WorldWideScience

Sample records for estimates rotation limits

  1. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  2. Inviscid incompressible limits for rotating fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caggio, Matteo; Nečasová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 163, November (2017), s. 1-18 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier -Stokces system * rotating fluids * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X17301815?via%3Dihub

  3. Inviscid incompressible limits for rotating fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caggio, Matteo; Nečasová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 163, November (2017), s. 1-18 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokces system * rotating fluids * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X17301815?via%3Dihub

  4. Limiting rotational period of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    1992-11-01

    We seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties in which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M=1.442Msolar neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). A still lower curve, based only on the structure of Einstein's equations, limits any star whatsoever to lie in the plane above it. Hypothetical stars such as strange stars, if the matter of which they are made is self-bound in bulk at a sufficiently large equilibrium energy density, can lie in the region above the general-relativistic forbidden region, and in the region forbidden to neutron stars.

  5. Limiting rotational period of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    We seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties in which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M=1.442M circle-dot neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). A still lower curve, based only on the structure of Einstein's equations, limits any star whatsoever to lie in the plane above it. Hypothetical stars such as strange stars, if the matter of which they are made is self-bound in bulk at a sufficiently large equilibrium energy density, can lie in the region above the general-relativistic forbidden region, and in the region forbidden to neutron stars

  6. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  7. Estimation of the Rotational Terms of the Dynamic Response Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montalvão

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of a structure can be described by both its translational and rotational receptances. The latter ones are frequently not considered because of the difficulties in applying a pure moment excitation or in measuring rotations. However, in general, this implies a reduction up to 75% of the complete model. On the other hand, if a modification includes a rotational inertia, the rotational receptances of the unmodified system are needed. In one method, more commonly found in the literature, a so called T-block is attached to the structure. Then, a force, applied to an arm of the T-block, generates a moment together with a force at the connection point. The T-block also allows for angular displacement measurements. Nevertheless, the results are often not quite satisfactory. In this work, an alternative method based upon coupling techniques is developed, in which rotational receptances are estimated without the need of applying a moment excitation. This is accomplished by introducing a rotational inertia modification when rotating the T-block. The force is then applied in its centroid. Several numerical and experimental examples are discussed so that the methodology can be clearly described. The advantages and limitations are identified within the practical application of the method.

  8. New Limits on Extragalactic Magnetic Fields from Rotation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Urban, F. R.

    2016-05-01

    We take advantage of the wealth of rotation measures data contained in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog to derive new, statistically robust, upper limits on the strength of extragalactic magnetic fields. We simulate the extragalactic magnetic field contribution to the rotation measures for a given field strength and correlation length, by assuming that the electron density follows the distribution of Lyman-α clouds. Based on the observation that rotation measures from distant radio sources do not exhibit any trend with redshift, while the extragalactic contribution instead grows with distance, we constrain fields with Jeans' length coherence length to be below 1.7 nG at the 2 σ level, and fields coherent across the entire observable Universe below 0.65 nG. These limits do not depend on the particular origin of these cosmological fields.

  9. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  10. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  11. Estimating uncertainty of data limited stock assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkalis, Alexandros; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2017-01-01

    -limited. Particular emphasis is put on providing uncertainty estimates of the data-limited assessment. We assess four cod stocks in the North-East Atlantic and compare our estimates of stock status (F/Fmsy) with the official assessments. The estimated stock status of all four cod stocks followed the established stock...

  12. Low Mach number limits of compressible rotating fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2012), s. 61-78 ISSN 1422-6928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number limit * rotating fluid * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/635r1116j40t6428/

  13. Three-hair relations for rotating stars: Nonrelativistic limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Leo C. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás, E-mail: leostein@astro.cornell.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The gravitational field outside of astrophysical black holes is completely described by their mass and spin frequency, as expressed by the no-hair theorems. These theorems assume vacuum spacetimes, and thus they apply only to black holes and not to stars. Despite this, we analytically find that the gravitational potential of arbitrarily rapid, rigidly rotating stars can still be described completely by only their mass, spin angular momentum, and quadrupole moment. Although these results are obtained in the nonrelativistic limit (to leading order in a weak-field expansion of general relativity, GR), they are also consistent with fully relativistic numerical calculations of rotating neutron stars. This description of the gravitational potential outside the source in terms of just three quantities is approximately universal (independent of equation of state). Such universality may be used to break degeneracies in pulsar and future gravitational wave observations to extract more physics and test GR in the strong-field regime.

  14. Effective theory of rotationally faulted multilayer graphene - the local limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindermann, M; First, P N

    2012-01-01

    Interlayer coupling in rotationally faulted graphene multilayers breaks the local sublattice-symmetry of the individual layers. Earlier we have presented a theory of this mechanism, which reduces to an effective Dirac model with space-dependent mass in an important limit. It thus makes a wealth of existing knowledge available for the study of rotationally faulted graphene multilayers. Agreement of this theory with a recent experiment in a strong magnetic field was demonstrated. Here we explore some of the predictions of this theory for the system in zero magnetic field at large interlayer bias, when it becomes local in space. We use that theory to illuminate the physics of localization and velocity renormalization in twisted graphene layers. (paper)

  15. Sensorless Estimation and Nonlinear Control of a Rotational Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunna, Kameswarie; Toh, Tzern T.; Mitcheson, Paul D.; Astolfi, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    It is important to perform sensorless monitoring of parameters in energy harvesting devices in order to determine the operating states of the system. However, physical measurements of these parameters is often a challenging task due to the unavailability of access points. This paper presents, as an example application, the design of a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller for a rotational energy harvester. A dynamic model of a rotational energy harvester with its power electronic interface is derived and validated. This model is then used to design a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller which yield a sensorless closed-loop system. The observer estimates the mechancial quantities from the measured electrical quantities while the control law sustains power generation across a range of source rotation speeds. The proposed scheme is assessed through simulations and experiments.

  16. A Novel DOA Estimation Algorithm Using Array Rotation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Lan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of traditional direction of arrival (DOA estimation algorithm based on uniform circular array (UCA is constrained by the array aperture. Furthermore, the array requires more antenna elements than targets, which will increase the size and weight of the device and cause higher energy loss. In order to solve these issues, a novel low energy algorithm utilizing array base-line rotation for multiple targets estimation is proposed. By rotating two elements and setting a fixed time delay, even the number of elements is selected to form a virtual UCA. Then, the received data of signals will be sampled at multiple positions, which improves the array elements utilization greatly. 2D-DOA estimation of the rotation array is accomplished via multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithms. Finally, the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB is derived and simulation results verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm with high resolution and estimation accuracy performance. Besides, because of the significant reduction of array elements number, the array antennas system is much simpler and less complex than traditional array.

  17. Fault Severity Estimation of Rotating Machinery Based on Residual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault severity estimation is an important part of a condition-based maintenance system, which can monitor the performance of an operation machine and enhance its level of safety. In this paper, a novel method based on statistical property and residual signals is developed for estimating the fault severity of rotating machinery. The fast Fourier transformation (FFT is applied to extract the so-called multifrequency-band energy (MFBE from the vibration signals of rotating machinery with different fault severity levels in the first stage. Usually these features of the working conditions with different fault sensitivities are different. Therefore a sensitive features-selecting algorithm is defined to construct the feature matrix and calculate the statistic parameter (mean in the second stage. In the last stage, the residual signals computed by the zero space vector are used to estimate the fault severity. Simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed method based on statistics and residual signals is effective and feasible for estimating the severity of a rotating machine fault.

  18. Peer influence on students' estimates of performance: social comparison in clinical rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, A N Janet; Kuks, Jan B M; van Hell, E Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-02-01

    During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students' strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate his or her abilities to master a novel rotation. These estimates are relevant for learning and performance because they are related to self-efficacy. We investigated whether student estimates of their own future performance are influenced by the performance level and gender of the peer with whom the student compares him- or herself. We designed an experimental study in which participating students (n = 321) were divided into groups assigned to 12 different conditions. Each condition entailed a written comparison situation in which a peer student had completed the rotation the participant was required to undertake next. Differences between conditions were determined by the performance level (worse, similar or better) and gender of the comparison peer. The overall grade achieved by the comparison peer remained the same in all conditions. We asked participants to estimate their own future performance in that novel rotation. Differences between their estimates were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students' estimates of their future performance were highest when the comparison peer was presented as performing less well and lowest when the comparison peer was presented as performing better (p influences students' estimates of their future performance in a novel rotation. The effect depends on the performance level and gender of the comparison peer. This indicates that comparisons against particular peers may strengthen or diminish a student's self-efficacy, which, in turn, may ease or hamper the student's learning during clinical rotations. The study is limited by its experimental design. Future research should focus on students' comparison behaviour in real transitions

  19. Experimental estimates of quasiparticle interactions for rotational nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendorf, S.; Riedinger, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Previously presented data on rotationally aligned quasiparticle bands in sup(160,161,162,163)Yb are analyzed to give experimental values of the quasiparticle interactions Vsub(μν) as a function of rotational frequency. The measured level energies are converted to the rotating frame of reference and expressed as routhians. The routhian of a multi-quasiparticle band is compared to the sum of the routhians of the component quasiparticles at a given frequency, the difference being the quasiparticle interaction. The experimental spectra of bands in these nuclei are consistent with the assumption of a binary interaction between the rotating quasiparticles, where most of the Vsub(μν) are in the range -0.3 to -0.1 MeV. Analysis of the shift in the observed crossing frequencies for bands of different quasiparticle number yields similar values. The extracted Vsub(μν) are found to have a frequency dependence, which is associated with the loss of alignment of a multi-quasiparticle state. An equidistant-level model is used to estimate the contributions to the quasiparticle interactions by polarization of the collective degrees of freedom. This model yields typical Vsub(μν) values of -0.15 MeV, which is only half of some values extracted from experiment. This suggests that the extracted Vsub(μν) contain a significant amount of nuclear-structure information. (orig.)

  20. Calculation of poloidal rotation in the edge plasma of limiter tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhauser, H.; Claassen, H.A.

    1987-05-01

    The existing 2-d two-fluid code for computing the plasma profiles in the scrape-off layer of limiter tokamaks has been further developed to include the effect of poloidal rotation in the basic equations. This rotation is produced by radial electric fields which arise in the limiter shadow due to radial gradients in the Langmuir sheath potential in front of the limiter. As a consequence slight deviations from ambipolar motion must occur. A strong increase of rotation near the separatrix is connected with an electric current circuit closed via the limiter edge. The 2-d profiles of all relevant quantities are calculated and discussed for TEXTOR-typical parameters including also the effect of limiter recycled neutrals. The results agree well with the known experimental evidence on poloidal rotation and should be transferable to all limiter tokamaks. (orig.)

  1. Attitude and gyro bias estimation by the rotation of an inertial measurement unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zheming; Sun, Zhenguo; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    In navigation applications, the presence of an unknown bias in the measurement of rate gyros is a key performance-limiting factor. In order to estimate the gyro bias and improve the accuracy of attitude measurement, we proposed a new method which uses the rotation of an inertial measurement unit, which is independent from rigid body motion. By actively changing the orientation of the inertial measurement unit (IMU), the proposed method generates sufficient relations between the gyro bias and tilt angle (roll and pitch) error via ridge body dynamics, and the gyro bias, including the bias that causes the heading error, can be estimated and compensated. The rotation inertial measurement unit method makes the gravity vector measured from the IMU continuously change in a body-fixed frame. By theoretically analyzing the mathematic model, the convergence of the attitude and gyro bias to the true values is proven. The proposed method provides a good attitude estimation using only measurements from an IMU, when other sensors such as magnetometers and GPS are unreliable. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated under realistic robotic motions and the results demonstrate an improvement in the accuracy of the attitude estimation. (paper)

  2. Rotation Estimation for Wide-Angle Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To present focused ISAR imaging results in the homogenous range and cross-range domain, an integrated scheme is proposed to estimate both the targets equivalent rotational velocity (RV and rotational center (RC. The RV estimation is improved by radial projection combined with keystone processing, and then the RC is estimated through image entropy minimization. Finally, delicate imaging results may be obtained for wide-angle scenarios. Experiment results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. You Spin my Head Right Round: Threshold of Limited Immersion for Rotation Gains in Redirected Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Patric; Hildebrandt, Julian; Valdez, Andre Calero; Kobbelt, Leif; Ziefle, Martina

    2018-04-01

    In virtual environments, the space that can be explored by real walking is limited by the size of the tracked area. To enable unimpeded walking through large virtual spaces in small real-world surroundings, redirection techniques are used. These unnoticeably manipulate the user's virtual walking trajectory. It is important to know how strongly such techniques can be applied without the user noticing the manipulation-or getting cybersick. Previously, this was estimated by measuring a detection threshold (DT) in highly-controlled psychophysical studies, which experimentally isolate the effect but do not aim for perceived immersion in the context of VR applications. While these studies suggest that only relatively low degrees of manipulation are tolerable, we claim that, besides establishing detection thresholds, it is important to know when the user's immersion breaks. We hypothesize that the degree of unnoticed manipulation is significantly different from the detection threshold when the user is immersed in a task. We conducted three studies: a) to devise an experimental paradigm to measure the threshold of limited immersion (TLI), b) to measure the TLI for slowly decreasing and increasing rotation gains, and c) to establish a baseline of cybersickness for our experimental setup. For rotation gains greater than 1.0, we found that immersion breaks quite late after the gain is detectable. However, for gains lesser than 1.0, some users reported a break of immersion even before established detection thresholds were reached. Apparently, the developed metric measures an additional quality of user experience. This article contributes to the development of effective spatial compression methods by utilizing the break of immersion as a benchmark for redirection techniques.

  4. Basis states for the rotational and vibrational limits of nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanagas, V.; Alishauskas, S.; Kalinauskas, R.; Nadzhakov, E.

    1980-01-01

    Basis states characterized by quantum numbers traditionally used in the rotational and the vibrational limits are treated in an unified way. An explicit basis construction in the Hilbert space of the collective phenomenological nuclear Hamiltonian generalized to six degrees of freedom in both limits is given. This generalization reduces to including an additional degree of freedom allowing to treat both cases within a collective substance of the complete many-body Hilbert space. A group-theoretical approach is applied. From this point of view the problem is reduced to the construction of a set of U(6)-irreducible states labelled by quantum numbers of two special chains of subgroups adapted for the rotational and vibrational limits. In particular, the generalization is more complicated in the case of the chain for the rotational limits. The explicit construction of a basis for both limits is carried out in two steps: 1) construction of the highest weight state for corresponding group irreducible representation - in the case of the rotational limit U(3) and of the vibrational limit O(5); 2) generating a complete set of states by the projection technique. In this framework it is possible to diagonalize a general phenomenological Hamiltonian in cases different from both limits. It is also possible to calculate transition probabilities induced by any physical quantity

  5. Absorption lines, Faraday rotation, and magnetic field estimates for QSO absorption-line clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, P.P.; Perry, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have estimated the extragalactic component of Faraday rotation for a sample of 37 QSOs for which there is good absorption line data, which we have also analyzed. Statistical evidence is presented which suggests that we have isolated a component of Faraday rotation which is occurring in the absorption clouds of some QSOs

  6. Daily GPS-Derived Estimates Of Axis Of Rotation Of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Freedman, Adam

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study in which data gathered by worldwide network of 21 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers during 3-week experiment in January and February 1991 used to estimate location of axis of rotation of Earth.

  7. High-efficiency free-form condenser overcoming rotational symmetry limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C; Benítez, Pablo; Blen, José; Santamaría, Asunción

    2008-12-08

    Conventional condensers using rotational symmetric devices perform far from their theoretical limits when transferring optical power from sources such as arc lamps or halogen bulbs to the rectangular entrance of homogenizing prisms (target). We present a free-form condenser design (calculated with the SMS method) that overcomes the limitations inherent to rotational devices and can send to the target 1.8 times the power sent by an equivalent elliptical condenser for a 4:1 target aspect ratio and 1.5 times for 16:9 target and for practical values of target etendue.

  8. Residual life estimation of electrical insulation system for rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishtha, Y.D.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Verma, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Residual life assessment gains significance towards the end of designed life for granting plant life extensions and resource planning for costly equipment replacement. A critical review of all the diagnostic techniques presently used to assess either health of insulation system or to infer qualitatively the remaining life for rotating machines is presented. However more emphasis is required on developing quantitative methods. This paper also formulates the experimental plan for progressively censored ageing tests, measurement of partial discharge parameters, micro-structural study for delamination and electrical tree growth and measurement of electrical breakdown strength. Partial discharge (PD) patterns, electrical tree growth and time to failure data shall be taken as training set for the neural network learning which can be useful to predict residual life with only one candidate parameter i.e. PD patterns. (author). 9 refs

  9. An estimation of Envisat's rotational state accounting for the precession of its rotational axis caused by gravity-gradient torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hou-Yuan; Zhao, Chang-Yin

    2018-01-01

    The rotational state of Envisat is re-estimated using the specular glint times in optical observation data obtained from 2013 to 2015. The model is simplified to a uniaxial symmetric model with the first order variation of its angular momentum subject to a gravity-gradient torque causing precession around the normal of the orbital plane. The sense of Envisat's rotation can be derived from observational data, and is found to be opposite to the sense of its orbital motion. The rotational period is estimated to be (120.674 ± 0.068) · exp((4.5095 ± 0.0096) ×10-4 · t) s , where t is measured in days from the beginning of 2013. The standard deviation is 0.760 s, making this the best fit obtained for Envisat in the literature to date. The results demonstrate that the angle between the angular momentum vector and the negative normal of the orbital plane librates around a mean value of 8.53 ° ± 0.42 ° with an amplitude from about 0.7 ° (in 2013) to 0.5 ° (in 2015), with the libration period equal to the precession period of the angular momentum, from about 4.8 days (in 2013) to 3.4 days (in 2015). The ratio of the minimum to maximum principal moments of inertia is estimated to be 0.0818 ± 0.0011 , and the initial longitude of the angular momentum in the orbital coordinate system is 40.5 ° ± 9.3 ° . The direction of the rotation axis derived from our results at September 23, 2013, UTC 20:57 is similar to the results obtained from satellite laser ranging data but about 20 ° closer to the negative normal of the orbital plane.

  10. In vivo sensitivity estimation and imaging acceleration with rotating RF coil arrays at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyan; Jin, Jin; Zuo, Zhentao; Liu, Feng; Trakic, Adnan; Weber, Ewald; Zhuo, Yan; Xue, Rong; Crozier, Stuart

    2015-03-01

    Using a new rotating SENSitivity Encoding (rotating-SENSE) algorithm, we have successfully demonstrated that the rotating radiofrequency coil array (RRFCA) was capable of achieving a significant reduction in scan time and a uniform image reconstruction for a homogeneous phantom at 7 Tesla. However, at 7 Tesla the in vivo sensitivity profiles (B1-) become distinct at various angular positions. Therefore, sensitivity maps at other angular positions cannot be obtained by numerically rotating the acquired ones. In this work, a novel sensitivity estimation method for the RRFCA was developed and validated with human brain imaging. This method employed a library database and registration techniques to estimate coil sensitivity at an arbitrary angular position. The estimated sensitivity maps were then compared to the acquired sensitivity maps. The results indicate that the proposed method is capable of accurately estimating both magnitude and phase of sensitivity at an arbitrary angular position, which enables us to employ the rotating-SENSE algorithm to accelerate acquisition and reconstruct image. Compared to a stationary coil array with the same number of coil elements, the RRFCA was able to reconstruct images with better quality at a high reduction factor. It is hoped that the proposed rotation-dependent sensitivity estimation algorithm and the acceleration ability of the RRFCA will be particularly useful for ultra high field MRI.

  11. In vivo sensitivity estimation and imaging acceleration with rotating RF coil arrays at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyan; Jin, Jin; Zuo, Zhentao; Liu, Feng; Trakic, Adnan; Weber, Ewald; Zhuo, Yan; Xue, Rong; Crozier, Stuart

    2015-03-01

    Using a new rotating SENSitivity Encoding (rotating-SENSE) algorithm, we have successfully demonstrated that the rotating radiofrequency coil array (RRFCA) was capable of achieving a significant reduction in scan time and a uniform image reconstruction for a homogeneous phantom at 7 Tesla. However, at 7 Tesla the in vivo sensitivity profiles (B1(-)) become distinct at various angular positions. Therefore, sensitivity maps at other angular positions cannot be obtained by numerically rotating the acquired ones. In this work, a novel sensitivity estimation method for the RRFCA was developed and validated with human brain imaging. This method employed a library database and registration techniques to estimate coil sensitivity at an arbitrary angular position. The estimated sensitivity maps were then compared to the acquired sensitivity maps. The results indicate that the proposed method is capable of accurately estimating both magnitude and phase of sensitivity at an arbitrary angular position, which enables us to employ the rotating-SENSE algorithm to accelerate acquisition and reconstruct image. Compared to a stationary coil array with the same number of coil elements, the RRFCA was able to reconstruct images with better quality at a high reduction factor. It is hoped that the proposed rotation-dependent sensitivity estimation algorithm and the acceleration ability of the RRFCA will be particularly useful for ultra high field MRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rotational electrical impedance tomography using electrodes with limited surface coverage provides window for multimodal sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti-Polojärvi, Mari; Koskela, Olli; Seppänen, Aku; Figueiras, Edite; Hyttinen, Jari

    2018-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging method that could become a valuable tool in multimodal applications. One challenge in simultaneous multimodal imaging is that typically the EIT electrodes cover a large portion of the object surface. This paper investigates the feasibility of rotational EIT (rEIT) in applications where electrodes cover only a limited angle of the surface of the object. In the studied rEIT, the object is rotated a full 360° during a set of measurements to increase the information content of the data. We call this approach limited angle full revolution rEIT (LAFR-rEIT). We test LAFR-rEIT setups in two-dimensional geometries with computational and experimental data. We use up to 256 rotational measurement positions, which requires a new way to solve the forward and inverse problem of rEIT. For this, we provide a modification, available for EIDORS, in the supplementary material. The computational results demonstrate that LAFR-rEIT with eight electrodes produce the same image quality as conventional 16-electrode rEIT, when data from an adequate number of rotational measurement positions are used. Both computational and experimental results indicate that the novel LAFR-rEIT provides good EIT with setups with limited surface coverage and a small number of electrodes.

  13. Estimation of Detection Thresholds for Audiovisual Rotation Gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Suma, Evan; Nordahl, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Redirection techniques allow users to explore large virtual environments on foot while remaining within a limited physical space. However, research has primarily focused on redirection through manipulation of visual stimuli. We describe a within-subjects study (n=31) exploring if participants’ ab...

  14. TREEDE, Point Fluxes and Currents Based on Track Rotation Estimator by Monte-Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, A.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TREEDE is a Monte Carlo transport code based on the Track Rotation estimator, used, in general, to calculate fluxes and currents at a point. This code served as a test code in the development of the concept of the Track Rotation estimator, and therefore analogue Monte Carlo is used (i.e. no importance biasing). 2 - Method of solution: The basic idea is to follow the particle's track in the medium and then to rotate it such that it passes through the detector point. That is, rotational symmetry considerations (even in non-spherically symmetric configurations) are applied to every history, so that a very large fraction of the track histories can be rotated and made to pass through the point of interest; in this manner the 1/r 2 singularity in the un-collided flux estimator (next event estimator) is avoided. TREEDE, being a test code, is used to estimate leakage or in-medium fluxes at given points in a 3-dimensional finite box, where the source is an isotropic point source at the centre of the z = 0 surface. However, many of the constraints of geometry and source can be easily removed. The medium is assumed homogeneous with isotropic scattering, and one energy group only is considered. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: One energy group, a homogeneous medium, isotropic scattering

  15. Ground-penetrating radar observations for estimating the vertical displacement of rotational landslides

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lissak; O. Maquaire; J.-P. Malet; F. Lavigne; C. Virmoux; C. Gomez; R. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for monitoring the displacement of slow-moving landslides. GPR data is used to estimate the vertical movement of rotational slides in combination with other surveying techniques. The experimental site is located along the Normandy coast (North East France) here several rotational landslides are continuously affected by a seasonal kinematic pattern (low displacem...

  16. Rotated Walsh-Hadamard Spreading with Robust Channel Estimation for a Coded MC-CDMA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulefs Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate rotated Walsh-Hadamard spreading matrices for a broadband MC-CDMA system with robust channel estimation in the synchronous downlink. The similarities between rotated spreading and signal space diversity are outlined. In a multiuser MC-CDMA system, possible performance improvements are based on the chosen detector, the channel code, and its Hamming distance. By applying rotated spreading in comparison to a standard Walsh-Hadamard spreading code, a higher throughput can be achieved. As combining the channel code and the spreading code forms a concatenated code, the overall minimum Hamming distance of the concatenated code increases. This asymptotically results in an improvement of the bit error rate for high signal-to-noise ratio. Higher convolutional channel code rates are mostly generated by puncturing good low-rate channel codes. The overall Hamming distance decreases significantly for the punctured channel codes. Higher channel code rates are favorable for MC-CDMA, as MC-CDMA utilizes diversity more efficiently compared to pure OFDMA. The application of rotated spreading in an MC-CDMA system allows exploiting diversity even further. We demonstrate that the rotated spreading gain is still present for a robust pilot-aided channel estimator. In a well-designed system, rotated spreading extends the performance by using a maximum likelihood detector with robust channel estimation at the receiver by about 1 dB.

  17. An angle-dependent estimation of CT x-ray spectrum from rotational transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuan; Samei, Ehsan; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Stierstorfer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) performance as well as dose and image quality is directly affected by the x-ray spectrum. However, the current assessment approaches of the CT x-ray spectrum require costly measurement equipment and complicated operational procedures, and are often limited to the spectrum corresponding to the center of rotation. In order to address these limitations, the authors propose an angle-dependent estimation technique, where the incident spectra across a wide range of angular trajectories can be estimated accurately with only a single phantom and a single axial scan in the absence of the knowledge of the bowtie filter. Methods: The proposed technique uses a uniform cylindrical phantom, made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and positioned in an off-centered geometry. The projection data acquired with an axial scan have a twofold purpose. First, they serve as a reflection of the transmission measurements across different angular trajectories. Second, they are used to reconstruct the cross sectional image of the phantom, which is then utilized to compute the intersection length of each transmission measurement. With each CT detector element recording a range of transmission measurements for a single angular trajectory, the spectrum is estimated for that trajectory. A data conditioning procedure is used to combine information from hundreds of collected transmission measurements to accelerate the estimation speed, to reduce noise, and to improve estimation stability. The proposed spectral estimation technique was validated experimentally using a clinical scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Germany) with spectra provided by the manufacturer serving as the comparison standard. Results obtained with the proposed technique were compared against those obtained from a second conventional transmission measurement technique with two materials (i.e., Cu and Al). After validation, the proposed technique was applied to measure

  18. Abduction and external rotation (ABER) MR arthrography of the shoulder. Benefits and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A.; Gokan, Takehiko; Munechika, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Takashi; El-Feky, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show the benefits and limitations of using abduction and external rotation (ABER) positions of the arm during MR arthrography of the shoulder in the evaluation of the rotator-cuff tendon, the capsulolabral complex and the shoulder joint after surgery. Forty-seven patients complaining of either shoulder instability, chronic shoulder pain, pain of unknown cause or pain following shoulder surgery were studied using the direct MR arthrography technique in both the standard neutral position with the arm adducted as well as with the arm in the ABER position. A correlation was obtained between the MR arthrography findings and the surgical findings in 10 reports and clinical presentations of the examined patients. Three patients [6%] were unable to perform ABER positioning. ABER oblique axial images were better than standard oblique coronal images in revealing undersurface tears of the rotator cuff particularly of the grade I type. Four tears were missed in standard images. Oblique axial images were better than standard axial images in demonstrating non-displaced anterior labral tears. One tear was missed and two tears were suspected in the standard images. Oblique axial images were less sensitive than oblique coronal images in the diagnosis of superior labral tears. Two tears were missed in ABER images. The ABER oblique axial MR arthrogram is a useful adjunct to the standard axial and oblique coronal MR arthrograms for assessment of capsulolabral abnormalities and rotator-cuff tendon tears despite some limitations. (author)

  19. Complex demodulation in VLBI estimation of high frequency Earth rotation components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, S.; Brzeziński, A.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The spectrum of high frequency Earth rotation variations contains strong harmonic signal components mainly excited by ocean tides along with much weaker non-harmonic fluctuations driven by irregular processes like the diurnal thermal tides in the atmosphere and oceans. In order to properly investigate non-harmonic phenomena a representation in time domain is inevitable. We present a method, operating in time domain, which is easily applicable within Earth rotation estimation from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). It enables the determination of diurnal and subdiurnal variations, and is still effective with merely diurnal parameter sampling. The features of complex demodulation are used in an extended parameterization of polar motion and universal time which was implemented into a dedicated version of the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS. The functionality of the approach was evaluated by comparing amplitudes and phases of harmonic variations at tidal periods (diurnal/semidiurnal), derived from demodulated Earth rotation parameters (ERP), estimated from hourly resolved VLBI ERP time series and taken from a recently published VLBI ERP model to the terms of the conventional model for ocean tidal effects in Earth rotation recommended by the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). The three sets of tidal terms derived from VLBI observations extensively agree among each other within the three-sigma level of the demodulation approach, which is below 6 μas for polar motion and universal time. They also coincide in terms of differences to the IERS model, where significant deviations primarily for several major tidal terms are apparent. An additional spectral analysis of the as well estimated demodulated ERP series of the ter- and quarterdiurnal frequency bands did not reveal any significant signal structure. The complex demodulation applied in VLBI parameter estimation could be demonstrated a suitable procedure for the reliable reproduction of

  20. Peer influence on students' estimates of performance : social comparison in clinical rotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, A. N. (Janet); Kuks, Jan B. M.; van Hell, E. Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Context During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate

  1. Calibrated Tully-Fisher relations for improved estimates of disc rotation velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, R.; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno II, Jim; Lackner, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we derive scaling relations between photometric observable quantities and disc galaxy rotation velocity V-rot or Tully-Fisher relations (TFRs). Our methodology is dictated by our purpose of obtaining purely photometric, minimal-scatter estimators of V-rot applicable to large galaxy

  2. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...

  3. High precision estimation of inertial rotation via the extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Qi, Bo; Cheng, Shuming; Xi, Zairong

    2015-11-01

    Recent developments in technology have enabled atomic gyroscopes to become the most sensitive inertial sensors. Atomic spin gyroscopes essentially output an estimate of the inertial rotation rate to be measured. In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient estimation method, the extended Kalman filter (EKF), for the atomic spin gyroscope. Numerical results show that the EKF method is much more accurate than the steady-state estimation method, which is used in the most sensitive atomic gyroscopes at present. Specifically, the root-mean-squared errors obtained by the EKF method are at least 103 times smaller than those obtained by the steady-state estimation method under the same response time.

  4. Current estimates of radiation risks and implications for dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The publication of the 1988 report of UNSCEAR represents a major step forward in that there is an international consensus on the estimation of risk from exposure to ionising radiation. The estimates of fatal cancers in the UNSCEAR report are up to 4 times the values in the 1977 review. This paper will describe the reasons for the increase, the remaining uncertainties and the implications for dose limits in occupational and public exposure. (author)

  5. Fundamental limits of radio interferometers: calibration and source parameter estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Tingay, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    We use information theory to derive fundamental limits on the capacity to calibrate next-generation radio interferometers, and measure parameters of point sources for instrument calibration, point source subtraction, and data deconvolution. We demonstrate the implications of these fundamental limits, with particular reference to estimation of the 21cm Epoch of Reionization power spectrum with next-generation low-frequency instruments (e.g., the Murchison Widefield Array -- MWA, Precision Arra...

