tunnetuse pidepunktidega. Kuigi tegemist on eesti keeles ilmunud ning eesti kultuuriruumi lugejale suunatud teostega, seostuvad neis väljajoonistuvad enesemääratluse teljed viimastel aastakümnetel hoogustunud laiemate aruteludega ühtse Euroopa mäluraami ning identiteedi võimalikkusest ja selle toimimise tingimustest.   In recent years, the question of the possibility of a shared frame of memory and identity in Europe, its desired manifestations and practices for attaining it as well as its obstacles and limitations to it have gained prominence in scholarly debates in a number of disciplines. In terms of the division between the East and West of Europe, these discussions take as their starting point the collapse of the Soviet system in 1989 as well as the European Union enlargement in 2004. Far from uniform, the exceedingly complex and contrasting ranges of arguments have put forward a varied palette of perspectives and suggestions about possible and desirable implications of Europe in different socio-political and cultural configurations. Taking these debates as my starting point, the current article offers an analysis of three life writing works by contemporary Estonian authors and intellectuals, Kallid kaasteelised (Dear Fellow Travellers, 2003, 2008 by Jaan Kross, Isale (To My Father, 2003 by Jaan Kaplinski and Flandria päevik (The Flemish Diary

  19. Isamaalaulud ja okupatsioonirežiim – nostalgia, utoopia ja reaalsus. Estonian Patriotic Songs and the Occupational Regime – Nostalgia, Utopia and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanni Labi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Estonian knowledge of history emanates from the fact that constituting an independent nation has for the most part been nothing but a utopia, and was a reality for a relatively short time. When it comes to selfidentification though, the expression ’a singing people’ is often used by the Estonians to describe themselves. Nostalgia for freedom is reflected in the Estonian culture of almost all periods and is carried on by the singing tradition, where patriotic songs emerge independent of different musical tastes within a particular generation and form an important part of a common Estonian repertoire. Patriotic songs occupy a central place in several fields of Estonian culture: besides music culture also in popular culture,and literary history – the works of poetry which have gained the most popularity are those which when put to music have been the most widely spread among the people. The main part of the most popular Estonian patriotic songs are choral songs from the national awakening at the end of the 19th century. Despite the national programmes aiming to wipe out ‘bourgeois nationalism’, they were sung at the song festivals in the Soviet era and were published in song books, expressing the people’s nostalgia for freedom lost. After the end of the Second World War, there was an attempt at launching a kind of patriotic new creation, where patriotism was merged with Soviet pathos; the aim was to show that the people’s utopia was in fact communism, but not a single one of those songs made it into the people’s common repertoire. Only the patriotic songs composed in the 1980s during the so-called new national awakening reached a popularity comparable to that of the old songs. The discourse on ’Estonianness’ and the shaping of a matching repertoire under imperial Russian rule took place under very different circumstances than its preservation and development in the second half of the 20th century under Soviet occupation, but

  20. The dominance of indirect taxes in Estonian state budget. Summary:Kaudsete maksude dominant Eesti riigieelarve tuludes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Raju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recession has sharply erected the question of tax burden and the optimal proportion of different kinds of taxes among the incomes of the budget. Indirect taxes and consumption taxes, which proportion is different according to different methodologies, dominate in Estonian state budget. The buoyancy of a tax system based on taxes of that kind is especially weak during the recession. The purpose of Estonian government’s economic policy during the highest peak of crisis was to keep the budget in balance. Instead of recovering economy the taxes were arisen and costs were reduced. The results of such a policy aren’t still clear. Difficulties concerning the incomes of budget have arisen the necessity for lifting taxes, which is possible as the tax burden is low now. But a sharp question of the optimal level of taxes is going to be raised. A formula for indirect tax optimum according to Ramsey taxes and Slutski decomposition has been proposed in the article

  1. Riik võib lüüa SAS-i esmaspäevaks Estonian Airi omanikeringist välja / Erik Müürsepp, Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2008-01-01

    SAS osaleb Estonian Airþile lisakapitali eraldamises ainult juhul, kui Eesti riik müüb oma osaluses lennukompaniis SAS-ile. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  2. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  3. Biogeochemical reactive-transport modelling of the interactions of medium activity long-lived nuclear waste in fractured argillite and the effect on redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, J.S.; Steele, H.; Kwong, S.; Albrecht, A.

    2010-01-01

    model also examines the reaction of nitrate with Fe(II) minerals present in the COx, which have the potential to reduce nitrate. This results in the oxidation of Fe(II) and the intermediate formation of Fe(III) minerals, which provide electron acceptors which are subsequently reduced by organics. The model has examined the case where the nitrate affected system returns to a reduced state resulting from continued input of acetate. In this scenario sulphate reduction develops in the COx, By considering the concentration of electron donors and acceptors for the major redox couples the GRM calculates a redox potential. Further results will be presented, of the spatial and temporal distributions in reactive species, minerals and microbial biomass related to the coupling of microbial kinetics, under the influence of advective and diffusive transport. The results will be discussed and interpreted to assess the potential significance of environmental factors that may control microbial growth and the mediation of redox conditions in argillite host rocks. (authors)

  4. Az észt névtervezés az észt nyelvpolitikai modell tükrében [The name management in the mirror of the Estonian LPP-model

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    Pomozi, Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Estonian model of language planning and policy, which has been serving the development and protection of the Estonian language in its current form since 2004, is one of the most successful of such strategies in Europe. It owes it success to the broad social and scientific consensus reached in questions of language policy, regardless of changes in government. The Development Plan of the Estonian Language divides Estonian language planning and policy into three parts: status planning, corpus planning and prestige planning. Name management is a part of corpus planning, although certain aspects are also connected to legal and prestige planning. Name management strategies are present in all components of the Estonian model of language planning and policy, as linguistically appropriate name use is not only a socio-cultural, but economic question, as informative and easy to understand names contribute to measurable economic advantages. The paper mainly demonstrates the dilemmas and answers of Estonian name management through examples from personal name giving practices, but questions concerning the problems of name use in a multicultural environment and the difficulties of place name and firm name management are also discussed.

  5. Computation of Estonian CORS data using Bernese 5.2 and Gipsy 6.4 softwares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollo, Karin; Kall, Tarmo; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    GNSS permanent station network in Estonia (ESTREF) was established already in 2007. In 2014-15 extensive reconstruction of ESTREF was carried out, including the establishment of 18 new stations, change of the hardware in CORS stations as well as establishing GNSS-RTK service for the whole Estonia. For GNSS-RTK service one needs precise coordinates in well-defined reference frame, i.e., ETRS89. For long time stability of stations and time-series analysis the re-processing of Estonian CORS data is ongoing. We re-process data from 2007 until 2015 with program Bernese GNSS 5.2 (Dach, 2015). For the set of ESTREF stations established in 2007, we perform as well computations with GIPSY 6.4 software (Ries et al., 2015). In the computations daily GPS-only solution was used. For precise orbits, final products from CODE (CODE analysis centre at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern) and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) for Bernese and GIPSY solutions were used, respectively. The cut-off angle was set to 10 degrees in order to avoid near-field multipath influence. In GIPSY, precise point positioning method with fixing ambiguities was used. Bernese calculations were performed based on double difference processing. Antenna phase centers were modelled based on igs08.atx and epnc_08.atx files. Vienna mapping function was used for mapping tropospheric delays. For the GIPSY solution, the higher order ionospheric term was modelled based on IRI-2012b model. For the Bernese solution higher order ionospheric term was neglected. FES2004 ocean tide loading model was used for the both computation strategies. As a result, two solutions using different scientific GNSS computation programs were obtained. The results from Bernese and GIPSY solutions were compared, using station repeatability values, RMS and coordinate differences. KEYWORDS: GNSS reference station network, Bernese GNSS 5.2, Gipsy 6.4, Estonia. References: Dach, R., S. Lutz, P. Walser, P. Fridez (Eds); 2015

  6. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  7. Chemical composition of anthropogenic particles on needles collected close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinander, O.

    1995-01-01

    Within the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea, north-eastern Estonia is among the most polluted areas. Emissions from the oil-shale power plants produce air pollution problems both locally and on a larger scale. In the atmosphere, pollutants mix and convert. Consequently, the particles deposited due to the use of oil-shale can have various chemical compositions. From the point of view of air chemistry, ecological effects and air pollution modelling, knowledge of the chemical composition of the deposited particles can be of great value. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of single anthropogenic particles occurring on needle surfaces in north-eastern Estonia and Southern Finland close to the Estonian oil-shale power plants. For the purpose, scanning electron microscopical microanalysis was used

  8. The Problems of Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy and the Demand-Side Innovation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The second larger Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy ‘Knowledge-based Estonia 2007-2013’ is aimed at continuing the advancement of research and development efforts towards an innovative knowledge-based society and economic system in Estonia. Fostering of knowledge-based high-tech industries is seen as paramount for retaining country’s competitive advantage. However, the mid-term evaluations indicate that several goals of the strategy might not be achievable by 2013. In fact, the policy measures have been much more successful in developing scientific research, as indicated by increased international publication, number of patents, and number of researchers and engineers. The advances in development of high-tech products and services through innovations are noticeable but less prominent. The purpose of this study is to suggest the role for demand-side innovation policies in helping to advance commercial development and innovation

  9. Iseseisvusdeklaratsioonid 1776–1918. The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An Example of the Civilizing Force of Hypocrisy

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    Hent Kalmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organized hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet are continually infringed upon by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was nominally governed by a Constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the actual wording of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can have a “civilizing force” when the need to appear impartial and to retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not choose otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be played upon by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics – a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988, when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to

  10. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  11. Using micro-contexts to describe a writing process in Estonian as a second language across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pastuhhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the writing process of native Russian‑speaking students in Estonian as a second language. 34 participants were given the assignment of writing a text in the L2. The written texts were then rated as being at levels from A2 to C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. The data were collected by computer keystroke logging and analysed based on the concept of a ‘micro-context’. Micro-contexts were analysed according to their frequency and duration and were compared across proficiency levels. The results show that writing in the L2 is not a smooth process. The longest transitions in micro-contexts reveal that the most cognitive effort is made between paragraphs and sentences and when deletions are involved. The growing number of consecutive deletions demonstrates that even with developing proficiency, the linear production text is subject to constant revision, correction and modification.

  12. Tõlkepärl eesti ilukirjanduse algusaegadest – esimene eestikeelne robinsonaad / A Translation Gem from the Beginnings of Estonian Literature - the First Robinsonade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artiklis uuritakse Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis asuvat mahukat, ligi 800 lk tõlkekäsikirja „Norem Robinson“, mida võib pidada esimeseks eesti kirjanduse täiemahuliseks robinsonaadiks. Selle valmistas Pärnu koolmeister Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn saksa pedagoogi ja koolikirjaniku Joachim Heinrich Campe menukast noorsooromaanist „Robinson der Jüngere“ (1779–1780. Tõlge valmis 1822.–1823. aastal, kuid jõudis trükki alles 1842. aastal tugevasti kärbitud ja mugandatud kujul. Toetudes deskriptiivse tõlkeuurimuse analüüsikategooriatele, vaadeldakse artiklis, millised tegurid tõlkeprotsessi suunasid ja milline oli kultuuriruum, kuhu tõlge omal ajal paigutus. SU M M A R Y This article discusses a voluminous manuscript translation of almost 800 pages entitled Norem Robinson (Engl. Robinson the Younger, from the collections of the Estonian Literary Museum. This manuscript can be considered as the first complete Robinsonade in Estonian literature. Its author is a schoolteacher from Pärnu, Heinrich Gottlieb Lorenzsonn (1803–1847, who translated it from the youth novel Robinson der Jüngere(1779–1780, Engl. Robinson the Younger, a bestseller by the educator, writer and a major representative of German Enlightenment, Heinrich Joachim Campe. Lorenzsonn’s translation was completed in 1822–1823, but not printed until 1842 in a strongly adapted version titled Norema Robinsoni ello ja juhtumised ühhe tühja sare peäl (Engl. The Life and Adventures of Robinson the Younger on a deserted island. The print version of the Robinsonade lacks a pedagogical frame story, where the father tells children about the adventures of Robinson and takes the opportunity to discuss and imitate with children all the actions taken by Robinson the Younger. Due to this and other extirpated parts, the possible target audience was enlarged – besides children and youth, the text was now addressed to adults as well. In accordance with the

  13. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oha, Kristel; Animägi, Liina; Pääsuke, Mati; Coggon, David; Merisalu, Eda

    2014-05-28

    Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful.

  14. The Dialogue with Hamlet: Paul-Eerik Rummo’s “Hamlet’s Songs” as an Example of the Existential Paradigm in Estonian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Mihkelev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates different meanings of the motif of Hamlet in the Estonian culture. Hamlet as a literary figure has been very important and influential, a symbol of will and a fighter in a hopeless situation. Paul-Eerik Rummo’s poem “Hamlet’s Songs” (1964 forms the centre around which revolve not only written texts but also many such cultural texts as theatre performances and music, all connected by allusions to Hamlet. Rummo’s poem is one of the most innovative poems from the 1960s in Estonian literature. The generation of the 1960s was influenced by several important contemporary theories, including existentialism. Many young writers systematically undermined the Soviet regime in their works. The use of the motif of Hamlet reveals a similarity between the existential and romantic rebellions. Rummo’s dialogue with Hamlet in his poem expresses optimism in a hopeless situation in a way different from Shakespeare’s.

  15. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  16. Non-market value of Estonian seminatural grasslands: a contingent valuation study. Eesti poolloodusliku rohumaa turuväline väärtus: tingliku hindamise uuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helli Lepasaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seminatural grasslands i.e. the floodplain meadows, seashore meadows, wooded meadows, dry meadows, wooded pastures are the very traditional part of Estonian landscapes, which play an important role in the appearance of the landscape in general and also serve as an important habitat for many plant and animal species. In order to preserve the seminatural grasslands continuous annual mowing and/or pasturing is needed. This activity is not economically profitable and needs subsidizing. The authors of the work raise a hypothesis that the Estonian seminatural grasslands could be viewed as a valuable non-market environmental good for which a significant public demand exists. In order to find out the non-market value of the seminatural grasslands a contingent valuation study was carried out among the Estonian working-age population (size of the sample 1061 individuals. The average individual willingness to pay was 11.3 euros. During the study, the authors constructed the total demand function and discovered that the total annual demand for seminatural grasslands was 17.9 million euros.

  17. Where Do Dead Books Go? The Problem of the Soviet Canon Today, on the Example of Johannes Becher's Work in Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Talviste

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the conception and editing process of an anthology of Johannes Becher’s poems (Unistades täiusest, 1962 in Estonian, and discusses its status in the Soviet and contemporary literary canon. The work on the Becher anthology was led by an already outstanding literary scholar Nigol Andresen and a young poet and translator Ain Kaalep, who later became one of the most prolific and wellknown poetry translators in Estonia. An important part was also played by another poet-translator, August Sang, who already had achieved such a standing in the Estonian literary field. Several other translators contributed to the anthology, making it a common project for intellectuals otherwise very differently positioned vis-à-vis the Soviet political authorities and cultural agendas. Becher’s work was strongly promoted by these instances, but his poetry was also read with genuine enthusiasm by the main contributors to the anthology (whose own poetry has certain parallels to some aspects of Becher’s, as well as the general public, at that time. After the fall of the Soviet regime it has been forgotten, mostly for the same contextual reasons that once granted its success. The case of his poetry in Estonian explores the question of this new invisibility of now politically irrelevant, but still voluminous and aesthetically intriguing literary works in the post-Soviet canon.

  18. Rahvusliku ajaloo tõlgendusi eesti draamas ja teatris 1970.–1980. aastatel. Interpretations of National History in Estonian Drama and Theatre in the 1970s–1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Kruuspere

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available According to theatre scholar Freddie Rokem, theatre portraying or performing historical events is seeking to overcome both the separation and the exclusion from the past, as well as ’striving to create a community where the events from this past will matter again’. This article covers the topic of interpretations of national history in Estonian theatre and in original dramaturgy during the Soviet era, with the focus on aspects like national self-reflection and the relationship to the common past. The main focus is on the 1970s, with examples from Rein Saluri’s, Mati Unt’s and Jaan Kaplinski’s drama productions. During the period in question, re-tellings of national history on Estonian theatre stages were clothed in metaphors, allusions and secret codes – Aesopian language. Within the Soviet cultural context, I analyse if and to what extent theatre of the time displayed resistance, political theatre or social allegory. Theatre was also connected with the principle of playing or playfulness, which on one hand indicates national resistance, national endurance, and a certain survival strategy, but on the other hand indicates the Estonian as being an involuntary homo ludens – the Playing Man, who through various enforced roles is trying to adjust to the whirlwinds of history. Saluri’s first play, the intellectual drama Külalised (The Guests, opens with an allusion to a drama classic the world over, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, adding a powerful national-symbolic background to the play. The role-play which permeates and structures the play (The Host–The Guest however, displays allegorical references to changes in the status and self-image of Estonians. In Unt’s play Peaproov (Dress Rehearsal, the principle of playing/acting sheds ironic light on the makers of an historical film and their readiness to create superficially flashy interpretations at any cost: this take acts as an estranging and generalising reflection in a context

  19. Bernhard Linde. Noor-Eesti vooriülem. Bernhard Linde. Leader of the Young Estonian Pack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Kulli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bernhard Linde (1886–1954 was a recognized and prolific Estonian theatre critic of the first quarter of the 20th century, who mediated and propagated western as well as eastern European theatrical innovations. In addition, he was active as a literary and art critic, publisher, and proponent of libraries, to a modest extent he was a prose writer and poet. Unquestionably, however, Bernhard Linde’s most prominent role was as one of the founding members of the literary movement Young Estonia. He was the group’s first general manager; later on, he was the secretary of the Estonian Writers’ Association Young Estonia, and the chairman of the board of the Young Estonia Publishing House. Linde’s formal education culminated in graduation from Tartu University as a Slavic philologist; he was the only member of the Young Estonia group to demonstrate serious and sustained interest toward Slavic cultures and peoples. Linde was a contradictory figure, evoking a range of responses from his contemporaries: on the one hand, there was the unbelievably broad range of his participation in cultural life, his organizing skills and business instincts in directing publishing houses; on the other hand, a superficiality in his writings, his often rash and subjective style as a critic, and his financial intrigues. If one adds in Linde’s stubbornness, egocentrism, and intense spirit of protest, which often led to lawsuits, the outcome is the portrait of an extremely complicated, fascinating, and passionate man—both in his creative work and his personal life Linde guaranteed a place for himself in literary history through a small catch of texts: a few foundational essays (for example, on August Kitzberg, a translation of Balzac’s Le père Goriot, the essay collection Omad ja võõrad (Own and Foreign and a travel book focusing on the literature and theatre of eastern Europe (Loova Kesk-Euroopa Poole (Toward A Creative Central Europe. The prominent public

  20. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahu Mati

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may

  1. Eesti patsient. Haiguse ja haige inimese kujutamise mudel 19. sajandi eesti kultuuris ja kirjasõnas. The Estonian Patient: A Model for the Representation of Illness and the Ill in 19th Century Estonian Culture and Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Kraavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The portrait of the 18th and 19th century „Estonian patient” sketched in this article is a theoretical model of the ill person, based mainly on literary texts, but with reference to a variety of scientific and popular-scientific material. The point of departure is the classic postcolonial theorist, Frantz Fanon, in whose writings medicine, healing, and discourse on such topics are seen as the functioning of a specific colonial practice. The most notable characteristic of the figure of the Estonian patient is non-communicativeness. Communication is avoided and feared primarily because it has to be directed toward those in higher positions of power, or to institutions that embody power (the apothecary, the hospital. While these traits also characterize the separation between peasants and their rulers more generally, in a situation of illness the exclusion is felt with a double intensity. Sickness casts the peasant in a double bind: when in need of help or healing, contact across the divide between social rank, and – more broadly, between two cultures and ways of understanding the world, becomes unavoidable. In such situations, illness signifies an intensification of the gap in social standing. The ill person, who already stands on a lower rung of the social hierarchy, becomes all the more marginalized. In keeping with these observations, the real reason behind indecisiveness and refusal of medical treatment may well be an effort to avoid or postpone humiliation on the basis of lower social standing. Other contributing factors might include unconscious resistance – or even a conscious model of resistance – in the psyche, which manifests as an avoidance of communication. The content and motivating force for the model is not heroism, but rather a sense of shame. Indeed, behind the context of medical culture lurks ethnic and material isolation. The individual’s economic situation, living conditions, education and – most important – his

  2. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  3. The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karik, H.

    1996-01-01

    The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals

  4. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the

  5. Short rotation willow coppice for renewable energy and improved environment. Proceedings of a joint Swedish - Estonian seminar on energy forestry and vegetation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.; Koppel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall aim of the present seminar was to present and discuss results from the joint Swedish - Estonian energy forestry research activities during the period of 1993-1995 and to publish the papers in a technical report. The results is a publication, presenting interesting methods and results, and is meant partly to serve as the final report of the joint efforts during the period mentioned, partly to be used for future planning of new projects and for application of funding for a continued cooperation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all of the 17 papers in the report

  6. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-11-25

    To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Age-standardised prevalence of smoking and prevalence of agreement with seven statements concerning attitudes towards smoking was determined. To analyse association of physicians' attitudes towards smoking with study year and smoking status, logistic regression analysis was used. Adjusted ORs of agreement with the seven statements were determined. Corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. The age-standardised prevalence of current smoking among men was 26.8% in 2002 and 15.3% in 2014, among women 10.4% and 5.8%, respectively. Compared with the year 2002, in 2014, prevalence of agreement with statements declaring harmfulness of smoking was higher and prevalence of agreement with statements approving smoking was lower. Adjusted ORs showed that compared with 2002, physicians' attitudes towards smoking were less favourable in 2014, and physicians' attitudes towards smoking were associated with their smoking status. Compared with 2002, the age-standardised smoking prevalence among male and female physicians was lower, and attitudes towards smoking were less approving in 2014. The smoking physicians had more approving attitudes towards smoking than their non-smoking colleagues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (Pcows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H with moderate NEB the delayed start of ovulation post partum did not impair subsequent reproductive performance.