  6. Influences on and Limitations of Classical Test Theory Reliability Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Margery E.

    It is incorrect to say "the test is reliable" because reliability is a function not only of the test itself, but of many factors. The present paper explains how different factors affect classical reliability estimates such as test-retest, interrater, internal consistency, and equivalent forms coefficients. Furthermore, the limits of classical test…

  7. Fracture mechanics approach to estimate rail wear limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a systematic methodology to estimate allowable limits for rail head wear in terms of vertical head-height loss, gage-face side wear, and/or the combination of the two. This methodology is based on the principles of engineering fr...

  8. A non-parametric framework for estimating threshold limit values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulm Kurt

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate a threshold limit value for a compound known to have harmful health effects, an 'elbow' threshold model is usually applied. We are interested on non-parametric flexible alternatives. Methods We describe how a step function model fitted by isotonic regression can be used to estimate threshold limit values. This method returns a set of candidate locations, and we discuss two algorithms to select the threshold among them: the reduced isotonic regression and an algorithm considering the closed family of hypotheses. We assess the performance of these two alternative approaches under different scenarios in a simulation study. We illustrate the framework by analysing the data from a study conducted by the German Research Foundation aiming to set a threshold limit value in the exposure to total dust at workplace, as a causal agent for developing chronic bronchitis. Results In the paper we demonstrate the use and the properties of the proposed methodology along with the results from an application. The method appears to detect the threshold with satisfactory success. However, its performance can be compromised by the low power to reject the constant risk assumption when the true dose-response relationship is weak. Conclusion The estimation of thresholds based on isotonic framework is conceptually simple and sufficiently powerful. Given that in threshold value estimation context there is not a gold standard method, the proposed model provides a useful non-parametric alternative to the standard approaches and can corroborate or challenge their findings.

  9. Space-Frequency Block Code with Matched Rotation for MIMO-OFDM System with Limited Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thushara D. Abhayapala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel matched rotation precoding (MRP scheme to design a rate one space-frequency block code (SFBC and a multirate SFBC for MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback. The proposed rate one MRP and multirate MRP can always achieve full transmit diversity and optimal system performance for arbitrary number of antennas, subcarrier intervals, and subcarrier groupings, with limited channel knowledge required by the transmit antennas. The optimization process of the rate one MRP is simple and easily visualized so that the optimal rotation angle can be derived explicitly, or even intuitively for some cases. The multirate MRP has a complex optimization process, but it has a better spectral efficiency and provides a relatively smooth balance between system performance and transmission rate. Simulations show that the proposed SFBC with MRP can overcome the diversity loss for specific propagation scenarios, always improve the system performance, and demonstrate flexible performance with large performance gain. Therefore the proposed SFBCs with MRP demonstrate flexibility and feasibility so that it is more suitable for a practical MIMO-OFDM system with dynamic parameters.

  10. Estimating wind frequency limits for natural ventilation at remote sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, B.; Aynsley, R.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed wind data are collected at a limited number of sites, usually at airports. When a building is sited remote from the nearest wind data collection site, estimating wind frequency is more complex. The techniques involved come from the discipline of wind engineering. Where there is a relatively flat terrain between the wind data-recording site and the building site, simple computations can be made to account for the wind velocities over intervening terrain roughness. Where significant topographic features such as hills or mountains are present between the wind data-recording site and the building site, then boundary layer wind tunnel studies will be necessary to determine the influence of such features on wind speed and direction. Rough estimates can be calculated using factors used in some wind loading codes. When buildings are to be designed to take advantage of the energy efficiency offered by natural ventilation, it is important to estimate the actual potential for such ventilation. The natural ventilation potential can be estimated in terms of the percentage of time when wind exceeds some minimum value. For buildings near airports this is a relatively simple procedure. Such estimates are important as they also indicate the likely percentage of time when fans or other energy consuming devices will be needed to maintain indoor thermal comfort. This paper identifies the wind engineering techniques that can be used for such estimates and gives examples of such calculations

  11. Demonstrating Heisenberg-limited unambiguous phase estimation without adaptive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, B L; Wiseman, H M; Pryde, G J; Berry, D W; Bartlett, S D; Mitchell, M W

    2009-01-01

    We derive, and experimentally demonstrate, an interferometric scheme for unambiguous phase estimation with precision scaling at the Heisenberg limit that does not require adaptive measurements. That is, with no prior knowledge of the phase, we can obtain an estimate of the phase with a standard deviation that is only a small constant factor larger than the minimum physically allowed value. Our scheme resolves the phase ambiguity that exists when multiple passes through a phase shift, or NOON states, are used to obtain improved phase resolution. Like a recently introduced adaptive technique (Higgins et al 2007 Nature 450 393), our experiment uses multiple applications of the phase shift on single photons. By not requiring adaptive measurements, but rather using a predetermined measurement sequence, the present scheme is both conceptually simpler and significantly easier to implement. Additionally, we demonstrate a simplified adaptive scheme that also surpasses the standard quantum limit for single passes.

  12. Spatiotemporal noise covariance estimation from limited empirical magnetoencephalographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Sung C; Plis, Sergey M; Ranken, Doug M; Schmidt, David M

    2006-01-01

    The performance of parametric magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) source localization approaches can be degraded by the use of poor background noise covariance estimates. In general, estimation of the noise covariance for spatiotemporal analysis is difficult mainly due to the limited noise information available. Furthermore, its estimation requires a large amount of storage and a one-time but very large (and sometimes intractable) calculation or its inverse. To overcome these difficulties, noise covariance models consisting of one pair or a sum of multi-pairs of Kronecker products of spatial covariance and temporal covariance have been proposed. However, these approaches cannot be applied when the noise information is very limited, i.e., the amount of noise information is less than the degrees of freedom of the noise covariance models. A common example of this is when only averaged noise data are available for a limited prestimulus region (typically at most a few hundred milliseconds duration). For such cases, a diagonal spatiotemporal noise covariance model consisting of sensor variances with no spatial or temporal correlation has been the common choice for spatiotemporal analysis. In this work, we propose a different noise covariance model which consists of diagonal spatial noise covariance and Toeplitz temporal noise covariance. It can easily be estimated from limited noise information, and no time-consuming optimization and data-processing are required. Thus, it can be used as an alternative choice when one-pair or multi-pair noise covariance models cannot be estimated due to lack of noise information. To verify its capability we used Bayesian inference dipole analysis and a number of simulated and empirical datasets. We compared this covariance model with other existing covariance models such as conventional diagonal covariance, one-pair and multi-pair noise covariance models, when noise information is sufficient to estimate them. We

  13. Generalized allometric regression to estimate biomass of Populus in short-rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Brahim, Mohammed; Gavaland, Andre; Cabanettes, Alain [INRA Centre de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosane Cedex (France). Unite Agroforesterie et Foret Paysanne

    2000-07-01

    Data from four different stands were combined to establish a single generalized allometric equation to estimate above-ground biomass of individual Populus trees grown on short-rotation coppice. The generalized model was performed using diameter at breast height, the mean diameter and the mean height of each site as dependent variables and then compared with the stand-specific regressions using F-test. Results showed that this single regression estimates tree biomass well at each stand and does not introduce bias with increasing diameter.

  14. DOA and Noncircular Phase Estimation of Noncircular Signal via an Improved Noncircular Rotational Invariance Propagator Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the computationally efficient direction-of-arrival (DOA and noncircular (NC phase estimation problem of noncircular signal for uniform linear array. The key idea is to apply the noncircular propagator method (NC-PM which does not require eigenvalue decomposition (EVD of the covariance matrix or singular value decomposition (SVD of the received data. Noncircular rotational invariance propagator method (NC-RI-PM avoids spectral peak searching in PM and can obtain the closed-form solution of DOA, so it has lower computational complexity. An improved NC-RI-PM algorithm of noncircular signal for uniform linear array is proposed to estimate the elevation angles and noncircular phases with automatic pairing. We reconstruct the extended array output by combining the array output and its conjugated counterpart. Our algorithm fully uses the extended array elements in the improved propagator matrix to estimate the elevation angles and noncircular phases by utilizing the rotational invariance property between subarrays. Compared with NC-RI-PM, the proposed algorithm has better angle estimation performance and much lower computational load. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is analyzed. We also derive the variance of estimation error and Cramer-Rao bound (CRB of noncircular signal for uniform linear array. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  15. Relative Attitude Estimation for a Uniform Motion and Slowly Rotating Noncooperative Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel relative attitude estimation approach for a uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative spacecraft. It is assumed that the uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative chief spacecraft is in failure or out of control and there is no a priori rotation rate information. We utilize a very fast binary descriptor based on binary robust independent elementary features (BRIEF to obtain the features of the target, which are rotational invariance and resistance to noise. And then, we propose a novel combination of single candidate random sample consensus (RANSAC with extended Kalman filter (EKF that makes use of the available prior probabilistic information from the EKF in the RANSAC model hypothesis stage. The advantage of this combination obviously reduces the sample size to only one, which results in large computational savings without the loss of accuracy. Experimental results from real image sequence of a real model target show that the relative angular error is about 3.5% and the mean angular velocity error is about 0.1 deg/s.

  16. Estimating the time evolution of NMR systems via a quantum-speed-limit-like expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamizar, D. V.; Duzzioni, E. I.; Leal, A. C. S.; Auccaise, R.

    2018-05-01

    Finding the solutions of the equations that describe the dynamics of a given physical system is crucial in order to obtain important information about its evolution. However, by using estimation theory, it is possible to obtain, under certain limitations, some information on its dynamics. The quantum-speed-limit (QSL) theory was originally used to estimate the shortest time in which a Hamiltonian drives an initial state to a final one for a given fidelity. Using the QSL theory in a slightly different way, we are able to estimate the running time of a given quantum process. For that purpose, we impose the saturation of the Anandan-Aharonov bound in a rotating frame of reference where the state of the system travels slower than in the original frame (laboratory frame). Through this procedure it is possible to estimate the actual evolution time in the laboratory frame of reference with good accuracy when compared to previous methods. Our method is tested successfully to predict the time spent in the evolution of nuclear spins 1/2 and 3/2 in NMR systems. We find that the estimated time according to our method is better than previous approaches by up to four orders of magnitude. One disadvantage of our method is that we need to solve a number of transcendental equations, which increases with the system dimension and parameter discretization used to solve such equations numerically.

  17. Revision of risk estimates and implications for dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    It has been apparent for some time that our estimates of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation must be increased above those values reported by UNSCEAR in 1977 an dused by ICRP to form their present recommendations. NRPB foresaw some of these changes and introduced interim advice within the UK to restrict exposures of wordkers and members of the public to levels below the existing limits. Since that advice was given, UNSCEAR has produced a 1988 report reviewing human data to provide new estimates of risks associated with exposure at high doses and high doserates. These risk figures are up to 4 times higher than when UNSCEAR reported in 1977. In this paper, the reasons for the changes in the estimates of risk will be described and the current NRPB guidelines for risk factors for protection purposes will be presented. The implications of these new risk factors for the setting of dose limits will then be discussed. (Author). 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  18. Rotating Parabolic-Reflector Antenna Target in SAR Data: Model, Characteristics, and Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic-reflector antennas (PRAs, usually possessing rotation, are a particular type of targets of potential interest to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR community. This paper is aimed to investigate PRA’s scattering characteristics and then to extract PRA’s parameters from SAR returns, for supporting image interpretation and target recognition. We at first obtain both closed-form and numeric solutions to PRA’s backscattering by geometrical optics (GO, physical optics, and graphical electromagnetic computation, respectively. Based on the GO solution, a migratory scattering center model is at first presented for representing the movement of the specular point with aspect angle, and then a hybrid model, named the migratory/micromotion scattering center (MMSC model, is proposed for characterizing a rotating PRA in the SAR geometry, which incorporates PRA’s rotation into its migratory scattering center model. Additionally, we in detail analyze PRA’s radar characteristics on radar cross-section, high-resolution range profiles, time-frequency distribution, and 2D images, which also confirm the models proposed. A maximal likelihood estimator is developed for jointly solving the MMSC model for PRA’s multiple parameters by optimization. By exploiting the aforementioned characteristics, the coarse parameter estimation guarantees convergency upon global minima. The signatures recovered can be favorably utilized for SAR image interpretation and target recognition.

  19. Calibrated Tully-fisher Relations For Improved Photometric Estimates Of Disk Rotation Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present calibrated scaling relations (also referred to as Tully-Fisher relations or TFRs) between rotation velocity and photometric quantities-- absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and synthetic magnitude (a linear combination of absolute magnitude and color)-- of disk galaxies at z 0.1. First, we selected a parent disk sample of 170,000 galaxies from SDSS DR7, with redshifts between 0.02 and 0.10 and r band absolute magnitudes between -18.0 and -22.5. Then, we constructed a child disk sample of 189 galaxies that span the parameter space-- in absolute magnitude, color, and disk size-- covered by the parent sample, and for which we have obtained kinematic data. Long-slit spectroscopy were obtained from the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m for 99 galaxies, and from Pizagno et al. (2007) for 95 galaxies (five have repeat observations). We find the best photometric estimator of disk rotation velocity to be a synthetic magnitude with a color correction that is consistent with the Bell et al. (2003) color-based stellar mass ratio. The improved rotation velocity estimates have a wide range of scientific applications, and in particular, in combination with weak lensing measurements, they enable us to constrain the ratio of optical-to-virial velocity in disk galaxies.

  20. Limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode with dense particle layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weroński, P; Nosek, M; Batys, P

    2013-09-28

    Exploiting the concept of diffusion permeability of multilayer gel membrane and porous multilayer we have derived a simple analytical equation for the limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode (RDE) covered by a thin layer with variable tortuosity and porosity, under the assumption of negligible convection in the porous film. The variation of limiting diffusion current with the porosity and tortuosity of the film can be described in terms of the equivalent thickness of stagnant solution layer, i.e., the average ratio of squared tortuosity to porosity. In case of monolayer of monodisperse spherical particles, the equivalent layer thickness is an algebraic function of the surface coverage. Thus, by means of cyclic voltammetry of RDE with a deposited particle monolayer we can determine the monolayer surface coverage. The effect of particle layer adsorbed on the surface of RDE increases non-linearly with surface coverage. We have tested our theoretical results experimentally by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements of limiting diffusion current at the glassy carbon RDE covered with a monolayer of 3 μm silica particles. The theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement at the surface coverage higher than 0.7. This result suggests that convection in a monolayer of 3 μm monodisperse spherical particles is negligibly small, in the context of the coverage determination, in the range of very dense particle layers.

  1. Unlocking the talus by eversion limits medial ankle injury risk during external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Keith D; Wei, Feng; Haut, Roger C

    2015-10-15

    Eversion prior to excessive external foot rotation has been shown to predispose the anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATiFL) to failure, yet protect the anterior deltoid ligament (ADL) from failure despite high levels of foot rotation. The purpose of the current study was to measure the rotations of both the subtalar and talocrural joints during foot external rotation at sub-failure levels in either a neutral or a pre-everted position as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of injury in previous studies. Fourteen (seven pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated 20° in either a pre-everted or neutral configuration, without producing injury. Motion capture was performed to track the tibia, talus, and calcaneus motions, and a joint coordinate system was used to analyze motions of the two joints. While talocrural joint rotation was greater in the neutral ankle (13.3±2.0° versus 10.5±2.7°, p=0.006), subtalar joint rotation was greater in the pre-everted ankle (2.4±1.9° versus 1.1±1.0°, p=0.014). Overall, the talocrural joint rotated more than the subtalar joint (11.9±2.8° versus 1.8±1.6°, p<0.001). It was proposed that the calcaneus and talus 'lock' in a neutral position, but 'unlock' when the ankle is everted prior to rotation. This locking/unlocking mechanism could be responsible for an increased subtalar rotation, but decreased talocrural rotation when the ankle is pre-everted, protecting the ADL from failure. This study may provide information valuable to the study of external rotation kinematics and injury risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An estimation on the derived limits of effluent water concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Yasuharu; Kobayashi, Katuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    The values of Derived Limits of Effluent Water Concentration, (DLEC)sub(w), have been estimated in accordance with the principles of the recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The (DLEC)sub(w)'s were derived from the Annual Limits on Intake for individual members of the public (ALIsub(p)), considering realistic models of exposure pathways and annual intake rates of foods. The ALIsub(p)'s were decided after consideration of body organ mass and other age dependent parameters. We assumed that the materials which brought exposure to the public were drinking water, fish, seaweed, invertebrate and seashore. The age dependence of annual intake rate of food might be proportional to a person's energy expenditure rate. The following results were obtained. Infants were the critical group of the public at the time of derivation of (DLEC)sub(w). The ALIsub(p)'s for the infants were about one-hundredth of those for workers and their (DLEC)sub(w)'s were about one-third of those for the adult members of the public. (author)

  3. Doppler limited rotational transitions of OH and SH radicals measured by continuous-wave terahertz photomixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliet, Sophie; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Guinet, Mickaël; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin; Cuisset, Arnaud

    2011-12-01

    A continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) source generated by photomixing has been employed to detect and quantify radicals produced in a cold plasma probing their spin-rotation transitions. Due to their dual interest for both atmospherists and astrophysicists, the hydroxyl OH and the mercapto SH radicals have been chosen. The photomixing technique which can access the largest range of THz frequencies of any known coherent source, allowed to resolve the Doppler-limited hyperfine transitions of OH in the 2.5 THz frequency region. Line profile analysis of the hyperfine components demonstrated that OH radicals have been detected in this region at a ppm level at a temperature close to 490 K. The hyperfine structure of SH has been resolved for the first time above 1 THz. Ten new frequency transitions have been measured in the 1.3-2.6 THz frequency range using the CW-THz synthesizer based on a frequency comb. With relative uncertainties better than 10 -7, the CW-THz frequencies measured in this study are now competitive with those measured by other instruments such as frequency multiplication chains or FT-FIR spectrometers and are now capable to improve the predictions of the complete high-resolution spectra of these radicals collected in the atmospheric and astrophysical spectroscopic databases. versioncorrigeeAC 2011-07-18 17:32 2011 Arnaud Cuisset.

  4. Rotations as coherent states of SU(6) quadrupole phonons in the SU(3) limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Paar, V [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet; Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1981-06-18

    Analytic expressions for the wavefunctions of the ground-state rotational band for even and odd nuclei are derived in terms of spherical quadrupole phonons truncated at N(max) phonons. For N(max) ..-->.. infinite the Bohr-Mottelson rotational states are generated as an asymptotic gaussian distribution of quadrupole phonons.

  5. From the RSNA refresher courses: US of the rotator cuff: pitfalls, limitations, and artifacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.C.M.; Jager, G.J.; Blickman, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography (US) has gained increasing popularity as a diagnostic tool for assessment of the soft tissues in shoulder impingement syndrome. US is a powerful and accurate method for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears and other rotator cuff abnormalities, provided the examiner has a

  6. From the RSNA refresher courses - US of the rotator cuff : Pitfalls, limitations, and artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Matthieu J. C. M.; Jager, Gerrit J.; Blickman, Johan G.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography (US) has gained increasing popularity as a diagnostic tool for assessment of the soft tissues in shoulder impingement syndrome. US is a powerful and accurate method for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears and other rotator cuff abnormalities, provided the examiner has a

  7. Fundamental limits to frequency estimation: a comprehensive microscopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, J. F.; Smirne, A.; Kołodyński, J.; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R.; Huelga, S. F.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a metrology scenario in which qubit-like probes are used to sense an external field that affects their energy splitting in a linear fashion. Following the frequency estimation approach in which one optimizes the state and sensing time of the probes to maximize the sensitivity, we provide a systematic study of the attainable precision under the impact of noise originating from independent bosonic baths. Specifically, we invoke an explicit microscopic derivation of the probe dynamics using the spin-boson model with weak coupling of arbitrary geometry. We clarify how the secular approximation leads to a phase-covariant (PC) dynamics, where the noise terms commute with the field Hamiltonian, while the inclusion of non-secular contributions breaks the PC. Moreover, unless one restricts to a particular (i.e., Ohmic) spectral density of the bath modes, the noise terms may contain relevant information about the frequency to be estimated. Thus, by considering general evolutions of a single probe, we study regimes in which these two effects have a non-negligible impact on the achievable precision. We then consider baths of Ohmic spectral density yet fully accounting for the lack of PC, in order to characterize the ultimate attainable scaling of precision when N probes are used in parallel. Crucially, we show that beyond the semigroup (Lindbladian) regime the Zeno limit imposing the 1/N 3/2 scaling of the mean squared error, recently derived assuming PC, generalises to any dynamics of the probes, unless the latter are coupled to the baths in the direction perfectly transversal to the frequency encoding—when a novel scaling of 1/N 7/4 arises. As our microscopic approach covers all classes of dissipative dynamics, from semigroup to non-Markovian ones (each of them potentially non-phase-covariant), it provides an exhaustive picture, in which all the different asymptotic scalings of precision naturally emerge.

  8. Viscosity estimation utilizing flow velocity field measurements in a rotating magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of viscosity in determining plasma flow structures has been widely recognized. In laboratory plasmas, however, viscosity measurements have been seldom performed so far. In this paper we present and discuss an estimation method of effective plasma kinematic viscosity utilizing flow velocity field measurements. Imposing steady and axisymmetric conditions, we derive the expression for radial flow velocity from the azimuthal component of the ion fluid equation. The expression contains kinematic viscosity, vorticity of azimuthal rotation and its derivative, collision frequency, azimuthal flow velocity and ion cyclotron frequency. Therefore all quantities except the viscosity are given provided that the flow field can be measured. We applied this method to a rotating magnetized argon plasma produced by the Hyper-I device. The flow velocity field measurements were carried out using a directional Langmuir probe installed in a tilting motor drive unit. The inward ion flow in radial direction, which is not driven in collisionless inviscid plasmas, was clearly observed. As a result, we found the anomalous viscosity, the value of which is two orders of magnitude larger than the classical one. (author)

  9. Effect of Medium Symmetries in Limiting the Number of Parameters Estimated with Polarimetric Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta

    2000-01-01

    The addition of interferometric backscattering pairs to the conventional polarimetric SAR data over forests and other vegetated areas increases the dimensionality of the data space, in principle enabling the estimation of a larger number of vegetation parameters. Without regard to the sensitivity of these data to vegetation scattering parameters, this paper poses the question: Will increasing the data channels as such result in a one-to-one increase in the number of parameters that can be estimated, or do vegetation and data properties inherently limit that number otherwise? In this paper, the complete polarimetric interferometric covariance matrix is considered and various symmetry properties of the scattering medium are used to study whether any of the correlation pairs can be eliminated. The number of independent pairs has direct consequences in their utility in parameter estimation schemes, since the maximum number of parameters that can be estimated cannot exceed the number of unique measurements. The independent components of the polarimetric interferometric SAR (POL/INSAR) data are derived for media with reflection, rotation, and azimuth symmetries, which are often encountered in vegetated surfaces. Similar derivations have been carried out before for simple polarimetry, i.e., zero baseline. This paper extends those to the interferometric case of general nonzero baselines. It is shown that depending on the type of symmetries present, the number of independent available measurements that can be used to estimate medium parameters will vary. In particular, whereas in the general case there are 27 mathematically independent measurements possible from a polarimetric interferometer, this number can be reduced to 15, 9, and 6 if the medium has reflection, rotation, or azimuthal symmetries, respectively. The results can be used in several ways in the interpretation of SAR data and the development of parameter estimation schemes, which will be discussed at the

  10. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio De Franchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  11. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  12. Rotational Energy as Mass in H3 + and Lower Limits on the Atomic Masses of D and 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Hamzeloui, S.; Fink, D. J.; Myers, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    We have made precise measurements of the cyclotron frequency ratios H3 +/HD+ and H3 +/ 3He+ and observe that different H3+ ions result in different cyclotron frequency ratios. We interpret these differences as due to the molecular rotational energy of H3 + changing its inertial mass. We also confirm that certain high J , K rotational levels of H3+ have mean lifetimes exceeding several weeks. From measurements with the lightest H3+ ion we obtain lower limits on the atomic masses of deuterium and helium-3 with respect to the proton.

  13. Rotational Energy as Mass in H_{3}^{+} and Lower Limits on the Atomic Masses of D and ^{3}He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Hamzeloui, S; Fink, D J; Myers, E G

    2018-04-06

    We have made precise measurements of the cyclotron frequency ratios H_{3}^{+}/HD^{+} and H_{3}^{+}/^{3}He^{+} and observe that different H_{3}^{+} ions result in different cyclotron frequency ratios. We interpret these differences as due to the molecular rotational energy of H_{3}^{+} changing its inertial mass. We also confirm that certain high J, K rotational levels of H_{3}^{+} have mean lifetimes exceeding several weeks. From measurements with the lightest H_{3}^{+} ion we obtain lower limits on the atomic masses of deuterium and helium-3 with respect to the proton.

  14. Reliabilities of mental rotation tasks: limits to the assessment of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Thielsch, Meinald T; Zernikow, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation tasks with objects and body parts as targets are widely used in cognitive neuropsychology. Even though these tasks are well established to study between-groups differences, the reliability on an individual level is largely unknown. We present a systematic study on the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of individual differences in mental rotation tasks comparing different target types and orders of presentations. In total n = 99 participants (n = 63 for the retest) completed the mental rotation tasks with hands, feet, faces, and cars as targets. Different target types were presented in either randomly mixed blocks or blocks of homogeneous targets. Across all target types, the consistency (split-half reliability) and stability (test-retest reliabilities) were good or acceptable both for intercepts and slopes. At the level of individual targets, only intercepts showed acceptable reliabilities. Blocked presentations resulted in significantly faster and numerically more consistent and stable responses. Mental rotation tasks-especially in blocked variants-can be used to reliably assess individual differences in global processing speed. However, the assessment of the theoretically important slope parameter for individual targets requires further adaptations to mental rotation tests.

  15. Rotation-limited growth of three-dimensional body-centered-cubic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Jens M; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    According to classical grain growth laws, grain growth is driven by the minimization of surface energy and will continue until a single grain prevails. These laws do not take into account the lattice anisotropy and the details of the microscopic rearrangement of mass between grains. Here we consider coarsening of body-centered-cubic polycrystalline materials in three dimensions using the phase field crystal model. We observe, as a function of the quenching depth, a crossover between a state where grain rotation halts and the growth stagnates and a state where grains coarsen rapidly by coalescence through rotation and alignment of the lattices of neighboring grains. We show that the grain rotation per volume change of a grain follows a power law with an exponent of -1.25. The scaling exponent is consistent with theoretical considerations based on the conservation of dislocations.

  16. Estimation of the center of rotation using wearable magneto-inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabolu, M; Pani, D; Raffo, L; Cereatti, A

    2016-12-08

    Determining the center of rotation (CoR) of joints is fundamental to the field of human movement analysis. CoR can be determined using a magneto-inertial measurement unit (MIMU) using a functional approach requiring a calibration exercise. We systematically investigated the influence of different experimental conditions that can affect precision and accuracy while estimating the CoR, such as (a) angular joint velocity, (b) distance between the MIMU and the CoR, (c) type of the joint motion implemented, (d) amplitude of the angular range of motion, (e) model of the MIMU used for data recording, (f) amplitude of additive noise on inertial signals, and (g) amplitude of the errors in the MIMU orientation. The evaluation process was articulated at three levels: assessment through experiments using a mechanical device, mathematical simulation, and an analytical propagation model of the noise. The results reveal that joint angular velocity significantly impacted CoR identification, and hence, slow joint movement should be avoided. An accurate estimation of the MIMU orientation is also fundamental for accurately subtracting the contribution owing to gravity to obtain the coordinate acceleration. The unit should be preferably attached close to the CoR, but both type and range of motion do not appear to be critical. When the proposed methodology is correctly implemented, error in the CoR estimates is expected to be <3mm (best estimates=2±0.5mm). The findings of the present study foster the need to further investigate this methodology for application in human subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fault-tolerant feature-based estimation of space debris rotational motion during active removal missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Gabriele; Mauro, Stefano; Pastorelli, Stefano; Sorli, Massimo

    2018-05-01

    One of the key functionalities required by an Active Debris Removal mission is the assessment of the target kinematics and inertial properties. Passive sensors, such as stereo cameras, are often included in the onboard instrumentation of a chaser spacecraft for capturing sequential photographs and for tracking features of the target surface. A plenty of methods, based on Kalman filtering, are available for the estimation of the target's state from feature positions; however, to guarantee the filter convergence, they typically require continuity of measurements and the capability of tracking a fixed set of pre-defined features of the object. These requirements clash with the actual tracking conditions: failures in feature detection often occur and the assumption of having some a-priori knowledge about the shape of the target could be restrictive in certain cases. The aim of the presented work is to propose a fault-tolerant alternative method for estimating the angular velocity and the relative magnitudes of the principal moments of inertia of the target. Raw data regarding the positions of the tracked features are processed to evaluate corrupted values of a 3-dimentional parameter which entirely describes the finite screw motion of the debris and which primarily is invariant on the particular set of considered features of the object. Missing values of the parameter are completely restored exploiting the typical periodicity of the rotational motion of an uncontrolled satellite: compressed sensing techniques, typically adopted for recovering images or for prognostic applications, are herein used in a completely original fashion for retrieving a kinematic signal that appears sparse in the frequency domain. Due to its invariance about the features, no assumptions are needed about the target's shape and continuity of the tracking. The obtained signal is useful for the indirect evaluation of an attitude signal that feeds an unscented Kalman filter for the estimation of

  18. Estimating the implicit component of visuomotor rotation learning by constraining movement preparation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Gunn, Reece; Marinovic, Welber; Carroll, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    When sensory feedback is perturbed, accurate movement is restored by a combination of implicit processes and deliberate reaiming to strategically compensate for errors. Here, we directly compare two methods used previously to dissociate implicit from explicit learning on a trial-by-trial basis: 1 ) asking participants to report the direction that they aim their movements, and contrasting this with the directions of the target and the movement that they actually produce, and 2 ) manipulating movement preparation time. By instructing participants to reaim without a sensory perturbation, we show that reaiming is possible even with the shortest possible preparation times, particularly when targets are narrowly distributed. Nonetheless, reaiming is effortful and comes at the cost of increased variability, so we tested whether constraining preparation time is sufficient to suppress strategic reaiming during adaptation to visuomotor rotation with a broad target distribution. The rate and extent of error reduction under preparation time constraints were similar to estimates of implicit learning obtained from self-report without time pressure, suggesting that participants chose not to apply a reaiming strategy to correct visual errors under time pressure. Surprisingly, participants who reported aiming directions showed less implicit learning according to an alternative measure, obtained during trials performed without visual feedback. This suggests that the process of reporting can affect the extent or persistence of implicit learning. The data extend existing evidence that restricting preparation time can suppress explicit reaiming and provide an estimate of implicit visuomotor rotation learning that does not require participants to report their aiming directions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY During sensorimotor adaptation, implicit error-driven learning can be isolated from explicit strategy-driven reaiming by subtracting self-reported aiming directions from movement directions, or

  19. Limited diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Schmitt, Cornelia; Haupert, Alexander; Kohn, Dieter; Lorbach, Olaf

    2017-12-01

    The reliable diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff is still elusive in clinical practise. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff as well as the combination of these parameters. 334 consecutive shoulder arthroscopies for rotator cuff pathologies performed during the time period between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively for the findings of common clinical signs for rotator cuff lesions and preoperative MR imaging. These were compared with the intraoperative arthroscopic findings as "gold standard". The reports of the MR imaging were evaluated with regard to the integrity of the rotator cuff. The Ellman Classification was used to define partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff in accordance with the arthroscopic findings. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. MR imaging showed 80 partial-thickness and 70 full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The arthroscopic examination confirmed 64 partial-thickness tears of which 52 needed debridement or refixation of the rotator cuff. Sensitivity for MR imaging to identify partial-thickness tears was 51.6%, specificity 77.2%, positive predictive value 41.3% and negative predictive value 83.7%. For the Jobe-test, sensitivity was 64.1%, specificity 43.2%, positive predictive value 25.9% and negative predictive value 79.5%. Sensitivity for the Impingement-sign was 76.7%, specificity 46.6%, positive predictive value 30.8% and negative predictive value 86.5%. For the combination of MR imaging, Jobe-test and Impingement-sign sensitivity was 46.9%, specificity 85.4%, positive predictive value 50% and negative predictive value 83.8%. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests (Jobe-test and Impingement-sign) alone is limited for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Additionally

  20. Limits theorems for tail processes with applications tointermediate quantile estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the weak and strong limiting behaviour of weighted uniform tail empirical and tail quantile processes is given. The results for the tail quantile process are applied to obtain weak and strong functional limit theorems for a weighted non-uniform tail-quantile-type process based on a

  1. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-09-01

    Hamstring graft has substantial differences with BPTB graft regarding initial mechanical strength, healing sequence, and vascularization, which may imply that a different approach during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities. The hypothesis was that there would be a decrease in tibial rotation in the ACL-reconstructed braced knee as compared to the unbraced knee. Twenty male patients having undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus/gracilis autograft were assessed. Kinematic data were collected with an eight-camera optoelectronic system during two stressful tasks: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting; and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. In each patient, three different experimental conditions were evaluated: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition); (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition); (C) without brace (unbraced condition). The intact knee without brace served as a control. Tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared to all three conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P≤0.01 for both tasks). Presence of a brace or sleeve resulted in lower tibial rotation than in the unbraced condition (p=0.003 for descending/pivot and P=0.0004 for landing/pivot). The braced condition resulted in lower rotation than the sleeved condition for descending/pivoting (P=0.031) while no differences were found for landing/pivoting (P=0.230). Knee bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation during pivoting under high loading activities in ACL-reconstructed knees with a hamstring graft. This partial restoration of normal kinematics may have a potential beneficial effect in patients recovering from ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft. Level III, case-control therapeutic study. Copyright

  2. Limitations of rotational manoeuvrability in insects and hummingbirds: evaluating the effects of neuro-biomechanical delays and muscle mechanical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Cheng, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Flying animals ranging in size from fruit flies to hummingbirds are nimble fliers with remarkable rotational manoeuvrability. The degrees of manoeuvrability among these animals, however, are noticeably diverse and do not simply follow scaling rules of flight dynamics or muscle power capacity. As all manoeuvres emerge from the complex interactions of neural, physiological and biomechanical processes of an animal's flight control system, these processes give rise to multiple limiting factors that dictate the maximal manoeuvrability attainable by an animal. Here using functional models of an animal's flight control system, we investigate the effects of three such limiting factors, including neural and biomechanical (from limited flapping frequency) delays and muscle mechanical power, for two insect species and two hummingbird species, undergoing roll, pitch and yaw rotations. The results show that for animals with similar degree of manoeuvrability, for example, fruit flies and hummingbirds, the underlying limiting factors are different, as the manoeuvrability of fruit flies is only limited by neural delays and that of hummingbirds could be limited by all three factors. In addition, the manoeuvrability also appears to be the highest about the roll axis as it requires the least muscle mechanical power and can tolerate the largest neural delays. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Limitations of the time slide method of background estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, Michal; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Robinet, Florent; Vavoulidis, Miltiadis

    2010-01-01

    Time shifting the output of gravitational wave detectors operating in coincidence is a convenient way of estimating the background in a search for short-duration signals. In this paper, we show how non-stationary data affect the background estimation precision. We present a method of measuring the fluctuations of the data and computing its effects on a coincident search. In particular, we show that for fluctuations of moderate amplitude, time slides larger than the fluctuation time scales can be used. We also recall how the false alarm variance saturates with the number of time shifts.

  4. Limitations of the time slide method of background estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Michal; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Robinet, Florent; Vavoulidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mwas@lal.in2p3.f [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2010-10-07

    Time shifting the output of gravitational wave detectors operating in coincidence is a convenient way of estimating the background in a search for short-duration signals. In this paper, we show how non-stationary data affect the background estimation precision. We present a method of measuring the fluctuations of the data and computing its effects on a coincident search. In particular, we show that for fluctuations of moderate amplitude, time slides larger than the fluctuation time scales can be used. We also recall how the false alarm variance saturates with the number of time shifts.

  5. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-01-21

    Jan 21, 2005 ... silt (0.002 to 0.05 mm) percentage to estimate the soil-water content at a given soil-water .... ar and br are the intercept and slope values of the regres- .... tions use the particle size classification of the South African Soil.

  6. Calibrated Tully-Fisher relations for improved estimates of disc rotation velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno, J.; Lackner, C. N.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we derive scaling relations between photometric observable quantities and disc galaxy rotation velocity Vrot or Tully-Fisher relations (TFRs). Our methodology is dictated by our purpose of obtaining purely photometric, minimal-scatter estimators of Vrot applicable to large galaxy samples from imaging surveys. To achieve this goal, we have constructed a sample of 189 disc galaxies at redshifts z < 0.1 with long-slit Hα spectroscopy from Pizagno et al. and new observations. By construction, this sample is a fair subsample of a large, well-defined parent disc sample of ˜170 000 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7). The optimal photometric estimator of Vrot we find is stellar mass M★ from Bell et al., based on the linear combination of a luminosity and a colour. Assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF), we find: log [V80/(km s-1)] = (2.142 ± 0.004) + (0.278 ± 0.010)[log (M★/M⊙) - 10.10], where V80 is the rotation velocity measured at the radius R80 containing 80 per cent of the i-band galaxy light. This relation has an intrinsic Gaussian scatter ? dex and a measured scatter σmeas= 0.056 dex in log V80. For a fixed IMF, we find that the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios within R80, (Mdyn/M★)(R80), decrease from approximately 10 to 3, as stellar mass increases from M★≈ 109 to 1011 M⊙. At a fixed stellar mass, (Mdyn/M★)(R80) increases with disc size, so that it correlates more tightly with stellar surface density than with stellar mass or disc size alone. We interpret the observed variation in (Mdyn/M★)(R80) with disc size as a reflection of the fact that disc size dictates the radius at which Mdyn/M★ is measured, and consequently, the fraction of the dark matter 'seen' by the gas at that radius. For the lowest M★ galaxies, we find a positive correlation between TFR residuals and disc sizes, indicating that the total density profile is dominated by dark matter on these scales. For the

  7. New Paleomagnetic Data From Upper Gabbros Supports Limited Rotation of Central Semail Massif in Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Sarah, T.; Hartley, E.; Martin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetic data from northern massifs of the Oman ophiolite demonstrate substantial clockwise rotations prior to or during obduction, yet data from southern massifs are recently suggested to be remagnetized during obduction and show subsequent smaller counterclockwise rotations. To better understand paleomagnetic data from the southern massifs, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of 21 sites in upper gabbros and 5 sites in lower crustal gabbros within the central Semail massif. Samples treated with progressive thermal demagnetization yield interpretable magnetizations with dominant unblocking between 500-580°C that implies characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components carried by low-titanium magnetite and nearly pure magnetite. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscopy data provide additional support of the carriers of magnetization. ChRMs from sites with samples containing partially-serpentinized olivine are similar to sites with samples lacking olivine, where the carriers appear to be fine magnetite intergrowths in pyroxene. The overall in situ and tilt-corrected mean directions from upper gabbros are distinct from the lower gabbros, from previous data within the massif, and also directions from similar crustal units in adjacent Rustaq and Wadi Tayin massifs. After tilt correction for 10-15° SE dip of the crust-mantle boundary, the mean direction from upper gabbros is nearly coincident with in situ lower gabbros. The tilt-corrected direction from upper gabbros is also consistent with an expected direction from the Late Cretaceous apparent polar wander path for Arabia at the age of crustal accretion ( 95Ma). These results suggest the upper crustal section in Semail has likely only experienced minor tilting since formation and acquisition of magnetization. Due to slow cooling of middle to lower gabbros in fast-spread crust, the lower gabbro sites likely cooled later or after obduction, and thus yield a distinct

  8. Bayesian analysis of rotating machines - A statistical approach to estimate and track the fundamental frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thorkild Find

    2003-01-01

    frequency and the related frequencies as orders of the fundamental frequency. When analyzing rotating or reciprocating machines it is important to know the running speed. Usually this requires direct access to the rotating parts in order to mount a dedicated tachometer probe. In this thesis different......Rotating and reciprocating mechanical machines emit acoustic noise and vibrations when they operate. Typically, the noise and vibrations are concentrated in narrow frequency bands related to the running speed of the machine. The frequency of the running speed is referred to as the fundamental...

  9. ASYMPTOTIC COMPARISONS OF U-STATISTICS, V-STATISTICS AND LIMITS OF BAYES ESTIMATES BY DEFICIENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    Toshifumi, Nomachi; Hajime, Yamato; Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University:Miyakonojo College of Technology; Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University

    2001-01-01

    As estimators of estimable parameters, we consider three statistics which are U-statistic, V-statistic and limit of Bayes estimate. This limit of Bayes estimate, called LB-statistic in this paper, is obtained from Bayes estimate of estimable parameter based on Dirichlet process, by letting its parameter tend to zero. For the estimable parameter with non-degenerate kernel, the asymptotic relative efficiencies of LB-statistic with respect to U-statistic and V-statistic and that of V-statistic w...

  10. Estimating risk using bounding calculations and limited data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the potential risk to workers and the public from igniting organic solvents in any of the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. The Hanford Site is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's former production facilities for nuclear materials. The tanks contain mixed radioactive wastes. Risk is measured by calculating toxicological and radiological accident consequences and frequencies and comparing the results to established regulatory guidelines. Available sample data is insufficient to adequately characterize the waste and solvent, so a model that maximizes releases from the tanks (bounding case) is used. Maximizing releases (and thus consequences) is a standard technique used in safety analysis to compensate for lack of information. The model predicts bounding values of fire duration, the time at which the fire extinguishes because of lack of oxygen, and a pressure history of a fire in a tank. The model output is used to calculate mass and volume release rates of material from the tanks. The mass and volume release rates permit calculation of radiological and toxicological consequences. The resulting consequence calculations demonstrate that risk from an organic solvent fire in the tanks is within regulatory guidelines

  11. Strengths and limitations of period estimation methods for circadian data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zielinski

    Full Text Available A key step in the analysis of circadian data is to make an accurate estimate of the underlying period. There are many different techniques and algorithms for determining period, all with different assumptions and with differing levels of complexity. Choosing which algorithm, which implementation and which measures of accuracy to use can offer many pitfalls, especially for the non-expert. We have developed the BioDare system, an online service allowing data-sharing (including public dissemination, data-processing and analysis. Circadian experiments are the main focus of BioDare hence performing period analysis is a major feature of the system. Six methods have been incorporated into BioDare: Enright and Lomb-Scargle periodograms, FFT-NLLS, mFourfit, MESA and Spectrum Resampling. Here we review those six techniques, explain the principles behind each algorithm and evaluate their performance. In order to quantify the methods' accuracy, we examine the algorithms against artificial mathematical test signals and model-generated mRNA data. Our re-implementation of each method in Java allows meaningful comparisons of the computational complexity and computing time associated with each algorithm. Finally, we provide guidelines on which algorithms are most appropriate for which data types, and recommendations on experimental design to extract optimal data for analysis.

  12. Development of stair-climbing mechanism with passive crawlers. Analysis of limitation for crawler rotation angle and test vehicle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Junji; Kimura, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel mechanism with passive crawlers that will realize a stair-climbing rescue robot with simple system. The proposed mechanism is called 'SMART-III', it is named after 'Simple Mechanism Adaptive for Rough Terrain'. Some quasi-static dynamic analysis were implemented and effectiveness of limitation for crawler rotation angle were verified. A prototype robot with the SMART-III mechanism had been improved. Experimental results show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed mechanism against a step and continuous stairs. (author)

  13. Extremal rotating black holes in the near-horizon limit: Phase space and symmetry algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Compère

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We construct the NHEG phase space, the classical phase space of Near-Horizon Extremal Geometries with fixed angular momenta and entropy, and with the largest symmetry algebra. We focus on vacuum solutions to d dimensional Einstein gravity. Each element in the phase space is a geometry with SL(2,R×U(1d−3 isometries which has vanishing SL(2,R and constant U(1 charges. We construct an on-shell vanishing symplectic structure, which leads to an infinite set of symplectic symmetries. In four spacetime dimensions, the phase space is unique and the symmetry algebra consists of the familiar Virasoro algebra, while in d>4 dimensions the symmetry algebra, the NHEG algebra, contains infinitely many Virasoro subalgebras. The nontrivial central term of the algebra is proportional to the black hole entropy. The conserved charges are given by the Fourier decomposition of a Liouville-type stress-tensor which depends upon a single periodic function of d−3 angular variables associated with the U(1 isometries. This phase space and in particular its symmetries can serve as a basis for a semiclassical description of extremal rotating black hole microstates.

  14. Active Lubrication: Feasibility and Limitations on Reducing Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    of increasing their operational range. As a result, one achieves intelligent machines that are more flexible to operate in a fast-changing demand environment. Some limitations of the active lubrication are also discussed based on experimental data, where the response of the servo valves and the supply pressure...... play an important role: the eigenfrequency of the servo valves establishes the operational frequency range of the active lubrication, whereas the supply pressure establishes the amplitude of vibration reduction achieved with the active lubrication....

  15. Sensitivity of short rotation poplar coppice biomass productivity to the throughfall reduction Estimating future drought impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 109 (2018), s. 182-189 ISSN 0961-9534 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : water -use * energy * stand * systems * dominance * density * l. * Dominance * Drought * Mortality * Productivity * Short-rotation coppice * Throughfall manipulation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  16. Calibrated Tully-fisher Relations For Improved Photometric Estimates Of Disk Rotation Velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno II, Jim

    We present calibrated scaling relations (also referred to as Tully-Fisher relations or TFRs) between rotation velocity and photometric quantities-- absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and synthetic magnitude (a linear combination of absolute magnitude and color)-- of disk galaxies at z 0.1. First, we

  17. Global rotational motion and displacement estimation of digital image stabilization based on the oblique vectors matching algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Hui, Mei; Zhao, Yue-jin

    2009-08-01

    The image block matching algorithm based on motion vectors of correlative pixels in oblique direction is presented for digital image stabilization. The digital image stabilization is a new generation of image stabilization technique which can obtains the information of relative motion among frames of dynamic image sequences by the method of digital image processing. In this method the matching parameters are calculated from the vectors projected in the oblique direction. The matching parameters based on the vectors contain the information of vectors in transverse and vertical direction in the image blocks at the same time. So the better matching information can be obtained after making correlative operation in the oblique direction. And an iterative weighted least square method is used to eliminate the error of block matching. The weights are related with the pixels' rotational angle. The center of rotation and the global emotion estimation of the shaking image can be obtained by the weighted least square from the estimation of each block chosen evenly from the image. Then, the shaking image can be stabilized with the center of rotation and the global emotion estimation. Also, the algorithm can run at real time by the method of simulated annealing in searching method of block matching. An image processing system based on DSP was used to exam this algorithm. The core processor in the DSP system is TMS320C6416 of TI, and the CCD camera with definition of 720×576 pixels was chosen as the input video signal. Experimental results show that the algorithm can be performed at the real time processing system and have an accurate matching precision.

  18. Estimation of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Several estimates of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II are summarized, and the calculational methods used to obtain them are described. Some estimates are based on analytic expressions; for others, particle orbits are calculated, magnetic-moment jumps are inspected, and adiabatic limits then derived. The results are sensitive to the assumed variation of the combined vacuum-plus-plasma magnetic field. The calculated adiabatic energy limit falls rapidly with beta, even for a gradual magnetic-field variation. If we assume a sharp depression in the axial profile of the combined magnetic field for a finite-beta plasma, the adiabatic limit can be further markedly reduced

  19. Earthquake Protection of Existing Structures with Limited Seismic Joint: Base Isolation with Supplemental Damping versus Rotational Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario De Domenico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing civil engineering structures having strategic importance, such as hospitals, fire stations, and power plants, often do not comply with seismic standards in force today, as they were designed and built based on past structural guidelines. On the other hand, due to their special importance, structural integrity of such buildings is of vital importance during and after earthquakes, which puts demands on strategies for their seismic protection. In this regard, seismic base isolation has been widely employed; however, the existing limited seismic joint between adjacent buildings may hamper this application because of the large displacements concentrated at the isolation floor. In this paper, we compare two possible remedies: the former is to provide supplemental damping in conventional base isolation systems and the latter consists in a combination of base isolation with supplemental rotational inertia. For the second strategy, a mechanical device, called inerter, is arranged in series with spring and dashpot elements to form the so-called tuned-mass-damper-inerter (TMDI directly connected to an isolation floor. Several advantages of this second system as compared to the first one are outlined, especially with regard to the limitation of floor accelerations and interstory drifts, which may be an issue for nonstructural elements and equipment, in addition to disturbing occupants. Once the optimal design of the TMDI is established, possible implementation of this system into existing structures is discussed.

  20. A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

  1. Analytical estimations of limit cycle amplitude for delay-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Molnár

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude of limit cycles arising from Hopf bifurcation is estimated for nonlinear delay-differential equations by means of analytical formulas. An improved analytical estimation is introduced, which allows more accurate quantitative prediction of periodic solutions than the standard approach that formulates the amplitude as a square-root function of the bifurcation parameter. The improved estimation is based on special global properties of the system: the method can be applied if the limit cycle blows up and disappears at a certain value of the bifurcation parameter. As an illustrative example, the improved analytical formula is applied to the problem of stick balancing.

  2. A Novel Strategy of Ambiguity Correction for the Improved Faraday Rotation Estimator in Linearly Full-Polarimetric SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR missions operating at low frequencies, such as L-band or P-band, are significantly influenced by the ionosphere. As one of the serious ionosphere effects, Faraday rotation (FR is a remarkable distortion source for the polarimetric SAR (PolSAR application. Various published FR estimators along with an improved one have been introduced to solve this issue, all of which are implemented by processing a set of PolSAR real data. The improved estimator exhibits optimal robustness based on performance analysis, especially in term of the system noise. However, all published estimators, including the improved estimator, suffer from a potential FR angle (FRA ambiguity. A novel strategy of the ambiguity correction for those FR estimators is proposed and shown as a flow process, which is divided into pixel-level and image-level correction. The former is not yet recognized and thus is considered in particular. Finally, the validation experiments show a prominent performance of the proposed strategy.

  3. A Novel Strategy of Ambiguity Correction for the Improved Faraday Rotation Estimator in Linearly Full-Polarimetric SAR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Ji, Yifei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Qilei; Huang, Haifeng; Dong, Zhen

    2018-04-10

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) missions operating at low frequencies, such as L-band or P-band, are significantly influenced by the ionosphere. As one of the serious ionosphere effects, Faraday rotation (FR) is a remarkable distortion source for the polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) application. Various published FR estimators along with an improved one have been introduced to solve this issue, all of which are implemented by processing a set of PolSAR real data. The improved estimator exhibits optimal robustness based on performance analysis, especially in term of the system noise. However, all published estimators, including the improved estimator, suffer from a potential FR angle (FRA) ambiguity. A novel strategy of the ambiguity correction for those FR estimators is proposed and shown as a flow process, which is divided into pixel-level and image-level correction. The former is not yet recognized and thus is considered in particular. Finally, the validation experiments show a prominent performance of the proposed strategy.

  4. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin; Wang, Huixia Judy; Liang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  5. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin

    2017-11-03

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  6. Patient-specific lean body mass can be estimated from limited-coverage computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2018-06-01

    In PET/CT, quantitative evaluation of tumour metabolic activity is possible through standardized uptake values, usually normalized for body weight (BW) or lean body mass (LBM). Patient-specific LBM can be estimated from whole-body (WB) CT images. As most clinical indications only warrant PET/CT examinations covering head to midthigh, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method to estimate LBM from limited-coverage (LC) CT images and test its validity. Head-to-toe PET/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semiautomatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units. LC was obtained by omitting image slices. Image segmentation was validated on the WB CT examinations by comparing CT-estimated BW with actual BW, and LBM estimated from LC images were compared with LBM estimated from WB images. A direct method and an indirect method were developed and validated on an independent data set. Comparing LBM estimated from LC examinations with estimates from WB examinations (LBMWB) showed a significant but limited bias of 1.2 kg (direct method) and nonsignificant bias of 0.05 kg (indirect method). This study demonstrates that LBM can be estimated from LC CT images with no significant difference from LBMWB.

  7. Real-time estimation of helicopter rotor blade kinematics through measurement of rotation induced acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, C. Jeff; Churchill, David; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to monitoring rotor blade flap, lead-lag and pitch using an embedded gyroscope and symmetrically mounted MEMS accelerometers. The central hypothesis is that differential accelerometer measurements are proportional only to blade motion; fuselage acceleration and blade bending are inherently compensated for. The inverse kinematic relationships (from blade position to acceleration and angular rate) are derived and simulated to validate this hypothesis. An algorithm to solve the forward kinematic relationships (from sensor measurement to blade position) is developed using these simulation results. This algorithm is experimentally validated using a prototype device. The experimental results justify continued development of this kinematic estimation approach.

  8. Real-time estimation of prostate tumor rotation and translation with a kV imaging system based on an iterative closest point algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; O’Brien, Ricky T; Keall, Paul; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that during cancer radiotherapy a small translation or rotation of the tumor can lead to errors in dose delivery. Current best practice in radiotherapy accounts for tumor translations, but is unable to address rotation due to a lack of a reliable real-time estimate. We have developed a method based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm that can compute rotation from kilovoltage x-ray images acquired during radiation treatment delivery. A total of 11 748 kilovoltage (kV) images acquired from ten patients (one fraction for each patient) were used to evaluate our tumor rotation algorithm. For each kV image, the three dimensional coordinates of three fiducial markers inside the prostate were calculated. The three dimensional coordinates were used as input to the ICP algorithm to calculate the real-time tumor rotation and translation around three axes. The results show that the root mean square error was improved for real-time calculation of tumor displacement from a mean of 0.97 mm with the stand alone translation to a mean of 0.16 mm by adding real-time rotation and translation displacement with the ICP algorithm. The standard deviation (SD) of rotation for the ten patients was 2.3°, 0.89° and 0.72° for rotation around the right–left (RL), anterior–posterior (AP) and superior–inferior (SI) directions respectively. The correlation between all six degrees of freedom showed that the highest correlation belonged to the AP and SI translation with a correlation of 0.67. The second highest correlation in our study was between the rotation around RL and rotation around AP, with a correlation of −0.33. Our real-time algorithm for calculation of rotation also confirms previous studies that have shown the maximum SD belongs to AP translation and rotation around RL. ICP is a reliable and fast algorithm for estimating real-time tumor rotation which could create a pathway to investigational clinical treatment studies requiring

  9. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  10. Exploration of factors limiting biomass estimation by polarimetric radar in tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Fernández, M.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Direct inversion of radar return signals for forest biomass estimation is limited by signal saturation at medium biomass levels (roughly 150 ton/ha for P-band). Disturbing factors such as forest structural differences-and, notably, at low biomass levels, terrain roughness, and soil moisture

  11. Estimation of Joint types and Joint Limits from Motion capture data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    It is time-consuming for an animator to explicitly model joint types and joint limits of articulated figures. In this paper we describe a simple and fast approach to automated joint estimation from motion capture data of articulated figures. Our method will make the joint modeling more efficient ...

  12. The limiting behavior of the estimated parameters in a misspecified random field regression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Qin, Yu

    This paper examines the limiting properties of the estimated parameters in the random field regression model recently proposed by Hamilton (Econometrica, 2001). Though the model is parametric, it enjoys the flexibility of the nonparametric approach since it can approximate a large collection of n...

  13. An estimation of tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.D.; Cook, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    At the request of Waste Management, Interim Waste Technology has conducted a modeling study to estimate the tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults. These inventory limits are based on the groundwater impact of the planned waste disposal. The tritium inventory limit for an Intermediate Level Tritium Vault (ILTV) is estimated to be 400,000 Curies with a 100 year storage period. During this period, it is assumed that the ILTV will be vented, any leachate will be extracted, and its performance will be carefully monitored. The tritium inventory limits for a Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV) and an Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vault (ILNTV) are estimated to be 15,000 and 11,000 Curies, respectively. Venting and leachate extraction were not assumed necessary. These operational alternatives would further enhance the performance of these vaults. These limits are significantly higher than the forecasted maximum tritium inventories for the vaults. Details of the modeling study are described in the attached report

  14. Validity of eyeball estimation for range of motion during the cervical flexion rotation test compared to an ultrasound-based movement analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Axel; Lüdtke, Kerstin; Breuel, Franziska; Gerloff, Nikolas; Knust, Maren; Kollitsch, Christian; Laukart, Alex; Matej, Laura; Müller, Antje; Schöttker-Königer, Thomas; Hall, Toby

    2018-08-01

    Headache is a common and costly health problem. Although pathogenesis of headache is heterogeneous, one reported contributing factor is dysfunction of the upper cervical spine. The flexion rotation test (FRT) is a commonly used diagnostic test to detect upper cervical movement impairment. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate concurrent validity of detecting high cervical ROM impairment during the FRT by comparing measurements established by an ultrasound-based system (gold standard) with eyeball estimation. Secondary aim was to investigate intra-rater reliability of FRT ROM eyeball estimation. The examiner (6 years experience) was blinded to the data from the ultrasound-based device and to the symptoms of the patients. FRT test result (positive or negative) was based on visual estimation of range of rotation less than 34° to either side. Concurrently, range of rotation was evaluated using the ultrasound-based device. A total of 43 subjects with headache (79% female), mean age of 35.05 years (SD 13.26) were included. According to the International Headache Society Classification 23 subjects had migraine, 4 tension type headache, and 16 multiple headache forms. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 and 0.89 for combined rotation, indicating good concurrent reliability. The area under the ROC curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.98) for rotation to both sides. Intra-rater reliability for eyeball estimation was excellent with Fleiss Kappa 0.79 for right rotation and left rotation. The results of this study indicate that the FRT is a valid and reliable test to detect impairment of upper cervical ROM in patients with headache.

  15. Estimating the boundaries of a limit cycle in a 2D dynamical system using renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ayan; Das, Debapriya; Banerjee, Dhruba; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2018-04-01

    While the plausibility of formation of limit cycle has been a well studied topic in context of the Poincare-Bendixson theorem, studies on estimates in regard to the possible size and shape of the limit cycle seem to be scanty in the literature. In this paper we present a pedagogical study of some aspects of the size of this limit cycle using perturbative renormalization group by doing detailed and explicit calculations upto second order for the Selkov model for glycolytic oscillations. This famous model is well known to lead to a limit cycle for certain ranges of values of the parameters involved in the problem. Within the tenets of the approximations made, reasonable agreement with the numerical plots can be achieved.

  16. An Energy-Based Limit State Function for Estimation of Structural Reliability in Shock Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Guthrie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available limit state function is developed for the estimation of structural reliability in shock environments. This limit state function uses peak modal strain energies to characterize environmental severity and modal strain energies at failure to characterize the structural capacity. The Hasofer-Lind reliability index is briefly reviewed and its computation for the energy-based limit state function is discussed. Applications to two degree of freedom mass-spring systems and to a simple finite element model are considered. For these examples, computation of the reliability index requires little effort beyond a modal analysis, but still accounts for relevant uncertainties in both the structure and environment. For both examples, the reliability index is observed to agree well with the results of Monte Carlo analysis. In situations where fast, qualitative comparison of several candidate designs is required, the reliability index based on the proposed limit state function provides an attractive metric which can be used to compare and control reliability.

  17. Weight Estimation Tool for Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Limited-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Mark E; Myatt, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries. This was a retrospective observational study. Data were collected in 560 nutritional surveys during 1992-2006 using a modified Expanded Program of Immunization two-stage cluster sample design. Locations with high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. A total of 453,990 children met inclusion criteria (age 6-59 months; weight ≤ 25 kg; MUAC 80-200 mm) and exclusion criteria (bilateral pitting edema; biologically implausible weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) values). Weight was estimated using Broselow Tape, Hong Kong formula, and database MUAC alone, height alone, and height and MUAC combined. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight, proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% and ± 10% of true weight, weighted Kappa statistic, and Bland-Altman bias were reported as measures of tool accuracy. Standard deviation of mean percentage difference and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reported as measures of tool precision. Database height was a more accurate and precise predictor of weight compared to Broselow Tape 2007 [B], Broselow Tape 2011 [A], and MUAC. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight was +0.49% (SD = 10.33%); proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% of true weight was 97.36% (95% CI 97.40%, 97.46%); and

  18. Unified approach to the entropy of an extremal rotating BTZ black hole: Thin shells and horizon limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2017-10-01

    Using a thin shell, the first law of thermodynamics, and a unified approach, we study the thermodymanics and find the entropy of a (2 +1 )-dimensional extremal rotating Bañados-Teitelbom-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. The shell in (2 +1 ) dimensions, i.e., a ring, is taken to be circularly symmetric and rotating, with the inner region being a ground state of the anti-de Sitter spacetime and the outer region being the rotating BTZ spacetime. The extremal BTZ rotating black hole can be obtained in three different ways depending on the way the shell approaches its own gravitational or horizon radius. These ways are explicitly worked out. The resulting three cases give that the BTZ black hole entropy is either the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, S =A/+ 4 G , or an arbitrary function of A+, S =S (A+) , where A+=2 π r+ is the area, i.e., the perimeter, of the event horizon in (2 +1 ) dimensions. We speculate that the entropy of an extremal black hole should obey 0 ≤S (A+)≤A/+ 4 G . We also show that the contributions from the various thermodynamic quantities, namely, the mass, the circular velocity, and the temperature, for the entropy in all three cases are distinct. This study complements the previous studies in thin shell thermodynamics and entropy for BTZ black holes. It also corroborates the results found for a (3 +1 )-dimensional extremal electrically charged Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  19. Estimation of reactive power sources dynamic limits for Volt / VAr control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Alvarado, Juan Jose

    2013-01-01

    A generic model of capacity curves is obtained from the theoretical capacity curves of the distribution generators and reactive compensation elements. The obtained generic model is structured in a simplified method of points, taking eight strategic points of two detailed curves of a generator and through a series of interpolations, achieving the estimation of limits of capacity of delivery / consumption of the generator. The theory of electric generation elements and reactive power compensation is reviewed. The curves of capacity 'Reactive Power / Active Power' are achieved for different values of tension: from wind generators with complete converter and doubly fed, photovoltaic generators with inverter and synchronous generators. The 'Reactive Power / Line Tension' capacity curves are acquired from static var compensators (SVC). The generic limits of generators and SVC are estimated from the capacity curves [es

  20. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimation of Work Limitation Scores from Health Status Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anatchkova, M; Fang, H; Kini, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare two methods for estimation of Work Limitations Questionnaire scores (WLQ, 8 items) from the Role Physical (RP, 4 items) and Role Emotional scales (RE, 3 items) of the SF-36 Health survey. These measures assess limitations in role performance attributed to health (emotional...... future data collection strategies. Methods We used data from two independent cross-sectional panel samples (Sample1, n=1382, 51% female, 72% Caucasian, 49% with preselected chronic conditions, 15% with fair/poor health; Sample2, n=301, 45% female, 90% Caucasian, 47% with preselected chronic conditions......, 21% with fair/poor health). Method 1 used previously developed and validated IRT based calibration tables. Method 2 used regression models to develop aggregate imputation weights as described in the literature. We evaluated the agreement of observed and estimated WLQ scale scores from the two methods...