  8. Biological dosimetric studies in the Chernobyl radiation accident, on populations living in the contaminated areas (Gomel regions) and in Estonian clean-up workers, using FISH technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, F.; Natarajan, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to perform retrospective estimations of radiation doses seven years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in contaminated areas around Chernobyl and the Estonian clean-up workers were determined. The first study group composed of 45 individuals living in four areas (i.e. Rechitsa, Komsomolski, Choiniki and Zaspa) in the vicinity (80-125 km) of Chernobyl and 20 individuals living in Minsk (control group - 340 km from Chernobyl). The second study group (Estonian clean-up workers) composed of 26 individuals involved in cleaning up the Chernobyl for a different period of time (up to 7 months) and a matched control group consisting of 9 probands. Unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings) were scored in Giemsa stained preparations and stable aberrations (translocations) were analyzed using chromosome specific DNA libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. For both study groups the estimated average dose is between 0,1-0,4 Gy. Among the people living in the contaminated areas in the vicinity of Chernobyl, a higher frequency of numerical aberrations (i.e. trisomy, hyper diploidy) was evident

  9. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task C. Hydro-mechanical response of the Tournemire argillite to the underground openings excavation: unsaturated zones and mine-by-test experiment. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejeb, A.; Rouabhi, A. (Ecole des Mines de Paris (France)); Millard, A. (Commissariat d' Energie Atomique (France)); Massmann, J. (Hannover Univ. (DE)); Uehara, S. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    2008-06-15

    This report describes the final results of Task C of the international DECOVALEX-THMC project devoted to Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) in argillaceous rock at the Tounemire site in France. Task C is aimed to develop adequate numerical models for interpretation of observed damaged zones around three openings excavated at different times. The research teams are asked to model the evolution of the EDZ with time and to compare their results with measurements that were performed at the site. The main objective is to investigate the hydro-mechanical behavior of Tounemire argillite around the three openings (1881 tunnel, 1996 gallery, 2003 gallery) of Tournemire site. The work was divided into 3 parts: 1. Modelling of the unsaturated zones around the three openings; 2. Modelling of the mine-by-test experiment around the 2003 gallery; 3. EDZ modeling around the 3 openings. Each research team has performed its own HM numerical calculations based on the principal following considerations: The hydraulic time dependent boundary condition at each opening wall was calculated by the Kelvin equation using the provided humidities and temperatures; The effective stress approach of partially saturated medium was used; The swelling-shrinkage of Tournemire argillite was taken into account; The capillary pressure curve was assumed to be given by the Van Genuchten relation and calibrated from the provided data of the two successful laboratory tests; The influence of the degree of saturation on liquid water permeability was modelled using a relative permeability function which is based also on the Van Genuchten model; The intrinsic permeability was calibrated in order to get a better fit with experimental data. To achieve the first objective, the three research teams act as follows: 2D HM coupled simulations have been undertaken by ISEB-BGR team. Hydraulic and mechanical anisotropies were considered; 2D HM coupled simulations have been also undertaken by CEA-IRSN team. Only mechanical

  10. Unique spectrum of SPAST variants in Estonian HSP patients: presence of benign missense changes but lack of exonic rearrangements

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    Gross-Paju Katrin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder that can be an autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, or X-linked disease. The most common autosomal-dominant form of the disease derives from mutations in the SPAST gene. Methods The aim of this study was to analyze 49 patients diagnosed with HSP from the Estonian population for sequence variants of the SPAST gene and to describe the associated phenotypes. Healthy control individuals (n = 100 with no family history of HSP were also analyzed. All patient samples were screened using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA assay. Samples with abnormal DHPLC and MLPA profiles were sequenced, with the same regions sequenced in control samples. Results Sequence variants of SPAST were identified in 19/49 HSP patients (38.8%, twelve among them had pathogenic mutations. Within the latter group there was one sporadic case. Eight patients had pure, and four - complex HSP. The twelve variants were identified: seven pathogenic (c.1174-1G>C, c.1185delA, c.1276C>T, c.1352_1356delGAGAA, c.1378C>A, c.1518_1519insTC, c.1841_1842insA and five non-pathogenic (c.131C>T, c.484G>A, c.685A>G, c.1245+202delG, c.1245+215G>C. Only 2 of these mutations had previously been described (c.131C>T, c.1245+202delG. Three mutations, c.1174-1G>C, c.1276 C>T, c.1378C>A, showed intrafamilial segregation. Conclusion This study identified new variants of the SPAST gene which included benign missense variants and short insertions/deletions. No large rearrangements were found. Based on these data, 7 new pathogenic variants of HSP are associated with clinical phenotypes.

  11. Eesti Rahva Muuseumi strateegiad ja praktikad rahvaga suhtlemisel muuseumi algusaastatel / Estonian National Museum: Public communication strategies and practices in the initial years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Õunapuu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the museum phenomenon as the valuator of the indigenous culture in the context of the awakening national consciousness has received little attention. The evolution of the idea of the Estonian National Museum (ENM and its realization reflects the story of the Estonian people maturing into a nation. The museum was founded by a few dedicated persons and it took a long time before the general public recognised it as the museum for the Estonian people. The main purpose of this research is to ascertain how relations developed between the public and the museum in its initial years and what were the museum strategies in declaring its objectives. After the official foundation of the ENM in 1909 the museum narrative can be divided into two main parts. First, work inside the museum, the compilation and arrangement of collections. This was, above all, the work of the collection committee and organizing heritage collection trips. Collections constitute the basis of a museum – therefore the primary and most important task of the established museum was the collection of heritage items. The collections were started immediately after the foundation of the museum; within the first ten years approximately 20,000 items were collected, approximately two thirds of the items in the years 1911–1913. The phenomenon that a museum where people worked mainly without a salary for the benefit of their homeland, with the set aim to empty the whole of Estonia of heritage items parish by parish and succeeded in engaging dozens and dozens of people for this work, is probably exceptional in world history. As a result, the museum acquired not only voluminous but also valuable item collections, which reached the museum before the devastating First World War. The timing was favourable. There were enough old artefacts left, although most collectors complained in their diaries that there was nothing interesting to be found any more. However, the majority of the

  12. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne; Caracterisation microbiologique de l'argile a opalinus du Mont Terri et de l'argilite du callovo-oxfordien de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S

    2006-12-15

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  13. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne; Caracterisation microbiologique de l'argile a opalinus du Mont Terri et de l'argilite du callovo-oxfordien de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S

    2006-12-15

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  14. 1988. aasta suveräänsusdeklaratsioon: silmakirjalikkuse tsiviliseeriv mõju / The Estonian Declaration of Sovereignty: An example of the civilising force of hypocrisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent-Raul Kalmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty has been characterised as a form of “organised hypocrisy”, a system governed by a set of rules that are generally recognised as binding and yet continually infringed by the most powerful actors. This idea can be extended to analyse the role of sovereignty within the Soviet Union. The latter was also nominally governed by a constitution which endowed the Union Republics with the right of secession, but there was no realistic possibility of exercising this right. One should not rush to conclude, however, that the letter of the Soviet Constitution of 1977 was entirely without relevance. As Jon Elster has argued, hypocrisy can be a “civilising force” when the need to appear impartial and retain public credibility forces actors to choose a strategy they would not have chosen otherwise. A good example of this kind of argumentative constraint is offered by the dilemma faced by the Soviet leadership after the mid-1980s, as it became reluctant to use military force to suppress independence movements within the Baltic States while, at the same time, promising to give more weight to the Soviet Constitution and respect the “sovereignty” of the Union Republics. In this setting, the ambiguity of the word “sovereignty” could be used by a whole gamut of political movements in order to further their agenda, from local communists eager to expand their autonomy within the Soviet system to those making an explicit bid for the restoration of independence. Significant legal and political changes could be justified as mere conclusions from the constitutionally recognised status of the Union Republics — a strategy which was all the more effective as Moscow struggled to formulate an alternative line of constitutional interpretation that could be used to counter the Baltic claims. This exchange of opinions escalated into a constitutional conflict in November 1988 when the Estonian Supreme Soviet responded to proposed amendments to the Soviet

  15. Client-centeredness of Finnish and Estonian nursing students and the support from nursing education to develop it. Students' self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam-Salminen, Ly; Valkonen, Marjo-Riitta; Aro, Ilme; Routasalo, Pirkko

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this comparative study is to describe the differences between Finnish and Estonian students evaluations about their client-centeredness and educational support they received to develop it. Client-centeredness has many positive effects on the quality and effectiveness of care. However, some deficiencies have been identified in the client-centeredness of nursing staff. Research on the subject has been limited, and we lack knowledge of graduating students' competence in client-centeredness and the support of their education to develop it. The sample consisted of 390 undergraduate nursing students, 195 from Finland and 195 from Estonia. The data were collected in 2009 using the structured five-point scale questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to measure students' client-centeredness and the educational support they received from nursing education. The data were analyzed by the PASW Statistics 18-programme using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Predominantly, students in both countries evaluated their level of client-centeredness high. The Estonian students generally evaluated their client-centeredness higher compared to the Finnish students. The same applied to support provided by nursing education. The greatest differences were related to education and particularly theoretical teaching. In Estonia, students' client-centeredness manifested itself more in politeness and willingness to serve clients, whereas respecting the clients' values was emphasized in Finland. Students' requisites, referred here as knowledge, skills and abilities to implement client-centered nursing, for client-centeredness had deficiencies, and the support from education was also the weakest regarding these aspects. In future, education on development of nursing activities, acquisition of knowledge and services provided by health care as well as legislation should be enhanced, since these areas proved the most difficult for the students

  16. Composition of Estonian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J. M.; Karindi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO 2 and NO x increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO 2 , and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology

  17. Estonian total ozone climatology

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    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  18. THE CATEGORIZATION OF THE ESTONIAN DOMAIN OF “MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS” ‒ LISTENERS VS MUSICIANS AND THE COMPARISON OF BASIC LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Eessalu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the prototypicality phenomena in the Estonian language’s lexical-semantic domain of “musical instruments”. There are two groups of people under examination: (i those who consider themselves actively involved in music (practitioners, and (iithose who don’t (listeners. To elicit basic terms, a cognitive salience index is used. The results show that the main common feature between the groups is that the basic level consists of the same members: klaver ‘piano’, kitarr ‘guitar’ and viiul ‘violin’. While klaver and viiul are stable in their nature, the salience of kitarr varies greatly, as listeners put it in the leading position and practitioners nearly leave it out of the basic level. Generally, the two groups share the same category structure,as based on cognitive salience index values both have: (i three basic terms, (ii a connecting group, and (iii the rest of the category members with their index values decreasing toward zero.

  19. On using an efficiency matrix in analysing profit per employee (on the basis of the Estonian SME software sector 

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    Paavo Siimann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service companies earn their profit mainly due to their employees’ intellectual skills, therefore, increasing profit per employee is one opportunity to increase profit and thereby also the company’s market value. In this article the number of employees, the value of owners’ equity and loan capital, operating expenses, net sales and profit before income tax have been used to analyse the change in profit per employee of the Estonian software small and medium-sized enterprise (SME sector in total, and for small and medium-sized companies separately in the years 2009–2013. Furthermore, this article demonstrates that the efficiency matrix methodology and its developments that were refined in Estonia and Russia from the 1960s to the 1990s can be deployed nowadays as well. Of all the components, profit margin and owners’ equity per employee showed the most rapid growth during the analysed period. Profit per employee was higher in the small enterprises segment and lowest among medium-sized enterprises, where owners’ equity per employee, net sales to operating expenses, and profit margin were lower than in small enterprises over the whole period analysed.

  20. Two Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ADAM12 Gene Are Associated with Early and Late Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis in Estonian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kerna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate associations of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADAM12 gene with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (rKOA in Estonian population. Methods. The rs3740199, rs1871054, rs1278279, and rs1044122 SNPs in ADAM12 gene were genotyped in 438 subjects (303 women from population-based cohort, aged 32 to 57 (mean 45.4. The rKOA features were evaluated in the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ and patellofemoral joint. Results. The early rKOA was found in 51.4% of investigated subjects (72% women and 12.3% of participants (63% women had advanced stage of diseases. The A allele of synonymous SNP rs1044122 was associated with early rKOA in TFJ, predominantly with the presence of osteophytes in females (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.08–2.29, . The C allele of intron polymorphism rs1871054 carried risk for advanced rKOA, mostly to osteophyte formation in TFJ in males (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.11–7.53, . Also the CCAA haplotype of ADAM12 was associated with osteophytosis, again mostly in TFJ in males (. For rs3740199 and rs1278279, no statistically significant associations were observed. Conclusion.  ADAM12 gene variants are related to rKOA risk during the early and late stages of diseases. The genetic risk seems to be predominantly associated with the appearance of osteophytes—a marker of bone remodelling and neochondrogenesis.

  1. Vitamin D as a possible independent predictor of bone mineral density in Estonian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, M; Kallikorm, R; Lember, M

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are prevalent worldwide, with the highest prevalence in the northern countries due to the lack of ultraviolet exposure. The individual effect of vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) has been studied but the results are inconclusive. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D on BMD in a random population-based cohort of Estonian adults. A cross-sectional population-based study. A total of 273 individuals free of diseases or states known to affect bone or vitamin D metabolism participated in the study. We measured BMD, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations (in winter and in summer). Several co-variables were included in the regression analysis, including age, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, fresh milk consumption, caffeinated beverage consumption, lean tissue mass and total body fat percentage, and in women the number of children and breastfeeding history. We show that summer vitamin D independently correlates with BMD in lumbar spine, trochanter and total body regions (P vitamin D predicts independently lumbar spine (P body BMD (P mass and fat mass were additional contributors of the BMD (P body composition indices, vitamin D could be an independent contributor of BMD in several skeletal regions in men and women. © 2010 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Ärkamisaeg, Noor-Eesti ja miski nende vahel. Eesti kirjandusloo küsimusi Juhan Kunderi näitel / National Awakening , Young Estonia and Something In Between. Problems of Estonian Literary History in the Example of Juhan Kunder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pille-Riin Larm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the long-standing periodisation of Estonian literary history, the Estonian National Awakening that started in the mid-19th century was followed by a period of lesser creativity and originality, which ended only with the breakthrough of the modernist Young Estonia group in 1905. In the canon of Estonian literature, Juhan Kunder (1852–1888, today known primarily for his fairy tales, one play and lyrics of one song, is placed in this intermediate period. This article first introduces the significance of Kunder in his time. He was a popular writer and a wellknown pedagogue, and a younger contemporary of the great figures of the National Awakening. As a critic, magazine editor and literary historian, his most important contribution to literary history was in the development of literary thought. It seems that several precedents that have been attributed to the Young Estonia group, e.g., valuing originality, writing well-argued criticism, etc., actually originated from an earlier period. Based on these observations, the author of this article believes that the current structure of Estonian literary history is not adequately justified, and she points out a semantic shift in the terms in use. It is true that Kunder was largely an epigone of his predecessors, but in the positive sense of the term, meaning that he continued their mission. Similarly, Kunder’s predecessor, the ‘first Young Estonian’ Kreutzwald, and a representative of his 20th-century successors, Friedebert Tuglas, were also epigones. During the period of Russification that started during his era, Kunder’s attitudes could be considered progressive. Kunder was also a 19th-century contemporary of the Young Estonia group and a true Young Estonian in the original sense of the term which emerged in this period: a Young Estonian introduced new initiatives and was a leader of the national movement. Epigonism and membership in Young Estonia can be seen as the keys to cultural

  3. Grupuskulaarne identiteediloome paremäärmuslaste võrgusuhtluses / The Formation of Groupuscular Identity in the Web Communication of the Estonian Extreme Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Liis Madisson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikli eesmärgiks on avada eesti paremäärmuslaste tähendusloomet hüpermeedias. Roger Griffini teooria järgi iseloomustab paremäärmuslaste võrgusuhtluse väikeste mitteparteiliste üksuste – grupuskulite (nt veebilehed, blogid paljusus ja suhteline marginaalsus, rahulolematus praeguse maailmakorraga, ideede revolutsioonilisus ning risoomne ehk mitte-hierarhiline kommunikatsioonistruktuur. Täiendame Griffini teooriat kultuurisemiootika ideedega. Semiosfääri kontseptsioon võimaldab paremini analüüsida grupuskulite kommunikatsiooni eripära ja seal tekkivaid tähendushierarhiaid. Koodteksti mõiste selgitab aga, miks, vaatamata hüpermeedias kättesaadavale arvamuste paljususele, domineerivad grupuskulaarses kommunikatsioonis väga kindlad tähendusloome viisid.    S U M M A R Y The purpose of this article is to create a conceptual framework which would aid in the understanding of the characteristic ways the Estonian extreme right has created the prevalent identities and meanings that are currently in circulation in the media. The analysis is based on non-participant observation, by means of which we have attempted to isolate the main foci and dominant practices of self-description found in web communications among members of the Estonian extreme right. Based on the number of visitors to sites, the concentration of topics posted and frequency of citation, we take the following as representatives of extreme right positions: the blogs „The Nationalist“ („Rahvuslane“, „NS“, and „Nationalist“ („Rahvuslik“, and the alternative web pages „Be Aware“ („Ole Teadlik“ and „BHR Ruzzland“. Markers of the extreme right were present in the pages we examined at different levels of intensity; in fact, not every post to these pages clearly, not every page could be labelled as extreme right. Yet the general tonality of the webpages we examined included the following: an urgent need to conserve

  4. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  5. Developments of the Estonian intellectual property system to meet the challenges of the knowledge-based economy : [doktoritöö] / Aleksei Kelli ; Tartu Ülikool ; juhendaja: Heiki Pisuke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelli, Aleksei, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Intellectual property in an innovation-based economy // Review of Central and East European Law (2008) nr. 2, lk. 223-238 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke) ; Some issues of the Estonian innovation and intellectual property policy // Juridica International. XV. Tartu, 2008, lk. 104-114 ; Improvement of the intellectual property system as a measure to enhance innovation // Juridica International. XVI. Tartu, 2009, lk. 114-125 ; Some issues regarding entrepreneurial universities and intellectual property // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 161-172 (kaasautor Heiki Pisuke). - Tutvustus // Tartu Ülikooli doktorite promoveerimine 2010. Tartu, 2010, lk. 5-6

  6. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  7. 17 September 2013 - Estonian Minister of Education and Research J. Aaviksoo signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R- Heuer; visiting the TOTEM facility with TOTEM Collaboration Spokesperson S. Giani; in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela. International Relations Adviser R. Voss present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    17 September 2013 - Estonian Minister of Education and Research J. Aaviksoo signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R- Heuer; visiting the TOTEM facility with TOTEM Collaboration Spokesperson S. Giani; in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela. International Relations Adviser R. Voss present.

  8. The effect of hormone therapy on women's quality of life in the first year of the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerus Piret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For postmenopausal women, the main reason to start hormone therapy (HT is to reduce menopausal symptoms and to improve quality of life (QOL. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of HT on different aspects of symptom experience and QOL during a randomised trial. A total of 1823 postmenopausal women were recruited into the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (EPHT trial in 1999–2001. Women were randomised to blind HT, open-label HT, placebo or non-treatment arm. After one year in the trial, a questionnaire was mailed and 1359 women (75% responded, 686 in the HT arms and 673 in the non-HT arms. Mean age at filling in the questionnaire was 59.8 years. The questionnaire included Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ to assess menopause specific QOL of middle-aged women together with a 17-item questionnaire on symptoms related to menopause, a question about painful intercourse, and a question about women's self-rated health. Results After one year in the trial, fewer women in the HT arms reported hot flashes, trouble sleeping, and sweating on the symptom questionnaire. According to WHQ, women in the HT arms had fewer vasomotor symptoms, sleep problems, and problems with sexual behaviour, but more menstrual symptoms; HT had no effect on depression, somatic symptoms, memory, attractiveness, or anxiety. A smaller proportion of women reported painful intercourse in the HT arms. There were no significant differences between the trial arms in women’s self-rated subjective health. Conclusions The results from the EPHT trial confirm that HT is not justified for treating symptoms, other than vasomotor symptoms, among postmenopausal women. WHQ proved to be a useful and sensitive tool to assess QOL in this age group of women.

  9. Five-class height-weight mean and SD system applying Estonian reference values of height-weight mean and SD for systematization of seventeen-year-old conscripts' anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintsi, Mart; Kaarma, Helje; Aunapuu, Marina; Arend, Andres

    2007-03-01

    A study of 739 conscripts aged 17 years from the town of Tartu and from the Tartu county was performed. Height, weight, 33 anthropometric measurements and 12 skinfolds were measured. The data were classified into five height-weight mean and SD-classes applying the Estonian reference values for this age and sex (Grünberg et al. 1998). There were 3 classes with conformity between height and weight class: 1--small (small height and small weight), 2--medium (medium height and medium weight), 3--large (large height and large weight), 4--weight class dominating (pyknomorphic) and 5--height class dominating (leptomorphic). It was found, that in classes 1, 2 and 3 the height and weight increase was in accordance with the increase in all heights, breadths and depths, circumferences, skinfolds, body fat, muscle and bone mass. In class 4 circumferences, skinfolds, body fat and muscle mass were bigger. In class 5 all heights and the relative bone mass were bigger. The present investigation confirms the assumption that the five height-weight mean and SD five-class system applying the Estonian reference values for classifying the anthropometric variables is suitable for seventeen-year-old conscripts. As well the border values of 5%, 50% and 95% for every anthropometrical variable in the five-classes were calculated, which may be helpful for practical classifying.