  1. Effective charge versus bare charge: an analytical estimate for colloids in the infinite dilution limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouy, Miguel; Trizac, Emmanuel; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2003-01-01

    We propose an analytical approximation for the dependence of the effective charge on the bare charge for spherical and cylindrical macro-ions as a function of the size of the colloid and salt content, for the situation of a unique colloid immersed in a sea of electrolyte (where the definition of an effective charge is non-ambiguous). Our approach is based on the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) mean-field theory. Mathematically speaking, our estimate is asymptotically exact in the limit κa >> 1, where a is the radius of the colloid and κ is the inverse screening length. In practice, a careful comparison with effective charge parameters, obtained by numerically solving the full nonlinear PB theory, proves that our estimate is good down to κa ∼ 1. This is precisely the limit appropriate to treat colloidal suspensions. A particular emphasis is put on the range of parameters suitable to describe both single and double strand DNA molecules under physiological conditions

  2. Estimation of the limit of detection in semiconductor gas sensors through linearized calibration models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgués, Javier; Jiménez-Soto, Juan Manuel; Marco, Santiago

    2018-07-12

    The limit of detection (LOD) is a key figure of merit in chemical sensing. However, the estimation of this figure of merit is hindered by the non-linear calibration curve characteristic of semiconductor gas sensor technologies such as, metal oxide (MOX), gasFETs or thermoelectric sensors. Additionally, chemical sensors suffer from cross-sensitivities and temporal stability problems. The application of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations for univariate LOD estimation in non-linear semiconductor gas sensors is not straightforward due to the strong statistical requirements of the IUPAC methodology (linearity, homoscedasticity, normality). Here, we propose a methodological approach to LOD estimation through linearized calibration models. As an example, the methodology is applied to the detection of low concentrations of carbon monoxide using MOX gas sensors in a scenario where the main source of error is the presence of uncontrolled levels of humidity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving slowness estimate stability and visualization using limited sensor pair correlation on seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Näsholm, S. P.; Ruigrok, E.; Kværna, T.

    2018-04-01

    Seismic arrays enhance signal detection and parameter estimation by exploiting the time-delays between arriving signals on sensors at nearby locations. Parameter estimates can suffer due to both signal incoherence, with diminished waveform similarity between sensors, and aberration, with time-delays between coherent waveforms poorly represented by the wave-front model. Sensor-to-sensor correlation approaches to parameter estimation have an advantage over direct beamforming approaches in that individual sensor-pairs can be omitted without necessarily omitting entirely the data from each of the sensors involved. Specifically, we can omit correlations between sensors for which signal coherence in an optimal frequency band is anticipated to be poor or for which anomalous time-delays are anticipated. In practice, this usually means omitting correlations between more distant sensors. We present examples from International Monitoring System seismic arrays with poor parameter estimates resulting when classical f-k analysis is performed over the full array aperture. We demonstrate improved estimates and slowness grid displays using correlation beamforming restricted to correlations between sufficiently closely spaced sensors. This limited sensor-pair correlation (LSPC) approach has lower slowness resolution than would ideally be obtained by considering all sensor-pairs. However, this ideal estimate may be unattainable due to incoherence and/or aberration and the LSPC estimate can often exploit all channels, with the associated noise-suppression, while mitigating the complications arising from correlations between very distant sensors. The greatest need for the method is for short-period signals on large aperture arrays although we also demonstrate significant improvement for secondary regional phases on a small aperture array. LSPC can also provide a robust and flexible approach to parameter estimation on three-component seismic arrays.

  4. Hankin and Reeves' approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams: limitations and potential options; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, William L.

    2000-01-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream-fish studies across North America. However, as with any method of population estimation, there are important assumptions that must be met for estimates to be minimally biased and reasonably precise. Consequently, I investigated effects of various levels of departure from these assumptions via simulation based on results from an example application in Hankin and Reeves (1988) and a spatially clustered population. Coverage of 95% confidence intervals averaged about 5% less than nominal when removal estimates equaled true numbers within sampling units, but averaged 62% - 86% less than nominal when they did not, with the exception where detection probabilities of individuals were and gt;0.85 and constant across sampling units (95% confidence interval coverage= 90%). True total abundances averaged far (20% - 41%) below the lower confidence limit when not included within intervals, which implies large negative bias. Further, average coefficient of variation was about 1.5 times higher when removal estimates did not equal true numbers within sampling units (C(bar V)0.27[SE= 0.0004]) than when they did (C(bar V)= 0.19[SE= 0.0002]). A potential modification to Hankin and Reeves' approach is to include environmental covariates that affect detection rates of fish into the removal model or other mark-recapture model. A potential alternative is to use snorkeling in combination with line transect sampling to estimate fish densities. Regardless of the method of population estimation, a pilot study should be conducted to validate the enumeration method, which requires a known (or nearly so) population of fish to serve as a benchmark to evaluate bias and precision of population estimates

  5. Number of discernible colors for color-deficient observers estimated from the MacAdam limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Esther; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco Miguel; Linhares, João Manuel Maciel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    We estimated the number of colors perceived by color normal and color-deficient observers when looking at the theoretic limits of object-color stimuli. These limits, the optimal color stimuli, were computed for a color normal observer and CIE standard illuminant D65, and the resultant colors were expressed in the CIELAB and DIN99d color spaces. The corresponding color volumes for abnormal color vision were computed using models simulating for normal trichromatic observers the appearance for dichromats and anomalous trichomats. The number of colors perceived in each case was then computed from the color volumes enclosed by the optimal colors also known as MacAdam limits. It was estimated that dichromats perceive less than 1% of the colors perceived by normal trichromats and that anomalous trichromats perceive 50%-60% for anomalies in the medium-wavelength-sensitive and 60%-70% for anomalies in the long-wavelength-sensitive cones. Complementary estimates obtained similarly for the spectral locus of monochromatic stimuli suggest less impairment for color-deficient observers, a fact that is explained by the two-dimensional nature of the locus.

  6. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Camps, Vicente J; Ramón, María L; Mateo, Verónica; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP). Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y) with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany). In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj) was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj) for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj) and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj) obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal) and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay I). PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05). In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D) and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D) when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01) and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj. Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

  7. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP.METHODS:Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany. In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay Ⅰ.RESULTS:PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05. In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01 and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj.CONCLUSION:Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

  8. Effects of stimulus type and strategy on mental rotation network:an Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We could predict how an object would look like if we were to see it from different viewpoints. The brain network governing mental rotation (MR has been studied using a variety of stimuli and tasks instructions. By using activation likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis we tested whether different MR networks can be modulated by the type of stimulus (body vs. non body parts or by the type of tasks instructions (motor imagery-based vs. non-motor imagery-based MR instructions. Testing for the bodily and non-bodily stimulus axis revealed a bilateral sensorimotor activation for bodily-related as compared to non bodily-related stimuli and a posterior right lateralized activation for non bodily-related as compared to bodily-related stimuli. A top-down modulation of the network was exerted by the MR tasks instructions frame with a bilateral (preferentially sensorimotor left network for motor imagery- vs. non-motor imagery-based MR instructions and the latter activating a preferentially posterior right occipito-temporal-parietal network. The present quantitative meta-analysis summarizes and amends previous descriptions of the brain network related to MR and shows how it is modulated by top-down and bottom-up experimental factors.

  9. Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Mechem, David B; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-09-08

    Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 10(5) km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m(-2), whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m(-2), with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way.

  10. Phenotypic variance, plasticity and heritability estimates of critical thermal limits depend on methodological context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chown, Steven L.; Jumbam, Keafon R.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2009-01-01

    used during assessments of critical thermal limits to activity. To date, the focus of work has almost exclusively been on the effects of rate variation on mean values of the critical limits. 2.  If the rate of temperature change used in an experimental trial affects not only the trait mean but also its...... this is the case for critical thermal limits using a population of the model species Drosophila melanogaster and the invasive ant species Linepithema humile. 4.  We found that effects of the different rates of temperature change are variable among traits and species. However, in general, different rates...... of temperature change resulted in different phenotypic variances and different estimates of heritability, presuming that genetic variance remains constant. We also found that different rates resulted in different conclusions regarding the responses of the species to acclimation, especially in the case of L...

  11. Actinide solubility in deep groundwaters - estimates for upper limits based on chemical equilibrium calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweingruber, M.

    1983-12-01

    A chemical equilibrium model is used to estimate maximum upper concentration limits for some actinides (Th, U, Np, Pu, Am) in groundwaters. Eh/pH diagrams for solubility isopleths, dominant dissolved species and limiting solids are constructed for fixed parameter sets including temperature, thermodynamic database, ionic strength and total concentrations of most important inorganic ligands (carbonate, fluoride, phosphate, sulphate, chloride). In order to assess conservative conditions, a reference water is defined with high ligand content and ionic strength, but without competing cations. In addition, actinide oxides and hydroxides are the only solid phases considered. Recommendations for 'safe' upper actinide solubility limits for deep groundwaters are derived from such diagrams, based on the predicted Eh/pH domain. The model results are validated as far as the scarce experimental data permit. (Auth.)

  12. Properties of rotational bands at the spin limit in A {approximately} 50, A {approximately} 65 and A {approximately} 110 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, V.P.; Andrews, H.R.; Ball, G.C. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    There is now widespread evidence for the smooth termination of rotational bands in A {approx_equal} 110 nuclei at spins of 40-to-50{Dirac_h}s. The characteristics of these bands are compared to those of bands recently observed to high spin in {sup 64}Zn and {sup 48}Cr, studied with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer coupled to the Chalk River miniball charged-particle-detector array.

  13. The efficiency of different estimation methods of hydro-physical limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma María Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil water available to crops is defined by specific values of water potential limits. Underlying the estimation of hydro-physical limits, identified as permanent wilting point (PWP and field capacity (FC, is the selection of a suitable method based on a multi-criteria analysis that is not always clear and defined. In this kind of analysis, the time required for measurements must be taken into consideration as well as other external measurement factors, e.g., the reliability and suitability of the study area, measurement uncertainty, cost, effort and labour invested. In this paper, the efficiency of different methods for determining hydro-physical limits is evaluated by using indices that allow for the calculation of efficiency in terms of effort and cost. The analysis evaluates both direct determination methods (pressure plate - PP and water activity meter - WAM and indirect estimation methods (pedotransfer functions - PTFs. The PTFs must be validated for the area of interest before use, but the time and cost associated with this validation are not included in the cost of analysis. Compared to the other methods, the combined use of PP and WAM to determine hydro-physical limits differs significantly in time and cost required and quality of information. For direct methods, increasing sample size significantly reduces cost and time. This paper assesses the effectiveness of combining a general analysis based on efficiency indices and more specific analyses based on the different influencing factors, which were considered separately so as not to mask potential benefits or drawbacks that are not evidenced in efficiency estimation.

  14. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  15. Confidence limits for contribution plots in multivariate statistical process control using bootstrap estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamoradi, Hamid; van den Berg, Frans; Rinnan, Åsmund

    2016-02-18

    In Multivariate Statistical Process Control, when a fault is expected or detected in the process, contribution plots are essential for operators and optimization engineers in identifying those process variables that were affected by or might be the cause of the fault. The traditional way of interpreting a contribution plot is to examine the largest contributing process variables as the most probable faulty ones. This might result in false readings purely due to the differences in natural variation, measurement uncertainties, etc. It is more reasonable to compare variable contributions for new process runs with historical results achieved under Normal Operating Conditions, where confidence limits for contribution plots estimated from training data are used to judge new production runs. Asymptotic methods cannot provide confidence limits for contribution plots, leaving re-sampling methods as the only option. We suggest bootstrap re-sampling to build confidence limits for all contribution plots in online PCA-based MSPC. The new strategy to estimate CLs is compared to the previously reported CLs for contribution plots. An industrial batch process dataset was used to illustrate the concepts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental verification on limit load estimation method for pipes with an arbitrary shaped circumferential surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Miura, Naoki; Hoshino, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    When a flaw is detected in stainless steel pipes during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in these codes, the limit load criterion is only provided for pipes containing a flaw with uniform depth, although many flaws with complicated shape such as stress corrosion cracking have been actually detected in pipes. In order to evaluate the integrity of the flawed pipes for general case, a limit load estimation method has been proposed by authors considering a circumferential surface flaw with arbitrary shape. The plastic collapse bending moment and corresponding stress are obtained by dividing the surface flaw into several segmented sub-flaws. In this paper, the proposed method was verified by comparing with experimental results. Four-point bending experiments were carried out for full scale stainless steel pipes with a symmetrical or non-symmetrical circumferential flaw. Estimated failure bending moments by the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, and the proposed method was confirmed to be effective for evaluating bending failure of pipes with flaw. (author)

  17. Estimation of the lower flammability limit of organic compounds as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J R; Rowley, R L; Wilding, W V

    2011-02-15

    A new method of estimating the lower flammability limit (LFL) of general organic compounds is presented. The LFL is predicted at 298 K for gases and the lower temperature limit for solids and liquids from structural contributions and the ideal gas heat of formation of the fuel. The average absolute deviation from more than 500 experimental data points is 10.7%. In a previous study, the widely used modified Burgess-Wheeler law was shown to underestimate the effect of temperature on the lower flammability limit when determined in a large-diameter vessel. An improved version of the modified Burgess-Wheeler law is presented that represents the temperature dependence of LFL data determined in large-diameter vessels more accurately. When the LFL is estimated at increased temperatures using a combination of this model and the proposed structural-contribution method, an average absolute deviation of 3.3% is returned when compared with 65 data points for 17 organic compounds determined in an ASHRAE-style apparatus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Real Time Estimation of the Calgary Floods Using Limited Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Schnebele

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, flood disasters are responsible for widespread destruction and loss of human life. Remote sensing data are capable of providing valuable, synoptic coverage of flood events but are not always available because of satellite revisit limitations, obstructions from cloud cover or vegetation canopy, or expense. In addition, knowledge of road accessibility is imperative during all phases of a flood event. In June 2013, the City of Calgary experienced sudden and extensive flooding but lacked comprehensive remote sensing coverage. Using this event as a case study, this work illustrates how data from non-authoritative sources are used to augment traditional data and methods to estimate flood extent and identify affected roads during a flood disaster. The application of these data, which may have varying resolutions and uncertainities, provide an estimation of flood extent when traditional data and methods are lacking or incomplete. When flooding occurs over multiple days, it is possible to construct an estimate of the advancement and recession of the flood event. Non-authoritative sources also provide flood information at the micro-level, which can be difficult to capture from remote sensing data; however, the distibution and quantity of data collected from these sources will affect the quality of the flood estimations.

  19. Limitations to estimating bacterial cross-speciestransmission using genetic and genomic markers: inferencesfrom simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio Andre, Benavides; Cross, Paul C.; Luikart, Gordon; Scott, Creel

    2014-01-01

    Cross-species transmission (CST) of bacterial pathogens has major implications for human health, livestock, and wildlife management because it determines whether control actions in one species may have subsequent effects on other potential host species. The study of bacterial transmission has benefitted from methods measuring two types of genetic variation: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unclear whether these data can distinguish between different epidemiological scenarios. We used a simulation model with two host species and known transmission rates (within and between species) to evaluate the utility of these markers for inferring CST. We found that CST estimates are biased for a wide range of parameters when based on VNTRs and a most parsimonious reconstructed phylogeny. However, estimations of CST rates lower than 5% can be achieved with relatively low bias using as low as 250 SNPs. CST estimates are sensitive to several parameters, including the number of mutations accumulated since introduction, stochasticity, the genetic difference of strains introduced, and the sampling effort. Our results suggest that, even with whole-genome sequences, unbiased estimates of CST will be difficult when sampling is limited, mutation rates are low, or for pathogens that were recently introduced.

  20. Does limited data availability prevent adequate water use estimates on farm scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatz, Benjamin; Kuster, Benjamin; Percy, Barbara; Hillier, Jonathan; Freese, Dirk; Wattenbach, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Increasing food production for a growing world population and at the same time mitigating climate change as well as adapting to its consequences is one of the key global challenges. Therefore producing crops with fewer resources such as water and fertilizers and less emissions of greenhouse gases is an important question that has to be answered on farm scale. The cool farm tool (CFT) is a farm scale emission calculator and was developed in 2010 to help farmers to reduce their carbon footprint. In order to adapt to future climate change an easy to use and at the same time robust water footprinting tool is needed for the CFT to take a more holistic approach on environmental sustainability. However data on farm level is often scarce. We investigated the effect of limited data on actual evapotranspiration using the FAO56 standard to assess the quality of farm water footprint estimates. Calculations are based on various agricultural sites from the Fluxnet database and estimates are compared to eddy covariance measurements. Results show that higher data availability is not directly linked to more accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration. Estimates based only on temperature and relative humidity are still able to reproduce daily patterns. However cumulative values over one growing season show a considerable offset to eddy covariance observations for all data input levels. Finding the optimum between data requirements and an accuracy that fulfills farmer needs is crucial. Engagement of farmers and using a global network as the Fluxnet database will help to achieve this goal.

  1. Performance of the MACRO limited streamer tubes for estimates of muon energy

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgini, M

    2002-01-01

    The MACRO limited streamer tubes can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTP system. In this way a considerable improvement in the space resolution is obtained, allowing the analysis of muon tracks in terms of multiple scattering effects and the energy estimates of muons crossing the detector. We present the results of two dedicated tests, performed with the CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beams, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of the analysis. Using a neural network, we are able to estimate the muon energies up to E/sub mu / approximately = 40 GeV. The test beam data provide then an absolute energy calibration, which allows to apply the method to the MACRO data. (5 refs).

  2. Estimation of source term in radiation emergencies from field measurements: its potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukkoo, R.K.; Bapat, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    During the 'early phase' of a radiation emergency the data on the nature and quantity of releases to asses the radiological impact may not be readily available thus delaying the initiation of necessary steps to contain the event and mitigate its effect. An iterative method based on the field measurements carried out at two concentric rings around the point of release is proposed to estimate the atmospheric release at the ground level and stack height. The program logic has been evaluated for internal consistency and its utility and limitations are discussed. (author). 8 figs., 4 tabs., 4 refs

  3. Limited sampling strategy models for estimating the AUC of gliclazide in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Han; Wang, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Hui; He, Ying-Chun; Li, Lu-Jin; Sheng, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Juan; Zheng, Qing-Shan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to reduce the cost of required sampling for the estimation of the area under the gliclazide plasma concentration versus time curve within 60 h (AUC0-60t ). The limited sampling strategy (LSS) models were established and validated by the multiple regression model within 4 or fewer gliclazide concentration values. Absolute prediction error (APE), root of mean square error (RMSE) and visual prediction check were used as criterion. The results of Jack-Knife validation showed that 10 (25.0 %) of the 40 LSS based on the regression analysis were not within an APE of 15 % using one concentration-time point. 90.2, 91.5 and 92.4 % of the 40 LSS models were capable of prediction using 2, 3 and 4 points, respectively. Limited sampling strategies were developed and validated for estimating AUC0-60t of gliclazide. This study indicates that the implementation of an 80 mg dosage regimen enabled accurate predictions of AUC0-60t by the LSS model. This study shows that 12, 6, 4, 2 h after administration are the key sampling times. The combination of (12, 2 h), (12, 8, 2 h) or (12, 8, 4, 2 h) can be chosen as sampling hours for predicting AUC0-60t in practical application according to requirement.

  4. Estimation of optical rotation of γ-alkylidenebutenolide, cyclopropylamine, cyclopropyl-methanol and cyclopropenone based compounds by a Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzadi, Iram; Shaukat, Aqsa; Zara, Zeenat; Irfan, Muhammad; Eliasson, Bertil; Ayub, Khurshid; Iqbal, Javed

    2017-10-01

    Computing the optical rotation of organic molecules can be a real challenge, and various theoretical approaches have been developed in this regard. A benchmark study of optical rotation of various classes of compounds was carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The aim of the present research study was to find out the best-suited functional and basis set to estimate the optical rotations of selected compounds with respect to experimental literature values. Six DFT functional LSDA, BVP86, CAM-B3LYP, B3PW91, and PBE were applied on 22 different compounds. Furthermore, six different basis sets, i.e., 3-21G, 6-31G, aug-cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVTZ, DGDZVP, and DGDZVP2 were also applied with the best-suited functional B3LYP. After rigorous effort, it can be safely said that the best combination of functional and basis set is B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ for the estimation of optical rotation for selected compounds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Global robust stability of delayed neural networks: Estimating upper limit of norm of delayed connection weight matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    The question of estimating the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 , which is a key step in some recently reported global robust stability criteria for delayed neural networks, is revisited ( B denotes the delayed connection weight matrix). Recently, Cao, Huang, and Qu have given an estimate of the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 . In the present paper, an alternative estimate of the upper limit of -parallel B -parallel 2 is highlighted. It is shown that the alternative estimate may yield some new global robust stability results

  6. Probe-Specific Procedure to Estimate Sensitivity and Detection Limits for 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Taylor

    Full Text Available Due to low fluorine background signal in vivo, 19F is a good marker to study the fate of exogenous molecules by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using equilibrium nuclear spin polarization schemes. Since 19F MRI applications require high sensitivity, it can be important to assess experimental feasibility during the design stage already by estimating the minimum detectable fluorine concentration. Here we propose a simple method for the calibration of MRI hardware, providing sensitivity estimates for a given scanner and coil configuration. An experimental "calibration factor" to account for variations in coil configuration and hardware set-up is specified. Once it has been determined in a calibration experiment, the sensitivity of an experiment or, alternatively, the minimum number of required spins or the minimum marker concentration can be estimated without the need for a pilot experiment. The definition of this calibration factor is derived based on standard equations for the sensitivity in magnetic resonance, yet the method is not restricted by the limited validity of these equations, since additional instrument-dependent factors are implicitly included during calibration. The method is demonstrated using MR spectroscopy and imaging experiments with different 19F samples, both paramagnetically and susceptibility broadened, to approximate a range of realistic environments.

  7. Probe-Specific Procedure to Estimate Sensitivity and Detection Limits for 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alexander J; Granwehr, Josef; Lesbats, Clémentine; Krupa, James L; Six, Joseph S; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Thomas, Neil R; Auer, Dorothee P; Meersmann, Thomas; Faas, Henryk M

    2016-01-01

    Due to low fluorine background signal in vivo, 19F is a good marker to study the fate of exogenous molecules by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using equilibrium nuclear spin polarization schemes. Since 19F MRI applications require high sensitivity, it can be important to assess experimental feasibility during the design stage already by estimating the minimum detectable fluorine concentration. Here we propose a simple method for the calibration of MRI hardware, providing sensitivity estimates for a given scanner and coil configuration. An experimental "calibration factor" to account for variations in coil configuration and hardware set-up is specified. Once it has been determined in a calibration experiment, the sensitivity of an experiment or, alternatively, the minimum number of required spins or the minimum marker concentration can be estimated without the need for a pilot experiment. The definition of this calibration factor is derived based on standard equations for the sensitivity in magnetic resonance, yet the method is not restricted by the limited validity of these equations, since additional instrument-dependent factors are implicitly included during calibration. The method is demonstrated using MR spectroscopy and imaging experiments with different 19F samples, both paramagnetically and susceptibility broadened, to approximate a range of realistic environments.

  8. Estimating health workforce needs for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullem Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to increase access to life-saving treatment, including antiretroviral therapy (ART, for people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings has been the growing focus of international efforts. One of the greatest challenges to scaling up will be the limited supply of adequately trained human resources for health, including doctors, nurses, pharmacists and other skilled providers. As national treatment programmes are planned, better estimates of human resource needs and improved approaches to assessing the impact of different staffing models are critically needed. However there have been few systematic assessments of staffing patterns in existing programmes or of the estimates being used in planning larger programmes. Methods We reviewed the published literature and selected plans and scaling-up proposals, interviewed experts and collected data on staffing patterns at existing treatment sites through a structured survey and site visits. Results We found a wide range of staffing patterns and patient-provider ratios in existing and planned treatment programmes. Many factors influenced health workforce needs, including task assignments, delivery models, other staff responsibilities and programme size. Overall, the number of health care workers required to provide ART to 1000 patients included 1–2 physicians, 2–7 nurses, Discussion These data are consistent with other estimates of human resource requirements for antiretroviral therapy, but highlight the considerable variability of current staffing models and the importance of a broad range of factors in determining personnel needs. Few outcome or cost data are currently available to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of different staffing models, and it will be important to develop improved methods for gathering this information as treatment programmes are scaled up.

  9. Clinical usefulness of limited sampling strategies for estimating AUC of proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niioka, Takenori

    2011-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype is regarded as a useful tool to predict area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In our results, however, CYP2C19 genotypes had no influence on AUC of all PPIs during fluvoxamine treatment. These findings suggest that CYP2C19 genotyping is not always a good indicator for estimating AUC of PPIs. Limited sampling strategies (LSS) were developed to estimate AUC simply and accurately. It is important to minimize the number of blood samples because of patient's acceptance. This article reviewed the usefulness of LSS for estimating AUC of three PPIs (omeprazole: OPZ, lansoprazole: LPZ and rabeprazole: RPZ). The best prediction formulas in each PPI were AUC(OPZ)=9.24 x C(6h)+2638.03, AUC(LPZ)=12.32 x C(6h)+3276.09 and AUC(RPZ)=1.39 x C(3h)+7.17 x C(6h)+344.14, respectively. In order to optimize the sampling strategy of LPZ, we tried to establish LSS for LPZ using a time point within 3 hours through the property of pharmacokinetics of its enantiomers. The best prediction formula using the fewest sampling points (one point) was AUC(racemic LPZ)=6.5 x C(3h) of (R)-LPZ+13.7 x C(3h) of (S)-LPZ-9917.3 x G1-14387.2×G2+7103.6 (G1: homozygous extensive metabolizer is 1 and the other genotypes are 0; G2: heterozygous extensive metabolizer is 1 and the other genotypes are 0). Those strategies, plasma concentration monitoring at one or two time-points, might be more suitable for AUC estimation than reference to CYP2C19 genotypes, particularly in the case of coadministration of CYP mediators.

  10. Estimation of monthly wind power outputs of WECS with limited record period using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yi-Long; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chang, Yu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ANN with short record training data is used to estimate power outputs in an existing station. ► The suitable numbers/parameters of input neurons for ANN are presented. ► Current wind speeds and previous power outputs are the most important input neurons. ► Choosing suitable input parameters is more important than choosing multiple parameters. - Abstract: For the brand new wind power industry, online recordings of wind power data are always in a relatively limited period. The aim of the study is to investigate the suitable numbers/parameters of input neurons for artificial neural networks under a short record of measured data. Measured wind speeds, wind directions (yaw angles) and power outputs with 10-min resolution at an existing wind power station, located at Jhongtun, Taiwan, are integrated to form three types of input neuron numbers and sixteen cases of input neurons. The first-10 days of each month in 2006 are used for data training to simulate the following 20-day power generation of the same month. The performance of various input neuron cases is evaluated. The simulated results show that using the first 10-day training data with adequate input neurons can estimate energy outputs well except the weak wind regime (May, June, and July). Among the input neuron parameters used, current wind speeds V(t) and previous power outputs P(t − 1) are the most important. Individually using one of them into input neurons can only provide satisfactory estimation. However, simultaneously using these two parameters into input neurons can give the best estimation. Thus, choosing suitable input parameters is more important than choosing multiple parameters.

  11. A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei; Segars, W. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion

  12. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belo...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion......In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  13. Estimating limits for natural human embryo mortality [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural human embryonic mortality is generally considered to be high. Values of 70% and higher are widely cited. However, it is difficult to determine accurately owing to an absence of direct data quantifying embryo loss between fertilisation and implantation. The best available data for quantifying pregnancy loss come from three published prospective studies (Wilcox, Zinaman and Wang with daily cycle by cycle monitoring of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG in women attempting to conceive. Declining conception rates cycle by cycle in these studies indicate that a proportion of the study participants were sub-fertile. Hence, estimates of fecundability and pre-implantation embryo mortality obtained from the whole study cohort will inevitably be biased. This new re-analysis of aggregate data from these studies confirms the impression that discrete fertile and sub-fertile sub-cohorts were present. The proportion of sub-fertile women in the three studies was estimated as 28.1% (Wilcox, 22.8% (Zinaman and 6.0% (Wang. The probability of conceiving an hCG pregnancy (indicating embryo implantation was, respectively, 43.2%, 38.1% and 46.2% among normally fertile women, and 7.6%, 2.5% and 4.7% among sub-fertile women. Pre-implantation loss is impossible to calculate directly from available data although plausible limits can be estimated. Based on this new analysis and a model for evaluating reproductive success and failure it is proposed that a plausible range for normal human embryo and fetal mortality from fertilisation to birth is 40-60%.

  14. Bayesian inference on multiscale models for poisson intensity estimation: applications to photon-limited image denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Maragos, Petros; Papandreou, George

    2009-08-01

    We present an improved statistical model for analyzing Poisson processes, with applications to photon-limited imaging. We build on previous work, adopting a multiscale representation of the Poisson process in which the ratios of the underlying Poisson intensities (rates) in adjacent scales are modeled as mixtures of conjugate parametric distributions. Our main contributions include: 1) a rigorous and robust regularized expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximum-likelihood estimation of the rate-ratio density parameters directly from the noisy observed Poisson data (counts); 2) extension of the method to work under a multiscale hidden Markov tree model (HMT) which couples the mixture label assignments in consecutive scales, thus modeling interscale coefficient dependencies in the vicinity of image edges; 3) exploration of a 2-D recursive quad-tree image representation, involving Dirichlet-mixture rate-ratio densities, instead of the conventional separable binary-tree image representation involving beta-mixture rate-ratio densities; and 4) a novel multiscale image representation, which we term Poisson-Haar decomposition, that better models the image edge structure, thus yielding improved performance. Experimental results on standard images with artificially simulated Poisson noise and on real photon-limited images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  15. Sensitivity of short rotation poplar coppice biomass productivity to the throughfall reduction – Estimating future drought impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 109 (2018), s. 182-189 ISSN 0961-9534 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe(CZ) QJ1610072 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Dominance * Drought * Mortality * Productivity * Short-rotation coppice * Throughfall manipulation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  16. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Harvey, Judson W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI ≫ 1.0), solute

  17. Hankin and Reeves' approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams: limitations and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Thompson

    2003-01-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream fish studies across North America. However, their population estimator relies on two key assumptions: (1) removal estimates are equal to the true numbers of fish, and (2) removal estimates are highly correlated with snorkel counts within a subset of sampled...

  18. The K2 M67 Study: Establishing the Limits of Stellar Rotation Period Measurements in M67 with K2 Campaign 5 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselstein, Rebecca; Aigrain, Suzanne; Vanderburg, Andrew; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Meibom, Soren; Van Saders, Jennifer; Mathieu, Robert

    2018-06-01

    The open cluster M67 offers a unique opportunity to measure rotation periods for solar-age stars across a range of masses, potentially filling a critical gap in the understanding of angular momentum loss in older main sequence stars. The observation of M67 by NASA K2 Campaign 5 provided light curves with high enough precision to make this task possible, albeit challenging, as the pointing instability, 75 day observation window, crowded field, and typically low-amplitude signals mean that determining accurate rotation periods on the order of 25–30 days is inherently difficult. Lingering, non-astrophysical signals with power at ≥25 days found in a set of Campaign 5 A and F stars compounds the problem. To achieve a quantitative understanding of the best-case scenario limits for reliable period detection imposed by these inconveniences, we embarked on a comprehensive set of injection tests, injecting 120,000 sinusoidal signals with periods ranging from 5 to 35 days and amplitudes from 0.05% to 3.0% into real Campaign 5 M67 light curves processed using two different pipelines. We attempted to recover the signals using a normalized version of the Lomb–Scargle periodogram and setting a detection threshold. We find that, while the reliability of detected periods is high, the completeness (sensitivity) drops rapidly with increasing period and decreasing amplitude, maxing at a 15% recovery rate for the solar case (i.e., 25 day period, 0.1% amplitude). This study highlights the need for caution in determining M67 rotation periods from Campaign 5 data, but this can be extended to other clusters observed by K2 (and soon, TESS).