  10. Postmodernistlikke jooni eesti noore režissuuri lavastustes 1969–1975 / Postmodernist Traits in the Performances of Young Estonian Directors 1969-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Heinsalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: 1960. aastate lõpus toimusid eesti teatris suured muutused. Ilmus nähtus, mida hakati nimetama nooreks režissuuriks. Eeskätt on see seotud Evald Hermaküla, Jaan Toominga, Kalju Komissarovi, Kaarin Raidi jt nimedega. Noor režissuur tõstis mässu ahtaks muutunud realismi raamide vastu, mis ei vastanud noore põlvkonna teatriootustele. Olles mõjutatud ideeliselt radikaalsest eksperimentaalteatrist USAs, aga ka Jerzy Grotowski katsetustest ning teistest avangardsetest liikumistest, muutis see füüsilist teatrikeelt. Tõusis improvisatsiooni osakaal. Teater lakkas olemast dramaturgiliste tekstide esituskoht, vaid hakkas otsima etendustes vahetut kohalolu. Tajuprotsessi hakkas juhtima mängu põhimõte. Suured müüdid dekonstrueeriti, autoritaarsusele vastanduti. Seksuaalsus ilmutas end uuel jõul, toetatud alateadvuse impulssidest. Uue laine radikaalsus kestis 1970. aastate lõpuni, mil see sulandus peavoolu. Murrang teatriesteetikas mõjutas kogu järgnenud teatriperioodi, seda on kutsutud ka eesti teatri kuldajaks. SU M M A R Y Young directors emerged in Estonian theatre at the end of the 1960s. More specifically, during the years 1969–1974 many new directors’ names appeared on theatre posters, and the fundamental changes in the language and content of the theatre at the end of the 1960s and the 1970s began to be associated with these names. Most important among these are Evald Hermaküla, Jaan Tooming, Kalju Komissarov, and Karin Raid. Within a short time these young directors changed prevailing assumptions about the purpose, means, and content of the theatre in Estonia. This phenomenon came to be referred to as the breakthrough, or the new wave; later on, in sum, as the renewal of theatre. A generational change was taking place in the theatre, and in this framework a different language of theatre emerged, which began carrying innovative emotional and aesthetic paradigms. As in the Anglo-American cultural space, this new

  11. Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marju Mikkel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers. This article uses a receptionhistorical approach to analyze a large body of source material: the Young Estonians voluminous critical oeuvre in the period 1905–1915. The Young Estonians to be examined are all members of the core group of the movement: Gustav Suits, Bernhard Linde, Aino Kallas, Johannes Aavik, Villem Grünthal-Ridala, Jaan Oks, August Alle, and Johannes Semper. Within the larger framework of collective horizons of expectation, the focus of the study is the critics` concept of the reader. In addition, I will briefly discuss the dynamics of how such conceptions change. Research results indicate that in critical reviews from the time of Young Estonia, the topic of the reader was addressed from different standpoints depending on the addressee. Texts directed rhetorically toward a broad readership are characterized by the pursuit of objectivity and generalizations. When the concept of the reader is critic-centered, the text emphasizes subjective judgments, experience, and emotion. When focusing on the author and the text, the reviewer describes the influence on the reader, the cause of which is either the literary work directly or the author’s genius. In the case of polemic on the subject of reading, found mainly in responses written to reviews, the writer interprets another reader (or other readers` reading, opposing it to his or her own. When we follow the way the readers of Young Estonia and the Young Estonians themselves handle the

  12. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raudsepp, Triin

    2015-01-08

    A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a small grassroots adolescent sexual and reproductive health initiative to a national programme, which most likely contributed to improved adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This study; (1) documents the scale-up process of the Estonian youth clinic network 1991-2013, and (2) analyses factors that contributed to the successful scale-up. This research provides policy makers and programme managers with new insights to success factors of the scale-up, that can be used to support planning, implementation and scale-up of adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in other countries. Information on the scale-up process and success factors were collected by conducting a literature review and interviewing key stakeholders. The findings were analysed using the WHO-ExpandNet framework, which provides a step-by-step process approach for design, implementation and assessment of the results of scaling-up health innovations. The scale-up was divided into two main phases: (1) planning the scale-up strategy 1991-1995 and (2) managing the scaling-up 1996-2013. The planning phase analysed innovation, user organizations (youth clinics), environment and resource team (a national NGO and international assistance). The managing phase examines strategic choices, advocacy, organization, resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and management of the scale-up. The main factors that contributed to the successful scale-up in Estonia were: (1) favourable social and political climate, (2) clear demonstrated need for the adolescent services, (3) a national professional organization that advocated, coordinated and represented the youth clinics, (4) enthusiasm

  13. Bullying at work: do industries differ in the Estonian case? Kas psühholoogilise töövägivalla levik on majandus-sektorites erinev: olukord Eestis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Tambur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bullying at work has not so far analyzed in Estonia – its dispersal, causes and impact have not studied, while in the countries with long democratic traditions it has been the actual problem of work context for two decades. The current study examines the prevalence of workplace bullying in Estonian organizations and the extent of the problem by industries because bullying may put impact on the employees´ efficiency. The sample consists of 1941 respondents which covers 59 organizations across Estonia and represents in all over 30 000 employee and the unemployed. The results reveal that bullying poses a serious problem in Estonia. According to Leymann´s criteria (1996 at least one negative act per week with a duration of at least 6 months, has been reported by 23,44% of respondents. Although, it came out that bullying is not sector-specific problem in Estonia, several and different industries are vulnerable from bullying.

  14. Extending research on the influence of grammatical gender on object classification: A cross-linguistic study comparing Estonian, Italian and Lithuanian native speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vernich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using different experimental tasks, researchers have pointed to a possible correlation between grammatical gender and classification behaviour. Such effects, however, have been found comparing speakers of a relatively small set of languages. Therefore, it’s not clear whether evidence gathered can be generalized and extended to languages that are typologically different from those studied so far. To the best of our knowledge, Baltic and Finno-Ugric languages have never been examined in this respect. While most previous studies have used English as an example of gender-free languages, we chose Estonian because – contrary to English and like all Finno-Ugric languages – it does not use gendered pronouns (‘he’ vs. ‘she’ and is therefore more suitable as a baseline. We chose Lithuanian because the gender system of Baltic languages is interestingly different from the system of Romance and German languages tested so far. Taken together, our results support and extend previous findings and suggest that they are not restricted to a small group of languages. "Grammatiline sugu objektide kategoriseerimise mõjutajana: eesti, itaalia ja leedu keele võrdlev uurimus" Eri tüüpi eksperimente kasutades on uurijad osutanud grammatilise soo ja objektide klassifitseerimise võimalikele seostele. Senised tulemused on saadud siiski suhteliselt väheste keelte andmete võrdlemisel. Seetõttu ei ole teada, kas need järeldused on üldistatavad ka nendele keeltele, mille struktuur erineb siiani uuritud keeltest. Probleemi uurimiseks laiendasime vaadeldavate keelte hulka ja tegime grammatilise soo ja objektide kategoriseerimise seoste katse läbi balti ja soome-ugri keelte hulka kuuvate keeltega, mida ei ole kõnealusest vaatenurgast uuritud. Enamik seniseid uuringuid on seadnud nn lähtepunktiks ehk grammatilise soota keeleks inglise keele. Siinses uuringus valisime aga selliseks lähtepunktiks hoopis eesti keele, kus erinevalt inglise keelest ei ole ka

  15. Coalition agreement of Estonian Centre Party and Estonian Reform Party

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Keskerakonna ja Reformierakonna koalitsioonileppe dokument, millele kirjutasid 18 jaanuaril 2002 alla Reformierakonna esimees Siim Kallas ja kantsler Eero Tohver, Keskerakonna esimees Edgar Savisaar ja kantsler Küllo Arjakas

  16. Radiation protection glossary. English-Estonian and Estonian-English

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.; Viik, T.

    1997-01-01

    The dictionary contains more than 300 entries in the field of radiation protection and also useful information about special measurement units for quantities of interest in radiation protection (SI units and the previously used units) with their conversion factors

  17. Graptolite community responses to global climate change and the late ordovician mass extinction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sheets, H. D.; Melchin, M. J.; Loxton, J.; Štorch, Petr; Carlucci, K. L.; Hawkins, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 30 (2016), s. 8380-8385 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301110908 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : abundance * climate change * extinction * macroevolution * selection Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  18. First record of Telephina (Trilobita from the Ordovician of northeastern Estonia and its stratigraphical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a telephinid trilobite was recorded from the shallow-water rocks of the North Estonian Confacies Belt in the oil-shale mining area of northeast Estonia. A cranidium of Telephina (Telephops biseriata (Asklund was collected from a loose boulder of the kerogenous limestone of the Viivikonna Formation, Kukruse Stage, together with a rich assemblage of other trilobites, bryozoans, ostracods and rare graptolites. In its type area Jämtland, Sweden, T. biseriata occurs together with Pygodus anserinus and Hustedograptus teretiusculus in the Ståltorp Limestone Member of the Andersö Shale Formation, marking the latest Darriwilian. The occurrence in the North Estonian Confacies Belt of Telephina, known as a pelagic trilobite inhabiting deeper-water areas, probably reflects a transgression event at this time. Together with T. biseriata, other trilobite taxa such as Remopleurides and Lonchodomas, common in the Hustedograptus teretiusculus Biozone in deeper-water areas, arrive in the North Estonian Confacies Belt. Graptolites from the other loose boulders at the same locality have been identified as Hustedograptus cf. uplandicus, which occur together with a few dendroids.

  19. Beevor receives Estonian State decoration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Suurbritannias Margus Laidre andis 2. juunil 2008 Londonis Suurbritannia ajaloolasele Antony James Beevorile üle talle president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poolt annetatud Maarjamaa Risti III klassi teenetemärgi

  20. Estonians in cyberspace / Pille Runnel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Runnel, Pille, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate 2002. aastal Tartu Ülikooli ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni osakonnas läbi viidud meedia tarbimise uuringu tulemustest, analüüsib Interneti kasutamise, mittekasutamise ning tekkinud digilõhe võimalikke põhjuseid. Diagrammid

  1. New Estonian CDs / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Eesti portreed", Lepo Sumera. Film Music by Lepo Sumera, Urmas Sisask "Starry Sky Cycle", "Poeme d'amour", "Tango King Astor Piazolla", "Eduard Tubin. Complete Symphonies vol. 2", Henn Rebane "Arabesque", Eino Tamberg "Nocturne"

  2. Eesti Ajaloomuuseum = Estonian History Museum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Renoveeritud Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoone sisekujundusest ja ekspositsioonist. Sisekujundusprojekti autorid: Margit Aule (KAOS Arhitektid), Liis Lindvere (KOKO Arhitektid) ja Margit Argus (KAOS Arhitektid), loetletud nende töid. Suure saali metallpõranda autorid: Risto Tali, Rait Siska

  3. Sustainable development and Estonian energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausmaa, T.

    1997-01-01

    This conference was held 14 Nov 1997 in Tallinn, Estonia. The conference stressed the importance of the diminishing the negative impact of energy production on the environment. The Government and the Parliament should ensure the composing of short and long term master plans with the public participation for all sectors of the economy, based on the principles of sustainable development, the involved international treaties and the Sustainable Development Framework Act

  4. 27 Estonian Music Festivals 2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Eestis toimunud muusikafestivalidest: opeNBaroque 2002 (muusikafestival),Akadeemilised Trompetipäevad, Klavessiinimuusika Päevad, Eesti muusika päevad 2002,Mravinski Festival, Rudolf Tobiase muusikafestival, Eduard Tubin ja tema aeg (muusikafestival), Suure-Jaani muusikapäevad 2002,Regiöö (muusikafestival), David Oistrahhi festival, Haapsalu vanamuusikafestival 2002, Viljandi vanamuusikafestival 2002, Hiiumaa kammermuusikapäevad 2002, Klaaspärlimäng (festival),Mustjala Festival, Haapsalu viiulimuusika Päevad 2002, Kuressaare ooperipäevad 2002, Leigo järvemuusika 2002, Tallinna Orelifestival, Rapla kirikumuusika X festival 2002, Kuressaare kammermuusikapäevad 2002, Mart Saare muusikafestival, Credo 2002, Tartu vanamuusika IX festival, Trialogos 2002 (kultuurifestival), Fiesta de la guitarra (kitarrimuusika festival), Klaver 2002

  5. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  6. Chemical Entities in the foliated Argillite of coastal sedimentary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... (360) gave rates of +20% of mineral palygorskites in the sample and 5-20% of mineral ..... Therapeutic and nutritional interest of ... Bentonite manufactured in Poland on acidity and chemical composition of milk, Medycyna.

  7. DR Argillite Disposal R&D at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Hao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    Within the Natural Barrier System (NBS) group of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, LBNL’s research activities have focused on understanding and modeling EDZ evolution and the associated coupled processes and impacts of high temperature on parameters and processes relevant to performance of a clay repository to establish the technical base for the maximum allowable temperature. This report documents results from some of these activities. These activities address key Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), which have been ranked in importance from medium to high, as listed in Table 7 of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Disposal Research and Development Roadmap (FCR&D-USED-2011-000065 REV0) (Nutt, 2011). Specifically, they address FEP 2.2.01, Excavation Disturbed Zone, for clay/shale, by investigating how coupled processes affect EDZ evolution; FEP 2.2.05, Flow and Transport Pathways; and FEP 2.2.08, Hydrologic Processes, and FEP 2.2.07, Mechanical Processes, and FEP 2.2.09, Chemical Process—Transport, by studying near-field coupled THMC processes in clay/shale repositories. The activities documented in this report also address a number of research topics identified in Research & Development (R&D) Plan for Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) Natural System Evaluation and Tool Development (Wang 2011), including Topics S3, Disposal system modeling – Natural System; P1, Development of discrete fracture network (DFN) model; P14, Technical basis for thermal loading limits; and P15 Modeling of disturbed rock zone (DRZ) evolution (clay repository).

  8. DR Argillite Disposal R&D at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liange; Kim, Kunhwi; Xu, Hao; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2016-01-01

    Within the Natural Barrier System (NBS) group of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, LBNL's research activities have focused on understanding and modeling EDZ evolution and the associated coupled processes and impacts of high temperature on parameters and processes relevant to performance of a clay repository to establish the technical base for the maximum allowable temperature. This report documents results from some of these activities. These activities address key Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), which have been ranked in importance from medium to high, as listed in Table 7 of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Disposal Research and Development Roadmap (FCR&D-USED-2011-000065 REV0) (Nutt, 2011). Specifically, they address FEP 2.2.01, Excavation Disturbed Zone, for clay/shale, by investigating how coupled processes affect EDZ evolution; FEP 2.2.05, Flow and Transport Pathways; and FEP 2.2.08, Hydrologic Processes, and FEP 2.2.07, Mechanical Processes, and FEP 2.2.09, Chemical Process-Transport, by studying near-field coupled THMC processes in clay/shale repositories. The activities documented in this report also address a number of research topics identified in Research & Development (R&D) Plan for Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) Natural System Evaluation and Tool Development (Wang 2011), including Topics S3, Disposal system modeling - Natural System; P1, Development of discrete fracture network (DFN) model; P14, Technical basis for thermal loading limits; and P15 Modeling of disturbed rock zone (DRZ) evolution (clay repository).

  9. Characteristics of cyclones causing extreme sea levels in the northern Baltic Sea** The study was supported by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT20-11 and Grant ETF9134 and by the EU Regional Development Foundation, Environmental Conservation and Environmental Technology R&D Programme Project No. 3.2.0801.12-0044.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Post

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic parameters of extra-tropical cyclones in the northern Baltic are examined in relation to extreme sea level events at Estonian coastal stations between 1948 and 2010. The hypothesis that extreme sea level events might be caused not by one intense extra-tropical cyclone, as suggested by earlier researchers, but by the temporal clustering of cyclones in a certain trajectory corridor, is tested. More detailed analysis of atmospheric conditions at the time of the two most extreme cases support this concept: the sequence of 5 cyclones building up the extreme sea level within about 10 days was very similar in structure and periodicity.

  10. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janson Christer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Methods Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757 were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C (rs2073342, ECP562(G>C (rs2233860 and ECP c.-38(A>C (rs2233859 were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Results Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C and ECP562(G>C genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Conclusion Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma.

  11. “Viimne reliikvia” ja “Kolme katku vahel”: ruumist eesti ajalookirjanduse ekraniseeringutes / The Last Relic and Between Three Plagues: On Space in Film Adaptations of Estonian Historical Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Näripea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel keskendub kahele ajalooromaani ekraniseeringule Nõukogude Eesti filmikunstis: „Viimne reliikvia“ (1969, rež Grigori Kromanov, Tallinnfilm, mis põhineb Eduard Bornhöhe romaanil „Vürst Gabriel ehk Pirita kloostri viimsed päevad“ (1893, ning „Kolme katku vahel“ (1970, rež Virve Aruoja, Eesti Telefilm, mille seosed oma kirjandusliku allikaga (Jaan Krossi samanimelise romaaniga on oluliselt keerulisemad. Ekraniseeringuid käsitletakse ruumirepresentatsioonide perspektiivist, uurides, missuguseid strateegiaid kasutati filmiruumide loomisel, kuidas suhestuti kirjandusliku (lähtematerjaliga ning millised ajaloonarratiivi ja rahvusliku identiteedi vahekorrad neis kangastuvad. SU M M A R Y This article examines two Soviet Estonian screen adaptations of historical novels: The Last Relic (Viimne reliikvia, Tallinnfilm, 1969, directed by Grigori Kromanov, based on Eduard Bornhöhe’s novel Prince Gabriel or The Last Days of Pirita Monastery (1893, which became a box-office hit throughout the Soviet Union and even beyond; and Between Three Plagues (Kolme katku vahel, Eesti Telefilm, 1970, directed by Virve Aruoja which reached much more limited TV-audiences; the connections between this film and its literary „source“ (a novel of the same name by Jaan Kross are much more complicated. These screen adaptations are considered from the perspective of spatial representations. I examine which strategies and devices the scriptwriters, directors and production designers drew upon when constructing these cinematic spaces and how they related to their literary hypotexts. As generally for adaptations of historical novels to other media, both The Last Relic and Between Three Plagues speak (perhaps even primarily about their time of production, about the present rather than the past. In this regard, it is important to recall the role of Tallinn’s Old Town as a locus of resistance in Soviet Estonian culture. Arguably

  12. Unelõiv ja Saarepiiga: Jüri Talveti kirjanduslik "Kalevipoeg" / The Rhisomes of „Kalevipoeg“: Literary Interpretation of the Estonian National Epic by Jüri Talvet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Laak

    2016-12-01

    one of the most remarkable representatives of the genre of literary epic in world literature. Literary scholarship of the text and poetics of the epic has demonstrated how the text is constructed by gradational internal intertextual relations, based on certain textual nodal points such as, e.g., ’island maid’, ’stone’, ’sleep’, etc. For example, the figure of Island Maid is intertextually related to many earlier archetexts and fundamental texts and has, in its turn, inspired other fictional texts. The author intentionally allowed for ambiguous interpretation of the death of a young girl – the girl slipped into water, but was it an accident or a suicide? The Estonian heroic epic differs from other literary epics by a gradational motif of ’sleep’, occurring through the text; by using this motif, the author develops the heroic epic into a tragedy of fate. The hero is informed about his fatal guilt in sleep long before it occurred in real life. Jüri Talvet has discovered such rhizomes of relations in the text of The Kalevipoeg due to his studies of world literature, but he has also written about them in his poetry.

  13. Finnish Kalevala and Estonian Kalevipoeg / Jaan Puhvel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puhvel, Jaan, 1932-

    2003-01-01

    Tõlgitud kogumikust: The world of the Kalevala : essays in celebration of the 150 year jubilee of the publication of the Finnish national epic / ed. Kai Laitinen. Los Angeles : UCLA Centre for the Study of Folklore & Mythology, 1987

  14. New Estonian museum - two cases / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Kumu arhitektuurist ja tähtsusest (arhitekt Pekka Vapaavouri). Eesti Rahva Muuseumi uue hoone rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi võitnud projektist "Mälestuste väli/Memory Field", autorid Dan Dorell, Tsuyoshi Tane ja Lina Ghotmeh. Aerofotod

  15. Estonian MEPs : common energy policy unlikely

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi liikmed Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Andres Tarand kahtlevad, kas Euroopa Liit on valmis pakkuma ühtset energiapoliitikat. Energeetiline julgeolek Euroopas. Baltimaade ja Skandinaavia energeetikaalane koostöö

  16. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  17. Estonian parties face internal struggles / Helga Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Helga

    2010-01-01

    2011. aasta parlamendivalimiste eel on Eestimaa Rahvaliit, Erakond Eestimaa Rohelised ja Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond keerulises olukorras. Parteides on probleeme juhatustega. Kahe esimese partei puhul ei ole üldse kindel, kas nad saavad parlamendis kohti või mitte. Tõnis Saartsi, Rein Toomla ja Andres Tarandi arvamusi

  18. Estonian companies promoted in Copenhagen / Olya Schaefer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schaefer, Olya

    2010-01-01

    9 Eesti info- ja kommunikatsioonitehnoloogia ettevõtet võttis osa 10.-11. märtsil 2010 Kopenhaagenis toimunud infotehnoloogia messist. Eesti suursaadik Taanis Meelike Palli korraldas vastuvõtu Eesti firmadele, et tutvustada neid Taani ettevõtetele

  19. 2005 for Estonian advertising / interv. Oksana Kostina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Juhtivate reklaami- ja meediaagentuuride Lowe AGE, DDB Estonia, Kontuur Leo Burnett, Euro RSCG Idea, Media House, OMD Estonia ja Mediapool juhid vastavad viiele küsimusele ettevõtete käekäigu ja tulevikuplaanide kohta Eesti reklaamiturul

  20. Demographic dream : 1,5 million Estonians

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Tõnis Lukas loodab rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil saavutada, et väliseestlased ei unusta eesti keelt ning eesti keelt kõnelevate inimeste arv võiks järgmisel aastakümnel jõuda 1,5 miljonini

  1. Eesti Kaevandusmuuseum = Estonian Mining Museum / Margit Argus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Argus, Margit, 1981-

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Kaevandusmuuseumi rajamisest Kohtla-Nõmmele, muuseumi ekspositsioonist. Autorid Margit Argus ja Margit Aule (KAOS Arhitektid), arhitektuur Innopolis Insenerid. Kultuurkapitali arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia nominent 2016

  2. What is Estonian sound art? / Maria Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Maria, 1988-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti helikunstist, kunstnikest ja nende töödest. Maria Juure Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Kunstiteaduse Instituudi lõputöö teema oli "Helikunsti määratlemine ja spetsiifika. Erinevad lähenemised helile Eesti uuemas kunstis" (2010)

  3. Soviet Director - Estonian Industrialist / Aavo Kokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokk, Aavo, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    BLRT Grupp - kõige konkurentsivõimelisem suurte tööstus- ja energeetikaettevõtete hulgas. Lisa: BLTR Grupp. Diagramm, graafik: BLTR Grupi käive, kasum ja investeeringud. Tabel: Suured tööstus- ja energeetikaettevõtted

  4. Dangerous enemy in Estonian garden soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersell, V.; Mottus, V.; Taeht, K.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is thoroughly discussed in the article. Its generation and the heath risks it can cause. The distribution of radon in the soil is analysed (one soil lithotype at a time (kBq/m)). The measurements received on different surveyed sites are compared to the standards allowed for the construction works. There is also the link between lung cancer cases and radon's radiance and incense/smoking. The North of Estonia is the pearl of Estonia landscape. The sea being near, beautiful seaside views attract people and inspire them to build their houses in this kind of surroundings. However, these areas are natural danger sources, as the percentage of radon concentration in the soil is often high or very high. South Estonia also has a lot of spectacular places with high concentration of radon in the soil [et

  5. Russians in Estonian literature / Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti kirjandusteostest, milles on tegelaskujudeks venelasi. Pikemalt Maimu Bergi romaanidest "Ära" (1995) ja "Ma armastasin venelast" (1994), Mari Saadi romaanist "Lasnamäe lunastaja" (2008) ning Andrei Hvostovi lühiproosakogust "Võõrad lood" (2008)

  6. Savisaar : no plans to buy Estonian Railway

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Majandusminister Edgar Savisaar ei ole rahul Eesti Raudtee enamusomaniku Baltic Rail Service erastamisjärgsete kohustuste täitmisega. Eesti Raudtee nõukogu esimehe Edward Buckhardti ja BRS-i ühe omaniku Henry Posner III seisukohad

  7. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  8. Changes in Estonian organisations / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2003-01-01

    Kaanel ajak. ilmumisaeg 2002/2003. Autor teeb ülevaate organisatsiooniliste muudatuste tüüpe käsitlevatest teooriatest, analüüsib Eesti ettevõtetes läbiviidud empiirilise uuringu tulemusi ümberkorraldusprotsesside kohta ja tutvustab Eesti ettevõtlusele sobivat 4-astmelist organisatsiooniliste muutuste mudelit. Tabelid. Skeem

  9. Internationalisation of Estonian banking / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2002-01-01

    Välispankade osaluse suurenemine Eesti pankades ja selle mõjust nende arengule. Tabelid: Eesti kommertspankade suurimad aktsionärid; Aasia ja Venemaa kriiside aegsed kasuminäitajad Eesti kommertspankades

  10. Eesti paviljon "Koda" = Estonian pavilion "Koda"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Eesti paviljon "Koda" Hollandi maailmanäitusel "Floriade". Arhitektuurivõistlus 2011. Arhitektid Joel Kopli, Koit Ojaliiv (Kuu Arhitektid), konstruktorid Alar Hammer, Marek Suursalu (Projekt 363). Lauad Kristel Jakobson (Haka Disain), toolid Aap Piho (Maast Furniture), valgustid Margus Triibmann (Keha3)

  11. EU must accept Turkey's membership, Estonian president

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Türgi presidendi Abdullah Güli ühisel pressikonverentsil Ankaras avaldas Eesti riigipea toetust Türgi liitumisele Euroopa Liiduga. Ametlik visiit Türgi Vabariiki 15.-21.04.2010

  12. Estonian ambassador ensures support for Ignalina extension

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti saadik Vilniuses Andres Tropp kinnitas Eesti toetust Leedu püüdlustele pikendada Ignalina tuumareaktori töötamisaega. Einari Kisel majandusministeeriumist arvas, et sulgemine kiirendaks uue tuumajaama ehitust

  13. Estonian sugar mountain turns sour / Alec Charles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Charles, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Eesti valitsus jätkab võitlust Euroopa Komisjoniga, et mitte maksta 55 miljonit eurot trahvi suhkru ladustamise eest. Peaminister Juhan Parts saatis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendile Jose Manuel Barrosole kirja, milles palus trahvi nõudmise suhtes järele mõelda.

  14. Historian Norman Davies Receives Estonian State Decoration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Suurbritannias Margus Laidre andis 15. märtsil 2008 Londonis Suurbritannia ajaloolasele Ivor Norman Richard Davies'ele üle talle president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poolt annetatud Maarjamaa Risti III klassi teenetemärgi

  15. Paet praises Estonian-French cooperation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet esines kõnega Sorbonne’i ülikoolis toimunud Euroopa Liidu teemalisel konverentsil ja ütles, et Euroopa Liit saab lahendada oma finantsprobleemid ainult rahanduspoliitika ja struktuurimuutuste abil. Välisministri sõnul näitab Eesti ja Prantsusmaa väga häid suhteid Prantsusmaal toimuv Eesti kultuurifestival "Estonie tonique"

  16. Estonian annual retail conference / Oksana Kostina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostina, Oksana

    2005-01-01

    Eesti jaekaubanduse aastakonverentsil mais 2005 jagati välja aasta kaubandussaavutuste auhinnad. Esimese koha pälvis Eesti suurim kaubanduskeskus Viru Keskus, mida 2004. aastal külastas 7,5 mln inimest ja mille keskmine päevane käive oli 3,3 mln krooni. Teise koha sai Tallinna Kaubamaja ning kolmanda Baltika Grupp

  17. Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustus: Mattheus, Ülo.¡India armastus. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006 ;¡Teder,¡Tarmo. Onanistid. Tallinn :¡Tuum, 2006 ;¡Hirv, Indrek. Surmapõletaja. Tallinn :¡Tuum, 2006 ;¡Hvostov, Andrei. Henrik : näidend 12-s pildis. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2006. (Loomingu Raamatukogu ;¡20) ;¡Traat,¡Mats. Naised ja pojad. Tallinn : Looming, 2006, nr. 2-5 ;¡Traat, Mats. Sarviku armastus. Tallinn :¡Looming, 2006, nr. 11 ;¡Kaardipakk II. Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2006 ;¡Kivirähk,¡Andrus. Mees, kes teadis ussisõnu. Tallinn :¡Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007 ;¡Õunapuu,¡Ervin. Meie igapäevane jää :¡eesti gootika III. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006 ;¡Ehlvest, Jüri. Palverännak. Tallinn :¡Tuum, 2005

  18. Estonian universities struggle for students / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2005-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps usub, et ülikoolilõpetajate arv kahaneb 2015. aastaks praeguselt 11 000-lt 6000-ni. Kõrg- ja ülikoolid avavad välistudengite ligimeelitamiseks järjest rohkem inglisekeelseid õppevorme

  19. Estonian-Chinese cohesion / Liina Lelmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lelmi, Liina

    2009-01-01

    Eesti-Hiina majandussuhetest. Hiina asepeaministri Zhang Dejiangi Eesti visiidist ja kohtumisest peaminister Andrus Ansipi, välisminister Urmas Paeti ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsiga

  20. A packed Estonian House welcomes back Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves / Adu Raudkivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudkivi, Adu

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese külaskäigust Toronto Eesti Majja 27. mail 2008. Juuresoleval fotol Eesti riigipea koos Ülemaailmse Eesti Kesknõukogu esimehe Avo Kittaski ja Eesti Ohvitseridekogu Kanadas esimehe Ülo Isbergiga

  1. Four vision of contemporary Estonian art : the series of exhibitions Estonian art / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Neljast eesti kunsti näitusest 2000. a. märtsis-aprillis Tartus ja Tallinnas, nende kuraatoritest: Toomas Vint, Reet Varblane, Peeter Allik, Johannes Saar. Déj́-vu (Tallinn). Naturalism (Tallinn). AIDS kultuuris (Tallinn). Eneseksjäämine (Tartu)

  2. Past, present and predicted geochemical dynamics in the Callovian-Oxfordian argillites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, E.C.; Lerouge, C.; Tournassat, C.; Blanc, Ph.; Burnol, A.; Claret, F.; Marty, N.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaboreau, S.; Buschaert, S.; Altmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Callovian-Oxfordian formation in the Eastern part of the Paris Basin (COx) is currently under study for possible implantation of a deep underground nuclear waste repository. In this presentation, our purpose is to present the geochemical past of the formation from deposition to late diagenesis, then to describe the present equilibrium conditions and finally to give an overview of modeling for predicting effects of disposal facility-induced chemical perturbations on clay-rock characteristics. Mineralogical and isotopic data are the fingerprints of the clay-rock formation's sedimentary history. In the Jurassic sea, clay minerals sedimented to the sea floor along with other detrital minerals generated by erosion of the Hercynian massifs. Carbonates are represented by an important detrital bioclastic fraction originating from (i) the fauna from the different benthos levels and (ii) from the dismantling of the surrounding carbonate platforms. A petrological study provided evidence of the following diagenetic mineral sequence: 1) framboidal pyrite + micritic calcite replacing carbonate bioclasts and in bioturbations, 2) iron-rich euhedral carbonates, glauconite, 3) sparitic dolomite, celestite in residual porosity, 4) chalcedony 5) quartz/ calcite. Pyrites in bioturbations exhibit a wide range of δ 34 S, providing evidence of bacterial sulphate reduction processes. The lowest negative values are representative of pyrite precipitation in a marine environment with a permanent recharge in sulphate, whereas the higher pyrite δ 34 S values are indicative of pyrite precipitation in a closed system. The δ 34 S values of celestite reflect the last evolution stage of the system at which time bacterial activity was finished. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of celestite is consistent with deposition from Jurassic marine-derived waters. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of bulk calcite and dolomite are consistent with marine carbonates whereas late diagenetic siderite is 13 C-depleted. The 13 C-depletion could be attributed to organic matter degradation. The δ 18 O values of late diagenetic chalcedony suggest precipitation from marine-derived pore waters at temperatures of maximum burial. Late calcite in veinlet reworking with chalcedony and celestite, and late euhedral quartz grains in a limestone from the top of the formation have lower δ 18 O values, suggesting a precipitation process from meteoric fluids. The transition from very active biotic diagenesis precipitates to abiotic diagenesis precipitates seems not to be due to a lack of organic carbon or sulphates but linked to the compaction of the clayey formation, which prohibits the cellular movements by reduction of the porosity. The second part of this presentation is devoted to current water/rock/gas equilibria in the formation. A geochemical model has been developed over the last 10 years based on evolving data regarding clay-rock mineralogy, its ion exchange properties, constraints on calco-carbonate equilibrium by CO 2 partial pressure measurements, leachable Cl and SO 4 concentrations and analyzed exchangeable cations. The current version of this model has benefited greatly from information on in-situ pore water composition obtained by the PAC experiments carried out in the Bure URL. New core sampling and analysis procedures were developed in order to reduce or quantify unwanted experimental side reactions such as sample oxidation and soluble mineral dissolution that affect measured SO 4 concentrations and exchangeable cation distributions. The model considers phase equilibria only with minerals that are observed in the formation including the principal clay phases. The model has been used to calculate the composition of mobile pore water in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock and validated against measurements of water chemistry made in Bure underground research laboratory. The model reproduces the measured in situ pore-water composition without any estimated parameters, all required parameters being obtained from core sample analysis. The robustness of our model with respect to uncertainties in the log K values of clay phases was also demonstrated. Large uncertainties in log K values for clay minerals have relatively small effects on modeled pore-water compositions. Finally, the understanding of the current geochemical conditions is a prerequisite for modeling the chemical perturbations that will be induced by the disposal. Theses perturbations are linked to (i) the ventilation of the tunnels and subsequent oxidation of the rock that results e.g. to the precipitation of gypsum at the concrete/COx interfaces, (ii) production of alkaline solutions by the massive presence of cement and concrete in the disposal, (iii) H 2 (g) and iron(II) production and release due to the corrosion of the steel canisters, (iv) aqueous silica release due to the dissolution of the nuclear glass, (v) NO 3 - plume due to the alteration of the bituminous canisters, and (vi) thermal perturbation. Some 'good practice' rules govern the establishment of a careful and meaningful numerical modeling, including an appropriate meshing, a coherent and complete thermodynamic database, an appropriate selection of minerals, a correct understanding of the regulation of the partial pressure of CO 2 , etc. Various test cases have been studied in order to answer some key questions relative to the extension of the perturbations and their consequences on the mineralogy and physical properties of the clayey formation: e.g. clogging of the porosity, increase of the gas pressure or increase of the mechanical stresses due to the precipitation of the minerals. (authors)

  3. Field examination of shale and argillite in northern Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.R.; Woodward, L.A.; Emanuel, K.M.; Keil, K.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-two locales underlain by clay-rich strata ranging from Cambrian Pioche Shale to Mississippian Chainman Shale and equivalents were examined in northern Nye County, Nevada. The text of the report summarizes data for each stratigraphic unit examined. Checklists for tabulating field data at each locale are included in an appendix. Working guidelines used to evaluate the locales include a minimum thickness of 150 m (500 ft) of relatively pure clay-rich bedrock, subsurface depth between 150 m (500 ft) and 900 m (3000 ft), low topographic relief, low seismic and tectonic activity, and avoidance of areas with mineral resource production or potential. Field studies indicate that only the Chainman Shale, specifically in the central and northern parts of the Pancake Range, appears to contain sites that meet these guidelines

  4. Investigation of Coupled Processes and Impact of High Temperature Limits in Argillite Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liange; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Kunhwi; Houseworth, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The focus of research within the UFD Campaign is on repository-induced interactions that may affect the key safety characteristics of an argillaceous rock. These include thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) process interactions that occur as a result of repository construction and waste emplacement. Some of the key questions addressed in this report include the development of fracturing in the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and THMC effects on the near-field argillaceous rock and buffer minerals and petrophysical characteristics, particularly the impacts of induced temperature rise caused by waste heat.

  5. Characterization and modeling of natural tracers' transfers through the argillites of Tournemire (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, D.

    2001-01-01

    The French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) is investigating the argillaceous formation of Tournemire (France) as a methodological underground laboratory for conducting research on the feasibility of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in argilites. Because of the very low water content and hydraulic conductivity of the argilites, the migration through this media should be very low. The fluid flow regime and transport have been studied using natural tracers from the interstitial water. The deuterium and chloride of interstitial water have been chosen for their conservative behavior. After the development of a protocol for the chloride extraction from the water, and tests on the vacuum distillation method for the water extraction from the rock, systematic data acquisition has been performed on the argillaceous sequence of the massif and near the fracture areas. Both chloride and deuterium profiles suggest that transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale. But the profiles show an enrichment in delta D and delta 18 O of the interstitial solution in the area of one meter adjacent to a fracture compared to pore water of samples located at further distance. Therefore, these observations are suggesting that a second process could generate specific transfers, at the vicinity of faults. The hypothesis of the molecular diffusion as a dominant process for transport was successfully tested using a transport model, over periods of several tenth of millions years, taking into account geodynamical features of the region (such as tectonic and induced faults), and assuming that some variations of the tracer concentrations at the system boundaries occurred during the major climate-change periods. Even if tracers' transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale, they are or should have been affected by a second process causing heterogeneity of concentrations at the vicinity of faults. This process involves either, intrusion of salted solutions or internal transfers due to overpressures. (author)

  6. A heating experiment in the argillites in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wileveau, Yannick; Su, Kun; Ghoreychi, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    A heating experiment named TER is being conducted with the objectives to identify the thermal properties, as well as to enhance the knowledge on THM processes in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory (France). The in situ experiment has being switched on from early 2006. The heater, 3 m length, is designed to inject the power in the undisturbed zone at 6 m from the gallery wall. A heater packer is inflated in a metallic tubing. During the experiment, numerous sensors are emplaced in the surrounding rock and are experienced to monitor the evolution in temperature, pore-water pressure and deformation. The models and numerical codes applied should be validated by comparing the modeling results with the measurements. In parallel, some lab testing have been achieved in order to compare the results given with two different scales (cm up to meter scale). In this paper, we present a general description of the TER experiment with installation of the heater equipment and the surrounding instrumentation. Details of the in situ measurements of temperature, pore-pressure and strain evolutions are given for the several heating and cooling phases. The thermal conductivity and some predominant parameters in THM processes (as linear thermal expansion coefficient and permeability) will be discussed. (authors)

  7. The evolution of the callovo-oxfordian argillite site, Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulhet, J.

    2004-01-01

    In France, investigations on the feasibility of a repository for long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological formation are carried out according to a regulatory framework (Basic Safety Rule, RFS III.2.f prescribing that the long-term geological evolution be taken into account to assess the dynamics of radionuclide transfers over the very long timescales involved. As a matter of fact, the period in the future is in the order of 1 million years and is consistent with the timescales of geological evolutions likely to be significant, especially at ground surface, due to fast and high-amplitude climate variations. In order to achieve that goal, external and internal geodynamic phenomena that would generate the potential evolution are studied both on the surface and deep underground. The purpose is to define a reference scenario where the evolution of the environment is induced by a series of very likely natural events in the future. In such a framework, the basis of the approach is to continue studying the geological evolution together with past situation analogies. The work also involves the description of one or several possible variations, such as potential extreme variations or disturbances of the evolution due to the impact of human activities. That aspect is particularly important with regard to the climate evolution, because of the hypotheses on the long-term effects of greenhouse gases. In that context, the goal is to forecast potential exceptional situations in the future with or without similar conditions in the past. (author)

  8. Analysis of water/gas flows in argillites from Callovo-Oxfordian using gradient percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this manuscript is motivated by the study of nuclear waste underground repository. In this context, we study the hyper slow drainage problem, which is related to the gas production, mainly hydrogen, taking place within the repository. Although the gas production rate is quite small, and thus the drainage hyper slow, the amount of produced gas is quite significant because the production takes place over thousands years. The study is performed within the framework of the theory of invasion percolation in a gradient. We first show that the hyper slow drainage process can be modelled using the traditional two-phase flow model based on the generalized Darcy's law. A crucial step is then to specify properly the parameters of the model. We show how they must be specified from the asymptotic behaviours of the parameters for an infinite medium as predicted by percolation theory. The obtained solution indicates that the hyper slow drainage operates in the vicinity of breakthrough pressure, which is the subject of a specific study. Furthermore, the hyper slow drainage is characterized by a weak desaturation of the medium and a great sensitivity to the model parameters in the range of high wetting fluid saturation. We also study the impact of coupling between the flow and the local deformation of porous matrix at the pore network scale from numerical simulations using a model coupling a pore network model and a deformation model based on a system of interconnected springs. The simulations indicate a major change of the invasion pattern compared to the rigid matrix with the self-generation of invasion preferential paths when the coupling is sufficiently strong. (author)

  9. Diagenesis and transfers in fractured argillaceous environment: the Tournemire argillite (Aveyron, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyaud, J.B.

    2002-04-01

    The Tournemire experimental site (Aveyron, France) is located on the Western margin of the Causses basin, South of Massif Central, and is studied as natural analogue of a nuclear wastes disposal site by the French Institute for Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection (IRSN). It is situated inside a former railway tunnel passing through a lithified and fractured Toarcian shale formation, 200 m thick, covered by a 300 m thick limestone and dolomite aquifer. This work aims at characterizing the evolution of confinement capacities in the shale during its geological history. In the Causses basin, sedimentary dynamics are uncertain during Lower Cretaceous due to an important Cretaceous erosion event. The thermal history of the region was reconstructed to solve this problem, using geo-thermometers and geo-chrono-thermometers. Organic mater Tmax determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 433 to 440 deg C and indicate diagenetic condition consistent with oil window upper limit. Homogenization temperatures in two-phase aqueous inclusions measured between 80 and 120 deg. C, the occurrence of ordered mixed layer with illite content higher than 70%, and thermal resetting of apatite fission tracks agree with these conditions. Fission tracks data reveal the occurrence of an important and quick denudation beginning at about 120-110 Main the Causses area, consistent with the Durancian Isthmus formation in the SE basin. Tmax modelling supports the sedimentation of 800 to 1600 m thick deposits during Lower Cretaceous. Those sediments were removed during the erosion period that occurred between 110 and 90 Main the Causses basin. During Jurassic, a global extension phase induces subsidence in the Causses basin, and cause the shale burial. Another deformation phase, a compression phase, occurred during Eocene, owing to the Pyrenean orogeny. During extension, calcite veins crystallized at temperatures between 80 and 120 deg C from fluids evolved from marine water, whereas they crystallized at temperatures between 30 and 40 deg C from a fluid with a strong meteoric component during the compression. Affinities between shale cement and calcite veins in shale suggest carbon in calcite veins is buffered by the shale. In a N130 sinistral fault, the overlying Aaleman limestone contributes to some extent to the carbonate in calcite veins. This suggests the N130 sinistral fault could connect with the upper aquifer during compression. In the Toarcian shale, Fe content in calcite veins suggests calcite crystallized in reduced environment during both extension and compression. In Shale, mineral species do not vary near the N130 sinistral fault, though a slight decrease in Ca, Sr and carbonate concentrations in a metric zone on either side of the main fault plane suggests these elements are mobilized. A δ 18 O variation in the same zone confirms that the shale cement is partially recrystallized. Barium and zinc are accumulated in baryte and pyrite near the main fault plane. Slight variations in U and Th concentrations were observed but it is difficult to discriminate a sedimentary variation from a diagenetic remobilization. Very low U content in calcite veins indicate U is retained in shale, since shale constitutes a reduced and alkaline environment. A slight enrichment in heavy rare earth elements relatively to light rare earth elements, and the occurrence of a authigenic florencite suggest rare earth elements were mobilized in the metric zone on either side of the main fault plane. Confinement capacities are estimated in the Toarcian shale during the Eocene compression, tacking into account the connection of the N130 sinistral fault and the occurrence of a perturbed metric zone on either sides of this fault. (author)

  10. Investigation of Coupled Processes and Impact of High Temperature Limits in Argillite Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, Jim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The focus of research within the UFD Campaign is on repository-induced interactions that may affect the key safety characteristics of an argillaceous rock. These include thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) process interactions that occur as a result of repository construction and waste emplacement. Some of the key questions addressed in this report include the development of fracturing in the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and THMC effects on the near-field argillaceous rock and buffer minerals and petrophysical characteristics, particularly the impacts of induced temperature rise caused by waste heat.