  19. Applying limited data to estimate groundwater recharge in the Bida Basin, central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekwolo, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    Three river catchment basins in central Nigeria were studied to determine the amount to recharge to groundwater reservoir, using different techniques. The techniques include groundwater rise or specific yield, flownet, baseflow separation and chloride mass balance (CMB). Though results from the various methods vary within some limits, there is a fairly good agreement, particularly in the recharge percentages. Groundwater rise technique gave a value of about 53 mm/yr and 56 mm/yr in Gboko and Eku catchments respectively, which represents about 5% of the annual precipitation in Eku catchment. CMB method yielded 5% in Gboko, 4% in Eku and 7% in Kaduna catchment of annual precipitation. On the average, annual recharge in the entire basins falls within the range of 50 mm to 100 mm, which constitute about 5 - 10% of annual precipitation. All the methods can be considered complementary to each other, in the sense that sone salient hydrologic parameters that are not considered or emphasised in one technique appear in the other. The chloride mass and baseflow separation methods can be said to be fair result - yielding approach, because of the relatively good data acquisition in spite of the limitations of the method and their relevance to prevailing local conditions. Multi - technique approach is the best in recharge estimation because it allows an independent check to be made on the results. The value of hydrologic ration falls within the range of 0.45 to 0.8 and the study area has been classified into semi - humid and semi - arid climatic zones, on the basis of the hydrologic model

  20. Estimation of the upper limit of aerosol nanoparticles penetration through inhomogeneous fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorski, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The fully segregated flow model (FSFM) was formulated to describe filtration of aerosol nanoparticles in polydisperse fibrous filters made of fibers with different diameters. The model is capable of predicting significantly higher penetration of nanoparticles through polydisperse filters than it may be expected from the classical theory applied to a mean fiber diameter. The model was solved numerically in the case of the log-normal fiber size distribution, and a simple correlation between the actual penetration through a polydisperse filter and the one calculated for the geometric mean fiber diameter was proposed. Equivalent fiber diameter for deposition due to Brownian diffusion was determined and it was found to be dependent on particle size and filter's polydispersity degree, being significantly greater than any mean fiber diameter. It was noted that it is impossible to select any one universal mean fiber diameter to describe penetration of nanoparticles with different sizes. It was also shown that in the case of a polydisperse fibrous filter the apparent exponent of the Peclet number based on the mean fiber diameter is greater than the expected value of -2/3 for diffusional deposition in a monodisperse filter. This prediction is in agreement with the available experimental data. The FSFM is expected to give the estimation of the upper limit of nanoparticles penetration in polydisperse fibrous filters.

  1. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong ...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation.......In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  2. A procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hallam, J; Jones, J A

    1983-01-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere are evaluated using parameter values to ensure that the exposure of the critical group is unlikely to be underestimated significantly. Where the discharge is greater than about 5% of the GDL, a more rigorous estimate of the derived limit may be warranted. This report describes a procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for discharges of radioactivity to the atmosphere taking into account the conditions of the release and the location and habits of the exposed population. A worksheet is provided to assist in carrying out the required calculations.

  3. Convergence Rate Analysis of Distributed Gossip (Linear Parameter) Estimation: Fundamental Limits and Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-08-01

    The paper considers gossip distributed estimation of a (static) distributed random field (a.k.a., large scale unknown parameter vector) observed by sparsely interconnected sensors, each of which only observes a small fraction of the field. We consider linear distributed estimators whose structure combines the information \\emph{flow} among sensors (the \\emph{consensus} term resulting from the local gossiping exchange among sensors when they are able to communicate) and the information \\emph{gathering} measured by the sensors (the \\emph{sensing} or \\emph{innovations} term.) This leads to mixed time scale algorithms--one time scale associated with the consensus and the other with the innovations. The paper establishes a distributed observability condition (global observability plus mean connectedness) under which the distributed estimates are consistent and asymptotically normal. We introduce the distributed notion equivalent to the (centralized) Fisher information rate, which is a bound on the mean square error reduction rate of any distributed estimator; we show that under the appropriate modeling and structural network communication conditions (gossip protocol) the distributed gossip estimator attains this distributed Fisher information rate, asymptotically achieving the performance of the optimal centralized estimator. Finally, we study the behavior of the distributed gossip estimator when the measurements fade (noise variance grows) with time; in particular, we consider the maximum rate at which the noise variance can grow and still the distributed estimator being consistent, by showing that, as long as the centralized estimator is consistent, the distributed estimator remains consistent.

  4. Editorial Commentary: The Downstream Effects of Limited Hip Rotation and Femoroacetabular Impingement on the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Could a Little Hip Stretching Every Day (or Surgery) Keep the Knee Doctor Away?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Robert E

    2018-03-01

    Patients with radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement and decreased hip internal rotation have a higher rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Limited internal rotation of the hip increases strain and potentially resultant fatigue failure of the ACL. Although causation has not been proven, a better understanding of the lower extremity kinetic chain may allow improved ACL prevention strategies through measures (operative or nonoperative) to improve rotation of the hip. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Limited sampling hampers “big data” estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J.; Sandel, Brody Steven

    2015-01-01

    in Ecuador, one of the most species-rich and climatically heterogeneous biodiversity hotspots. Species richness estimates were calculated based on 205,735 georeferenced specimens of 15,788 species using the Margalef diversity index, the Chao estimator, the second-order Jackknife and Bootstrapping resampling...

  6. Limitation and applicability of microtremor records for site-response estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G.; Kang, T.; Park, S.

    2010-12-01

    Site effects are the modifications of seismic motions which are traveling through near-surface materials. The impedance contrast between the topmost layer and bedrock may significantly amplify ground motions and augment their durations. Inelastic behavior of the geological media such as highly fractured/weathered rocks and unconsolidated sediments may absorb seismic energy, and thus damp the resulting ground motions. It is inherently most desirable to evaluate the site effects using seismic records from large earthquakes. If there are only small events that will be recorded by several seismograph stations, it becomes difficult to evaluate site effects using earthquake data. Recently a number of studies pay attention to microtremor records to assess site effects. The main reason of such efforts is that measurements are relatively easy regardless of site condition and cost-effective without necessity of waiting for earthquakes or of using active sources. Especially microtremor measurements are exclusively a useful option to assess site effects, and thus seismic microzonation, in the urban area and/or region of low to moderate seismicity. Spectral ratios of horizontal components to vertical component (HVSR) of microtremor records have been popular for estimation of site resonant frequency. Although some studies have shown that the amplitude of spectral ratios is an indicator of site amplification relative to bedrock motion, there are still debates on it. This discrepancy may originate from the deficiency of our understanding on the nature of microtremor. Therefore, it is important to understand the limitation and applicability of microtremor records for site-effect assessments. The focus on this problem is how microtremor responses on the subsurface structures and their physical properties, and how parameters deduced from microtremor analyses are related to site responses during earthquake ground motions. In order to investigate how these issues have a practical

  7. Advancing development of a limit reference point estimator for sea turtles, and evaluating methods for applying local management to highly migratory species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is developing tools for estimation of limit reference points for marine turtles. These tools are being applied initially to estimate a limit reference point...

  8. Integrating national surveys to estimate small area variations in poor health and limiting long-term illness in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Graham; Aitken, Grant; Taylor, Joanna; Twigg, Liz

    2017-08-28

    This study aims to address, for the first time, the challenges of constructing small area estimates of health status using linked national surveys. The study also seeks to assess the concordance of these small area estimates with data from national censuses. Population level health status in England, Scotland and Wales. A linked integrated dataset of 23 374 survey respondents (16+ years) from the 2011 waves of the Health Survey for England (n=8603), the Scottish Health Survey (n=7537) and the Welsh Health Survey (n=7234). Population prevalence of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness. A multilevel small area estimation modelling approach was used to estimate prevalence of these outcomes for middle super output areas in England and Wales and intermediate zones in Scotland. The estimates were then compared with matched measures from the contemporaneous 2011 UK Census. There was a strong positive association between the small area estimates and matched census measures for all three countries for both poorer self-rated health (r=0.828, 95% CI 0.821 to 0.834) and limiting long-term illness (r=0.831, 95% CI 0.824 to 0.837), although systematic differences were evident, and small area estimation tended to indicate higher prevalences than census data. Despite strong concordance, variations in the small area prevalences of poorer self-rated health and limiting long-term illness evident in census data cannot be replicated perfectly using small area estimation with linked national surveys. This reflects a lack of harmonisation between surveys over question wording and design. The nature of small area estimates as 'expected values' also needs to be better understood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Plant Distribution Data Show Broader Climatic Limits than Expert-Based Climatic Tolerance Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Curtis

    Full Text Available Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance.We compiled expert knowledge estimates of minimum and maximum precipitation and minimum temperature tolerance for over 1800 conservation plant species from the 'plant characteristics' information in the USDA PLANTS database. We derived climatic tolerance from distribution data downloaded from the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (GBIF and corresponding climate from WorldClim. We compared expert-derived climatic tolerance to empirical estimates to find the difference between their inferred climate niches (ΔCN, and tested whether ΔCN was influenced by growth form or range size.Climate niches calculated from distribution data were significantly broader than expert-based tolerance estimates (Mann-Whitney p values << 0.001. The average plant could tolerate 24 mm lower minimum precipitation, 14 mm higher maximum precipitation, and 7° C lower minimum temperatures based on distribution data relative to expert-based tolerance estimates. Species with larger ranges had greater ΔCN for minimum precipitation and minimum temperature. For maximum precipitation and minimum temperature, forbs and grasses tended to have larger ΔCN while grasses and trees had larger ΔCN for minimum precipitation.Our results show that distribution data are consistently broader than USDA PLANTS experts' knowledge and likely provide more robust estimates of climatic tolerance, especially for

  10. Limitations for phytoextraction management on metal-polluted soils with poplar short rotation coppice-evidence from a 6-year field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, E; Annicaerta, B; De Moor, S; Van Nevel, L; De Fraeye, M; Meiresonne, L; Vangronsveld, J; Tack, F M G; Ok, Y S; Meers, Erik

    2018-01-02

    Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6-year growth) on a site in the Belgian Campine region, which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clones that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shoot diameter best estimates the biomass production of poplar with R 2 values between 0.94 and 0.98. The woody biomass yield ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 ton woody Dry Mass (DM) ha -1 y -1 . The primary goal was to reduce soil concentrations of metals caused by phytoextraction. Nevertheless, increased metal concentrations were determined in the topsoil. This increase can partially be explained by the input of metals from deeper soil layers in the top soil through litterfall. The phytoextraction option with poplar short rotation coppice in this setup did not lead to the intended soil remediation in a reasonable time span. Therefore, harvest of the leaf biomass is put forward as a crucial part of the strategy for soil remediation through Cd/Zn phytoextraction.

  11. Allometric equations commonly used for estimating shoot biomass in short-rotation wood energy species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ríos-Saucedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos dendroenergéticos de corta rotación en monte bajo (Short Rotation Coppice -SRC comúnmente están formados por individuos unifustales en el primer ciclo de corta, pero a partir del segundo ciclo, de cada cepa surgen numerosos vástagos o brotes, los cuales presentan desafíos interesantes al momento de estimar su biomasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar especies, longitud de rotación y tipos de modelos alométricos usados para estimar biomasa en SRC, en revistas científicas de las bases de datos Scopus y Web of Science. Entre los modelos para estimar la biomasa (y de uso más frecuente destaca el exponencial, que tiene como variable predictora el diámetro normal ( D ( y = b 0 D b 1 , diámetro basal de tallo ( Db ( y = b 0 Db b 1 y la combinación de diámetro normal al cuadrado por la altura total ( D 2 H ( y = b 0 + b 1 D 2 H . Los géneros con mayor número de modelos diferentes fueron Populus, Salix y Eucalyptus . Los dos primeros son los más estudiados. La longitud de rotación empleada en los cultivos estudiados varió de uno a 15 años.

  12. Estimation of effective dose from limited cone beam X-ray CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Arai, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Koji [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Nishizawa, Kanae

    2000-12-01

    The limited cone beam X-ray CT (Ortho-CT) was developed on the basis of multi-functional panoramic apparatus, SCANORA (Soredex Co. Helsinki Finland). The imaging intensifier (I.I.) was built in this apparatus as a X-ray detection device instead of X-ray film. The signal provided from I.I. was converted from analog into digital by an analog-digital converter and image reconstitution was done as a three-directional image of the dimensions 3.8 cm of width, 3.0 cm height and 3.8 cm depth with the personal computer. The 3DX Multi image micro CT'' (3DX) was developed along similar lines by MORITA Co., Ltd. (Kyoto, JAPAN). In this study, the stochastic effect on organ and tissue caused by examinations using Ortho-CT and 3DX was measured. The effective dose was estimated according to the recommendation of ICRP60 and was compared with those of panoramic radiography and computed tomography. The irradiation conditions were as follows: 85 kV, 10 mA with the filtration of 3 mmAl and added 1 mmCu for Ortho-CT, and 80 kV, 2 mA and the filtration of 3.1 mmAL for 3DX. The measurement of organ and tissue dose was performed using an anthropomorphic Rando woman phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Co., Stanfora, CN), as well as by using two different type of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD); Panasonic UD-170A (BeO) and UD-110S (CaSO{sub 4}: Tm). The UD-170A was for dose measurement of the inner useful X-ray beams, while the UD-110S was for outer beams. The measured organ and tissue were those recommended with ICRP60 (gonad, breast, bone marrow, lung, thyroid gland, esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, bladder, skin, brain, thymus, adrenal, kidney, spleen, pancrease, upper large intestine, uterus, eyes and major salivary gland). The imaging by Orhto-CT was made in the left maxillary 1st molar, left mandibular 1st molar and temporomandibular joint. 3DX measurement was made in the maxillary incisor region and middle ear regions other than the regions mentioned above. The skin

  13. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...

  14. Estimating brain connectivity when few data points are available: Perspectives and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Yuri; Toppi, Jlenia; Caschera, Stefano; Anzolin, Alessandra; Mattia, Donatella; Astolfi, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Methods based on the use of multivariate autoregressive modeling (MVAR) have proved to be an accurate and flexible tool for the estimation of brain functional connectivity. The multivariate approach, however, implies the use of a model whose complexity (in terms of number of parameters) increases quadratically with the number of signals included in the problem. This can often lead to an underdetermined problem and to the condition of multicollinearity. The aim of this paper is to introduce and test an approach based on Ridge Regression combined with a modified version of the statistics usually adopted for these methods, to broaden the estimation of brain connectivity to those conditions in which current methods fail, due to the lack of enough data points. We tested the performances of this new approach, in comparison with the classical approach based on ordinary least squares (OLS), by means of a simulation study implementing different ground-truth networks, under different network sizes and different levels of data points. Simulation results showed that the new approach provides better performances, in terms of accuracy of the parameters estimation and false positives/false negatives rates, in all conditions related to a low data points/model dimension ratio, and may thus be exploited to estimate and validate estimated patterns at single-trial level or when short time data segments are available.

  15. Validation of limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring - is a separate validation group required?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, J. H.

    Objective: Limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring are usually validated in a separate group of patients, according to published guidelines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validation of LSM by comparing independent validation with cross-validation

  16. Estimation of process capability indices from the results of limit gauge inspection of dimensional parameters in machining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterenko, Dmitry A.; Metel, Alexander S.

    2018-03-01

    The process capability indices Cp, Cpk are widely used in the modern quality management as statistical measures of the ability of a process to produce output X within specification limits. The customer's requirement to ensure Cp ≥ 1.33 is often applied in contracts. Capability indices estimates may be calculated with the estimates of the mean µ and the variability 6σ, and for it, the quality characteristic in a sample of pieces should be measured. It requires, in turn, using advanced measuring devices and well-qualified staff. From the other hand, quality inspection by attributes, fulfilled with limit gauges (go/no-go) is much simpler and has a higher performance, but it does not give the numerical values of the quality characteristic. The described method allows estimating the mean and the variability of the process on the basis of the results of limit gauge inspection with certain lower limit LCL and upper limit UCL, which separates the pieces into three groups: where X control of the manufacturing process. It is very important for improving quality of articles in machining industry through their tolerance.

  17. Psychometric properties of self-reported questionnaires for the evaluation of symptoms and functional limitations in individuals with rotator cuff disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as

  18. Limited sampling hampers "big data" estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J; Sandel, Brody; Boyle, Brad; Jørgensen, Peter M; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Violle, Cyrille; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-02-01

    Macro-scale species richness studies often use museum specimens as their main source of information. However, such datasets are often strongly biased due to variation in sampling effort in space and time. These biases may strongly affect diversity estimates and may, thereby, obstruct solid inference on the underlying diversity drivers, as well as mislead conservation prioritization. In recent years, this has resulted in an increased focus on developing methods to correct for sampling bias. In this study, we use sample-size-correcting methods to examine patterns of tropical plant diversity in Ecuador, one of the most species-rich and climatically heterogeneous biodiversity hotspots. Species richness estimates were calculated based on 205,735 georeferenced specimens of 15,788 species using the Margalef diversity index, the Chao estimator, the second-order Jackknife and Bootstrapping resampling methods, and Hill numbers and rarefaction. Species richness was heavily correlated with sampling effort, and only rarefaction was able to remove this effect, and we recommend this method for estimation of species richness with "big data" collections.

  19. Estimating the tuberculosis burden in resource-limited countries: a capture-recapture study in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassili, A; Al-Hammadi, A; Al-Absi, A; Glaziou, P; Seita, A; Abubakar, I; Bierrenbach, A L; van Hest, N A

    2013-04-01

    The lack of applicable population-based methods to measure tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates directly at country level emphasises the global need to generate robust TB surveillance data to ascertain trends in disease burden and to assess the performance of TB control programmes in the context of the United Nations Millenium Development Goals and World Health Organization targets for TB control. To estimate the incidence of TB cases (all forms) and sputum smear-positive disease, and the level of under-reporting of TB in Yemen in 2010. Record-linkage and three-source capture-recapture analysis of data collected through active prospective longitudinal surveillance within the public and private non-National Tuberculosis Programme sector in twelve Yemeni governorates, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. For all TB cases, the estimated ratio of notified to incident cases and completeness of case ascertainment after record linkage, i.e., the ratio of detected to incident cases, was respectively 71% (95%CI 64-80) and 75% (95%CI 68-85). For sputum smear-positive TB cases, these ratios were respectively 67% (95%CI 58-75) and 76% (95%CI 66-84). We estimate that there were 13 082 (95%CI 11 610-14 513) TB cases in Yemen in 2010. Under-reporting of TB in Yemen is estimated at 29% (95%CI 20-36).

  20. Limitations of indirect methods of estimating small bowel transit in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressman, J.H.; Hofmann, A.F.; Witztum, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in healthy volunteers to explore the utility of a new [ 14 C]lactulose breath test for measuring small intestinal transit time in man and to use this procedure to test whether two antidiarrheal agents, codeine and clonidine, alter small intestinal transit time during digestion of a liquid meal. In an initial validation study performed in 12 subjects, a liquid test meal containing 10 g [ 14 C]lactulose was administered and the colonic entry time estimated from the time course of 14 CO 2 excretion in breath compared with that of H 2 excretion. There was a fair correlation (r = 0.77; P less than 0.001) between results obtained by the two methods; both methods gave similar results, but 14 CO 2 output was delayed when compared to H 2 output and was incomplete. The meal also contained xylose and [ 13 C]glycine, permitting the duodenal entry time of the meal to be estimated by the appearance of xylose in blood and 13 CO 2 in breath, respectively. The same liquid meal was then used to examine the effect on small intestinal transit time (colonic entry time minus duodenal entry time) of codeine or clonidine. 99Tc-sulfur colloid was also added to the meal to permit a comparison of small intestinal transit estimated by imaging with that estimated by the 14 CO 2 -lactulose breath test. 99 Tc radioactivity appeared in the cecum (as assessed using gamma scintigraphy) about 2 hr before 14 CO 2 radioactivity appeared in breath; the correlation between transit time estimated by the two methods was moderate (r = 0.61; P less than 0.05). Based on the [ 14 C]lactulose data, small intestinal transit time ranged from less than 1 to 3 hr for a liquid meal containing 10 g lactulose; within-subject variation was considerably less than between-subject variation

  1. Identification of Combined Power Quality Disturbances Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Total Least Squares-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (TLS-ESPRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaishuo Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify various kinds of combined power quality disturbances, the singular value decomposition (SVD and the improved total least squares-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (TLS-ESPRIT are combined as the basis of disturbance identification in this paper. SVD is applied to identify the catastrophe points of disturbance intervals, based on which the disturbance intervals are segmented. Then the improved TLS-ESPRIT optimized by singular value norm method is used to analyze each data segment, and extract the amplitude, frequency, attenuation coefficient and initial phase of various kinds of disturbances. Multi-group combined disturbance test signals are constructed by MATLAB and the proposed method is also tested by the measured data of IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES Database. The test results show that the new method proposed has a relatively higher accuracy than conventional TLS-ESPRIT, which could be used in the identification of measured data.

  2. Radon daughter exposure estimation and its relation to the exposure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1981-10-01

    Under current Atomic Energy Control Regulations, the annual limit for individual exposure to radon daughters is 4 WLM. The Regulations do not specify how the exposure is to be determined nor to what accuracy the measurements should be made. This paper discusses the historical and conventional grab-sampling and time-weighting methods for assigning exposures to radon daughters in uranium mines in Canada. As a further step in the evolution of exposure assignments, the system of personal radon daughter dosimetry is introduced as the more accurate means of assigning individual exposures and of adhering to the intent of the exposure limit

  3. Estimation of food limitation of bivalve larvae in coastal waters of north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, O.G.; Hendriks, I.E.; Strasser, M.

    2006-01-01

    Marine invertebrate recruitment may be affected by food limitation during the pelagic larval life stages. In the present study, field data on abundance of bivalve larvae along with their prey (small phytoplankton) were examined to see whether they were consistent with predictions made...... assimilation rate averaged 7-26% of the maximum assimilation rate. Under the assumptions made for the present study, it is suggested that growth of larvae in north-west European waters is often food-limited. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  4. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  5. Multiparameter estimation with single photons—linearly-optically generated quantum entanglement beats the shotnoise limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chenglong; Adhikari, Sushovit; Chi, Yuxi; LaBorde, Margarite L.; Matyas, Corey T.; Zhang, Chenyu; Su, Zuen; Byrnes, Tim; Lu, Chaoyang; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Olson, Jonathan P.

    2017-12-01

    It was suggested in (Motes et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 170802) that optical networks with relatively inexpensive overheads—single photon Fock states, passive optical elements, and single photon detection—can show significant improvements over classical strategies for single-parameter estimation, when the number of modes in the network is small (ncompute the quantum Cramér-Rao bound to show these networks can have a constant-factor quantum advantage in multi-parameter estimation for even large number of modes. Additionally, we provide a simplified measurement scheme using only single-photon (on-off) detectors that is capable of approximately obtaining this sensitivity for a small number of modes.

  6. Outlier treatment for improving parameter estimation of group contribution based models for upper flammability limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Flammability data is needed to assess the risk of fire and explosions. This study presents a new group contribution (GC) model to predict the upper flammability limit UFL oforganic chemicals. Furthermore, it provides a systematic method for outlier treatment inorder to improve the parameter...

  7. ROBUST ESTIMATION OF MEAN AND VARIANCE USING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SETS WITH BELOW DETECTION LIMIT OBSERVATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists, especially environmental scientists often encounter trace level concentrations that are typically reported as less than a certain limit of detection, L. Type 1, left-censored data arise when certain low values lying below L are ignored or unknown as they cannot be mea...

  8. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water

  9. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  10. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    1997-01-01

    further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes......The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  11. Limitations of indirect methods of estimating small bowel transit in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressman, J.H.; Hofmann, A.F.; Witztum, K.F.; Gertler, S.L.; Steinbach, J.H.; Stokes, K.; Kelts, D.G.; Stone, D.M.; Jones, B.R.; Dharmsathaphorn, K.

    1987-07-01

    Experiments were carried out in healthy volunteers to explore the utility of a new (/sup 14/C)lactulose breath test for measuring small intestinal transit time in man and to use this procedure to test whether two antidiarrheal agents, codeine and clonidine, alter small intestinal transit time during digestion of a liquid meal. In an initial validation study performed in 12 subjects, a liquid test meal containing 10 g (/sup 14/C)lactulose was administered and the colonic entry time estimated from the time course of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion in breath compared with that of H/sub 2/ excretion. There was a fair correlation (r = 0.77; P less than 0.001) between results obtained by the two methods; both methods gave similar results, but /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ output was delayed when compared to H/sub 2/ output and was incomplete. The meal also contained xylose and (/sup 13/C)glycine, permitting the duodenal entry time of the meal to be estimated by the appearance of xylose in blood and /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ in breath, respectively. The same liquid meal was then used to examine the effect on small intestinal transit time (colonic entry time minus duodenal entry time) of codeine or clonidine. 99Tc-sulfur colloid was also added to the meal to permit a comparison of small intestinal transit estimated by imaging with that estimated by the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-lactulose breath test. /sup 99/Tc radioactivity appeared in the cecum (as assessed using gamma scintigraphy) about 2 hr before /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ radioactivity appeared in breath; the correlation between transit time estimated by the two methods was moderate (r = 0.61; P less than 0.05). Based on the (/sup 14/C)lactulose data, small intestinal transit time ranged from less than 1 to 3 hr for a liquid meal containing 10 g lactulose; within-subject variation was considerably less than between-subject variation.

  12. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  13. Rotational seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  14. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Alexandra Curtis

    Full Text Available Biological limit reference points (LRPs for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years, limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years, or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years. These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  15. Detecting the limits of regulatory element conservation anddivergence estimation using pairwise and multiple alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Moses, Alan M.; Iyer, Venky N.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-14

    Background: Molecular evolutionary studies of noncodingsequences rely on multiple alignments. Yet how multiple alignmentaccuracy varies across sequence types, tree topologies, divergences andtools, and further how this variation impacts specific inferences,remains unclear. Results: Here we develop a molecular evolutionsimulation platform, CisEvolver, with models of background noncoding andtranscription factor binding site evolution, and use simulated alignmentsto systematically examine multiple alignment accuracy and its impact ontwo key molecular evolutionary inferences: transcription factor bindingsite conservation and divergence estimation. We find that the accuracy ofmultiple alignments is determined almost exclusively by the pairwisedivergence distance of the two most diverged species and that additionalspecies have a negligible influence on alignment accuracy. Conservedtranscription factor binding sites align better than surroundingnoncoding DNA yet are often found to be misaligned at relatively shortdivergence distances, such that studies of binding site gain and losscould easily be confounded by alignment error. Divergence estimates frommultiple alignments tend to be overestimated at short divergencedistances but reach a tool specific divergence at which they cease toincrease, leading to underestimation at long divergences. Our moststriking finding was that overall alignment accuracy, binding sitealignment accuracy and divergence estimation accuracy vary greatly acrossbranches in a tree and are most accurate for terminal branches connectingsister taxa and least accurate for internal branches connectingsub-alignments. Conclusions: Our results suggest that variation inalignment accuracy can lead to errors in molecular evolutionaryinferences that could be construed as biological variation. Thesefindings have implications for which species to choose for analyses, whatkind of errors would be expected for a given set of species and howmultiple alignment tools and

  16. KRISTALLIN-I: estimates of solubility limits for safety relevant radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, U.

    1995-04-01

    The safety concept for the Swiss high level radioactive waste repository is based on a multiple barrier system. Within the concept of the safety analysis KRISTALLIN-I, the waste glass starts corroding after failure of the massive steel canister and nuclides are released to the bentonite backfill. This release is limited by restricted solubility of solid phases. The present work quantifies the maximum expected concentrations of the elements Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Tc, Ni, Pd, Se, Ra, Zr, Nb, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi and Sm within the reference bentonite porewater with pH = 9, Eh = -400 mV and I = 0.08 M at 50 o C. In a first step, maximum expected concentrations were calculated with a geochemical speciation code (MINEQL) based on a documented thermodynamic database. In a second step, the values obtained in this way were carefully reviewed and modified, based on extended geochemical considerations and system-dependent parameters. Thereby, the relevance of potentially limiting solids, chemical analogies, absolute and relative inventories and recent experimental findings from laboratory and natural systems were particularly considered. The expected groundwater composition in the crystalline host rock (modified by the barrier material bentonite) covers a rather narrow pH range from 8.5 to 9. Within this narrow pH range, solubility limits may be termed as pH independent since computable pH effects are never significant compared to the general uncertainty of the solubility limits. The chemical model defining the reference groundwater predicts a system-wide Eh ranging from -400 mV up to +100 mV. A slightly oxidising near-field will stabilize the generally more soluble higher oxidation states of redox sensitive radionuclides. Based on the available thermodynamic data the elements U, Tc, Se and Pa are predicted not to be solubility limited at +75 mV. Therefore, a more detailed investigation of the redox behaviour of critical elements and, much more importantly, a very careful

  17. Current flow and pair creation at low altitude in rotation-powered pulsars' force-free magnetospheres: space charge limited flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of an investigation of particle acceleration and electron-positron plasma generation at low altitude in the polar magnetic flux tubes of rotation-powered pulsars, when the stellar surface is free to emit whatever charges and currents are demanded by the force-free magnetosphere. We apply a new 1D hybrid plasma simulation code to the dynamical problem, using Particle-in-Cell methods for the dynamics of the charged particles, including a determination of the collective electrostatic fluctuations in the plasma, combined with a Monte Carlo treatment of the high-energy gamma-rays that mediate the formation of the electron-positron pairs. We assume the electric current flowing through the pair creation zone is fixed by the much higher inductance magnetosphere, and adopt the results of force-free magnetosphere models to provide the currents which must be carried by the accelerator. The models are spatially one dimensional, and designed to explore the physics, although of practical relevance to young, high-voltage pulsars. We observe novel behaviour (a) When the current density j is less than the Goldreich-Julian value (0 electrically trapped particles with the same sign of charge as the beam. The voltage drops are of the order of mc2/e, and pair creation is absent. (b) When the current density exceeds the Goldreich-Julian value (j/jGJ > 1), the system develops high voltage drops (TV or greater), causing emission of curvature gamma-rays and intense bursts of pair creation. The bursts exhibit limit cycle behaviour, with characteristic time-scales somewhat longer than the relativistic fly-by time over distances comparable to the polar cap diameter (microseconds). (c) In return current regions, where j/jGJ generated pairs allow the system to simultaneously carry the magnetospherically prescribed currents and adjust the charge density and average electric field to force-free conditions. We also elucidate the conditions for pair creating beam flow to be

  18. Unsupervised Learning for Efficient Texture Estimation From Limited Discrete Orientation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda, Stephen R.; Glover, Jared

    2013-11-01

    The estimation of orientation distribution functions (ODFs) from discrete orientation data, as produced by electron backscatter diffraction or crystal plasticity micromechanical simulations, is typically achieved via techniques such as the Williams-Imhof-Matthies-Vinel (WIMV) algorithm or generalized spherical harmonic expansions, which were originally developed for computing an ODF from pole figures measured by X-ray or neutron diffraction. These techniques rely on ad-hoc methods for choosing parameters, such as smoothing half-width and bandwidth, and for enforcing positivity constraints and appropriate normalization. In general, such approaches provide little or no information-theoretic guarantees as to their optimality in describing the given dataset. In the current study, an unsupervised learning algorithm is proposed which uses a finite mixture of Bingham distributions for the estimation of ODFs from discrete orientation data. The Bingham distribution is an antipodally-symmetric, max-entropy distribution on the unit quaternion hypersphere. The proposed algorithm also introduces a minimum message length criterion, a common tool in information theory for balancing data likelihood with model complexity, to determine the number of components in the Bingham mixture. This criterion leads to ODFs which are less likely to overfit (or underfit) the data, eliminating the need for a priori parameter choices.