  11. Eesti luuletaja päris oma prantsuse luuleraamat. August Sanga, Jaan Krossi ja Ain Kaalepi loomingust 1960. aastail / An Estonian Poet’s Own Book of French Poetry. About the Works of August Sang, Jaan Kross and Ain Kaalep in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Talviste

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article positions the translations of French verse works (plays and selected collections of individual poets that August Sang, Jaan Kross and Ain Kaalep made in the 1960s, onto the background of their own original works. At that time, August Sang translated four plays by Molière (The Misanthrope, Tartuffe, The School for Wives in 1961; Amphitryon in 1961, which have already been discussed in relation to the tradition of translating the French syllabic verse into Estonian, because these translations form a considerable part of the body of Estonian translations of French verse poetry. For Jaan Kross and Ain Kaalep, the wider context is created by the so-called free verse battles in the 1950s, to which we can link Kross’ translation of a selected collection of Éluard (Veel enne kostma peab, 1969 and Kaalep’s translation of a selected collection of Prévert (Kuidas portreteerida lindu, 1965. One of the two remaining translations by Kross, (Rostand’s Cyrano de Bergerac, 1964, can also be examined in relation to the problems of translating verse, but the other, (Béranger’s Laulud, 1963, should be discussed in the framework of intellectual and cultural resistance, a part of which was also the struggle put up for the existence of free verse in the 1950s and 1960s. Of August Sang’s original work, the article examines his collection of poems Võileib suudlusega (1963, written simultaneously with his translations of Molière’s plays and published right after them. Both the translations and the collection of original poems have attracted critics’ attention with their remarkable lack of linguistic constraint and simplicity. Although Sang has rarely voiced theoretical ideas about translation or explained his method, both his poetic image, outlined in the collection Võileib suudlusega, and his search for right words, reflected in the drafts of his translations, let us believe that the simplicity of expression and the avoidance of marked

  12. What has happened to previous Estonian marketing acts? / Ingrid Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nielsen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade eelnevatel aastatel Eesti turundusteo tiitli pälvinud kampaaniatega seotud ettevõtete, teenuste ja ürituste - EGO järelmaksukaart, EMT ja Eurovisiooni lauluvõistlus - käekäigust, korraldatud reklaamikampaaniate tulemuslikkusest

  13. Estonian Mean Snow Depth and Duration (1891-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the number of days of snow cover in days per year, and three 10-day snow depth means per month in centimeters from stations across Estonia....

  14. Estonian arts and crafts still alive / Jana Belugina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belugina, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Lühidalt eesti käsitöö ajaloost. Rahvarõivad ja neid kandvad nukud moodustavad siiani suurima osa eesti käsitöö toodetest. Platsiveere Meistrid (Pikk 15) müüb rahvarõivaid, mis on valmistatud sama tehnoloogiaga, mida kasutati sajandeid tagasi. Käsitööesemeid kogub ja säilitab Eesti Rahva Muuseum. 1929. a. loodud Eesti Rahvakunsti ja Käsitöö Liidust, Eesti Käsitöö Majast (Pikk 22), kus asub ka tekstiilikunstnik Riina Tombergi töötuba

  15. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustus: Miljutina, Tamara. Inimesed minu elus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Soosaar, Enn. Isa ja aeg. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2007. (Loomingu Raamatukogu ; 5) ; Paju, Imbi. Tõrjutud mälestused. Tallinn : Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 2007 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Seesama jõgi. Tallinn : Vagabund, 2007 ; Laanem, Tiina. Väikesed vanamehed. Tallinn : Eesti Päevalehe Kirjastus, 2007 ; Vaarandi, Debora. Aastad ja päevad. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2006 ; Berg, Maimu. Unustatud inimesed. Tallinn : Tuum, 2007 ; Heinsaar, Mehis. Rändaja õnn. Tallinn : Verb, 2007

  16. Seminar of contemporary Estonian literature and translation in Hungary

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Sept-st 2002 töötab Budapesti ülikoolis soome-ugri kateedri juures tänapäeva eesti kirjanduse ja tõlkimise seminar, asutatud ülikooli ja Eesti Instituudi koostöö tulemusena. Põhiorganisaatoriks oli Eesti Instituut Ungaris

  17. The Information Culture of Higher Education Institutions: The Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Liia; Heidmets, Mati; Virkus, Sirje

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper focuses on the information culture of higher education institutions in Estonia. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between information culture, information management and job satisfaction, leadership style, and self-reported individual performance. Method: A total of 160 faculty members from twelve…

  18. Estonian Society and Political Pictures : 6 Case Studies / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2002-01-01

    Kuus lugu Eesti dokumentaal- ja poliitilisest fotograafiast - põgenemine Läände, eestlased Teises maailmasõjas, Jüri Liimi fotod 1990. aastatest, Carl Sarapi ja Peeter Toominga fotolood, Marko Laimre "Jaotatud territooriumid"

  19. Estonian President Ilves: Euro introduction was a "fantastic idea"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves nõudis Viinis maailmapoliitika konverentsi ajal uudisteagentuurile APA antud usutluses rangemat rahanduspoliitilist distsipliini.Visiit Šveitsi ja Austriasse 07.12.2011 - 11.12.2011

  20. The construction of gender in Estonian school textbooks / Jeannine Richards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Richards, Jeannine

    2001-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida nais- ja meessoo kujutamist inglise keele õpikus. Vaadeldavaks õpikuks on : Sotter, Ingrid ; Vahtra, Leida. English : step five. 5th print.- Tallinn : Koolibri, 1997

  1. Estonian central bank sees euro as stabilizing force

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu rahanduskomisjoni esindajad teatasid, et Eesti Pank on valmistanud ette lisameetmeid tugevdamaks Eesti rahandussektorit ning näeb eurotsooniga liitumises võtit Eesti majanduse stabiilsusele

  2. Target market pattern of Estonian internationalizing enterprises / Ele Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Ele, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtete rahvusvahelistumise puhul ei saa sihtturgude valikul tuua välja selgeid eelistusi, siiski võib öelda, et sageli on ettevõtted keskendunud Baltimaade turu teenindamisele. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  3. Technological Knowledge and Reasoning in Finnish and Estonian Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi; Soobik, Mart

    2017-01-01

    The main idea of this research was to find out if there is a relationship between students' undertakings within Craft and Technology education and their ability to understand technological concepts. Study participants' technological knowledge and reasoning was measured with a questionnaire regarding mechanical systems connected with simple…

  4. The Rotterdam Rules from an Estonian perspective / Heiki Lindpere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindpere, Heiki, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Rotterdami reeglite (Konventsioon lepingute kohta kaupade rahvusvaheliseks veoks täies ulatuses või osaliselt meritsi = Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (Rotterdam Rules)) tähtsusest Eestile ja kaubaveo reguleerimisest Eesti õiguses

  5. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  6. Viron arkkitehtuurin uudistaja = Creators of new Estonian architecture / Tarja Nurmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurmi, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    KOKO arhitektuuribüroo arhitektidest Raivo Kotovist ja Andrus Kõresaarest. Tähtsamad tööd: Fahle maja, Lennusadama angaarid, äri- ja büroohoone Rotermanni kvartalis, Balti jaama turuhooned. Eesti ja Soome arhitektide koostööst

  7. Russian students face new Estonian-language classes / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Vene koolide üleminekust eestikeelsele õppele, Tallinna Ülikoolis selleks õpetajatele korraldatud kursustest. Haridusministeeriumi kommentaar. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnest teadmiste päeval

  8. Ood Eesti puidule = Praise to Estonian wood / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2014-01-01

    Eesti puitmajade ekspordist. Firma Kodumaja ehitab Norrasse Bergeni linna maailma kõrgeima puithoone. Metsamasinate tootjast Metsis, mis valmistab harvestereid ja forvardereid. Saaremaal asuvast puitpaaditootjast Vätta Puit. Karl Annuse Prillitehasest, mis valmistab puidust prilliraame. Metsamaterjali mõõtmise nutirakendusest Timber Diameter

  9. Estonian President Appeals to Scientists to Find Answers to Problems

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kutsus presidendi mõttekoja avakoosolekul teadlasi ja arvamusliidreid otsima lahendusi küsimustele, millega tegelemiseks valitsusel ja parlamendil ei jätku aega või poliitilist tahet. Mõttekoja tööd korraldab ajakirja Akadeemia peatoimetaja Toomas Kiho

  10. Estonian economic growth slows down / Olavi Grünvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünvald, Olavi

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti majandusliku arengu viimastest aastatest, 2007. aastal alanud majanduslangusest, mida iseloomustavad langus kinnisvaraturul, SKT kasvu aeglustumine, transiitkaubanduse vähenemine. Lisatud tabel diagramm ja graafikud

  11. Changes in Professionalism: The Case of Estonian Chefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roosipold

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The changes that have taken place in professional life have led to changes both in the occupations and social positions of practitioners. In this article, the authors analyse the implications of occupational changes on professionalisation and professional learning, using chefs in Estonia as an example. The article aims to interpret the theoretical framework of professionalism by exploring the beliefs and opinions of chefs and the assessments of their work. The methodological approach is qualitative, relying on semi-structured interviews with outstanding chefs and experts in the field of food science in Estonia. Based on this analysis, we conclude that the chefs are still experts in their field of cooking but new managerial and leadership roles have become more significant. We argue that professionalisation can lead to hybrid professionalism of chefs, which involves communication with the public, reliance on practical knowledge, nonformal learning and reflexive control over their work.

  12. Estonian Railway irked with lack of state cooperation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Raudtee soovib tõsta veotasu, samas kui Raudteeinspektsioon soovitas tasusid vähendada. Ettevõtte nõukogu esimehe Edward Burkhardti sõnul tekitaksid madalad tariifid kompaniile 800 miljoni krooni suuruse puudujäägi

  13. Estonian hospital sector in transition / Toomas Palu, Reet Kadakmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palu, Toomas

    2001-01-01

    Autorid tutvustavad meditsiini vallas Eesti iseseisvuse perioodil läbi viidud reforme: haiglate tulevik sõltub 2001. aastal käivitunud reformide teisest faasist. Tabelid. Skeem: EHIF expenditures on health services, pharmaceutical and sick benefits 1996-2001

  14. Estonský styl = estonian style / Ivar Sakk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sakk, Ivar, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti graafilise disaini rahvuslikust eripärast ja arengust 20. sajandil. Teiste riikide (Rootsi, Venemaa, Saksamaa) mõjust eesti graafilise disaini kujunemisele. Lähemalt Günther Reindorffi, Paul Luhteina tegevusest

  15. Estonian leader voices worry over Russia / Michael Abramowitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abramowitz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi 28. novembril 2006. a. toimunud Eesti visiidi ajal oli presidentide vahelise vestluse läbivaks probleemiks Venemaa aina kasvav autokraatia ja despotism, mis on välja viinud juba esimeste arvatavate poliitmõrvadeni Kremli tuliste kriitikute Anna Politkovskaja ja Aleksandr Litvinenko näol

  16. From Estonian Exile to Executive Office / Susan Frith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frith, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese elukäigust, haridusteest, poliitilistest vaadetest. T. H. Ilves lõpetas Pennsylvania ülikooli psühholoogia alal magistrikraadiga 1978. a. Artiklis on kasutatud telefoniintervjuud presidendiga. T. H. Ilvese kohta avaldavad arvamust ülikoolikaaslane Brian Wandell ja Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides endine president Juhan Simonson. Ülevaade artiklist ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna, 24. jaan. 2008, lk. 7, 10: Vaga, Airi. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas

  17. Estonian company develops an enhanced wind power generator

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti firmas Goliath Wind OÜ töötatakse välja uut tüüpi energiasäästlikku tuulegeneraatorit, mis võimaldaks tuuleenergia hinda alandada kuni viiendiku võrra. Vt. samas intervjuud Goliath Wind OÜ juhatuse liikme Lars Machiga

  18. Estonian utility close to sealing deal with Jordan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia tutvustab Jordaania valitsusele põlevkiviõli tööstuse teostatavuse ja tasuvuse uuringut. Eesti Energia soovib eriõigusi põlevkivi kaevandamiseks Jordaanias ning õli- ja elektritoomise tööstuskompleksi ehitamiseks

  19. Hydrogenation of Estonian oil shale and shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogerman, P N; Kopwillem, J

    1932-01-01

    Kukersite was heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen, nitrogen, or water in three series of experiments. Shale samples were heated at 370/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C for 2 to 3/sup 1///sub 2/ hours in the presence of 106 to 287 kg/sq cm pressure of water, nitrogen, or hydrogen. In some experiments 5 percent of iron oxide was added to the shale. The amount of kerogen liquefied by hydrogenation was not greater than the amount of liquid products obtained by ordinary distillation. On hydrogenation, kukersite absorbed 1.8 weight-percent of hydrogen. Almost no hydrogenation took place below the decomposition point of kerogen, and the lighter decomposition products were mainly hydrogenated. Hydrogenation of the shale prevented coke formation. Heating kukersite or its crude oil at temperatures of 400/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C under 250 kg/sq cm hydrogen pressure produced paraffinic and naphthenic oils of lower boiling points. At higher temperatures and after long-continued heating, the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons was observed.

  20. Collaborative development of Estonian nuclear master's program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Kikas, A.; Realo, E.; Kirm, M.; Kiisk, M.; Isakar, K.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R.; Feldbach, E.; Lushchik, A.; Reivelt, K. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia)

    2012-07-01

    In 2009 Estonia approved the National Development Plan for the Energy Sector, including the nuclear energy option. This can be realized by construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Estonia or by participation in neighboring nuclear projects (e.g., Lithuania and/or Finland). Either option requires the availability of competent personnel. It is necessary to prepare specialists with expertise in all aspects related to nuclear infrastructure and to meet workforce needs (e.g. energy enterprises, public agencies, municipalities). Estonia's leading institutions of higher education and research with the support of the European Social Fund have announced in this context a new nuclear master's curriculum to be developed. The language of instruction will be English. (authors)

  1. Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskus = The Estonian Children's Literature Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuse hoone (1910, Pikk 73, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland ja Tea Tammelaan (Laika, Belka & Strelka OÜ). Varakambrit kaunistavad istmed erinevate illustraatorite tehtud maalingutega. Muinasjututoa aknaluuke kaunistavad Jüri Mildebergi loodud fantastilised tüübid. Pööningukorrust kujundas Piret Mildeberg. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad ühiselt tehtud tööd. 3 korruse plaani, värv. välisvaade, 9 sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  2. Prevalence of cysticercosis in Estonian pigs and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorbek-Kilin, Elisabeth; Åhlberg, Tuuli; Tummeleht, Lea

    2018-01-01

    Taenia solium has been ranked as the most important foodborne parasite and Taenia saginata as the most commonly found human Taenia tapeworm worldwide. The last official reports of taeniosis from Estonia were in 2003 for T. solium and 2012 for T. saginata. By law, all animal cases of cysticercosis...

  3. The Pleasures of Mud : Estonian Summer Resort Architecture / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu, Haapsalu, Kuressaare ja Narva-Jõesuu suvitusarhitektuurist 20. saj. esimesest poolest kuni 21. saj. alguseni. Arhitektide Olev Siinmaa, Anton Soansi, August Volbergi, Tõnis Mihkelsoni, Raivo Puusepa, Raivo Kotovi, Üla Koppeli, Andrus Kõresaare, ehitusinseneride Erich Ottingi ja Robert Ederma ning sisearhitektide Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Liisi Murula ja Raili Palingu loomingust

  4. Estonian combustible shale kukersite: its chemistry technology and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luts, K

    1944-01-01

    Nearly all investigators, except Cunningham-Craig, believe that kukersite represents a maritime product of plant origin. In all probability the deposition of the material that formed kukersite took place in large open seas, at a depth of at least 200 meters and in quiet water not subject to the motion of the sea. The temperature at that depth may have been warm; that of the surface was not below 15/sup 0/C. Variation in the temperature of the water had an effect upon the alternation of the kukersite and the limestone layers in the deposit. Decaying process probably changed the original algal masses to the present kukersite.

  5. Estonian president recalls judicial reform was not easy / Abdullah Bozkurt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bozkurt, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Türgi-visiidi eelõhtul räägib president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Eesti õigussüsteemi reformimisest enne Euroopa Liiduga liitumist, Euroopa piiridest, Euroopa Liidu ja NATO suhetest, julgeolekust ja küberturvest, oma viibimistest Türgis, Türgi ja Eesti suhetest ja koostöövõimalustest, Eesti toetusest Türgile Euroopa Liiduga liitumisel. Ametlik visiit Türgi Vabariiki 15.-21.04.2010

  6. New English translation of the Estonian national epic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis antakse 2011. a. välja Triinu Kartuse inglise keelde tõlgitud "Kalevipoeg" Gunnar Neeme illustratsioonidega. Sellega tähistatakse "Kalevipoja" esmailmumise 150. aastapäeva

  7. Authorship verification of opinion pieces in Estonian / Timo Petmanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petmanson, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Pakutakse välja autorituvastuse algoritm eestikeelsete arvamusartiklite jaoks: ajakirjaniku tuvastamiseks otsitakse tema tekstidest mustreid, mis kirjeldavad talle omaseid lause- ja sõnakonstruktsioone

  8. Place Marketing Implementation in Different Administrative Subdivisions: Estonian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Agan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal scope of this paper is to construct the chain-of-marketing that regards the implementation of a place marketing strategy, in particular regional tourism and development policy. For a few decades place marketing has been mostly a marketing viewpoint for urban areas in the context of tourism in cities or metropols. Smaller rural areas and country-sides have not got so much attention and place marketing is not much used as a strategic tool to improve development in such areas. Place marketing is usually seen as a tourism improvement for tourists, but actually the target audience is much wider. The starting point of the paper was the assumption that the quality of place marketing in these rural areas is not good and strategically elaborated. By comparing three different case studies, Tartu Rural Development Association (Example 1, 4P area in Central-Estonia (Example 2 and Attractions in Municipality of Konguta (Example 3, worst and best practices have been identified, and an answer to the question whether there exists such a thing as ideally sized and structured geographical area that deals with place marketing on the regional level has been sought

  9. New generation in Estonian animation / Mari-Liis Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari-Liis, 1988-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti animafilmide loojate uuest põlvkonnast, animafilmide tegemise võimalustest, uute animafilmide tasemest. Martinus Daane Klemeti animafilmidest "Furry Flurry" (2006) ja "Light My Fire" (2007) ning joonisfilmist "Õhus" (Eesti Joonisfilm, 2009, kunstnik Gerda Märtens)

  10. Russification of non-Estonian pupils in Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Rannut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article home languages, their qualities and use by pupils in grades 2 to 5 in Tallinn are analyzed. Two larger and more characteristic groups (Ukrainians and Belarusians and two groups with Islamic backgrounds (Azerbaijanis and Tatars were compared with the aim of analysing different language loss and preservation factors. Although Ukrainians and Belarusians form much larger ethnic groups within Estonia, they have not managed to preserve their language anywhere near as successfully as the Azerbaijanis and Tatars. Comparison of the data suggests that language preservation in Estonia and the ability to withstand Russification are most influenced by the degree of difference of the language from Russian and the religious difference from the Russian Orthodox faith (and Soviet era atheism. Home languages are characterised by their use mainly in the verbal form, with skills in the literary language generally low or even non-existent. Languages are for the most part learned informally, primarily through communication with parents and/or grandparents. The result is a supersaturated vernacular with a large degree of variation and loans from superstratum languages which falls far from the standard of the language in question.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.15

  11. Estonian agriculture after accession : CAP impact / Mati Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Mati, 1945-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti on olnud üks liberaalsema hinna- ja väliskaubanduse korraldusega riike maailmas. Ühinemine ühtse põllumajanduspoliitikaga tähendab aga eelkõige kõrget interventsiooniastet toodete mahu ja hindade kujundamisel ning konservatiivset toiduainete väliskaubanduse korraldust. Tabelid. Graafikud. Diagrammid

  12. Viron televisio- ja radiokeskus = Estonian National Broadcasting Building / Pentti Kareoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kareoja, Pentti

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Rahvusringhäälingu hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroo Nobel Arkitekter. Teise koha pälvis Soome arhitektuuribüroo Harris-Kjisik OY (arhitektid Trevor Harris, Taru Niskanen) töö "Mediatetris". Ergutuspreemia pälvis Pekka Lassila Arhitektuuribüroo (arhitektid Pekka Lassila, Janne Kantee, Annika Ritola, Tuomas Arnala) töö "Auteur"

  13. Estonian agriculture works to increase exports / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põllumajanduse seisust. Eesti Toiduainetööstuse Liit, tootjad ja kaubandusketid algatasid kampaania Eesti toidu populariseerimiseks ning kodumaist kaupa hakkab eristama Eesti rahvuslipu värvides märgistus

  14. Estonian-bound Russian timber detours through Latvia / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Baltiiskii Kurss 2002/Zima/Vesna nr. 20 lk. 29. Venemaa tollikomitee otsus, mis ei lubanud ühegi Eesti piiripunkti kaudu Vene metsa Eestisse eksportida, seab paljud metsaga kaubitsejad ning metsatöötlejad keerulisse olukorda. Diagramm

  15. Estonian President attended conference on fight against terrorism

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel rõhutas Varssavis 16 Euroopa riigipea nõupidamisel otsustavuse tähtsust terrorismivastases võitluses ning tänas Poola presidenti Aleksander Kwasniewskit toetuse eest Eesti pürgimustele liituda NATO-ga. Töövisiit Poola Vabariiki 6.11.2001

  16. Family Factors and NEET Status: An Estonian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Mare; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    For young people, not being in education, employment or training (NEET) may be detrimental to self-esteem and limit possibilities for achieving financial security and a respectable position in society. One major educational problem in Estonia is low academic achievement at the upper level of basic education (Grades 7-9), reflected in a large…

  17. Estonian living in safest of times / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip ütles kevadisi riigikaitsekursuseid avades, et tema hinnangul elab Eesti julgeoleku seisukohalt oma ajaloo ilmselt kõige turvalisemat etappi, olles NATO ja Euroopa Liidu liige. Kursuste avamistseremooniast võtsid osa ka kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo, välisminister Urmas Paet, siseminister Marko Pomerants ja kaitseväe juhataja kindralleitnant Ants Laaneots

  18. Competitiveness of Estonian Economy : some Dilemmas Looming Ahead / Alari Purju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purju, Alari

    1999-01-01

    Eesti majandus on jõudnud avatud majanduse perioodist järgmisesse arenguetappi. Seoses sellega tõstatuvad probleemid praeguse makroökonoomilise strateegia seostamisest strukturaalsete reformidega. Eesti ühinemine Euroopa Liiduga

  19. Estonian president defends imminent euro-accession / Valentina Pop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pop, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves räägib Eesti liitumisest euroalaga, eelarvelisest vastutustundest, e-kaubanduse arendamise tähtsusest, Euroopa Liidu lepingust, WikiLeaksi avaldatud materjalidest, küberkaitsest. Töövisiit Brüsselisse 08.12.2010 - 10.12.2010

  20. Estonian views of collective action and democracy / Risto Alapuro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alapuro, Risto

    2003-01-01

    Autor analüüsib Eesti sotsiaalteadlaste poolt välismaal avaldatud teostele tuginedes sotsiaalteadlaste rolli Eesti ja lääneriikide suhete kujundamisel üleminekuajal ning võrdleb Eestis iseseisvumise perioodil toimunud rahvuslikku enesekonstrueerimist ja riigi ülesehitamist Soomega

  1. Investment needs and possibilities in Estonian agricultural sector / Grete Sommer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sommer, Grete

    2003-01-01

    Viimase kümne aasta investeeringute puudulikkust arvestades oleks aastatel 2004-2006 põllumajandussektorisse vaja investeerida 10 381 miljonit krooni ehk 3 460 miljonit krooni aastas, väidab autor. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  2. Mind your languages: Lingua Receptiva in Estonian-Russian communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahtina, D

    2013-01-01

    This study was inspired by the idea that there is more diversity in the ways languages come into contact to create efficient and fair communication. The alternative mode explored in this study is called lingua receptiva (or, LaRa): here interlocutors speak their own language and have enough

  3. Juhan Kukk and the establishment of Estonian sovereignty / Ago Pajur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajur, Ago, 1962-

    2016-01-01

    Juhan Kuke teest poliitikasse. Tallinna Eesti Seltside Liidust. Tööerakonna loomisest. Juhan Kukk Maanõukogu saadikuna. Juhan Kukk Maavalitsuse rahaosakonna juhatajana. Juhan Kukest iseseisvusmanifesti koostajana. Ajutise Valitsuse koosseisus. Eesti rahanduse loomisest

  4. Estonian President : Missile Shield Should Cover All NATO Member Countries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Poola presidendi Lech Kaczynski ühepäevasest töövisiidist Eestisse. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Poola riigipea kõnelesid kohtumisel Euroopa tulevikust, NATO laienemisest, Euroopa Liidu naabruspoliitikast ja energiajulgeolekust, võtsid vastu ühisdeklaratsiooni, milles kutsusid Euroopa riikide valitsusi arutama võimalust luua rahvusvaheline komisjon kommunismi inimsusevastaste kuritegude ja inimõiguste rikkumiste uurimiseks

  5. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Estonian Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Šebunova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (Hp is one of the most important human pathogens that can cause duodenal and gastric ulcers, gastritis and stomach cancer. Hp infection is considered to be a cause of limiting access to bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hp in patients with obesity going into bariatric surgery and to reveal the relationship between Hp and clinical data. The study group was formed of 68 preoperative bariatric surgery patients (body mass index (BMI 44.7 ± 4.8. Gastric biopsies (antrum and corpus were used for histological and molecular (caqA and glmM genes examinations. The PCR method revealed Hp infection in 64.7% of obese patients that is higher in comparison with histological analysis (55.9%. The prevalence of cagA and glmM genes in antrum mucosa was 45.6% and 47.0% while in the corpus it was 41.2% and 38.3%, respectively. The coincidence of both cagA and glmM virulence genes in the antrum and corpus mucosa was 33.8% and 22.1%, respectively. Either of the genes was found in 58.8% of antrum and 57.3% of corpus mucosa. Presence of caqA and glmM genes was in association with active and atrophic chronic gastritis. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that two thirds of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery are infected with Hp and have a high prevalence of cagA and glmM virulence genes that points out the necessity for diagnostics and treatment of this infection before surgery.

  6. Estonian Memory Theatre : the 1970s-1990s / Piret Kruuspere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuspere, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti teatrikunstis - nii näidendites kui lavastustes - 1970-1990. aastatel peegelduv ajalooteadvus ja rahvuslik identiteet. Vaadeldakse Rein Saluri näidendeid "Külalised" (Eesti Draamateater 1974, lav. Kaarin Raid) ja "Minek" (Eesti Draamateater 1988, lav. Mikk Mikiver ja Pärnu Endla 1988, lav. Priit Pedajas), Madis Kõivu näidendeid "Tagasitulek isa juurde" (Eesti Draamateater 1993, lav. Priit Pedajas) ja "Stseene saja-aastasest sõjast" (Eesti Draamateater 1998, lav. Mikk Mikiver), Jaan Kruusvalli näidendit "Pilvede värvid" (Eesti Draamateater 1983, lav. Mikk Mikiver) ja Merle Karusoo dokumentaalteatrit. Viited lk. 174-176

  7. Polish and Estonian Economic Competitiveness. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the study has been a survey of indices developed by international economic organizations. Such indices tend to encompass a number of qualitative/quantitative variables relating to economic viability, e.g. economic liberties, budgetary balance, judiciary, technical sophistication, social factors and innovation. Basing on the aforementioned data, the study has focused upon the comparison of both countries competitive stances and permitted the formulation of certain economic policy guidelines with regard to Poland, which has underperformed Estonia in most of the rankings.

  8. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-25

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.

  9. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  10. Estonian cow berries have not been affected by radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liiva, A.; Pihlik, U.

    1994-01-01

    According to Latvia n scientists cow berry leaves contain 0.15 kBq/kg of radioactive cesium ( Cs-137 + Cs-134). To check the situation in Estonia officials of forestry enterprises were asked to gather cow berry plants from five control areas in different parts of Estonia, two samples from each (one from a glade, the other from under trees). Analysis of the material collected has shown the specific Cs-137 activity of all samples to be less than 0.18 kBq/kg of dry leaf mass. This is 100 times lower than the limit set for dried medicinal herbs in the Soviet Union after the Chernobyl disaster. (author). 6 refs

  11. The State of Estonian Media Art 1998 / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    Meediakunst Eestis (videokunst, videoperformance, videoinstallatsioon, interaktiivne installatsioon, CDRomid, netiprojektid) 1998. a. Kunstnike näitustest ja välisnäitustest. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 113-116 eesti keeles pealkirja all "Eesti meediakunsti olukord A.D. 1998"

  12. Joint final report. General overview : General findings at the Estonian Business School / Estonian Higher Education Accreditation Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2003. aasta lõpus toimunud EBS-i õppekavade akrediteerimise rahvusvahelise komisjoni poolt langetatud otsusest ja selle ingliskeelne versioon, milles analüüsitakse EBSi tugevusi ja nõrkusi ning antakse soovitusi, millest peaks tulevikus juhinduma

  13. Influence of temperature on the geochemistry of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite: batch experiments and modelling at 80 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailhanou, H.; Tournassat, C.; Laperche, V.; Grangeon, S.; Blanc, P.; Marty, N.; Crouzet, C.; Henry, B.; Gaucher, E.C.; Greneche, J.M.; Kars, M.; Made, B.; Altmann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A repository of high-level nuclear wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock will lead to a temporary increase in temperature locally around the disposal cells, up to about 80 C. Thermally induced modifications of the pore-water chemistry of the clay rock must be assessed since the pore water chemistry can affect the rates of corrosion of metallic materials used in the disposal facility. The chemistry of COx pore water has been studied at ambient temperature (∼ 25 C) using modelling approaches constrained by parameter values measured on core samples and by measurements of pore water collected by means of specially designed in-situ experiments. In particular, the predictive model from Gaucher et al. (2009) reproduces the measured, in situ pore-water composition without any estimated parameters. In the present study, carried out as part of a collaborative BRGM/Andra research program, the results of long-term batch experiments performed at 80 C, are compared with compositions predicted using a model based on the one developed for 25 C. Batch experiments Two batch experiments have been performed with COx rock samples in contact with synthetic water, for respectively 6 and 20 months. The experiments were prepared at 25 C under anoxic atmosphere in closed reactors, with solution compositions close to the pore water composition. Afterwards, each system was heated at 80 C. During the experiments, measurements of PCO 2 were carried out as this parameter is considered as an indicator of the reactivity of this carbonate-dominated system. At the end of the experiments, the suspension was filtered at 0.1 μm at 80 C, under anoxic atmosphere. The pH was also measured at 80 C. Major cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Sr) and anions (notably Cl, SO 4 ), TIC and minor and trace elements (notably Si, Al, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analysed. Concerning the solids, some minor changes were detected in the mineralogy between initial and final solids, essentially partial dissolution of celestite and a small increase in the amount of dolomite. Besides, an interesting change was observed by TEM with the formation of needles of nanocrystalline goethite on pyrite particles for the solid from the 20 months experiment. Such needles were not observed on the initial solid, although magnetic measurements at low temperature on the sample revealed the presence of nanocrystalline goethite. Moreover, an increasing of the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio in the octahedral environment of clay minerals, compared with initial ratio, was evidenced by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectrometry. Modelling of batch experiments The predictive model of composition as a function of temperature was developed, based on the Gaucher et al. (2009) model and using the PHREEQC code and Thermoddem database. As a first approximation, the model considers a primary mineral assemblage with quartz, pyrite, carbonates (calcite, dolomite and siderite), sulfates (celestite), aluminosilicates (chlorite and illite). Moreover, the model takes into account exchange reactions and dissolution reaction kinetics for the potentially more reactive minerals. For both cases, at 6 and 20 months, the comparison between estimated and observed concentrations of ions in solution are in rather good agreement for pH, Si, Al, major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr) and for sulphates and chlorides. The calculated concentrations of Fe are, on the other hand, too high compared with the measured concentrations, for both experiments. The control on the Fe(II) solubility by siderite was already questioned in Gaucher et al. (2009). This problem is being studied, notably by considering the presence of nano-goethite detected in the initial sample and in the solid after 20 months experiment

  14. Water Retention Capacity of Argillite from the VE Test - Phase II at Mont Terri: Effect of Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Fernandez, A. M.; Melon, A. M.

    2009-10-12

    The VE (ventilation) test carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory in Switzerland intended to evaluate in situ the behaviour of a consolidated clay formation when subjected to alternate periods of flow of wet and dry air during several months. For that, a 10-m gallery was excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation and carefully instrumented. Before and after a second ventilation phase boreholes were drilled. Samples were taken from the drill cores and were analysed from mineralogical and geochemical points of view. Also, the retention curves of these samples were determined in the laboratory following drying paths performed under free volume conditions at 20 degree centigrade, what is the content of this report. Although there are not large differences in the WRC of samples taken from different boreholes, at different distances from the gallery wall or before or after ventilation, those samples taken near the gallery wall and after ventilation tend to show a higher water retention capacity. This has been correlated to the higher salinity of the pore water of these samples, what increases their osmotic suction. This effect is attenuated towards high suctions. (Author) 10 refs.

  15. New Experimental Approach for Studying Diffusion through an Intact and Unsaturated Medium: A Case Study with Callovo-Oxfordian Argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoye, S.; Puente, C.; Coelho, D.; Imbert, Ch.; Page, J.

    2010-01-01

    The diffusion of tritiated water and anionic species was studied in an unsaturated core of Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone, which is a potential host-rock for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The diffusion parameters in such conditions were determined using modified through-diffusion cells in which the suction is generated by the osmosis process. This specific device leads to values of saturation degree ranging from 81% to 100%. The results show that the diffusion through unsaturated samples is clearly slower than that in fully saturated samples, with steady-state fluxes decreasing by a factor up to 7 for tritium and up to 50 for anionic species. While tritium porosity values follow volumetric water contents (from 21 to 16%), the porosity accessible to anionic species significantly decreases (from 7. 5 to 0. 7%). Such diffusive behaviors have been modeled by means of a modified Archie's law, taking into account a critical water saturation below which no tracer can percolate. These results indicate that the largest pores, which are initially affected by dehydration, would play an important role on the connectivity of the porous medium. This would especially affect anionic species diffusion behavior because they are constrained to diffuse into the largest pores first. (authors)

  16. Water Retention Capacity of Argillite from the VE Test - Phase II at Mont Terri: Effect of Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.; Fernandez, A. M.; Melon, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The VE (ventilation) test carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory in Switzerland intended to evaluate in situ the behaviour of a consolidated clay formation when subjected to alternate periods of flow of wet and dry air during several months. For that, a 10-m gallery was excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation and carefully instrumented. Before and after a second ventilation phase boreholes were drilled. Samples were taken from the drill cores and were analysed from mineralogical and geochemical points of view. Also, the retention curves of these samples were determined in the laboratory following drying paths performed under free volume conditions at 20 degree centigrade, what is the content of this report. Although there are not large differences in the WRC of samples taken from different boreholes, at different distances from the gallery wall or before or after ventilation, those samples taken near the gallery wall and after ventilation tend to show a higher water retention capacity. This has been correlated to the higher salinity of the pore water of these samples, what increases their osmotic suction. This effect is attenuated towards high suctions. (Author) 10 refs

  17. Imeasjadest Eesti asjani. Eestimaa muuseumitraditsiooni algus = From little wonders to the Estonian national cause. The beginning of the Estonian museum tradition

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoones 2009. aasta 5. juunist 29. septembrini toimunud näituse kujundusest. Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid. Graafiline disain: Tuuli Aule. Näituse kuraatorid: Inge Laurik-Teder, Mariann Raisma

  18. How the Estonian communists lost their war against the Finnish television : the documents of the Estonian State Archive reveal the historical truth / Olga Zhurjari, Peeter Vares

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhurjari, Olga

    2000-01-01

    EKP võitlusest soome televisiooniga, mis jõudis haripunkti 1980-ndate alguses, kui keelati avalikes kohtades soome televisiooni vaatamine, üritati kontrollida soome telekanalite vaatamist kodudes jne

  19. Characterization and modeling of natural tracers' transfers through the argillites of Tournemire (France); Caracterisation et modelisation des transferts de traceurs naturels dans les argilites de Tournemire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patriarche, D

    2001-09-13

    The French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) is investigating the argillaceous formation of Tournemire (France) as a methodological underground laboratory for conducting research on the feasibility of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in argilites. Because of the very low water content and hydraulic conductivity of the argilites, the migration through this media should be very low. The fluid flow regime and transport have been studied using natural tracers from the interstitial water. The deuterium and chloride of interstitial water have been chosen for their conservative behavior. After the development of a protocol for the chloride extraction from the water, and tests on the vacuum distillation method for the water extraction from the rock, systematic data acquisition has been performed on the argillaceous sequence of the massif and near the fracture areas. Both chloride and deuterium profiles suggest that transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale. But the profiles show an enrichment in delta D and delta {sup 18}O of the interstitial solution in the area of one meter adjacent to a fracture compared to pore water of samples located at further distance. Therefore, these observations are suggesting that a second process could generate specific transfers, at the vicinity of faults. The hypothesis of the molecular diffusion as a dominant process for transport was successfully tested using a transport model, over periods of several tenth of millions years, taking into account geodynamical features of the region (such as tectonic and induced faults), and assuming that some variations of the tracer concentrations at the system boundaries occurred during the major climate-change periods. Even if tracers' transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale, they are or should have been affected by a second process causing heterogeneity of concentrations at the vicinity of faults. This process involves either, intrusion of salted solutions or internal transfers due to overpressures. (author)

  20. Hydrogen solubility in pore water of partially saturated argillites: Application to Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock in the context of a nuclear waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassin, A.; Dymitrowska, M.; Azaroual, M.

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear waste geological disposals, large amounts of hydrogen (H 2 ) are expected to be produced by different (bio-)geochemical processes. Depending on the pressure generated by such a process, H 2 could be produced as a gas phase and displace the neighbouring pore water. As a consequence, a water-unsaturated zone could be created around the waste and possibly affect the physical and physic-chemical properties of the disposal and the excavation disturbed zone around it. The present study is the first part of an ongoing research program aimed at evaluating the possible chemical evolution of the pore water-minerals-gas system in such a context. The goal of this study was to evaluate, in terms of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, the geochemical disturbance of the pore water due to variations in hydrogen pressure, temperature and relative humidity. No heterogeneous reactions involving mineral phases of the clay-rock or reactive surface sites were taken into account in the thermodynamic analysis. In the case sulphate reduction reaction is allowed, geochemical modelling results indicate that the main disturbance is the increase in pH (from around 7 up to more than 10) and an important decrease in the redox potential (Eh) related to hydrogen dissolution. This occurs from relatively low H 2 partial pressures (∼1 bar and above). Then, temperature and relative humidity (expressed in terms of capillary pressure) further displace the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, namely the pH and the aqueous speciation as well as saturation indices of mineral phases. Finally, the results suggest that the generation of hydrogen, combined with an increase in temperature (between 30 deg. C and 80 deg. C) and a decrease in relative humidity (from 100% to 30%), should increase the chemical reactivity of the pore water-rock-gas system. (authors)

  1. Eesti elektrisüsteemi juhtimiskeskus = Estonian electrical system command centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Kadaka tee 42B1asuva Eesti elektrisüsteemi juhtimiskeskuse sisekujundusest. Spetsiaalsed kaarjad lauad on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Sisearhitektid: Priit Põldme, Reet Sepp (Joonprojekt), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu

  2. Eesti arvutikunsti teke = The birth of Estonian computer art / Tuuli Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Tuuli

    2010-01-01

    Arvutustehnika arengust, esimestest elektronarvutitest Eestis ja kunstiväliselt loodud visuaalidest, s.t. tähemärkidest piltidest meie teadusasutustes, esimestest kunstnikest, kes kasutasid arvutigraafikat pildi loomiseks, Fin Plotteri tegevusest, inseneride, programmeerijate, informaatikute ja kunstnike koostööst, ka Eestis loodud arvutimängudest

  3. Drivers of the Estonian accounting system in the harmonization process with the European framework / Toomas Haldma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haldma, Toomas, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Analüüsi tulemusena selgus, et enam on mõjutanud Eesti arvestussüsteemi raamatupidamisregulatsioonide eristumine maksundusest, arenev arvestuse kutseala ja arvestuse riiklike regulatsioonide paindlikkus ning strateegiline suunitlus

  4. Contextual factors and motivators of the accounting developments in Estonian local goverments / Toomas Haldma, Helje Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haldma, Toomas, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Siirdeperioodil on Eesti kohalike omavalitsuste (KOV) süsteem läbi teinud nii finants- kui administratiivreformi, mis mõjutavad majandusarvestuse kontseptuaalseid aspekte. Etapilise lähenemise teoreetilistest seisukohtadest lähtudes analüüsitakse KOV-de arevestussüsteemi arengut läbi Eesti majandusarvestuse kolme arenguetapi

  5. Eesti Meremuuseumi hoone Lennusadamas = Estonian Maritime Museum in the Tallinn Seaplane Harbour

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Meremuuseumi rekonstrueeritud vesilennukite angaarid Tallinnas Vesilennuki 6, valminud 2012. Eesti kultuurkapitali aastapreemia 2012. Arhitektid Raivo Kotov, Andrus Kõresaar, Indrek Mikk, Margit Aule, Tõnis Savi, Lea Laidra, Karis Kahr, Jelena Altmäe, Jaanus Männik (KOKO Arhitektid). Sisearhitektid Margit Argus, Andrus Kõresaar, Olga Batuhtina (KOKO Arhitektid). Raudbetoonkonstruktsioonide renoveerimisprojekt Karl Õiger, Heiki Onton (Tallinna Tehnikaülikool). Uued konstruktsioonid Neoprojekt

  6. Eesti väliskaubandus aastal 2007 = Estonian's foreign trade in 2007 / Allan Aron, Riina Kerner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aron, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Eesti väliskaubanduse näitajatest 2007. aastal: Eesti kaupade eksport oli 125,5 miljardit krooni, import 177,1 miljardit krooni, kaubavahetuse puudujääk oli 51,6 miljardit krooni. Peamisteks partnerriikideks olid 2007. aastal Soome, Rootsi ja Läti. Olulisemad ekspordi- ja impordiartiklid. Graafikud. Tabel. Diagrammid

  7. Ghostly possession and real estate : the dead in contemporary Estonian folklore / Ülo Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Ülo, 1962-

    2006-01-01

    Vaimudest üldises, sotsiaalses ja ajaloolises kontekstis, surnute tagasipöördumisest ja nende mõjust tänapäeva inimestele. Artikkel põhineb eesti saartel tehtud intervjuudele, kus uuriti kodude mahajätmist ja sealt väljaajamist seoses nõukogude süsteemiga ning sellega seotud kummituslugusid