  19. Estimating the snowfall limit in alpine and pre-alpine valleys: A local evaluation of operational approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlmann, Michael; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Rohrer, Mario; Schwarb, Manfred; Stoffel, Markus

    2018-05-01

    The snowfall limit has important implications for different hazardous processes associated with prolonged or heavy precipitation such as flash floods, rain-on-snow events and freezing precipitation. To increase preparedness and to reduce risk in such situations, early warning systems are frequently used to monitor and predict precipitation events at different temporal and spatial scales. However, in alpine and pre-alpine valleys, the estimation of the snowfall limit remains rather challenging. In this study, we characterize uncertainties related to snowfall limit for different lead times based on local measurements of a vertically pointing micro rain radar (MRR) and a disdrometer in the Zulg valley, Switzerland. Regarding the monitoring, we show that the interpolation of surface temperatures tends to overestimate the altitude of the snowfall limit and can thus lead to highly uncertain estimates of liquid precipitation in the catchment. This bias is much smaller in the Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis (INCA) system, which integrates surface station and remotely sensed data as well as outputs of a numerical weather prediction model. To reduce systematic error, we perform a bias correction based on local MRR measurements and thereby demonstrate the added value of such measurements for the estimation of liquid precipitation in the catchment. Regarding the nowcasting, we show that the INCA system provides good estimates up to 6 h ahead and is thus considered promising for operational hydrological applications. Finally, we explore the medium-range forecasting of precipitation type, especially with respect to rain-on-snow events. We show for a selected case study that the probability for a certain precipitation type in an ensemble-based forecast is more persistent than the respective type in the high-resolution forecast (HRES) of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecasting System (ECMWF IFS). In this case study, the

  20. Limitations and problems in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the problems in determining the cancer risk of low-level radiation from studies of exposed groups are reviewed and applied to the study of Hanford workers by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale. Problems considered are statistical limitations, variation of cancer rates with geography and race, the ''healthy worker effect,'' calendar year and age variation of cancer mortality, choosing from long lists, use of proportional mortality rates, cigarette smoking-cancer correlations, use of averages to represent data distributions, ignoring other data, and correlations between radiation exposure and other factors that may cause cancer. The current status of studies of the Hanford workers is reviewed

  1. Large deviation tail estimates and related limit laws for stochastic fixed point equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.; Vidyashankar, Anand N.

    2013-01-01

    We study the forward and backward recursions generated by a stochastic fixed point equation (SFPE) of the form $V \\stackrel{d}{=} A\\max\\{V, D\\}+B$, where $(A, B, D) \\in (0, \\infty)\\times {\\mathbb R}^2$, for both the stationary and explosive cases. In the stationary case (when ${\\bf E} [\\log \\: A......] explosive case (when ${\\bf E} [\\log \\: A] > 0)$, we establish a central limit theorem for the forward recursion generated by the SFPE, namely the process $V_n= A_n \\max\\{V_{n-1...

  2. Estimation of glucose kinetics in fetal-maternal studies: Potential errors, solutions, and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, R.K.; Bloch, C.A.; Sperling, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated whether errors occur in the estimation of ovine maternal-fetal glucose (Glc) kinetics using the isotope dilution technique when the Glc pool is rapidly expanded by exogenous (protocol A) or endogenous (protocol C) Glc entry and sought possible solutions (protocol B). In protocol A (n = 8), after attaining steady-state Glc specific activity (SA) by [U-14C]glucose (period 1), infusion of Glc (period 2) predictably decreased Glc SA, whereas. [U-14C]glucose concentration unexpectedly rose from 7,208 +/- 367 (means +/- SE) in period 1 to 8,558 +/- 308 disintegrations/min (dpm) per ml in period 2 (P less than 0.01). Fetal endogenous Glc production (EGP) was negligible during period 1 (0.44 +/- 1.0), but yielded a physiologically impossible negative value of -2.1 +/- 0.72 mg.kg-1.min-1 during period 2. When the fall in Glc SA during Glc infusion was prevented by addition of [U-14C]glucose admixed with the exogenous Glc (protocol B; n = 7), EGP was no longer negative. In protocol C (n = 6), sequential infusions of four increasing doses of epinephrine serially decreased SA, whereas tracer Glc increased from 7,483 +/- 608 to 11,525 +/- 992 dpm/ml plasma (P less than 0.05), imposing an obligatory underestimation of EGP. Thus a tracer mixing problem leads to erroneous estimations of fetal Glc utilization and Glc production via the three-compartment model in sheep when the Glc pool is expanded exogenously or endogenously. These errors can be minimized by maintaining the Glc SA relatively constant

  3. Hankin and Reeves' Approach to Estimating Fish Abundance in Small Streams : Limitations and Potential Options.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US). Environment, Fish and Wildlife

    2000-11-01

    Hankin and Reeves' (1988) approach to estimating fish abundance in small streams has been applied in stream-fish studies across North America. However, as with any method of population estimation, there are important assumptions that must be met for estimates to be minimally biased and reasonably precise. Consequently, I investigated effects of various levels of departure from these assumptions via simulation based on results from an example application in Hankin and Reeves (1988) and a spatially clustered population. Coverage of 95% confidence intervals averaged about 5% less than nominal when removal estimates equaled true numbers within sampling units, but averaged 62% - 86% less than nominal when they did not, with the exception where detection probabilities of individuals were >0.85 and constant across sampling units (95% confidence interval coverage = 90%). True total abundances averaged far (20% - 41%) below the lower confidence limit when not included within intervals, which implies large negative bias. Further, average coefficient of variation was about 1.5 times higher when removal estimates did not equal true numbers within sampling units (C{bar V} = 0.27 [SE = 0.0004]) than when they did (C{bar V} = 0.19 [SE = 0.0002]). A potential modification to Hankin and Reeves' approach is to include environmental covariates that affect detection rates of fish into the removal model or other mark-recapture model. A potential alternative is to use snorkeling in combination with line transect sampling to estimate fish densities. Regardless of the method of population estimation, a pilot study should be conducted to validate the enumeration method, which requires a known (or nearly so) population of fish to serve as a benchmark to evaluate bias and precision of population estimates.

  4. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  5. TLD personnel monitoring dose estimation- extending the upper limit of the dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, K.L.; Sathian, Deepa; Divakaran, T.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    TLD personnel monitoring was introduced in the year 1975 in India and at present nearly 41,000 radiation workers are being monitored by 13 monitoring laboratories all over India. The BARC- TLD being used for personnel monitoring is based on CaSO 4 :Dy embedded in PTFE and semi-automatic TL reader using hot N 2 Gas for heating the dosimeters. This reader has the range to measure γ dose from ten μSv to 3 μSv and x-ray dose form 1 μ Sv to 0.3 Sv due to the higher sensitivity of CaSO 4 : Dy to lower energy photons (20keV-50 keV) generated by diagnostic x-ray units. The x-ray radiation workers are at present nearly 35% of the total radiation workers monitored and this number is expected to grow as more and more number of x-ray workers are covered under this service. The upper limit of the x-ray dose range of the instrument is 0.3 Sv, whereas in the past one year it has been observed that at least 25% of the total overexposures reported in case of x-ray workers have recorded the dose more than 0.3 Sv. This paper presents the technique developed to extend the upper limit of the range from 0.3 Sv to 1 Sv for x-rays and 10 Sv for γ rays

  6. Estimation of the duration of the reaction - limitations imposed by the neutron data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, R.; Devillers, C.; Lucas, M.; Lecomte, T.; Ruffenach, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The duration of the nuclear reaction is an important parameter in determining - above all - the flux level reached and the development of the phenomenon. It can be arrived at by studying a number of isotopes and assuming competition between two simultaneous reactions: a neutron absorption event leading to a fission event or to a neutron capture event and radioactive decay. Plutonium-239, which has a half-life of 24000 years, can be used on the basis of its contribution to the fissions. This contribution was determined precisely by carrying out isotopic analysis of elements for which the plutonium gives fission yields different from those of uranium. Competition between the radioactive decay of 99 Tc to 99 Ru, with a half-life of 220000 years, and neutron capture in 99 Tc and 99 Ru leading to 100 Ru also enables one to determine the duration of the phenomenon. However, the relative migration of these two elements during the nuclear reaction sets a limit to the precision of the method. Competition between the radioactive decay of 129 I to 129 Xe, with a half-life of 1.6x10 7 years, and neutron capture in these two isotopes leading to 130 Xe cannot be used, owing mainly to the migration of the iodine and the xenon during the reaction. The precision of the methods cited is limited by the quality of the available neutron data

  7. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  8. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao, E-mail: qlyang@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  9. A simplified Excel® algorithm for estimating the least limiting water range of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Tairone Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The least limiting water range (LLWR of soils has been employed as a methodological approach for evaluation of soil physical quality in different agricultural systems, including forestry, grasslands and major crops. However, the absence of a simplified methodology for the quantification of LLWR has hampered the popularization of its use among researchers and soil managers. Taking this into account this work has the objective of proposing and describing a simplified algorithm developed in Excel® software for quantification of the LLWR, including the calculation of the critical bulk density, at which the LLWR becomes zero. Despite the simplicity of the procedures and numerical techniques of optimization used, the nonlinear regression produced reliable results when compared to those found in the literature.

  10. Estimated effect of an integrated approach to suspected deep venous thrombosis using limited-compression ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Rachel A; Newbigging, Joseph L; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2014-09-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is both common and serious, yet the desire to never miss the diagnosis, coupled with the low specificity of D-dimer testing, results in high imaging rates, return visits, and empirical anticoagulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new approach incorporating bedside limited-compression ultrasound (LC US) by emergency physicians (EPs) into the workup strategy for DVT. This was a cross-sectional observational study of emergency department (ED) patients with suspected DVT. Patients on anticoagulants; those with chronic DVT, leg cast, or amputation; or when the results of comprehensive imaging were already known were excluded. All patients were treated in the usual fashion based on the protocol in use at the center, including comprehensive imaging based on the modified Wells score and serum D-dimer testing. Seventeen physicians were trained and performed LC US in all subjects. The authors identified a priori an alternate workup strategy in which DVT would be ruled out in "DVT unlikely" (Wells score return visits for imaging and 10 (4.4%) cases of unnecessary anticoagulation. In 19% of cases, the treating and scanning physician disagreed whether the patient was DVT likely or DVT unlikely based on Wells score (κ = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.77). Limited-compression US holds promise as one component of the diagnostic approach to DVT, but should not be used as a stand-alone test due to imperfect sensitivity. Tradeoffs in diagnostic efficiency for the sake of perfect sensitivity remain a difficult issue collectively in emergency medicine (EM), but need to be scrutinized carefully in light of the costs of overinvestigation, delays in diagnosis, and risks of empirical anticoagulation. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  11. Net-section limit moments and approximate J estimates for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Chang-Kyun; Jin, Tae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2009-01-01

    This paper firstly presents net-section limit moments for circumferential through-wall and part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending. Closed-form solutions are proposed based on fitting results from small strain FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Net-section limit moments for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes are found to be close to those for cracks in the centre of elbows, implying that the location of the circumferential crack within an elbow has a minimal effect on the net-section limit moment. Accordingly it is also found that the assumption that the crack locates in a straight pipe could significantly overestimate the net-section limit load (and thus maximum load-carrying capacity) of the cracked component. Based on the proposed net-section limit moment, a method to estimate elastic-plastic J based on the reference stress approach is proposed for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending.

  12. Mixed H2/H∞-Based Fusion Estimation for Energy-Limited Multi-Sensors in Wearable Body Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes collect plenty of data for each time period. If all of data are transmitted to a Fusion Center (FC, the power of sensor node would run out rapidly. On the other hand, the data also needs a filter to remove the noise. Therefore, an efficient fusion estimation model, which can save the energy of the sensor nodes while maintaining higher accuracy, is needed. This paper proposes a novel mixed H2/H∞-based energy-efficient fusion estimation model (MHEEFE for energy-limited Wearable Body Networks. In the proposed model, the communication cost is firstly reduced efficiently while keeping the estimation accuracy. Then, the parameters in quantization method are discussed, and we confirm them by an optimization method with some prior knowledge. Besides, some calculation methods of important parameters are researched which make the final estimates more stable. Finally, an iteration-based weight calculation algorithm is presented, which can improve the fault tolerance of the final estimate. In the simulation, the impacts of some pivotal parameters are discussed. Meanwhile, compared with the other related models, the MHEEFE shows a better performance in accuracy, energy-efficiency and fault tolerance.

  13. New alternatives for reference evapotranspiration estimation in West Africa using limited weather data and ancillary data supply strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, Gorka; Bekoe, Emmanuel; Ampofo, Joseph; Logah, Frederick; Diop, Mbaye; Cisse, Madiama; Shiri, Jalal

    2018-05-01

    Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) is essential for the computation of crop water requirements, irrigation scheduling, and water resources management. In this context, having a battery of alternative local calibrated ET 0 estimation methods is of great interest for any irrigation advisory service. The development of irrigation advisory services will be a major breakthrough for West African agriculture. In the case of many West African countries, the high number of meteorological inputs required by the Penman-Monteith equation has been indicated as constraining. The present paper investigates for the first time in Ghana, the estimation ability of artificial intelligence-based models (Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Gene Expression Programing (GEPs)), and ancillary/external approaches for modeling reference evapotranspiration ( ET 0 ) using limited weather data. According to the results of this study, GEPs have emerged as a very interesting alternative for ET 0 estimation at all the locations of Ghana which have been evaluated in this study under different scenarios of meteorological data availability. The adoption of ancillary/external approaches has been also successful, moreover in the southern locations. The interesting results obtained in this study using GEPs and some ancillary approaches could be a reference for future studies about ET 0 estimation in West Africa.

  14. A tool to estimate bar patterns and flow conditions in estuaries when limited data is available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, J.; Verhoeve, S.; Bruijns, A. J.; Selakovic, S.; van Dijk, W. M.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of human interventions, natural evolution of estuaries and rising sea-level on food security and flood safety are largely unknown. In addition, ecologists require quantified habitat area to study future evolution of estuaries, but they lack predictive capability of bathymetry and hydrodynamics. For example, crucial input required for ecological models are values of intertidal area, inundation time, peak flow velocities and salinity. While numerical models can reproduce these spatial patterns, their computational times are long and for each case a new model must be developed. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive set of relations that accurately predict the hydrodynamics and the patterns of channels and bars, using a combination of the empirical relations derived from approximately 50 estuaries and theory for bars and estuaries. The first step is to predict local tidal prisms, which is the tidal prism that flows through a given cross-section. Second, the channel geometry is predicted from tidal prism and hydraulic geometry relations. Subsequently, typical flow velocities can be estimated from the channel geometry and tidal prism. Then, an ideal estuary shape is fitted to the measured planform: the deviation from the ideal shape, which is defined as the excess width, gives a measure of the locations where tidal bars form and their summed width (Leuven et al., 2017). From excess width, typical hypsometries can be predicted per cross-section. In the last step, flow velocities are calculated for the full range of occurring depths and salinity is calculated based on the estuary shape. Here, we will present a prototype tool that predicts equilibrium bar patterns and typical flow conditions. The tool is easy to use because the only input required is the estuary outline and tidal amplitude. Therefore it can be used by policy makers and researchers from multiple disciplines, such as ecologists, geologists and hydrologists, for example for paleogeographic

  15. The limits of earthquake early warning: Timeliness of ground motion estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Meier, Men-Andrin; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Hanks, Thomas C.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2018-01-01

    The basic physics of earthquakes is such that strong ground motion cannot be expected from an earthquake unless the earthquake itself is very close or has grown to be very large. We use simple seismological relationships to calculate the minimum time that must elapse before such ground motion can be expected at a distance from the earthquake, assuming that the earthquake magnitude is not predictable. Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are in operation or development for many regions around the world, with the goal of providing enough warning of incoming ground shaking to allow people and automated systems to take protective actions to mitigate losses. However, the question of how much warning time is physically possible for specified levels of ground motion has not been addressed. We consider a zero-latency EEW system to determine possible warning times a user could receive in an ideal case. In this case, the only limitation on warning time is the time required for the earthquake to evolve and the time for strong ground motion to arrive at a user’s location. We find that users who wish to be alerted at lower ground motion thresholds will receive more robust warnings with longer average warning times than users who receive warnings for higher ground motion thresholds. EEW systems have the greatest potential benefit for users willing to take action at relatively low ground motion thresholds, whereas users who set relatively high thresholds for taking action are less likely to receive timely and actionable information.

  16. Estimate of the upper limit of amplitude of Solar Cycle No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergleit, V. M; Larocca, P. A [Departamento de Fisica, UBA (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    AA* indices of values greater than 60 10{sup -9} Tesla are considered in order to characterize geomagnetic storms since the available series of these indices comprise the years from 1868 to 1998 (The longest existing interval of geomagnetic activity). By applying the precursor technique we have performed an analysis of the storm periods and the solar activity, obtaining a good correlation between the number of storms ({alpha})(characterized by the AA* indices) and the amplitudes of each solar cycle ({zeta}) and those of the next ({mu}). Using the multiple regression method applied to {alpha}=A+B{zeta} +C{mu}, the constants are calculated and the values found are: A=-33 {+-}18, B= 0.74{+-}0.13 y C= 0.56{+-}0.13. The present statistical method indicates that the current solar cycle (number 23) would have an upper limit of 202{+-}57 monthy mean sunspots. This value indicates that the solar activity would be high causing important effects on the Earth's environment. [Spanish] Se consideran los valores de los indices AA* de valor mayor que 60 10{sup -9} Tesla para caracterizar tormentas geomagneticas ya que las series disponibles de estos indices van desde 1868 hasta 1998 (el mas largo intervalo de la actividad geomagnetica existente). Aplicando la tecnica del precursor hemos realizado un analisis de los periodos de tormentas y la actividad solar obteniendo una buena correlacion entre el numero de tormentas ({alpha}) (caracterizado por los indices AA*) y las amplitudes de los ciclos solares corriente ({zeta}) y el proximo ({mu}). Usando el metodo de regresion multiple aplicado a {alpha}=A+B{zeta} +C{mu}, las consonantes resultaron: A=-33 {+-}18, B= 0.74{+-}0.13 y C= 0.56{+-}0.13. El metodo estadistico presentado indica que el ciclo actual (numero 23) tendria un pico de 202{+-} 57 manchas mensuales promedio. Este valor indica que la actividad solar seria alta produciendo importantes efectos en el medio ambiente terrestre.

  17. Effects of tissue-preparation-induced callose synthesis on estimates of plasmodesma size exclusion limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, J E; White, R G

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodesmata are often characterised by their size exclusion limit (SEL), which is the molecular weight of the largest dye, introduced by microinjection, that will move from cell to cell. In this study, we investigated whether commonly used techniques for isolation and manipulation of tissues, and microinjection of fluorescent dyes, affected the SEL, and whether any such effects could be ameliorated by inhibiting callose deposition. We examined young root epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and staminal hair cells of Tradescantia virginiana, two tissues often used in experiments on symplastic transport. Transport in root tips dissected from the main plant body and in stamen hairs removed from the base of the stamen filament was compared with transport in undissected roots and stamen hairs attached to the base of the filament, respectively. Tissues were microinjected with fluorescent dyes (457 Da to > 3 kDa) with or without prior incubation in the callose deposition inhibitors 2-deoxy-D-glucose or aniline blue fluorochrome. In both tissues, dissection reduced the SEL, which was largely prevented by prior incubation in 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by incubation in aniline blue fluorochrome. Thus, standard methods for tissue preparation can cause sufficient callose deposition to reduce cell-to-cell transport, and this needs to be considered in studies employing microinjection. Introduction of the dyes by pressure injection rather than iontophoresis decreased the SEL in A. thaliana but increased it in T. virginiana, showing that these two injection techniques do not necessarily give identical results and that plasmodesmata in different tissues may respond differently to similar experimental procedures.

  18. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  19. Reconstruction of limited-angle dual-energy CT using mutual learning and cross-estimation (MLCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xing, Yuxiang

    2016-03-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging has gained a lot of attenuation because of its capability to discriminate materials. We proposes a flexible DECT scan strategy which can be realized on a system with general X-ray sources and detectors. In order to lower dose and scanning time, our DECT acquires two projections data sets on two arcs of limited-angular coverage (one for each energy) respectively. Meanwhile, a certain number of rays from two data sets form conjugate sampling pairs. Our reconstruction method for such a DECT scan mainly tackles the consequent limited-angle problem. Using the idea of artificial neural network, we excavate the connection between projections at two different energies by constructing a relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient of the high energy and that of the low one. We use this relationship to cross-estimate missing projections and reconstruct attenuation images from an augmented data set including projections at views covered by itself (projections collected in scanning) and by the other energy (projections estimated) for each energy respectively. Validated by our numerical experiment on a dental phantom with rather complex structures, our DECT is effective in recovering small structures in severe limited-angle situations. This DECT scanning strategy can much broaden DECT design in reality.

  20. Age- and sex-specific reference limits for creatinine, cystatin C and the estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Dittmann, Kathleen; Spielhagen, Christin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Rettig, Rainer; Endlich, Karlhans; Lendeckel, Uwe; Stracke, Sylvia; Nauck, Matthias

    2011-11-14

    Early detection of patients with chronic kidney disease is of great importance. This study developed reference limits for serum creatinine and serum cystatin C concentrations and for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in healthy subjects from the general population aged 25-65 years. This study defined a reference population including 985 subjects from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum creatinine was measured with a modified kinetic Jaffé method. Serum cystatin C was measured with a nephelometric assay. The eGFR was calculated from serum creatinine according to the Cockcroft-Gault (eGFR(CG)) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFR(MDRD)) equation, respectively, as well as from serum cystatin C according to the formula by Larsson (eGFR(Larsson)). Non-parametric quantile regression was used to estimate the reference limits. For serum creatinine and serum cystatin C the 95th percentile and for eGFR(CG), eGFR(MDRD) and eGFR(Larsson) the 5th percentile were selected as reference limits. All data was weighted to reflect the age- and sex-structure of the German population in 2008. The reference limits for serum creatinine (men: 1.11-1.23 mg/dL; women: 0.93-1.00 mg/dL) and serum cystatin C levels (men: 0.92-1.04 mg/L; women: 0.84-1.02 mg/L) increased with advancing age. The reference limits for eGFR decreased with increasing age (eGFR(CG) men: 106.0-64.7 mL/min, women 84.4-57.9 mL/min; eGFR(MDRD) men: 82.5-62.2 mL/min/1.73 m², women 75.0-58.2 mL/min/1.73 m²; eGFR(Larsson) men: 85.5-72.9 mL/min, women 94.5-75.7 mL/min). This study presents age- and sex-specific reference limits for five measures of renal function based on quantile regression models.

  1. Circumpolar assessment of rhizosphere priming shows limited increase in carbon loss estimates for permafrost soils but large regional variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B.; Keuper, F.; Kummu, M.; Beer, C.; Blume-Werry, G.; Fontaine, S.; Gavazov, K.; Gentsch, N.; Guggenberger, G.; Hugelius, G.; Jalava, M.; Koven, C.; Krab, E. J.; Kuhry, P.; Monteux, S.; Richter, A.; Shazhad, T.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2017-12-01

    Predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) losses in the northern circumpolar permafrost area converge around 15% (± 3% standard error) of the initial C pool by 2100 under the RCP 8.5 warming scenario. Yet, none of these estimates consider plant-soil interactions such as the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE). While laboratory experiments have shown that the input of plant-derived compounds can stimulate SOC losses by up to 1200%, the magnitude of RPE in natural ecosystems is unknown and no methods for upscaling exist so far. We here present the first spatial and depth explicit RPE model that allows estimates of RPE on a large scale (PrimeSCale). We combine available spatial data (SOC, C/N, GPP, ALT and ecosystem type) and new ecological insights to assess the importance of the RPE at the circumpolar scale. We use a positive saturating relationship between the RPE and belowground C allocation and two ALT-dependent rooting-depth distribution functions (for tundra and boreal forest) to proportionally assign belowground C allocation and RPE to individual soil depth increments. The model permits to take into account reasonable limiting factors on additional SOC losses by RPE including interactions between spatial and/or depth variation in GPP, plant root density, SOC stocks and ALT. We estimate potential RPE-induced SOC losses at 9.7 Pg C (5 - 95% CI: 1.5 - 23.2 Pg C) by 2100 (RCP 8.5). This corresponds to an increase of the current permafrost SOC-loss estimate from 15% of the initial C pool to about 16%. If we apply an additional molar C/N threshold of 20 to account for microbial C limitation as a requirement for the RPE, SOC losses by RPE are further reduced to 6.5 Pg C (5 - 95% CI: 1.0 - 16.8 Pg C) by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Although our results show that current estimates of permafrost soil C losses are robust without taking into account the RPE, our model also highlights high-RPE risk in Siberian lowland areas and Alaska north of the Brooks Range. The small overall impact of

  2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  3. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  4. Rotating dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, C.

    1984-01-01

    Products to dry are introduced inside a rotating tube placed in an oven, the cross section of the tube is an arc of spiral. During clockwise rotation of the tube products are maintained inside and mixed, during anticlockwise products are removed. Application is made to drying of radioactive wastes [fr

  5. Limitation of the Predominant-Period Estimator for Earthquake Early Warning and the Initial Rupture of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Ide, S.

    2007-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is an important and challenging issue for the reduction of the seismic damage, especially for the mitigation of human suffering. One of the most important problems in earthquake early warning systems is how immediately we can estimate the final size of an earthquake after we observe the ground motion. It is relevant to the problem whether the initial rupture of an earthquake has some information associated with its final size. Nakamura (1988) developed the Urgent Earthquake Detection and Alarm System (UrEDAS). It calculates the predominant period of the P wave (τp) and estimates the magnitude of an earthquake immediately after the P wave arrival from the value of τpmax, or the maximum value of τp. The similar approach has been adapted by other earthquake alarm systems (e.g., Allen and Kanamori (2003)). To investigate the characteristic of the parameter τp and the effect of the length of the time window (TW) in the τpmax calculation, we analyze the high-frequency recordings of earthquakes at very close distances in the Mponeng mine in South Africa. We find that values of τpmax have upper and lower limits. For larger earthquakes whose source durations are longer than TW, the values of τpmax have an upper limit which depends on TW. On the other hand, the values for smaller earthquakes have a lower limit which is proportional to the sampling interval. For intermediate earthquakes, the values of τpmax are close to their typical source durations. These two limits and the slope for intermediate earthquakes yield an artificial final size dependence of τpmax in a wide size range. The parameter τpmax is useful for detecting large earthquakes and broadcasting earthquake early warnings. However, its dependence on the final size of earthquakes does not suggest that the earthquake rupture is deterministic. This is because τpmax does not always have a direct relation to the physical quantities of an earthquake.

  6. The Impact of the Processing Batch Length in GNSS Data Analysis on the Estimates of Earth Rotation Parameters with Daily and Subdaily Time Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Thaller, D.; Schaer, S.; Beutler, G.; Jaeggi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Microwave observations from GNSS are traditionally analyzed in the post-processing mode using (solar) daily data batches. The 24-hour session length differs by only about four minutes from two revolution periods of a GPS satellite (corresponding to one sidereal day). The deep 2:1 resonance of the GPS revolution period with the length of the sidereal day may cause systematic effects in parameter estimates and spurious periodic signals in the resulting parameter time series. The selection of other (than daily) session lengths may help to identify systematic effects and to study their impact on GNSS-derived products. Such investigations are of great interest in a combined multi-GNSS analysis because of substantial differences in the satellites' revolution periods. Three years (2008-2010) of data from a global network of about 90 combined GPS/GLONASS receivers have been analyzed. Four different session lengths were used, namely the traditional 24 hours (UTC), two revolutions of a GLONASS satellite (16/17 sidereal days), two revolutions of a GPS satellite (one sidereal day), and a session length of 18/17 sidereal days, which does not correspond to either two GPS or two GLONASS revolution periods. GPS-only, GLONASS-only, and GPS/GLONASS-combined solution are established for each of the session lengths. Special care was taken to keep the GPS and GLONASS solutions fully consistent and comparable in particular where the station selection is concerned. We generate ERPs with a subdaily time resolution of about 1.4 hours (1/17 sidereal day). Using the session-specific normal equation systems (NEQs) containing the Earth rotation parameters with the 1.4 hours time resolution we derive in addition ERPs with a (sidereal) daily resolution. Note that this step requires the combination of the daily NEQs and a subsequent re-binning of 17 consecutive ERPs with 1/17 day time resolution into one (sidereal) daily parameter. These tests will reveal the impact of the session length on ERP

  7. Methane Flux Estimation from Point Sources using GOSAT Target Observation: Detection Limit and Improvements with Next Generation Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kataoka, F.; Shiomi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Crisp, D.; Butz, A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) has an important role in global radiative forcing of climate but its emission estimates have larger uncertainties than carbon dioxide (CO2). The area of anthropogenic emission sources is usually much smaller than 100 km2. The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has measured CO2 and CH4 column density using sun light reflected from the earth's surface. It has an agile pointing system and its footprint can cover 87-km2 with a single detector. By specifying pointing angles and observation time for every orbit, TANSO-FTS can target various CH4 point sources together with reference points every 3 day over years. We selected a reference point that represents CH4 background density before or after targeting a point source. By combining satellite-measured enhancement of the CH4 column density and surface measured wind data or estimates from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we estimated CH4emission amounts. Here, we picked up two sites in the US West Coast, where clear sky frequency is high and a series of data are available. The natural gas leak at Aliso Canyon showed a large enhancement and its decrease with time since the initial blowout. We present time series of flux estimation assuming the source is single point without influx. The observation of the cattle feedlot in Chino, California has weather station within the TANSO-FTS footprint. The wind speed is monitored continuously and the wind direction is stable at the time of GOSAT overpass. The large TANSO-FTS footprint and strong wind decreases enhancement below noise level. Weak wind shows enhancements in CH4, but the velocity data have large uncertainties. We show the detection limit of single samples and how to reduce uncertainty using time series of satellite data. We will propose that the next generation instruments for accurate anthropogenic CO2 and CH

  8. Limited-sampling strategy models for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters of 4-methylaminoantipyrine, an active metabolite of dipyrone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez-Kurtz G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioanalytical data from a bioequivalence study were used to develop limited-sampling strategy (LSS models for estimating the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax of 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAA, an active metabolite of dipyrone. Twelve healthy adult male volunteers received single 600 mg oral doses of dipyrone in two formulations at a 7-day interval in a randomized, crossover protocol. Plasma concentrations of MAA (N = 336, measured by HPLC, were used to develop LSS models. Linear regression analysis and a "jack-knife" validation procedure revealed that the AUC0-¥ and the Cmax of MAA can be accurately predicted (R²>0.95, bias 0.85 of the AUC0-¥ or Cmax for the other formulation. LSS models based on three sampling points (1.5, 4 and 24 h, but using different coefficients for AUC0-¥ and Cmax, predicted the individual values of both parameters for the enrolled volunteers (R²>0.88, bias = -0.65 and -0.37%, precision = 4.3 and 7.4% as well as for plasma concentration data sets generated by simulation (R²>0.88, bias = -1.9 and 8.5%, precision = 5.2 and 8.7%. Bioequivalence assessment of the dipyrone formulations based on the 90% confidence interval of log-transformed AUC0-¥ and Cmax provided similar results when either the best-estimated or the LSS-derived metrics were used.