  8. Estonian household forms and motives for saving and borrowing / Marge Sults

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sults, Marge

    2003-01-01

    Kui 1990-ndate alguses mõjutas majapidamissektori säästmiskäitumist inflatsioon, siis nüüd on oluliseks saanud nii sissetulekute kasv, madalad laenuintressid kui ka uued laenutooted ja väiksemad laenupiirangud. Siia lisandub Eestis läbiviidav pensionireform, mis peaks säästmisele mõjuma positiivselt. Tabelid

  9. TBT recommends : Estonian Music Awards. First Rock'n'Roll Festival. Fantazy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Muusikaauhindade jagamise üritusest 2. märtsil Tallinna klubis Parlament. 26. veebr. rahvusvahelisest Rock'n'Roll Festivalist Lätis (esinevad eesti ansambel Chick'n Band, ansamblid Boogie D, Wildfire Willie & the Ramblers ning läti pianist Pete Anderson). Vodevillide õhtust 25. veebr. klubis "New York" Vilniuses

  10. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1996-01-01

    Kõiv, Madis. Studia memoriae I. Rännuaastad; Krull, Hasso. Luuletused 1987-1991; Krull, Hasso. Swinburne; Mihkelson, Ene. Nime vaev; Saarsen, Karin. Poola suvi; Traat, Mats. Hirm ja iha; Murutar, Kati. Naisena sündinud; Unt, Mati. Tere, kollane kass; Unt, Mati. Argimütoloogia sõnastik 1983-93; Unt, Mati. Vastne argimütoloogia; Mutt, Mihkel. Pingviin ja raisakass; Mutt, Mihkel. Rahvusvaheline mees; Teder, Tarmo. Kurat kargas pähe; Suuman, Sass. Targemat ei ole; Hirv, Indrek. Tähekerjus; Kaplinski, Jaan. Mitu suve ja kevadet; Kaplinski, Jaan. Jää ja Titanic

  11. Kaheksakümnendate eesti fotost = Estonian photography in the eighties / Peeter Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Peeter, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Fotograafiast, fotoklubidest ja fotorühmitustest, fotograafidest ja nende vormiotsingutest, sotsiaalse ja nn. salongliku suuna esindajate vahelistest probleemidest ja diskussioonidest teemal "Kas fotokunst on kunst?" Neil aastail hakkas eesti fotokunst väljuma kultuurilisest isolatsioonist

  12. Probing the Perceptual and Cognitive Underpinnings of Braille Reading. An Estonian Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Mannamaa, Mairi; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have…

  13. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2004-01-01

    Tutvustus: Baturin, Nikolai. Kentaur. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2003 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Isale. Tallinn : Varrak, 2003 ; Jaks, Ilmar. Pimedus. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Ivask, Ivar. Tähtede tähendust tunda. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Vint, Toomas. Minu abielu prostituudiga. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Luigeluulinn. Tallinn : Huma, 2004 ; Kivisildnik. Päike, mida sa õhtul teed? Tallinn : Perioodika, 2003 ; Kivisildnik. Rahvuseepos Kalevipoeg ehk armastus. Tallinn : Tuum, 2003 ; Veidemann, Rein. Lastekodu. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Park, Eeva. Lõks lõpmatuses. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2003 ; Traat, Mats. Islandi suvi. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Kauksi Ülle. Uibu. Tartu : Kauksi Ülle Mänedsment, 2003 ; Kross, Jaan. Kallid kaasteelised. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2003 ; Undusk, Jaan. Quevedo. Tallinn : Perioodika, 2003

  14. Maastikuarhitektuuri koolitusest Eesti Kunstiakadeemias = Schooling in Landscape Architecture at the Estonian Academy of Art / Katrin Koov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koov, Katrin, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Maastikukool tegutseb EKA arhitektuuriosakonna juures neljandat hooaega. Seni oli tegemist valikkursusega, 2003/2004. õppeaastast on see lülitatud arhitektuuriüliõpilaste põhiõppesse. Maastikukooli eesmärgist ja plaanidest, ülevaade aastatel 2000-2003 toimunud maastikukoolidest. 6 ill

  15. Eesti Maastikuarhitektide Liidu "Aasta tegu 2014" = Estonian Landscape Architects' Union annual achievment award 2014 / Minea Kaplinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Minea

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu algatatud EV 100 arhitektuuriprogramm "Hea avalik ruum" pälvis Eesti Maastikuarhitektide Liidu preemia "Aasta tegu 2014". Töögrupi koosseis: Kalle Vellevoog, Ingrid-Mald Villand, Ylle Rajasaar. Loetletud 2015. aasta oktoobriks toimunud arhitektuurikonkursid ja nende võitjad

  16. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  17. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Ehlvest, Jüri. Taevatrepp ; Suuman, Aleksander. Tondihobu tõugud vetikatega ; Õunapuu, Ervin. Mõõk. Nagu jõgi ; Nigov, Anton. Harjutused ; Hainsalu, Lehte. Kellakuuljad ; Heinsaar, Mehis. Härra Pauli kroonikad ; Bristol, Piret. Sajandi öömajad ; Kas kuulete...? : [kuuldemängud] / koost. Tamur Tohver; Rummo, Paul-Eerik. Kohvikumuusikat ; Käsper, Kalle. Vennad Luiged ; Põldroos, Enn. Mees narrimütsiga ; Remsu, Olev. Margit Puusaag ja tema mehed ; Sauter, Peeter. Pori

  18. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian Authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Kaplinski, Jaan. Parallelle ja parallelisme. Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, c2009 ; Hellat, Henn-Kaarel. Inimese tegemine I-V. Tallinn : Faatum, 2002-2008 ; Nõu, Helga. Elu täis üllatusi. Tartu : Atlex, 2009 ; Remsu, Olev. Musketäride muundumised. [Tallinn] : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2008 ; Ristikivi, Karl. Päevaraamat 1957-1968. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008

  19. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Berk Vaher, Aare Pilv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Tutvustus: Raudam, Toomas. Nips. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2004 ; Ilus Armin : eesti lühiproosat 1987-2002 / koost. Udo Uibo. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004 ; Ehlvest, Jüri von. Rahuldus. Tartu : Ilukirjandus, 2004 ; Ki:wa. Roboti tee on nihe ; Salatühik. Tallinn : Eesti Kunstimuuseum, 2004 ; Sommer, Lauri. Nõidade õrnus. Sännä : Tiivaalune, 2004 ; Kalkun, Andreas. Pääväraamat. Tartu : Erakkond, 2004 ; Jõerüüt, Jaak. Uus raamat. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Krull, Hasso. Meeter ja Demeeter. Tallinn : Vagabund, 2004 ; Kõiv, Madis. Päev. Tartu : Akkon, 2004 ; Mihkelson, Ene. Uroboros. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004 ; Soomets, Triin. Toormaterjal. Tallinn : Verb, 2004 ; Vaher, Berk. Sekeldaja päevad. Tallinn : Tuum, 2004

  20. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Sauter, Peeter. Luus; Kuik, Valentin. Poegade mäss; Kallas, Teet. Käsi; Toomet, Tiia. Isamaa suvi; Ehlvest, Jüri. Päkapikk kirjutab; Meri, Lennart. Presidendikõned; Rannap, Jaan. Kõverkäpp; Krull, Hasso; Kalve, Toomas. Kaalud; Talvet, Jüri. Eesti eleegia ja teisi luuletusi; Mihkelson, Ene. Pidevus neelab nuga; Tode, Emil. Printsess; Lepik, Kalju. Pihlakamarja rist; Vint, Toomas. Lõppematu maastik; Valter, Edgar. Isand Tuutu ettevõtmised; Kõiv, Madis. Kolm näitemängu

  1. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Tutvustus: Henno, Sass. Mina olin siin. 1 : esimene arest. Tallinn : Eesti Päevaleht, 2005 ; Kruusvall, Jaan. Sinetavad kaugused : valitud proosat. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2004 ; Hirv, Indrek. Klaaskübara all : [esseed]. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004 ; Õudne Eesti : valimik eesti õudusjutte. Tallinn : Varrak, 2005 ; Ruitlane, Olavi. Kroonu. Räpina : Väiku Välläandja, 2005 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Kaitseala. Tallinn : Huma, 2005 ; Kivirähk, Andrus. Jutud. Tallinn : Eesti Kirjanduse Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Talvet, Jüri. Unest, lumest. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005 ; Künnap, Asko. Kõige ilusam sõda. Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2004 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Kaks päikest : teistmoodi muinaslood. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2005 ; Alver, Betti. Koguja : suur luuleraamat. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005

  2. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2000-01-01

    Kaur Kender. Yuppiejumal; Hiram [Laaniste, Mari]. Mõru maik; Paul-Eerik Rummo. Luuletused; Ilona Laaman. Mulle ei meeldinud su nimi; Lehte Hainsalu. Viis minutit pärast vihma ja Kukelokuti; Maimu Berg. Ära; Kalju Kruusa. Meeleolu; Ervin Õunapuu. Eesti gootika ja Teie mälestuseks, kes iganes te olete ja kus asute; Ilmar Talve. Kevad Eestis, Kutsumatu külaline ja Kolmas kodumaa

  3. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Arvo Valton. Leidik; Mats Traat. Valge lind; Mats Traat. Harala elulood; Kärt Hellerma. Kassandra; Uku Masing. Luule 1.; Ilmar Vene. Trotsija : katse mõista Uku Masingut; Eesti identiteet ja iseseisvus / koost. A. Bertricau; Ene Mihkelson. Kaalud ei kõnele : valitud luuletusi 1967-1977; Mehis Heinsaar. Vanameeste näppaja; Eesti kirjanduslugu / Epp Annus, Luule Epner, Ants Järv jt.; Aarne Ruben. Volta annab kaeblikku vilet; Mart Kivastik. Näidendid; Kaardipakk / Jürgen Rooste, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Triin Soomets, Elo Viiding, Asko Künnap; Hasso Krull. Kornukoopia : sada luuletust; Tiia Toomet. Vana aja koolilood; Aidi Vallik. Kuidas elad, Ann?; Enn Vetemaa. Neitsist sündinud

  4. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Madis Kõiv. Kähri ker'ko man Pekril; Hannes Varblane. Avalikult halb : valik; Andrus Kivirähk. Liblikas; Juhan Paju. Vanaema mõis; Henn Mikelsaar. Ristiratast; Asta Põldmäe. Viini plika; Ellen Niit. Paekivi laul; Toomas Raudam. Elus enesetapja; Andrus Kivirähk. Pagari piparkook; Oskar Kruus. Hella Wuolijoki; Hasso Krull. Jazz : nelikümmend luuletust; Mart Kivastik. Varblane; Jüri Ehlvest. Elli lend

  5. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1997-01-01

    Vint, Toomas. Kojamehe naine; Mihkelson, Ene. Surma sünnipäev; Vint, Toomas. Naisepiinaja õnnenatukene; Kross, Jaan. Mesmeri ring; Vetemaa, Enn. Väegade noobel kooljas...; Berg, Maimu. Ma armastasin venelast; Kivi, Aita. Jumalakäpp; Berg, Maimu. Mina, moeajakirjanik; Kivastik, Mart. Palun õnnelikuks; Kivisildnik, Sven. Nagu härjale punane kärbseseen; Varblane, Hannes. Vihkamiseta; Ehin, Andres. Rummu Jüri mälestused; Tode, Emil (Õnnepalu, Tõnu). Mõõt; Raudam, Toomas. Tarzani seiklused Tallinnas; Ehlvest, Jüri. Ikka veel Bagdadis; Ehlvest, Jüri. Krutsiaania

  6. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Mari Vallisoo. Ainsuse olevik; Andrus Kivirähk. Rehepapp; Toomas Vint. Elamise sulnis õudus; Andreas Oplatka. Lennart Meri - Eestile elatud elu; Mari Saat. Sinikõrguste tuultes; Eeva Park. Pääse karussellile; Hando Runnel. Mõistatused; Jaan Kaplinski. Kirjutatud; Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Suusamütsi tutt; Triin Soomets. Soon; Ervin Õunapuu. Surmaminejad lasevad tervitada; Kaur Kender. Ebanormaalne

  7. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2000-01-01

    Andres Ehin. Alateadvus on alatasa purjus; Peeter Torop. Kultuurimärgid; Matt Barker. Sarah' jalad; Jaan Isotamm. Mina Johnny B.; Jaan Kaplinski. Silm. Hektor; Jaan Kaplinski. Kevad kahel rannikul ehk tundeline teekond Ameerikasse; Rein Raud. Pisiasjad, mis omavad tähtsust; Kerttu Rakke. Kalevipoeg; Elin Toona. Rõõm teeb taeva taga tuld; Veera Saar. Neid ammuseid aegu; Toomas Vint. Nädalavahetusel. Mängides; Varjatud ilus haigus : valik sajandilõpu eesti luuletajaid / koostanud Kajar Pruul; Viiu Härm. Duubel kaks

  8. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Debora Vaarandi. See kauge hääl; Ene Mihkelson. Ahasveeruse uni; Jaan Puhvel. Ulgvel ja umbes; Haljand Udam. Orienditeekond, Jüri Talvet. Kas sul viinamarju ka on?; Leo Kunnas. Sõdurjumala teener; Hendrik Adamson. Laotuse õlmas; Mats Traat. Kõllane õtak; Mari Vallisoo. Ussisõnad; Jan Kaus. Maailm ja mõni; Helga Nõu. Tõmba uttu; Toomas Vint. Kaine kuu ja purjus päike; Kadri Kõusaar. Ego; Mihkel Mutt. Progressiivsed hiired; Jaan Kross. Tahtamaa; Valeria Ränik. Aitab ajast; Valeria Ränik. Ülejõel Kassilaiu pealinnas; Mihkel Samarüütel. 3 : [novellid

  9. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian Authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Karusoo, Merle. Kui ruumid on täis : Eesti rahva elulood teatritekstides 1982-2005. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Aleksejev, Tiit. Palveränd. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Saat, Mari. Lasnamäe lunastaja. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Tarand, Mari. Ajapildi sees. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2008 ; Ojamaa, Liisi. Jõgi asfaldi all. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Kaalep, Ain. Muusad ja maastikud. Luuletused aastaist 1945-2008. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Toona, Elin. Ella. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2008 ; Hellerma, Kärt. Sinine missa. Valik reisikirju. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Raud, Rein. Vend. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Kruusa, Kalju. Pilvedgi mindgi liigutavadgi. Tallinn : Koma, 2008

  10. Shaping Estonian Primary School Pupils' Values by Using Bullying-Prevention Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piht, Sirje; Talts, Leida; Nigulas, Sigrit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify to what extent using the methodology of the programme "Bullying-free school", initiated in the Kingdom of Denmark in 2007 and implemented in schools in Estonia since 2013, has supported the development of ethical values in primary school pupils. The methodology focuses on four value attitudes:…

  11. Tiina Tammetalu : Eesti maastikud, personifitseeritud, dokumenteeritud = Estonian landscapes, personified, documented / Andreas Trossek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trossek, Andreas, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Maalikunstnik Tiina Tammetalu käsitluses on Eesti maastik dokument, mida ta oma lõuenditel seeriapäraselt rekonstrueerib. 1980-ndate õpiaja maalides kandvaks muutunud kehaesteetika on kunstniku viinud läbi 90-ndate erinevate dokumentaalsete/feministlike näituseprojektide ja kolmemõõtmeliste installatsioonide ideeni, et maastik on kui kunstniku identiteet, on kui keha, on kui mälu. Viimaste aastate töödes aimub kogu seda "eestlaslikku" valulikku ajalootunnetust, need on otsekui retooriliseks vastuseks paljude jaoks korduvale küsimusele - kust oled sa tulnud?

  12. Eesti tööturu areng = Development of Estonian labour market / Mihkel Servinski, Mare Kusma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Servinski, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Maksumaksja, nr. 11, 2007, lk. 34-38. Tööturuga seotud protsessidest 2006. aastal, sealhulgas erasektori ja avaliku sektori vahekorrast. Keskmise brutokuupalga muutustest omaniku liigi järgi. Diagrammid

  13. Socialisation tactics : an empirical study of the Estonian defensive force / Uku Mats Peedosk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peedosk, Uku Mats

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Eesti kaitsejõududes läbiviidud uuringu tulemustest selgus, et ajateenistuse jooksul muutuvad värvatute riigi- ja peretasandi kollektivismi määrad, samuti mitmed väärtusorientatsioonid. Tabelid. Graafikud

  14. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, M.; Tekkel, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Taking a stroll through the shelves of the History of Estonian Thought / Paavo Matsin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsin, Paavo, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Raamatusarjast "Eesti mõttelugu" (kirj. Ilmamaa). Pikemalt on tutvustatud Uku Masingu artiklikogumikke "Pessimismi põhjendus" (1995) ja "Meil on lootust" (1998), Haljand Udami "Orienditeekonda" (2001) ja Vaino Vahingu "Vaimuhaiguse müüti" (2005). Autor soovitab "Eesti mõtteloo" sarjas välja anda Gunnar Aarma artiklikogumik

  16. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg and Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Käsper, Kalle. Buridanid. I-V. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005-2010 ; Kivastik, Mart. Eesti asjad. Tartu : Kaks Musketäri, 2010 ; Kangro, Maarja. Ahvid ja solidaarsus. Tallinn : Eesti keele Sihtasutus, 2010 ; Põder, Rein. Unustatud. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2010 ; Kesküla, Kalev. Elu sumedusest. Tallinn : Tuum, 2009 ; Pilv, Aare. Ramadaan. Tallinn : Tuum, 2010

  17. Is the russo-phone minority a structural security threat to the Estonian state? / Maibritt Lind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lind, Maibritt

    2003-01-01

    Autor analüüsib vene vähemuse olukorda Eestis, nende poliitilist ja sotsiaalset kaasatust ühiskondlikku ellu, Eesti integratsioonipoliitikat ning kirjeldab venelaste kõrvaletõrjutusega kaasnevaid võimalikke julgeolekupoliitilisi ning Eesti poliitilist stabiilsust mõjutavaid ohte

  18. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg and Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Kiin, Sirje. Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009 ; Laanes, Eneken. Lepitamatud dialoogid : subjekt ja mälu nõukogudejärgses eesti romaanis. Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2009 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Emapuhkus. Tallinn : Pandekt, 2009 ; Tungal, Leelo. Seltsimees laps ja suured inimesed. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Tungal, Leelo. Samet ja saepuru, ehk, Seltsimees laps ja kirjatähed. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Paradiis. Tallinn : Varrak, 2009

  19. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Runnel, Hando. Sinamu. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005 ; Talvet, Jüri. Tõrjumatu äär. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005 ; Nõu, Enn. Mõtusekuke viimne kogupauk. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Merca. Hele häärber. Tartu : Vilep & Vallik, 2005 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Enne heinaaega ja hiljem : luulet ja luuletõlkeid 1983-2005. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Kaplinski, Jaan. Kõik on ime. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004 ; Unt, Mati. Vend Antigone, ema Oidipus. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2006 ; Laretei, Käbi. Otsekui tõlkes : teema variatsioonidega. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2005 ; Jõerüüt, Jaak. Sõber : valik novelle 1979-2005. Tallinn : Tuum, 2005

  20. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Krull, Hasso. Loomise mõnu ja kiri. Tallinn : Kultuurileht, 2006 ; Aleksejev, Tiit. Valge kuningriik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006 ; Baturin, Nikolai. Sõnajalg kivis. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2006 ; Nõu, Helga. Ood lastud rebasele. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006 ; Kaus, Jan. Tema. Tallinn : Tuum, 2006 ; Krull, Hasso. Talv. Tallinn : Tuum, 2006 ; Soomets, Triin. Väljas. Tallinn : Tuum, 2006 ; Kareva, Doris. Aja kuju. Tallinn : Verb, 2006 ; Vint, Toomas. Topeltvalguses. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Bristol, Piret. Sõud. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2005 ; Valton, Arvo. Taltsutatud lammas : jutud. Tallinn : Kirjastuskeskus, 2005 ; Kivastik, Mart. Külmetava kunstniku portreed. Viinistu triloogia. Tartu : Väike Öömuusika, 2006

  1. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1997-01-01

    Traat, Mats. Peremees võtab naise; Raudam, Toomas. Muusika kuum sai; Baturin, Nikolai. Ringi vangid; Õunapuu, Ervin. Olivia. Meistriklass; Mattheus, Ülo. Läheb ega peatu; Nõu, Enn. Kojutulek; Valton, Arvo. Väike ilus vangimaja; Unt, Mati. Brecht ilmub öösel; Alliksaar, Artur. Päikesepillaja; Kareva, Doris. Hingring; Kaplinski, Jaan. See ja teine; Hellerma, Kärt. Alkeemia

  2. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Afanasjev, Vahur. Kosmos. Tallinn : Jutulind, 2008 ; Hvostov, Andrei. Võõrad lood. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Lauli, Olle. Niguliste õpilased. Tallinn : Verb, 2007 ; Rooste, Jürgen. Tavaline eesti idioot. Pärnu : Ji, 2008 ; Talvet, Jüri. Silmad peksavad une seinu. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2008 ; Beekman, Aimée. Proovielu. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008 ; Kivi, Aita. Lähedal. Tallinn : Ajakirjade Kirjastus, 2008 ; Beekman, Vladimir. Alles see oli. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2008 ; Viiding, Elo. Püha Maama. Tallinn : Tuum, 2008 ; Nõu, Helga. Peaaegu geenius ehk Schrödingeri kassi otsimas. Tallinn : Atlex, 2008 ; Unt, Lii. Parim näitleja linnas. Varanasi päevaraamat. Tallinn : Eesti Ekspressi Kirjastus, 2007 ; Sild, Ivar. Tantsiv linn. Tallinn : Tuum, 2007

  3. Estonian SMEs in the context of an enlarged Europe / David Smallbone, Urve Venesaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smallbone, David

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade väikeettevõtluse probleemidest ja strateegiatest seoses Eesti liitumisega EL-iga. Analüüsi aluseks on 2002. a. detsembris väikeettevõtjate seas läbi viidud küsitlusuuringu tulemused. Tabelid. Diagramm

  4. Searching for an Estonian design hit among the Brunos / Herke Vaarmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmann, Herke, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti disainist. Eesti Disainerite Liit annab 2006. aastast välja disainiauhinda Bruno. 26. 09. 2008 anti teist korda välja disainiauhinnad kolmes kategoorias: parim tootedisain - Mare Kelpmani padjakollektsioon "Lights & Stripes", parim disainiprojekt - Tarmo Luisu "LED Stick" valgusti, eeskujuliku design management'i preemia - byRoller. Preemiale kandideerinud valgustitest, mis võiksid edu saavutada

  5. "Riigikogu hoone 90" = "Estonian parliament building 90" / Janno Roos, Andres Labi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Janno, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2012. aasta näituse kujunduse preemia pälvinud näitusest (Lossiplats 1A). Kujunduse autorid Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor). Kuraator Mait Väljas. Graafiline disain: Identity. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Mari Kurismaa ning arhitektuuriajaloolase Leele Välja arvamused

  6. NATO and EU Need Not Enlarge Hand in Hand - Estonian President in Riga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Riias NATO tippkohtumise ajal toimunud rahvusvahelisel julgeolekukonverentsil esinenud president Toomas Hendrik Ilves toetas Euroopa Liidu edasist laienemist, kuid möönis ühenduses tekkinud nn. laienemisväsimust. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Läti Vabariiki ja Rootsi Kuningriiki 28.-30.11.2006

  7. Indicative effects of climate change on groundwater levels in Estonian raised bogs over 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lode

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of 50-year (1962–2011 monthly air temperature and precipitation data indicated substantial climate change in the locations of two raised bogs (Linnusaare and Männikjärve in central-east Estonia. During recent years the cross-year winter air temperature increased by 1.7 ºC, while the cold-season precipitation increased by 4 mm. The fluctuation amplitude of temperature and precipitation values decreased. Snow depth proved to be the most sensitive variable to winter warming, followed by groundwater levels together with mean and maximum soil frosts. Long-term groundwater levels on the domes of the bogs and in the forested/treed lagg areas were 0.3−0.4 m and 0.4−0.8 m below the soil surface, respectively. Warming caused changes in groundwater level amplitude of 3−22 cm in the bog domes and 3−14 cm in the forested lagg zones. The lowest groundwater levels in ridge-pool ecotopes at Männikjärve rose by 6−10 cm (i.e. these ecotopes became wetter; but the incidence of low groundwater levels increased in most ecotopes, indicating a more general trend towards drier conditions in the bog.

  8. Estonian literature and a brave new world : a postmodern turn? / Piret Viires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viires, Piret, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Ilm. ka väljaandes: Different inputs - same output? : autonomy and dependence of the arts under different social-economic conditions / ed C. D. Hasselblatt - Maastricht : Shaker, 2006. (Studia Fenno-Ugrica Groningana ; 3)

  9. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts and Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Vadi, Urmas. Kirjad tädi Annele. Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused, 2010 ; Sommer, Lauri. Kolm yksiklast. Tallinn : Menu Kirjastus, 2010 ; Hargla, Indrek. Apteeker Melchior ja Oleviste mõistatus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2010 ; Hargla, Indrek. Apteeker Melchior ja Rataskaevu viirastus. Tallinn : Varrak, 2010 ; Pihelgas, Carolina. Metsas algavad hääled. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2010

  10. Leadership style as determinant of creativity profiles in Estonian organizations / Ruth Alas, Krista Tuulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2004-01-01

    Eesti organisatsioonides aastatel 2001-2003 projekti GLOBE raames läbi viidud empiirilise juhiuuringu tulemuste analüüs. Uuringu käigus selgitati välja, kuidas alluvad tajuvad oma juhte, keda eestlased peavad suurepäraseks juhiks, milliseid isiksuseomadusi ning käitumist omab karismaatiline juht. Definitsioonid: innovatsioon, loovus, juhtimine, eestvedamine ja väärtushinnangud. Diagrammid, tabelid

  11. Distribution and migration of cesium and strontium radionuclides in Estonian scots pine stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Tekko, S.; Aaspollu, J.; Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Nifontova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive pollution from the Chernobyl NPS reactor accident in 1986 has wide scale impact through radionuclides fallout over large areas. We used mushrooms, macrolichenes, mosses and pine needles, forest litter and soil for the investigaton of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation and migration in pine ecosystems. Systematic collections were made on 63 field sites, total amount of samples analyzed is 350. Highest concentrations of radiocaesium were determined in mushrooms (41.8 kBq/kg) in north-east of Estonia, in macrolichens at the Lahemaa National Park (6.2 kBq/kg). At the Rumpo Botanical Reserve the level of radiocaesium exceeded background concentration (1985) 1.3-1.8 times and at the Koljaku 4.0-4.4 times. During five years of observations (1986-1991) decrease of radionuclides pollution revealed 15 times the Rumpo and Koljaku. Radiostrontium concentrations in different ecosystem compartments all over the territory did not exeed harmful levels. (author). 2 tabs

  12. Re-vegetation of block-cut and milled peatlands: an Estonian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Triisberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-vegetation of mined peatlands after abandonment is often a long-lasting process. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors influencing the re-vegetation of abandoned block-cut, milled and fertilised peat areas in Estonia by investigating and comparing their present vegetation. The analysis is based on 285 quadrat samples where plant species composition and cover were assessed, and the pH and electrical conductivity of bog water were measured. Whereas re-vegetation in the block-cut area was quite fast and progressive, in milled peat areas it was slow and irregular because of the absence of viable propagules and the unfavourable conditions for plant growth. The course of re-vegetation depends considerably upon the peat extraction method, the area and surface microtopography of the mined area, the pH and electrical conductivity of the bog water, and the density at which trees have established on the cutover surface. Plant species richness was most affected by the density of tree saplings, litter cover, former treatment and microtopography. A single application of fertiliser ca 25 years ago did not have a long-term effect on the total number of plant species, but did increase plant cover and the mean number of species per quadrat. On milled peatlands, neither the sowing of Oxycoccus palustris seeds nor the planting of Rubus chamaemorus had the desired effect unless growth conditions for the plants were improved.

  13. My Home Is My Stage: Restaurant Experiences in Two Estonian Lifestyle Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Võsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses recent developments in the home-based lifestyle business featuring the example of two cases: Tammuri farm restaurant near Otepää in South Estonia, and home restaurant MerMer in Kolga-Aabla in North Estonia. We study the restaurants from a Goffmanian performance perspective, focusing on the lifestyle entrepreneur's viewpoint of creating a restaurant experience in their homes. Accordingly, the home and its surroundings are considered a setting in which food has an important role as a performance medium and multiple roles are enacted by a single entrepreneur as a performer. Freshness, quality and locality of food, homeliness and personalised service are used for creating a special home restaurant meal experience. The two cases also shed light on the dynamics of the concepts of home and lifestyle entrepreneurship in contemporary Estonia, challenging the understanding of restaurant cuisine and home cooking as oppositional practices of food preparation and consumption.

  14. My Home Is My Stage: Restaurant Experiences in Two Estonian Lifestyle Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Võsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses recent developments in the home-based lifestyle business featuring the example of two cases: Tammuri farm restaurant near Otepää in South Estonia, and home restaurant MerMer in Kolga-Aabla in North Estonia. We study the restaurants from a Goffmanian performance perspective, focusing on the lifestyle entrepreneur's viewpoint of creating a restaurant experience in their homes. Accordingly, the home and its surroundings are considered a setting in which food has an important role as a performance medium and multiple roles are enacted by a single entrepreneur as a performer. Freshness, quality and locality of food, homeliness and personalised service are used for creating a special home restaurant meal experience. The two cases also shed light on the dynamics of the concepts of home and lifestyle entrepreneurship in contemporary Estonia, challenging the understanding of restaurant cuisine and home cooking as oppositional practices of food preparation and consumption.

  15. Factors signifying gender differences in clinical presentation of sarcoidosis among Estonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, Hille; Kliiman, Kai; Altraja, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is endemically prevalent in Northern Europe, but gender differences among the sarcoidosis population have not yet been compositely addressed. To reveal independent factors that formulate gender differences in the presentation of sarcoidosis. All Caucasian patients with confirmed sarcoidosis were recruited from the outpatient department of the Lung Clinic of the Tartu University Hospital, Estonia, between February 2009 and April 2011. Data on demographics, complaints, symptoms, clinical presentation, extrapulmonary manifestations, radiographic stage, lung function parameters and sarcoidosis-related laboratory indices were all drawn from patients' clinical records at presentation. Factors characteristic of female gender were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 230 cases included, there were significantly more females (56.5%, P = 0.005). After adjustment for age, females appeared distinguishable from males by older age [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.07], less frequent smoking (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13-0.49), higher probability of extrapulmonary complaints (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.16-3.65) and musculoskeletal sarcoidosis (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.65-6.29), and after adjustment for both age and smoking status lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s and lung carbon monoxide diffusing coefficient % predicted (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97 and OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.995, respectively), but by higher forced vital capacity % predicted (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.22). Women with sarcoidosis are independently characterized by greater airflow obstruction, lower lung diffusing coefficient, older age, less smoking, and more frequent extrapulmonary complaints and musculoskeletal involvement. This may urge special attention when addressing female patients in both differential diagnostic and management settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus, Maire Iro and Maret Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtna, Maarja. Läved ja tüved. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2013 ; Sauter, Peeter. Ära jäta mind rahule. Tallinn : P. Sauter, 2012 ; Viiding, Elo. Teised. Tallinn : Tuum, 2012 ; Mathura. Kumalasepäev. Lelle : Allikaäärne, 2012 ; Kadastik, Mart. Kevad saabub sügisel. Tallinn : Varrak, 2013 ; Mutt, Mihkel. Kooparahvas läheb ajalukku. Tallinn : Fabian, 2012 ; Hargla, Indrek. Apteeker Melchior ja Pirita kägistaja. Tallinn : Varrak, 2013 ; Raud, Rein. Rekonstruktsioon. Tallinn : Mustvalge Kirjastus, 2012 ; Toona, Elin. Into exile : a life story of war and peace. Woodsville (N.H.) : Lakeshore Press, 2013 ; Berg, Maimu. Moemaja. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2012 ; Kareva, Doris, Rooste, Jürgen. Elutants. Tallinn : Verb, 2013 ; Ehin, Kristiina. Paleontoloogi päevaraamat. Tartu : Petrone Print, 2013 ; Maria Lee. Stereomeetria. Tallinn : Verb, 2012

  17. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Baturin, Nikolai. Lendav hollandlanna. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2012 ; Friedenthal, Meelis. Mesilased. Tallinn : Varrak, 2012 ; Kaus, Jan. Koju. Tallinn : Tuum, 2012 ; Kaldmaa, Kätlin. Armastuse tähestik. Tallinn : NyNorden, 2012 ; Kivastik, Mart. Vietnami retsept. Tartu : Väike Öömuusika, 2012 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Kuidas on elada. Tallinn : Varrak, 2012 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Mandala. Tallinn : Varrak, 2012 ; Riismaa, Kaur. Rebase matmine. Tallinn : Näo Kirik, 2012 ; Vadi, Urmas. Tagasi Eestisse. Saarde-Pärnu : Jumalikud Ilmutused, 2012 ; Vint, Toomas. Avalikult abielust. Tallinn : Tulikiri, 2012 ; Kangro, Maarja. Dantelik auk. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2012 ; Kaevats, Mihkel. Ungari kirsid & teisi luuletusi. Tallinn : Pegasus, 2012.

  18. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  19. People's attitudes towards the application of information technology in Estonian companies / Merike Kaseorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaseorg, Merike, 1964-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtetes tuleks rohkem tähelepanu pöörata töötajate teadmiste täiendamisele, hirmu ja vastumeelsuse vähendamisele uue infotehnoloogia suhtes ning muutustega seotud positiivsete hoiakute suurendamisele, leiab autor. Tabel. Skeemid. Lisad lk. 206-207

  20. Näitus "Eesti kirjanik karikatuuris" = Exhibition "Estonian writers in caricature"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Välinäitus pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2010. a. näituse ja installatsiooni kujunduse preemia. Autorid: Kaarel Vahtramäe, Liina Jakobson, Mart Lankots, Janno Siimar (Velvet Creative Alliance)

  1. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  2. Postmodern diversity in Estonian architecture in the 70s and 80s / Marieke van Rooy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooy, Marieke van, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis 28. 06.-24. 08. 2008 olnud näitusest ja kataloogist "Keskkond, projektid, kontseptsioonid. Tallinna Kooli arhitektid 1972-1985 = Environment, projects, concepts. Architects of the Tallinn School 1972-1985". Näituse kuraatorid ja kataloogi koostajad Andres Kurg ja Mari Laanemets

  3. AP Interview : Estonian leader denies seeking Russia's breakup, says Moscow won't accept past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest soome-ugri rahvaste maailmakongressil Hantõ-Mansiiskis. Eesti president lükkab ümber Vene riigiduuma väliskomisjoni esimehe Konstantin Kossatshovi süüdistuse, et tema kõnest võis välja lugeda toetusavalduse soome-ugri rahvaste iseseisvusele. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Venemaal 27.-30.06.2008

  4. Võsast võrsub kultuur = Sowing the seeds of Estonian culture / Piret Õunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õunapuu, Piret, 1955-

    2014-01-01

    Läbilõige Eesti Rahva Muuseumi ajaloost, uue muuseumihoone ehitamisest Raadile (arhitektuurivõistluse võidutöö nimega "Memory Field", autoriteks rahvusvaheline arhitektide kolmik Pariisist: Dan Dorell, Lina Ghotmeh ja Tsuyoshi Tane) ning selles 2016.a. avatavatest püsinäitustest

  5. Estonian pavilion at EXPO 2010 in Shangai urges action to save cities / Tiit Konsand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Konsand, Tiit

    2010-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse turundus- ja kommunikatsiooniüksuse direktor räägib Eesti esindamisest ning paviljonist 2010. aasta EXPOl Shanghais. Samuti on avatud portaal SaveCity.org, kus on võimalik suhelda ning vahetada kogemusi

  6. Innovation in Estonian enterprises : is it sufficient for competing in the world economy? / Silja Kurik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurik, Silja

    2003-01-01

    Kaanel ajak. ilmumisaeg 2002/2003. Autor tutvustab 2001. a. Eesti ettevõtetes läbiviidud uuringu tulemusi ettevõtete investeeringutest tootearenduseks, seadmete ja tehnoloogiate hankimiseks, töötajate koolituseks ja turundustegevuse arendamiseks ning hindab ettevõtete konkurentsivõimet Euroopa turul. Tabel. Diagrammid

  7. Spectacular - spectacular! : the exhibition revolution in Estonian museums and theme parks / Mariann Raisma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raisma, Mariann, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Muuseumide kaasajastamisest Eestis viimastel aastatel. Näituste kvaliteedi tõusust ja muuseumide uuest rollist. Pikemalt Eesti Meremuuseumi Lennusadamast (KOKO Arhitektid), TÜ Ajaloo muuseumi varakambrist (KAOS Arhitektid), Eesti Maanteemuuseumi väliekspositsioonist "Teeaeg" (Salto Arhitektid, Laika, Belka & Strelka)

  8. Art and Identity : The Soviet Woman in Estonian Art / Michael Schwab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwab, Michael, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 8.04.-26.09.2010 avatud näitusest "Nõukogude naine eesti kunstis", kuraatorid Katrin Kivimaa ja Kädi Talvoja. Ernst Hallopi maalist "Piimatootmine Väimela karjandustehnikumis" (1948) ja Lola Liivati maalist "Laulja ja näitleja Elo Tamuli portree" (1954)

  9. Estonian rail transport policy : cohesion with the European Union transport policy / Ott Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Ott, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Käesoleval ajal asub Euroopa liidu liikmesriikide ainus erastatud avalik raudteeinfrastruktuur Eestis. Artikkel püüab selgitada, kas ja kuidas haakuvad Euroopa Liidu ja Eesti transpordipoliitikad raudteeveonduse osas ning kas erastatud avaliku raudtee puhul on võimalik nendes sisalduvate eesmärkide elluviimine. Järeldused. Tabelid, diagrammid

  10. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Ehin, Andres. Seljatas sada meest; Ilmet, Peep. Tuuldunud luule; Kaplinski, Jaan. Öölinnud. Öömõtted; Kender, Kaur. Iseseisvuspäev; Kesküla, Kalev. Vabariigi laulud; Luik, Viivi. Maa taevas; Nõu, Helga. Hundi silmas; Raun, Mait. Wake up; Remsu, Olev. Haapsalu tragöödia; Sauter, Peeter. Kogu moos; Undusk, Jaan. Maagiline müstiline keel; Vint, Toomas. Kunstnikuromaan

  11. S.P.E.A.K. = The strange politics of Estonian authorities against "Kinsfolk" / Irina Brusnigina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brusnigina, Irina

    2004-01-01

    Keelest kui poliitika osast, Eesti kodakondsuse saamise tingimustest, venekeelsete koolide üleminekust eestikeelsele õppele aastal 2007, riiklikust keelepoliitikast, eestlaste negatiivse suhtumise põhjustest venelastesse

  12. Eesti Tervishoiu Muuseum = Estonian Health Care Museum / Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam ; kommenteerinud Kadri Liimal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paling, Raili

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Tervishoiu Muuseumi (Tallinn, Lai tn. 30) renoveeritud interjöör ja püsiekspositsioon. Autorid Jelena Altmäe, Kadri Kaldam, Andrus Kõresaar, Indrek Mikk, Jaanus Männik, Lea Laidra, Liis Lindvere, Raili Paling; kuraator Ülle Kask

  13. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Kareva, Doris. Lõige. Tallinn : Verb, 2007 ; Õnnepalu, Tõnu. Flandria päevik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Mihkelson, Ene. Katkuhaud. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Vint, Toomas. Mäluauguga naine. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007 ; Pervik, Aino. Suleline, Puhuja ja must munk. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2007 ; Mutt, Mihkel. Siseemigrant. Novellid Rui taevalike kommentaaridega. Tallinn : Fabian, 2007 ; Nõlvak, Valentine. Ellujääja mälestused. Tallinn : Varrak, 2007 ; Tungal, Leelo. Täisminevik. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2007 ; Kangro, Maarja. Tule mu koopasse, mateeria. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007

  14. Estonian Attitudes towards the German Exercise of Power in Estonia 1941-1944 / Kari Alenius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alenius, Kari, 1966-

    2012-01-01

    Eestlaste suhtumisest Saksa okupatsioonivõimudesse perioodil 1941-1944. Perioodi võib jagada kolmeks etapiks. 1941. aastal suhtuti sakslastesse heatahtlikult. Pettumus hakkas süvenema 1942. aasta talvel. Alates 1942. aasta kevadest polnud enam üksmeele leidmine võimalik

  15. Estonian science breeds world-class researches / ToivoTänavsuu, Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti teadusfirmadest: biotehnoloogia ettevõtted Celecure AS, Protobios OÜ, Icosagen AS, Asper Biotech AS ja Solis BioDyne OÜ, geenitehnoloogia firma Genorama OÜ, keemiatehnoloogia ettevõte AS Cambrex Tallinn

  16. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  17. Amendments to procurement contracts : Estonian law in the light of the pressetext ruling / Mari Ann Simovart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simovart, Mari Ann, 1969-

    2010-01-01

    Euroopa Kohtu lahendist kohtuasjas Pressetext (C-454/06). Hankelepingu teise poole isiku muutusest ning hinna ja tähtaja muudatustest. Eesti riigihangete seaduses sätestatud lepingu muutmise regulatsioonist

  18. Estonian-Russian relations - on the threshold of change? / Tunne Kelam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelam, Tunne, 1936-

    2002-01-01

    Riigikogu aseesimees Tunne Kelam peamistest takistustest Eesti-Vene suhete paranemisel ning võimalikest muutustest Venemaa Eesti-suunalises välispoliitikas tulevikus. Autor: Isamaaliit. Parlamendisaadik

  19. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Brita Melts, Rutt Hinrikus and Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Brita

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Kilusk, Ott. Veidrikud ja võpatused. Tallinn : Menu, 2012 ; Kilusk, Ott. Oktoobrikuine tuuker. Tallinn : Kirjastuskeskus, 2010 ; Hansen, Aime. Ma olin mereingel. Tallinn : Verb, 2011 ; Vallisoo, Mari. Koidutäht koolivihikus. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2011 ; Sinijärv, Karl Martin. Krümitor 0671. Tallinn ; Näo Kirik, 2011 ; Aareleid, Kai. Vene veri. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011 ; Ashilevi, Jim. Ma olen elus olemise tunne. Luige : Verb, 2011 ; Traat, Mats. Vastsed Harala elulood. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2011 ; Tamm, Margus. Unesnõiduja. Tallinn : Raudwara, 2011

  20. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Talvet, Jüri. ElegÍa Estonia y otros poemas = Eesti eleegia ja teisi luuletusi / Spanish transl. by the author and Albert L̉zaro Tinaut. Ciudad de València : Palmart, 2002 ; Ehlvest, Jüri. Hobune eikuskilt. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2002 ; Raudam, Toomas. Saint-Prousti vastu. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Tode, Emil. Raadio. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Vene, Ilmar. Pahustumine ehk Uusaja olemus. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Annus, Epp. Kuidas kirjutada aega. Tallinn : Underi ja Tuglase Kirjanduskeskus, 2002 ; Lepik, Kalju. Valguse riie ei vanu. Kogutud luuletused 1938-1999 ; Barker, Matt. Waanenburgi tapatalgud. Tartu : EYS Veljesto, 2002 ; Kesküla, Kalev. Platoni riik. Tallinn : Tuum, 2002 ; Vahing, Vaino. Mängud ja kõnelused. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2002 ; Tuulik, Jüri. Üksik lind mere kohal. Tallinn : Maalehe Raamat, 2002 ; Tätte, Jaan. Näidendid. Tallinn : Maalehe Raamat, 2002 ; Kareva, Doris. Mandragora. Tallinn : Huma, 2002