  9. Improving Estimation of Evapotranspiration under Water-Limited Conditions Based on SEBS and MODIS Data in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for improving the estimation of surface turbulent fluxes in surface energy balance system (SEBS model under water stress conditions using MODIS data. The normalized difference water index (NDWI as an indicator of water stress is integrated into SEBS. To investigate the feasibility of the new approach, the desert-oasis region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB is selected as the study area. The proposed model is calibrated with meteorological and flux data over 2008–2011 at the Yingke station and is verified with data from 16 stations of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER project in 2012. The results show that soil moisture significantly affects evapotranspiration (ET under water stress conditions in the study area. Adding the NDWI in SEBS can significantly improve the estimations of surface turbulent fluxes in water-limited regions, especially for spare vegetation cover area. The daily ET maps generated by the new model also show improvements in drylands with low ET values. This study demonstrates that integrating the NDWI into SEBS as an indicator of water stress is an effective way to improve the assessment of the regional ET in semi-arid and arid regions.

  10. Parameter estimation and long-term process simulation of a biogas reactor operated under trace elements limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lübken, Manfred; Koch, Konrad; Gehring, Tito; Horn, Harald; Wichern, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of ADM1 parameter uncertainty by nonlinear, correlated parameter analysis. • Unbounded confidence regions were obtained for single hydrolysis rate constants. • ADM1 carbohydrates were divided into a slowly and readily degradable part. • Bioavailability of trace metals explained discrepancies between modeled and measured data. - Abstract: The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to describe the long-term process stability of a two-stage agricultural biogas system operated for 494 days with a mono-substrate. The ADM1 model fraction for carbohydrates was divided into a slowly and readily degradable part. Significant different hydrolysis rate constants were found for proteins and single fractions of carbohydrates in batch experiments. Degradation of starch, xylan (hemicellulose), cellulose and zein (protein) were modeled with first order hydrolysis rate coefficients of 1.20 d −1 , 0.70 d −1 , 0.18 d −1 and 0.30 d −1 , respectively. While the hydrolysis rate coefficients found in batch experiments could be used for predicting continuous process data, the statistically calculated confidence regions (nonlinear parameter estimation) showed that the upper limits were unbounded. Single discrepancies between measured and modeled process data of the two-stage pilot system could be explained by the lack of bioavailability of trace elements. Addition of iron, as Fe(III)Cl 3 , allowed stable process conditions for an organic loading rate (OLR) up to 2.5 g VS L −1 d −1 . Additional supplement of trace elements was necessary for process operation at OLRs above 2.5 g VS L −1 d −1

  11. Multivariate estimation of the limit of detection by orthogonal partial least squares in temperature-modulated MOX sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgués, Javier; Marco, Santiago

    2018-08-17

    Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) sensors are usually temperature-modulated and calibrated with multivariate models such as partial least squares (PLS) to increase the inherent low selectivity of this technology. The multivariate sensor response patterns exhibit heteroscedastic and correlated noise, which suggests that maximum likelihood methods should outperform PLS. One contribution of this paper is the comparison between PLS and maximum likelihood principal components regression (MLPCR) in MOX sensors. PLS is often criticized by the lack of interpretability when the model complexity increases beyond the chemical rank of the problem. This happens in MOX sensors due to cross-sensitivities to interferences, such as temperature or humidity and non-linearity. Additionally, the estimation of fundamental figures of merit, such as the limit of detection (LOD), is still not standardized in multivariate models. Orthogonalization methods, such as orthogonal projection to latent structures (O-PLS), have been successfully applied in other fields to reduce the complexity of PLS models. In this work, we propose a LOD estimation method based on applying the well-accepted univariate LOD formulas to the scores of the first component of an orthogonal PLS model. The resulting LOD is compared to the multivariate LOD range derived from error-propagation. The methodology is applied to data extracted from temperature-modulated MOX sensors (FIS SB-500-12 and Figaro TGS 3870-A04), aiming at the detection of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of uncontrolled humidity (chemical noise). We found that PLS models were simpler and more accurate than MLPCR models. Average LOD values of 0.79 ppm (FIS) and 1.06 ppm (Figaro) were found using the approach described in this paper. These values were contained within the LOD ranges obtained with the error-propagation approach. The mean LOD increased to 1.13 ppm (FIS) and 1.59 ppm (Figaro) when considering validation samples

  12. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic

  13. Estimation of snowfall limit for the Kashmir Valley, Indian Himalayas, with TRMM PR Bright Band information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schauwecker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the height of the snowfall limit during precipitation events is crucial for better understanding a number of hydro-climatic processes, for instance glacier-climate interactions or runoff from high mountain catchments. However, knowledge on heights of the phase change during precipitation events is limited by the small number of meteorological measurements available at high altitudes, such as the Himalayas. The bright band (BB of satellite based radar data may be a promising proxy for the snow/rain transition during particular stratiform precipitation events over high mountain regions. The BB is a horizontal layer of stronger radar reflectivity caused by the melting of hydrometeors at the level where solid precipitation turns into rain. Here, we present BB heights detected by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR 2A23 algorithm over a mountainous area. To assess the performance of BB heights, we have compared a 17‑year data set of BB estimations of the TRMM PR with radiosonde observations and meteorological station data from Srinagar, Kashmir Valley, India. During March to November, the BB lies mostly about 200 to 800 m below the freezing level (FL recorded by radiosondes. The correlation between BB and FL heights extrapolated from a ground-based station is smaller and depends on the timing of the air temperature measurement – an important finding for applying extrapolation techniques in data sparse regions. Further on, we found a strong seasonal and monthly variability of the BB height, e.g. extending in summer months from about 2700 m to almost 6000 m asl. Comparison with near surface rain intensity from the TRMM PR product 2A25 indicates that – during intense monsoonal summer precipitation events – the BB height is concentrated between about 3500 and 4000 m asl. We can conclude that TRMM PR BB data deliver valuable complementary information for regional or seasonal variability

  14. Limitations and information needs for engineered nanomaterial-specific exposure estimation and scenarios: recommendations for improved reporting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katherine; van Tongeren, Martie; Christensen, Frans M.; Brouwer, Derk; Nowack, Bernd; Gottschalk, Fadri; Micheletti, Christian; Schmid, Kaspar; Gerritsen, Rianda; Aitken, Rob; Vaquero, Celina; Gkanis, Vasileios; Housiadas, Christos; de Ipiña, Jesús María López; Riediker, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the process and challenges in building exposure scenarios for engineered nanomaterials (ENM), using an exposure scenario format similar to that used for the European Chemicals regulation (REACH). Over 60 exposure scenarios were developed based on information from publicly available sources (literature, books, and reports), publicly available exposure estimation models, occupational sampling campaign data from partnering institutions, and industrial partners regarding their own facilities. The primary focus was on carbon-based nanomaterials, nano-silver (nano-Ag) and nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2), and included occupational and consumer uses of these materials with consideration of the associated environmental release. The process of building exposure scenarios illustrated the availability and limitations of existing information and exposure assessment tools for characterizing exposure to ENM, particularly as it relates to risk assessment. This article describes the gaps in the information reviewed, recommends future areas of ENM exposure research, and proposes types of information that should, at a minimum, be included when reporting the results of such research, so that the information is useful in a wider context.

  15. A priori estimation of accuracy and of the number of wells to be employed in limiting dilution assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Chaui-Berlinck

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of limiting dilution assay (LDA for assessing the frequency of responders in a cell population is a method extensively used by immunologists. A series of studies addressing the statistical method of choice in an LDA have been published. However, none of these studies has addressed the point of how many wells should be employed in a given assay. The objective of this study was to demonstrate how a researcher can predict the number of wells that should be employed in order to obtain results with a given accuracy, and, therefore, to help in choosing a better experimental design to fulfill one's expectations. We present the rationale underlying the expected relative error computation based on simple binomial distributions. A series of simulated in machina experiments were performed to test the validity of the a priori computation of expected errors, thus confirming the predictions. The step-by-step procedure of the relative error estimation is given. We also discuss the constraints under which an LDA must be performed.

  16. Limitations and information needs for engineered nanomaterial-specific exposure estimation and scenarios: recommendations for improved reporting practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Katherine, E-mail: katherine.clark@lkc-ltd.com [LKC (Switzerland); Tongeren, Martie van, E-mail: martie.vantongeren@iom-world.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) (United Kingdom); Christensen, Frans M., E-mail: fmch@cowi.dk [COWI (Denmark); Brouwer, Derk, E-mail: dick.brouwer@tno.nl [TNO (Netherlands); Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: nowack@empa.ch; Gottschalk, Fadri, E-mail: Fadri.Gottschalk@empa.ch [EMPA-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Switzerland); Micheletti, Christian, E-mail: Christian.micheletti@gmail.com [Veneto NanoTech S.C.p.A (Italy); Schmid, Kaspar, E-mail: kasparschmid@alumni.ethz.ch [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) (United Kingdom); Gerritsen, Rianda, E-mail: rianda.gerritsen@tno.nl [TNO (Netherlands); Aitken, Rob, E-mail: rob.aitken@iom-world.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) (United Kingdom); Vaquero, Celina, E-mail: celina.vaquero@tecnalia.com [TECNALIA Research and Innovation (Spain); Gkanis, Vasileios, E-mail: v_gkanis@hotmail.com; Housiadas, Christos, E-mail: christos@ipta.demokritos.gr [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece); Ipina, Jesus Maria Lopez de, E-mail: jesus.lopezdeipina@tecnalia.com [TECNALIA Research and Innovation (Spain); Riediker, Michael, E-mail: michael.riediker@hospvd.ch [Institute for Work and Health (IST) (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe the process and challenges in building exposure scenarios for engineered nanomaterials (ENM), using an exposure scenario format similar to that used for the European Chemicals regulation (REACH). Over 60 exposure scenarios were developed based on information from publicly available sources (literature, books, and reports), publicly available exposure estimation models, occupational sampling campaign data from partnering institutions, and industrial partners regarding their own facilities. The primary focus was on carbon-based nanomaterials, nano-silver (nano-Ag) and nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO{sub 2}), and included occupational and consumer uses of these materials with consideration of the associated environmental release. The process of building exposure scenarios illustrated the availability and limitations of existing information and exposure assessment tools for characterizing exposure to ENM, particularly as it relates to risk assessment. This article describes the gaps in the information reviewed, recommends future areas of ENM exposure research, and proposes types of information that should, at a minimum, be included when reporting the results of such research, so that the information is useful in a wider context.

  17. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  18. Rotation Detection Using the Precession of Molecular Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-11-01

    We present a method to detect the rotation by using the precession of molecular electric dipole moment in a static electric field. The molecular electric dipole moments are polarized under the static electric field and a nonzero electric polarization vector emerges in the molecular gas. A resonant radio-frequency pulse electric field is applied to realize a 90° flip of the electric polarization vector of a particular rotational state. After the pulse electric field, the electric polarization vector precesses under the static electric field. The rotation induces a shift in the precession frequency which is measured to deduce the angular velocity of the rotation. The fundamental sensitivity limit of this method is estimated. This work is only a proposal and does not involve experimental results.

  19. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  20. A Model of Polarisation Rotations in Blazars from Kink Instabilities in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nalewajko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model of polarisation rotation in optically thin relativistic jets of blazars. The model is based on the development of helical (kink mode of current-driven instability. A possible explanation is suggested for the observational connection between polarisation rotations and optical/gamma-ray flares in blazars, if the current-driven modes are triggered by secular increases of the total jet power. The importance of intrinsic depolarisation in limiting the amplitude of coherent polarisation rotations is demonstrated. The polarisation rotation amplitude is thus very sensitive to the viewing angle, which appears to be inconsistent with the observational estimates of viewing angles in blazars showing polarisation rotations. Overall, there are serious obstacles to explaining large-amplitude polarisation rotations in blazars in terms of current-driven kink modes.

  1. Linearized stationary incompressible flow around rotating and translating bodies: Asymptotic profile of the velocity gradient and decay estimate of the second derivatives of the velocity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deuring, P.; Kračmar, S.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2012), s. 459-476 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190804; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : viscous incompressible flow * rotating body * rundamental solution * decay * asymptotic profile * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039611003573

  2. Rotation of the Solar Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    Regular measurements of the general magnetic field of the Sun, performed over about half a century at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, the J. Wilcox Solar Observatory, and five other observatories, are considered in detail for the time 1968 - 2016. They include more than twenty-six thousand daily values of the mean line-of-sight field strength of the visible solar hemisphere. On the basis of these values, the equatorial rotation period of the Sun is found to be 26.926(9) d (synodic). It is shown that its half-value coincides within error limits with both the main period of the magnetic four-sector structure, 13.4577(25) d, and the best-commensurate period of the slow motions of the major solar system bodies, 13.479(22) d (sidereal). The probability that the two periods coincide by chance is estimated to be about 10^{-7}. The true origin of this odd resonance is unknown.

  3. Potential and limitations of local tree ring records in estimating a priori the growth performance of short-rotation coppice plantations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Miroslav; Fischer, Milan; Bartošová, Lenka; Orság, Matěj; Kyncl, T.; Ceulemans, R.; King, J.R.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, sep (2016), s. 12-19 ISSN 0961-9534 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dendroecology * plantation site selection * populus nigra * poplar hybrid * weather-growth relationship Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  4. Limited information estimation of the diffusion-based item response theory model for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Szardenings, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Psychological tests are usually analysed with item response models. Recently, some alternative measurement models have been proposed that were derived from cognitive process models developed in experimental psychology. These models consider the responses but also the response times of the test takers. Two such models are the Q-diffusion model and the D-diffusion model. Both models can be calibrated with the diffIRT package of the R statistical environment via marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation. In this manuscript, an alternative approach to model calibration is proposed. The approach is based on weighted least squares estimation and parallels the standard estimation approach in structural equation modelling. Estimates are determined by minimizing the discrepancy between the observed and the implied covariance matrix. The estimator is simple to implement, consistent, and asymptotically normally distributed. Least squares estimation also provides a test of model fit by comparing the observed and implied covariance matrix. The estimator and the test of model fit are evaluated in a simulation study. Although parameter recovery is good, the estimator is less efficient than the MML estimator. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Observations of Near-Field Rotational Motions from Oklahoma Seismicity using Applied Technology Associate Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A. T.; Anthony, R. E.; Holland, A. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing rotational motions from moderate-sized earthquakes in the near-field has the potential to improve earthquake engineering and seismic gradiometry by better characterizing the rotational component of the seismic wavefield, but has remained challenging due to the limited development of portable, low-noise rotational sensors. Here, we test Applied Technology Associate (ATA) Proto-Seismic Magnetohydrodynamic (SMHD) three-component rotational rate sensors at Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) for self-noise and sensitivity before deploying them at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) temporary aftershock station OK38 in Waynoka, Oklahoma. The sensors have low self-noise levels below 2 Hz, making them ideal to record local rotations. From April 11, 2017 to June 6, 2017 we recorded the translational and rotational motions of over 155 earthquakes of ML≥2.0 within 2 degrees of the station. Using the recorded events we compare Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) with Peak Ground Rotation Rate (PG). For example, we measured a maximal PG of 0.00211 radians/s and 0.00186 radians/s for the horizontal components of the two rotational sensors during the Mwr=4.2 event on May 13, 2017 which was 0.5 km from that station. Similarly, our PG for the vertical rotational components were 0.00112 radians/s and 0.00085 radians/s. We also measured Peak Ground Rotations (PGω) as a function of seismic moment, as well as mean vertical Power Spectral Density (PSD) with mean horizontal PSD power levels. We compute apparent phase velocity directly from the rotational data, which may have may improve estimates of local site effects. Finally, by comparing various rotational and translational components we look at potential implications for estimating local event source parameters, which may help in identifying phenomena such as repeating earthquakes by using differences in the rotational components correlation.

  6. Basin Visual Estimation Technique (BVET) and Representative Reach Approaches to Wadeable Stream Surveys: Methodological Limitations and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance R. Williams; Melvin L. Warren; Susan B. Adams; Joseph L. Arvai; Christopher M. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Basin Visual Estimation Techniques (BVET) are used to estimate abundance for fish populations in small streams. With BVET, independent samples are drawn from natural habitat units in the stream rather than sampling "representative reaches." This sampling protocol provides an alternative to traditional reach-level surveys, which are criticized for their lack...

  7. Distortions in Distributions of Impact Estimates in Multi-Site Trials: The Central Limit Theorem Is Not Your Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Interest in variation in program impacts--How big is it? What might explain it?--has inspired recent work on the analysis of data from multi-site experiments. One critical aspect of this problem involves the use of random or fixed effect estimates to visualize the distribution of impact estimates across a sample of sites. Unfortunately, unless the…

  8. Comparison of 3 estimation methods of mycophenolic acid AUC based on a limited sampling strategy in renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, Anne; Blanchet, Benoît; Audard, Vincent; Barau, Caroline; Furlan, Valérie; Durrbach, Antoine; Taïeb, Fabrice; Lang, Philippe; Grimbert, Philippe; Tod, Michel

    2009-04-01

    A significant relationship between mycophenolic acid (MPA) area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the risk for rejection has been reported. Based on 3 concentration measurements, 3 approaches have been proposed for the estimation of MPA AUC, involving either a multilinear regression approach model (MLRA) or a Bayesian estimation using either gamma absorption or zero-order absorption population models. The aim of the study was to compare the 3 approaches for the estimation of MPA AUC in 150 renal transplant patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. The population parameters were determined in 77 patients (learning study). The AUC estimation methods were compared in the learning population and in 73 patients from another center (validation study). In the latter study, the reference AUCs were estimated by the trapezoidal rule on 8 measurements. MPA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography. The gamma absorption model gave the best fit. In the learning study, the AUCs estimated by both Bayesian methods were very similar, whereas the multilinear approach was highly correlated but yielded estimates about 20% lower than Bayesian methods. This resulted in dosing recommendations differing by 250 mg/12 h or more in 27% of cases. In the validation study, AUC estimates based on the Bayesian method with gamma absorption model and multilinear regression approach model were, respectively, 12% higher and 7% lower than the reference values. To conclude, the bicompartmental model with gamma absorption rate gave the best fit. The 3 AUC estimation methods are highly correlated but not concordant. For a given patient, the same estimation method should always be used.

  9. A linearized system describing stationary incompressible viscous flow around rotating and translating bodies: improved decay estimates of the velocity and its gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deuring, P.; Kračmar, S.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, - (2011), s. 351-361 ISSN 1078-0947. [8th AIMS International Conference. Dresden, 25.05.2010-28.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190804; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : viscous incompressible flow * rotating body * fundamental solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2011 http://aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=6978

  10. Estimating the accuracy of the technique of reconstructing the rotational motion of a satellite based on the measurements of its angular velocity and the magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Volkov, O. N.; Monakhov, M. I.; Sazonov, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The paper has studied the accuracy of the technique that allows the rotational motion of the Earth artificial satellites (AES) to be reconstructed based on the data of onboard measurements of angular velocity vectors and the strength of the Earth magnetic field (EMF). The technique is based on kinematic equations of the rotational motion of a rigid body. Both types of measurement data collected over some time interval have been processed jointly. The angular velocity measurements have been approximated using convenient formulas, which are substituted into the kinematic differential equations for the quaternion that specifies the transition from the body-fixed coordinate system of a satellite to the inertial coordinate system. Thus obtained equations represent a kinematic model of the rotational motion of a satellite. The solution of these equations, which approximate real motion, has been found by the least-square method from the condition of best fitting between the data of measurements of the EMF strength vector and its calculated values. The accuracy of the technique has been estimated by processing the data obtained from the board of the service module of the International Space Station ( ISS). The reconstruction of station motion using the aforementioned technique has been compared with the telemetry data on the actual motion of the station. The technique has allowed us to reconstruct the station motion in the orbital orientation mode with a maximum error less than 0.6° and the turns with a maximal error of less than 1.2°.

  11. Biomass estimation as a function of vertical forest structure and forest height: potential and limitations for radar remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Torano Caicoya, Astor; Kugler, Florian; Papathanassiou, Kostas; Biber, Peter; Pretzsch, Hans

    2010-01-01

    One common method to estimate biomass is measuring forest height and applying allometric equations to get forest biomass. Conditions like changing forest density or changing forest structure bias the allometric relations or biomass estimation fails completely. Remote sensing systems like SAR or LIDAR allow to measure vertical structure of forests. In this paper it is investigated whether vertical structure is sensitive to biomass. For this purpose vertical biomass profiles were calculated usi...

  12. Wave-Driven Rotation In Centrifugal Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Centrifugal mirrors use supersonic rotation to provide axial confinement and enhanced stability. Usually the rotation is produced using electrodes, but these electrodes have limited the rotation to the Alfven critical ionization velocity, which is too slow to be useful for fusion. Instead, the rotation could be produced using radio frequency waves. A fixed azimuthal ripple is a simple and efficient wave that could produce rotation by harnessing alpha particle energy. This is an extension of the alpha channeling effect. The alpha particle power and efficiency in a simulated devices is sufficient to produce rotation without external energy input. By eliminating the need for electrodes, this opens new opportunities for centrifugal traps.

  13. Differential Rotation in Sun-like Stars from Surface Variability and Asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martin Bo

    2017-03-01

    The Sun and other stars are known to oscillate. Through the study of small perturbations to the frequencies of these oscillations the rotation of the deep interior can be inferred. However, thus far the internal rotation of other Sun-like stars is unknown. The NASA Kepler mission has observed a multitude of Sun-like stars over a period of four years. This has provided high-quality photometric data that can be used to study the rotation of stars with two different techniques: asteroseismology and surface activity. Asteroseismology provides a means of measuring rotation in the stellar interior, while photometric variability from magnetically active regions are sensitive to rotation at the stellar surface. The combination of these two methods can be used to constrain the radial differential rotation in Sun-like stars. First, we developed an automated method for measuring the rotation of stars using surface variability. This method was initially applied to the entire Kepler catalog, out of which we detected signatures of rotation in 12,000 stars across the main sequence, providing robust estimates of the surface rotation rates and the associated errors. Second, we performed an asteroseismic analysis of six Sun-like stars, where we were able to measure the rotational splitting as a function of frequency in the p-mode envelope. This was done by dividing the oscillation spectrum into individual segments, and fitting a model independently to each segment. We found that the measured splittings were all consistent with a constant value, indicating little differential rotation. Third, we compared the asteroseismic rotation rates of five Sun-like stars to their surface rotation rates. We found that the values were in good agreement, again indicating little differential rotation between the regions where the two methods are most sensitive. Finally, we discuss how the surface rotation rates may be used as a prior on the seismic envelope rotation rate in a double-zone model

  14. Limitations of the equivalence between spatial and ensemble estimators in the case of a single-tone excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsef, Florian; Cozza, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    The ensemble-average value of the mean-square pressure is often assessed by using the spatial-average technique, underlying an equivalence principle between spatial and ensemble estimators. Using the ideal-diffuse-field model, the accuracy of the spatial-average method has been studied theoretically forty years ago in the case of a single-tone excitation. This study is revisited in the present work on the basis of a more realistic description of the sound field accounting for a finite number of plane waves. The analysis of the spatial-average estimator is based on the study of its convergence rate. Using experimental data from practical examples, it is shown that the classical expression underestimates the estimator uncertainty even for frequencies greater than Schroeder's frequency, and that the number of plane waves may act as lower bound on the spatial-average estimator accuracy. The comparison of the convergence rate with an ensemble-estimator shows that the two statistics cannot be regarded as equivalent in a general case. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  15. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  16. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuñ a, Javier; Xie, Wei; Salleo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact

  17. Optical illusions induced by rotating medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, XiaoFei; Huang, PengCheng; Zhu, YiMing

    2018-03-01

    Different from the traditional single-function electromagnetic wave rotators (rotate the electromagnetic wavefronts), we propose that rotating medium can be extended to optical illusions such as breaking the diffraction limit and overlapping illusion. Furthermore, the homogeneous but anisotropic rotating medium is simplified by homogeneous and isotropic positive-index materials according to the effective medium theory, which is helpful for future device fabrication. Finite element simulations for the two-dimensional case are performed to demonstrate these properties.

  18. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  19. VMAT optimization with dynamic collimator rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Qihui; O'Connor, Daniel; Ruan, Dan; Yu, Victoria; Nguyen, Dan; Sheng, Ke

    2018-04-16

    Although collimator rotation is an optimization variable that can be exploited for dosimetric advantages, existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization uses a fixed collimator angle in each arc and only rotates the collimator between arcs. In this study, we develop a novel integrated optimization method for VMAT, accounting for dynamic collimator angles during the arc motion. Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) for Dynamic Collimator in VMAT (DC-VMAT) was achieved by adding to the existing dose fidelity objective an anisotropic total variation term for regulating the fluence smoothness, a binary variable for forming simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for controlling collimator rotation. The optimal collimator angle for each beam angle was selected using the Dijkstra's algorithm, where the node costs depend on the estimated fluence map at the current iteration and the edge costs account for the mechanical constraints of multi-leaf collimator (MLC). An alternating optimization strategy was implemented to solve the DAO and collimator angle selection (CAS). Feasibility of DC-VMAT using one full-arc with dynamic collimator rotation was tested on a phantom with two small spherical targets, a brain, a lung and a prostate cancer patient. The plan was compared against a static collimator VMAT (SC-VMAT) plan using three full arcs with 60 degrees of collimator angle separation in patient studies. With the same target coverage, DC-VMAT achieved 20.3% reduction of R50 in the phantom study, and reduced the average max and mean OAR dose by 4.49% and 2.53% of the prescription dose in patient studies, as compared with SC-VMAT. The collimator rotation co-ordinated with the gantry rotation in DC-VMAT plans for deliverability. There were 13 beam angles in the single-arc DC-VMAT plan in patient studies that requires slower gantry rotation to accommodate multiple collimator angles. The novel DC-VMAT approach utilizes the dynamic collimator rotation during arc

  20. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  1. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Method Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April’13–March’14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. Results During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65–29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. Conclusion A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion. PMID:27276170

  2. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Simmons

    Full Text Available To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev.Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators.During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7% were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5% recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65-29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID.A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion.

  3. HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Chentsova, Nelli; Karnets, Iryna; Murphy, Gary; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud

    2016-01-01

    To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated using region-specific denominators. During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV. Of the 467 individuals newly-diagnosed with HIV, 21 had insufficient samples for LAg testing. Of the remaining 446, 39 (8.7%) were classified as recent with an avidity index <1.5ODn, 10 were reclassified as long-standing as their viral load was <1000 copies/mL, resulting in 29 (6.5%) recent HIV infections. The only independent predictor for a recent infection was probable route of exposure, with MSM more likely to present with a recent infection compared with heterosexual contact [Odds Ratio 8.86; 95%CI 2.65-29.60]. We estimated HIV incidence at 21.5 per 100,000 population, corresponding to 466 new infections. Using population estimates for MSM and PWID, incidence was estimated to be between 2289.6 and 6868.7/100,000 MSM, and 350.4 for PWID. A high proportion of persons newly-infected remain undiagnosed, with MSM disproportionally affected with one in four newly-HIV-diagnosed and one in three recently-HIV-infected. Our findings should be used for targeted public health interventions and health promotion.

  4. Estimating annual rainfall threshold for establishment of tree species in water-limited ecosystems using tree-ring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, B.C.; Holmgren, M.; Sabate, S.; Gracia, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid ecosystems, water availability is discontinuous, highly variable, and characterized by discrete pulse events separated by long periods of limited resource availability. Plant recruitment in these ecosystems is also episodic and dependent on the water available during and after

  5. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    2009-01-01

    it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form...

  6. Limitations of a Short Demographic Questionnaire for Bedside Estimation of Patients’ Global Cognitive Functioning in Epilepsy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Gorny

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesThe German socio-demographic estimation scale was developed by Jahn et al. (1 to quickly predict premorbid global cognitive functioning in patients. So far, it has been validated in healthy adults and has shown a good correlation with the full and verbal IQ of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS in this group. However, there are no data regarding its use as a bedside test in epilepsy patients.MethodsForty native German speaking adult patients with refractory epilepsy were included. They completed a neuropsychological assessment, including a nine scale short form of the German version of the WAIS-III and the German socio-demographic estimation scale by Jahn et al. (1 during their presurgical diagnostic stay in our center. We calculated means, correlations, and the rate of concordance (range ±5 and ±7.5 IQ score points between these two measures for the whole group, and a subsample of 19 patients with a global cognitive functioning level within 1 SD of the mean (IQ score range 85–115 and who had completed their formal education before epilepsy onset.ResultsThe German demographic estimation scale by Jahn et al. (1 showed a significant mean overestimation of the global cognitive functioning level of eight points in the epilepsy patient sample compared with the short form WAIS-III score. The accuracy within a range of ±5 or ±7.5 IQ score points for each patient was similar to that of the healthy controls reported by Jahn et al. (1 in our subsample, but not in our whole sample.ConclusionOur results show that the socio-demographic scale by Jahn et al. (1 is not sufficiently reliable as an estimation tool of global cognitive functioning in epilepsy patients. It can be used to estimate global cognitive functioning in a subset of patients with a normal global cognitive functioning level who have completed their formal education before epilepsy onset, but it does not reliably predict global cognitive functioning in epilepsy patients

  7. Estimation of the detection limit of an experimental model of tritium storage bed designed for 'in-situ' accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulubasa, Gheorghe; Bidica, Nicolae; Stefanescu, Ioan; Bucur, Ciprian; Deaconu, Mariea

    2009-01-01

    During the water detritiation process most of the tritium inventory is transferred from water into the gaseous phase, then it is further enriched and finally extracted and safely stored. The control of tritium inventory is an acute issue from several points of view: - Financially - tritium is an expensive material; - Safeguard - tritium is considered as nuclear material of strategic importance; - Safety - tritium is a radioactive material: requirements for documented safety analysis report (to ensure strict limits on the total tritium allowed) and for evaluation of accident consequences associated with that inventory. Large amounts of tritium can be stored, in a very safely manner, as metal tritides. A bench-scale experiment of a tritium storage bed with integrated system for in-situ tritium inventory accountancy was designed and developed at ICSI Rm. Valcea. The calibration curve and the detection limit for this experimental model of tritium storage bed were determined. The experimental results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  8. Applicability of the mα-tangent Method to Estimate Plastic Limit Loads of Elbows and Branch Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Bae, Kyung-Dong; Kim, Yun-Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Sung [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, the limit loads calculated by the mα-tangent method based on the linear finite element analysis are compared with the closed form solutions that are proposed by various authors. The objects of the analysis is to select the elbow and the branch pipe which are representative structure of piping system. The applicability of the mα-tangent method are investigated by applying it to cases with various geometries. The internal pressure and the in-plane bending moment are considered and the mα-tangent method is in good agreement with the existing solutions in case of elbows. However, the limit loads calculated by the mα-tangent method for branch junctions do not agree well with the existing solutions and do not show any tendency. The reason is a biased result due to the stress concentration of the discontinuous parts.

  9. Inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars in Cowling approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastaun, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we investigate inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars, i.e. modes for which the Coriolis force is dominant. This is done using the assumption of a fixed spacetime (Cowling approximation). We present frequencies and eigenfunctions for a sequence of stars with a polytropic equation of state, covering a broad range of rotation rates. The modes were obtained with a nonlinear general relativistic hydrodynamic evolution code. We further show that the eigenequations for the oscillation modes can be written in a particularly simple form for the case of arbitrary fast but rigid rotation. Using these equations, we investigate some general characteristics of inertial modes, which are then compared to the numerically obtained eigenfunctions. In particular, we derive a rough analytical estimate for the frequency as a function of the number of nodes of the eigenfunction, and find that a similar empirical relation matches the numerical results with unexpected accuracy. We investigate the slow rotation limit of the eigenequations, obtaining two different sets of equations describing pressure and inertial modes. For the numerical computations we only considered axisymmetric modes, while the analytic part also covers nonaxisymmetric modes. The eigenfunctions suggest that the classification of inertial modes by the quantum numbers of the leading term of a spherical harmonic decomposition is artificial in the sense that the largest term is not strongly dominant, even in the slow rotation limit. The reason for the different structure of pressure and inertial modes is that the Coriolis force remains important in the slow rotation limit only for inertial modes. Accordingly, the scalar eigenequation we obtain in that limit is spherically symmetric for pressure modes, but not for inertial modes

  10. Friction, Free Axes of Rotation and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kazachkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction forces acting on rotators may promote their alignment and therefore eliminate degrees of freedom in their movement. The alignment of rotators by friction force was shown by experiments performed with different spinners, demonstrating how friction generates negentropy in a system of rotators. A gas of rigid rotators influenced by friction force is considered. The orientational negentropy generated by a friction force was estimated with the Sackur-Tetrode equation. The minimal change in total entropy of a system of rotators, corresponding to their eventual alignment, decreases with temperature. The reported effect may be of primary importance for the phase equilibrium and motion of ubiquitous colloidal and granular systems.

  11. TVR-DART: A More Robust Algorithm for Discrete Tomography From Limited Projection Data With Automated Gray Value Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaodong Zhuge; Palenstijn, Willem Jan; Batenburg, Kees Joost

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm for discrete tomography (DT) named total variation regularized discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (TVR-DART) with automated gray value estimation. This algorithm is more robust and automated than the original DART algorithm, and is aimed at imaging of objects consisting of only a few different material compositions, each corresponding to a different gray value in the reconstruction. By exploiting two types of prior knowledge of the scanned object simultaneously, TVR-DART solves the discrete reconstruction problem within an optimization framework inspired by compressive sensing to steer the current reconstruction toward a solution with the specified number of discrete gray values. The gray values and the thresholds are estimated as the reconstruction improves through iterations. Extensive experiments from simulated data, experimental μCT, and electron tomography data sets show that TVR-DART is capable of providing more accurate reconstruction than existing algorithms under noisy conditions from a small number of projection images and/or from a small angular range. Furthermore, the new algorithm requires less effort on parameter tuning compared with the original DART algorithm. With TVR-DART, we aim to provide the tomography society with an easy-to-use and robust algorithm for DT.

  12. The Effectiveness of Using Limited Gauge Measurements for Bias Adjustment of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimation over Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Raied; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Braithwaite, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation is a key input variable for hydrological and climate studies. Rain gauges are capable of providing reliable precipitation measurements at point scale. However, the uncertainty of rain measurements increases when the rain gauge network is sparse. Satellite -based precipitation estimations appear to be an alternative source of precipitation measurements, but they are influenced by systematic bias. In this study, a method for removing the bias from the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) over a region where the rain gauge is sparse is investigated. The method consists of monthly empirical quantile mapping, climate classification, and inverse-weighted distance method. Daily PERSIANN-CCS is selected to test the capability of the method for removing the bias over Saudi Arabia during the period of 2010 to 2016. The first six years (2010 - 2015) are calibrated years and 2016 is used for validation. The results show that the yearly correlation coefficient was enhanced by 12%, the yearly mean bias was reduced by 93% during validated year. Root mean square error was reduced by 73% during validated year. The correlation coefficient, the mean bias, and the root mean square error show that the proposed method removes the bias on PERSIANN-CCS effectively that the method can be applied to other regions where the rain gauge network is sparse.

  13. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  14. Estimation of the potential efficiency of a multijunction solar cell at a limit balance of photogenerated currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintairov, M. A., E-mail: mamint@mail.ioffe.ru; Evstropov, V. V.; Mintairov, S. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    A method is proposed for estimating the potential efficiency which can be achieved in an initially unbalanced multijunction solar cell by the mutual convergence of photogenerated currents: to extract this current from a relatively narrow band-gap cell and to add it to a relatively wide-gap cell. It is already known that the properties facilitating relative convergence are inherent to such objects as bound excitons, quantum dots, donor-acceptor pairs, and others located in relatively wide-gap cells. In fact, the proposed method is reduced to the problem of obtaining such a required light current-voltage (I–V) characteristic which corresponds to the equality of all photogenerated short-circuit currents. Two methods for obtaining the required light I–V characteristic are used. The first one is selection of the spectral composition of the radiation incident on the multijunction solar cell from an illuminator. The second method is a double shift of the dark I–V characteristic: a current shift J{sub g} (common set photogenerated current) and a voltage shift (−J{sub g}R{sub s}), where R{sub s} is the series resistance. For the light and dark I–V characteristics, a general analytical expression is derived, which considers the effect of so-called luminescence coupling in multijunction solar cells. The experimental I–V characteristics are compared with the calculated ones for a three-junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with R{sub s} = 0.019 Ω cm{sup 2} and a maximum factual efficiency of 36.9%. Its maximum potential efficiency is estimated as 41.2%.

  15. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items. For use in reentry decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  16. Estimating the Lower Limit of the Impact of Amines on Nucleation in the Earth’s Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey B. Nadykto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amines, organic derivatives of NH3, are important common trace atmospheric species that can enhance new particle formation in the Earth’s atmosphere under favorable conditions. While methylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and trimethylamine (TMA all efficiently enhance binary nucleation, MA may represent the lower limit of the enhancing effect of amines on atmospheric nucleation. In the present paper, we report new thermochemical data concerning MA-enhanced nucleation, which were obtained using the DFT PW91PW91/6-311++G (3df, 3pd method, and investigate the enhancement in production of stable pre-nucleation clusters due to the MA. We found that the MA ternary nucleation begins to dominate over ternary nucleation of sulfuric acid, water and ammonia at [MA]/[NH3] > ~10−3. This means that under real atmospheric conditions ([MA] ~ 1 ppt, [NH3] ~ 1 ppb the lower limit of the enhancement due to methylamines is either close to or higher than the typical effect of NH3. A very strong impact of the MA is observed at low RH; however it decreases quickly as the RH grows. Low RH and low ambient temperatures were found to be particularly favorable for the enhancement in production of stable sulfuric acid-water clusters due to the MA.

  17. Estimation by limiting dilution analysis of human IL 2-secreting T cells: detection of IL 2 produced by single lymphokine-secreting T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, H.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    We present here a culture method for the estimation, in human blood, of the number of lymphocytes that can respond to mitogen by producing interleukin 2 (IL 2). T cells are cultured at limiting dilutions with PHA or Con A in the presence of Epstein Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cells (EB-LCL), and supernatants are tested 3 days later for IL 2 content by a cell proliferation assay. The distribution of negative wells follows the expected Poisson single-hit relationship, suggesting that the assay is sensitive to single cells of a single limiting cell type. On average, 16.3% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells can produce IL 2 in such clonal cultures (mean of 12 determinations; SD = 5.6%). Surprisingly, irradiation (up to 2000 rad) of the titrated responder cell population diminishes the estimated frequencies by less than 50%. The ability to detect IL 2 levels in cultures containing only a single, nonproliferating T lymphocyte allows us to estimate the amount of IL 2 generated by an individual effector cell during a 3-day culture interval after mitogen stimulation. The average responding, irradiated T cell generates 0.92 pg of IL 2 (median) within 3 days. The method presented provides a straightforward way to provide independent estimates of responding cell number and of lymphokine production per cell in a variety of clinical situations

  18. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  19. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  20. Application of ring lasers to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaev, Yu D; Kolbas, Yu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Application of a ring laser to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation is considered. The maximum accuracy of determining the directions is calculated, physical and technical mechanisms that limit the accuracy are analysed, and the instrumental errors are estimated by the example of ring He — Ne lasers with Zeeman biasing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  1. Limitations on the Estimation of Parental Magma Temperature Using Olivine-melt Equilibria: Hotspots Not So Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Estimates of temperatures of magmas parental to picritic tholeiites using olivine-melt equilibria and FeO-MgO relationships depend strongly on the assumption that a liquid composition, usually a glass, is related to the most magnesian olivine in the rock, or to an olivine composition in equilibrium with mantle peridotite, along an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. The liquid Fe2+/Fe3+ also has to be known; where data exist, average values from wet chemical determinations are used. Crystallization histories of tholeiitic picrites from islands, spreading ridges, and large igneous provinces, however, usually reveal them to be hybrid rocks that are assembled by two types of magma mixing: 1) between a) differentiated magmas that are on olivine-plagioclase or olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene cotectics and b) crystal sludges with abundant olivine that may have accumulated from liquids crystallizing olivine alone; and 2) between primitive magma strains in which olivine crystallized either alone or with other silicate minerals at elevated pressure on separate liquid lines of descent. Many picrites give evidence that both types of mixing have occurred. If either type has occurred, the assumption of olivine-control linking a glass and an olivine composition can only circumstantially be correct. Oxidation state can also be underestimated and therefore FeO contents overestimated if basalts have degassed S, as at Hawaii. In Case 1, hybrid host glass compositions often have higher FeO at given MgO content than liquids which produced many olivine crystals in the rock. In Case 2, the separate parental melt strains are revealed by diversity of compositions of both melt inclusions and Cr-spinel and are most often interpreted to mean local heterogeneity of the mantle source. The inclusions do not always affirm an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. Instead, inclusions with Gorgona, but not in MORB. Where fresh glass is lacking (e.g., Gorgona), bulk-rock compositions

  2. Snakes and spin rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10 -4 will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs

  3. Dosimetric verification of lung cancer treatment using the CBCTs estimated from limited-angle on-board projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancer treatment is susceptible to treatment errors caused by interfractional anatomical and respirational variations of the patient. On-board treatment dose verification is especially critical for the lung stereotactic body radiation therapy due to its high fractional dose. This study investigates the feasibility of using cone-beam (CB)CT images estimated by a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique for on-board dose verification. Both digital and physical phantom studies were performed. Various interfractional variations featuring patient motion pattern change, tumor size change, and tumor average position change were simulated from planning CT to on-board images. The doses calculated on the planning CT (planned doses), the on-board CBCT estimated by MM-FD (MM-FD doses), and the on-board CBCT reconstructed by the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm (FDK doses) were compared to the on-board dose calculated on the "gold-standard" on-board images (gold-standard doses). The absolute deviations of minimum dose (ΔDmin), maximum dose (ΔDmax), and mean dose (ΔDmean), and the absolute deviations of prescription dose coverage (ΔV100%) were evaluated for the planning target volume (PTV). In addition, 4D on-board treatment dose accumulations were performed using 4D-CBCT images estimated by MM-FD in the physical phantom study. The accumulated doses were compared to those measured using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors and radiochromic films. Compared with the planned doses and the FDK doses, the MM-FD doses matched much better with the gold-standard doses. For the digital phantom study, the average (± standard deviation) ΔDmin, ΔDmax, ΔDmean, and ΔV100% (values normalized by the prescription dose or the total PTV) between the planned and the gold-standard PTV doses were 32.9% (±28.6%), 3.0% (±2.9%), 3.8% (±4.0%), and 15.4% (±12.4%), respectively. The corresponding values of FDK PTV doses were 1.6% (±1

  4. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder MRI scan Shoulder pain Patient Instructions Rotator cuff - self-care Shoulder surgery - discharge Using your ...

  5. In vivo estimation of renal volume using a rotating gamma camera for sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, J; Itoh, H; Yoshida, O; Fujita, T; Torizuka, K

    1984-03-01

    The in vivo renal volume was determined using SPECT for sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal imaging. The total renal volume was derived by summing the DMSA distribution volumes of the transaxial slices in the whole kidney. In 20 healthy subjects the renal volume in the right kidney was 220 ml for men and 195.2 ml for women, while that in the left kidney was 213 ml for men and 193.7 ml for women. Differences in those values were not statistically significant. A good correlation was found between renal volumes in both kidneys and body surface area. In 106 kidneys including solitary and pathological kidneys, individual renal volume correlated well with individual DMSA renal uptake rate which demonstrates cortical functioning mass, depending on the cortical blood flow. Thus, SPECT enables an accurate noninvasive means of estimating in vivo functioning renal volume.

  6. Relaxation processes in rotational motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broglia, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    At few MeV above the yrast line the normally strong correlations among γ-ray energies in a rotational sequence become weaker. This observation can be interpreted as evidence for the damping of rotational motion in hot nuclei. It seems possible to relate the spreading width of the E2-rotational decay strength to the spread in frequency Δω 0 of rotational bands. The origin of these fluctuations is found in: (1) fluctuations in the occupation of special single-particle orbits which contribute a significant part of the total angular momentum; and (2) fluctuations in the moment of inertia induced by vibrations of the nuclear shape. Estimates of Δω 0 done making use of the hundred-odd known discrete rotational bands in the rare-earth region lead, for moderate spin and excitation energies (I ≅ 30 and U ≅ 3 to 4 MeV), to rotational spreading widths of the order of 60 to 160 keV in overall agreement with the data. 24 refs

  7. Optimal rotation sequences for active perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakath, David; Rachuy, Carsten; Clemens, Joachim; Schill, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    One major objective of autonomous systems navigating in dynamic environments is gathering information needed for self localization, decision making, and path planning. To account for this, such systems are usually equipped with multiple types of sensors. As these sensors often have a limited field of view and a fixed orientation, the task of active perception breaks down to the problem of calculating alignment sequences which maximize the information gain regarding expected measurements. Action sequences that rotate the system according to the calculated optimal patterns then have to be generated. In this paper we present an approach for calculating these sequences for an autonomous system equipped with multiple sensors. We use a particle filter for multi- sensor fusion and state estimation. The planning task is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP), where the system decides in each step, what actions to perform next. The optimal control policy, which provides the best action depending on the current estimated state, maximizes the expected cumulative reward. The latter is computed from the expected information gain of all sensors over time using value iteration. The algorithm is applied to a manifold representation of the joint space of rotation and time. We show the performance of the approach in a spacecraft navigation scenario where the information gain is changing over time, caused by the dynamic environment and the continuous movement of the spacecraft

  8. FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, ψ = RMλ 2 , due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution Δψ needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, Δψ is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  9. FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melrose, D B [SIfA, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-12-20

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, {psi} = RM{lambda}{sup 2}, due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution {Delta}{psi} needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, {Delta}{psi} is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  10. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  11. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  12. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  13. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  14. Rotational damping motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egido, J.L.; Faessler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The recently proposed model to explain the mechanism of the rotational motion damping in nuclei is exactly solved. When compared with the earlier approximative solution, we find significative differences in the low excitation energy limit (i.e. Γ μ 0 ). For the strength functions we find distributions going from the Wigner semicircle through gaussians to Breit-Wigner shapes. (orig.)

  15. Exotic rotational correlations in quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig

    2017-05-01

    It is argued by extrapolation of general relativity and quantum mechanics that a classical inertial frame corresponds to a statistically defined observable that rotationally fluctuates due to Planck scale indeterminacy. Physical effects of exotic nonlocal rotational correlations on large scale field states are estimated. Their entanglement with the strong interaction vacuum is estimated to produce a universal, statistical centrifugal acceleration that resembles the observed cosmological constant.

  16. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.S., E-mail: csbrown3@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2500 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Zhang, H., E-mail: Hongbin.Zhang@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3870 (United States); Kucukboyaci, V., E-mail: kucukbvn@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Sung, Y., E-mail: sungy@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analyses of PWR core responses under main steam line break (MSLB) accident. • CASL’s coupled neutron transport/subchannel code VERA-CS. • Wilks’ nonparametric statistical method. • MDNBR 95/95 tolerance limit. - Abstract: VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was applied to simulate core behavior of a typical Westinghouse-designed 4-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with 17 × 17 fuel assemblies in response to two main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenarios initiated at hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The reactor core boundary conditions at the most DNB limiting time step were determined by a system analysis code. The core inlet flow and temperature distributions were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The two MSLB scenarios consisted of the high and low flow situations, where reactor coolant pumps either continue to operate with offsite power or do not continue to operate since offsite power is unavailable. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this demonstration of BEPU application, 59 full core simulations were performed for each accident scenario to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. A parametric goodness-of-fit approach was also applied to the results to obtain the MDNBR value at the 95/95 tolerance limit. Initial sensitivity analysis was performed with the 59 cases per accident scenario by use of Pearson correlation coefficients. The results show that this typical PWR core

  17. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.S.; Zhang, H.; Kucukboyaci, V.; Sung, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analyses of PWR core responses under main steam line break (MSLB) accident. • CASL’s coupled neutron transport/subchannel code VERA-CS. • Wilks’ nonparametric statistical method. • MDNBR 95/95 tolerance limit. - Abstract: VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was applied to simulate core behavior of a typical Westinghouse-designed 4-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with 17 × 17 fuel assemblies in response to two main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenarios initiated at hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The reactor core boundary conditions at the most DNB limiting time step were determined by a system analysis code. The core inlet flow and temperature distributions were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The two MSLB scenarios consisted of the high and low flow situations, where reactor coolant pumps either continue to operate with offsite power or do not continue to operate since offsite power is unavailable. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this demonstration of BEPU application, 59 full core simulations were performed for each accident scenario to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. A parametric goodness-of-fit approach was also applied to the results to obtain the MDNBR value at the 95/95 tolerance limit. Initial sensitivity analysis was performed with the 59 cases per accident scenario by use of Pearson correlation coefficients. The results show that this typical PWR core

  18. Effects of kinesiotaping added to a rehabilitation programme for patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy: protocol for a single-blind, randomised controlled trial addressing symptoms, functional limitations and underlying deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Carlos Lucas; de Fontenay, Benoît Pairot; Bouyer, Laurent Julien; Desmeules, François; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-09-24

    Rotator cuff tendinopathy (RCTe) is the most frequent cause of shoulder pain, resulting in considerable losses to society and public resources. Muscle imbalance and inadequate sensorimotor control are deficits often associated with RCTe. Kinesiotaping (KT) is widely used by clinicians for rehabilitation of RCTe. While previous studies have examined the immediate effects of KT on shoulder injuries or the effects of KT as an isolated method of treatment, no published study has addressed its mid-term and long-term effects when combined with a rehabilitation programme for patients with RCTe. The primary objective of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be to assess the efficacy of therapeutic KT, added to a rehabilitation programme, in reducing pain and disabilities in individuals with RCTe. Secondary objectives will look at the effects of KT on the underlying factors involved in shoulder control, such as muscular activity, acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and range of motion (ROM). A single-blind RCT will be conducted. Fifty-two participants, randomly allocated to one of two groups (KT or no-KT), will take part in a 6-week rehabilitation programme. The KT group will receive KT added to the rehabilitation programme, whereas the no-KT group will receive only the rehabilitation programme. Measurements will be taken at baseline, week 3, week 6, week 12 and 6 months. Primary outcomes will be symptoms and functional limitations assessed by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include shoulder ROM, AHD at rest and at 60° of abduction, and muscle activation during arm elevation. The added effects of KT will be assessed through a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures. Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Quebec Rehabilitation Institute of the Centre Integrated University Health and Social Services. Results will be disseminated through international publications in peer-reviewed journals

  19. WE-DE-BRA-01: SCIENCE COUNCIL JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Acceleration of a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System Using Adaptive Prior Knowledge Based Image Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an adaptive prior knowledge based image estimation method to reduce the scan angle needed in the LIVE system to reconstruct 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification. Methods: The LIVE system has been previously proposed to reconstructs 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. This system uses limited-angle beam’s eye view (BEV) MV cine images acquired from the treatment beam together with the orthogonally acquired limited-angle kV projections to reconstruct 4D-CBCT images for target verification during treatment. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the CBCT images. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on projections acquired in limited angle (orthogonal 6°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of patient motion.The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of this technique with LIVE system. A lung patient was simulated with different scenario, including baseline drifts, amplitude change and phase shift. Limited-angle orthogonal kV and beam’s eye view (BEV) MV projections were generated for each scenario. The CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. Results: Using orthogonal-view of 6° kV and BEV- MV projections, the VPD/COMS values were 12.7±4.0%/0.7±0.5 mm, 13.0±5.1%/0.8±0.5 mm, and 11.4±5.4%/0.5±0.3 mm for the three scenarios, respectively. Conclusion: The

  20. WE-DE-BRA-01: SCIENCE COUNCIL JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Acceleration of a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System Using Adaptive Prior Knowledge Based Image Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Zhang, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Ctr at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an adaptive prior knowledge based image estimation method to reduce the scan angle needed in the LIVE system to reconstruct 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification. Methods: The LIVE system has been previously proposed to reconstructs 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. This system uses limited-angle beam’s eye view (BEV) MV cine images acquired from the treatment beam together with the orthogonally acquired limited-angle kV projections to reconstruct 4D-CBCT images for target verification during treatment. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the CBCT images. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on projections acquired in limited angle (orthogonal 6°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of patient motion.The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of this technique with LIVE system. A lung patient was simulated with different scenario, including baseline drifts, amplitude change and phase shift. Limited-angle orthogonal kV and beam’s eye view (BEV) MV projections were generated for each scenario. The CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. Results: Using orthogonal-view of 6° kV and BEV- MV projections, the VPD/COMS values were 12.7±4.0%/0.7±0.5 mm, 13.0±5.1%/0.8±0.5 mm, and 11.4±5.4%/0.5±0.3 mm for the three scenarios, respectively. Conclusion: The

  1. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  2. Rotational Spectrum of 1,1-Difluoroethane: Internal Rotation Analysis and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamanan, R. M.; Chen, W. D.; Wlodarczak, G.; Demaison, J.; Lesarri, A. G.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    1995-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of CH3CHF2 in its ground state was measured up to 653 GHz. Accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The internal rotation splittings were analyzed using the internal axis method. An ab initio structure has been calculated and a near-equilibrium structure has been estimated using offsets derived empirically. This structure was compared to an experimental r0 structure. The four lowest excited states (including the methyl torsion) have also been assigned.

  3. Secular stability of rotating stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, J.N.; Friedman, J.L.; Durisen, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this work, we calculate the secular stability limits of rotating polytropes to nonaxisymmetric perturbations of low m. We consider polytropic indices ranging from 1 to 3 and several angular momentum distributions. Results are most conveniently presented in terms of the t-parameter, defined as the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the absolute value of the gravitational energy of the fluid. Previous work on polytropes considered only the m = 2 mode, which is unstable for values of the t-parameter greater than 0.14 +- 0.01 for the n values n = 1.5 and 3 and the angular momentum distributions tested (see Durisen and Imamura 1981). The GRR secular stability limit of the m = 2 mode for the Maclaurin spheroids (n = O) was determined by Chandrasekhar (1970). GRR stability limits of higher m modes for the Maclaurin spheroids were located approximately by Comins (1979a,b) and more precisely by Friedman (1983)

  4. Estimating 4D-CBCT from prior information and extremely limited angle projections using structural PCA and weighted free-form deformation for lung radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion model extracted by a global PCA and free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using a data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural PCA method was developed to build a structural motion model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respiratory changes from planning 4D-CT to on-board volume to evaluate the method. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the volume percent difference (VPD)/center-of-mass-shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and "ground-truth" on-board 4D-CBCT. Different on-board projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy. The method was also evaluated against three lung patients. The SMM-WFD method achieved substantially better accuracy than the GMM-FD method for CBCT estimation using extremely

  5. Estimation of identification limit for a small-type OSL dosimeter on the medical images by measurement of X-ray spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2016-07-01

    Our aim in this study is to derive an identification limit on a dosimeter for not disturbing a medical image when patients wear a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter on their bodies during X-ray diagnostic imaging. For evaluation of the detection limit based on an analysis of X-ray spectra, we propose a new quantitative identification method. We performed experiments for which we used diagnostic X-ray equipment, a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom (1-20 cm), and a CdTe X-ray spectrometer assuming one pixel of the X-ray imaging detector. Then, with the following two experimental settings, corresponding X-ray spectra were measured with 40-120 kVp and 0.5-1000 mAs at a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm: (1) X-rays penetrating a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom with the OSL dosimeter attached directly on the phantom, and (2) X-rays penetrating only the soft-tissue-equivalent phantom. Next, the energy fluence and errors in the fluence were calculated from the spectra. When the energy fluence with errors concerning these two experimental conditions was estimated to be indistinctive, we defined the condition as the OSL dosimeter not being identified on the X-ray image. Based on our analysis, we determined the identification limit of the dosimeter. We then compared our results with those for the general irradiation conditions used in clinics. We found that the OSL dosimeter could not be identified under the irradiation conditions of abdominal and chest radiography, namely, one can apply the OSL dosimeter to measurement of the exposure dose in the irradiation field of X-rays without disturbing medical images.

  6. Adjusting survival time estimates to account for treatment switching in randomized controlled trials--an economic evaluation context: methods, limitations, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Abrams, Keith R; Lambert, Paul C; Crowther, Michael J; Wailoo, Allan J; Morden, James P; Akehurst, Ron L; Campbell, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Treatment switching commonly occurs in clinical trials of novel interventions in the advanced or metastatic cancer setting. However, methods to adjust for switching have been used inconsistently and potentially inappropriately in health technology assessments (HTAs). We present recommendations on the use of methods to adjust survival estimates in the presence of treatment switching in the context of economic evaluations. We provide background on the treatment switching issue and summarize methods used to adjust for it in HTAs. We discuss the assumptions and limitations associated with adjustment methods and draw on results of a simulation study to make recommendations on their use. We demonstrate that methods used to adjust for treatment switching have important limitations and often produce bias in realistic scenarios. We present an analysis framework that aims to increase the probability that suitable adjustment methods can be identified on a case-by-case basis. We recommend that the characteristics of clinical trials, and the treatment switching mechanism observed within them, should be considered alongside the key assumptions of the adjustment methods. Key assumptions include the "no unmeasured confounders" assumption associated with the inverse probability of censoring weights (IPCW) method and the "common treatment effect" assumption associated with the rank preserving structural failure time model (RPSFTM). The limitations associated with switching adjustment methods such as the RPSFTM and IPCW mean that they are appropriate in different scenarios. In some scenarios, both methods may be prone to bias; "2-stage" methods should be considered, and intention-to-treat analyses may sometimes produce the least bias. The data requirements of adjustment methods also have important implications for clinical trialists.

  7. Use of environmental TLD data at a nuclear power station to estimate detection limits for radiation exposure due to station operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, E.; Hardeman, J.; Kahn, B.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental radiation monitoring network maintained by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources at the Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, GA, was used to determine the variability in measured background exposures in order to estimate the detection limits for radiation due to station operation. Data were obtained from LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) exposed in sets of four at 46 locations for 16 consecutive quarters from 1982 to 1985. The average exposure for 695 values was 11.8 microC kg-1 y-1 (mR/quarter). At individual locations, the averages of quarterly exposures ranged from 9.3 to 14.3 microC kg-1 y-1 and had standard deviations from 0.8 to 2.2 microC kg-1 y-1 with a typical standard deviation of 1.5 microC kg-1 y-1. The standard deviation due to reading the TLDs and subtracting the transit plus storage exposure, estimated as 0.4 microC kg-1 y-1, contributed only a small fraction of the uncertainty of the mean background; the greater contribution is from temporal fluctuations. There is a spatial pattern of higher background along the Altamaha River but no distinct seasonal pattern. The observation that exposure values at most locations rose and fell in unison suggested a calculational model that adjusts the average exposure level at a location by an increment determined each quarter at control locations. This model reduced the standard deviation for a predicted quarterly background exposure to 0.9 microC kg-1 y-1, with a range of 0.5 to 1.3 microC kg-1 y-1. If the standard deviation of the net value is multiplied by an error probability constant of 3.3 (type I and II errors not greater than 5%), the detection limits range from 2 to 5 microC kg-1 y-1 at the individual locations, with an average of 3 microC kg-1 y-1. This approach or two similar ones described earlier are recommended for improving the detection limit where needed

  8. Estimation of the limit of detection with a bootstrap-derived standard error by a partly non-parametric approach. Application to HPLC drug assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors......Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors...

  9. Magnetometer and Gyroscope Calibration Method with Level Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongkai Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS gyroscopes and magnetometers are usually integrated into a sensor module or chip and widely used in a variety of applications. In existing integrated gyroscope and magnetometer calibration methods, rotation in all possible orientations is a necessary condition for a good calibration result. However, rotation around two or more axes is difficult to attain, as it is limited by the range of movement of vehicles such as cars, ships, or planes. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an integrated magnetometer and gyroscope calibration method with level rotation. The proposed method presents a redefined magnetometer output model using level attitude. New gyroscope and magnetometer calibration models are then deduced. In addition, a simplified cubature Kalman filter (CKF is established to estimate calibration parameters. This method possesses important value for application in actual systems, as it only needs level rotation for real-time calibration of gyroscopes and magnetometers. Theoretical analysis and test results verify the validity and feasibility of this method.

  10. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  11. Rotating reactors : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:

  12. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  13. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  14. Estimating the mean and standard deviation of environmental data with below detection limit observations: Considering highly skewed data and model misspecification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoari, Niloofar; Dubé, Jean-Sébastien; Chenouri, Shoja'eddin

    2015-11-01

    In environmental studies, concentration measurements frequently fall below detection limits of measuring instruments, resulting in left-censored data. Some studies employ parametric methods such as the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), robust regression on order statistic (rROS), and gamma regression on order statistic (GROS), while others suggest a non-parametric approach, the Kaplan-Meier method (KM). Using examples of real data from a soil characterization study in Montreal, we highlight the need for additional investigations that aim at unifying the existing literature. A number of studies have examined this issue; however, those considering data skewness and model misspecification are rare. These aspects are investigated in this paper through simulations. Among other findings, results show that for low skewed data, the performance of different statistical methods is comparable, regardless of the censoring percentage and sample size. For highly skewed data, the performance of the MLE method under lognormal and Weibull distributions is questionable; particularly, when the sample size is small or censoring percentage is high. In such conditions, MLE under gamma distribution, rROS, GROS, and KM are less sensitive to skewness. Related to model misspecification, MLE based on lognormal and Weibull distributions provides poor estimates when the true distribution of data is misspecified. However, the methods of rROS, GROS, and MLE under gamma distribution are generally robust to model misspecifications regardless of skewness, sample size, and censoring percentage. Since the characteristics of environmental data (e.g., type of distribution and skewness) are unknown a priori, we suggest using MLE based on gamma distribution, rROS and GROS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insight From the Statistics of Nothing: Estimating Limits of Change Detection Using Inferred No-Change Areas in DEM Difference Maps and Application to Landslide Hazard Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneberg, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Remote characterization of new landslides or areas of ongoing movement using differences in high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) created through time, for example before and after major rains or earthquakes, is an attractive proposition. In the case of large catastrophic landslides, changes may be apparent enough that simple subtraction suffices. In other cases, statistical noise can obscure landslide signatures and place practical limits on detection. In ideal cases on land, GPS surveys of representative areas at the time of DEM creation can quantify the inherent errors. In less-than-ideal terrestrial cases and virtually all submarine cases, it may be impractical or impossible to independently estimate the DEM errors. Examining DEM difference statistics for areas reasonably inferred to have no change, however, can provide insight into the limits of detectability. Data from inferred no-change areas of airborne LiDAR DEM difference maps of the 2014 Oso, Washington landslide and landslide-prone colluvium slopes along the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky, show that DEM difference maps can have non-zero mean and slope dependent error components consistent with published studies of DEM errors. Statistical thresholds derived from DEM difference error and slope data can help to distinguish between DEM differences that are likely real—and which may indicate landsliding—from those that are likely spurious or irrelevant. This presentation describes and compares two different approaches, one based upon a heuristic assumption about the proportion of the study area likely covered by new landslides and another based upon the amount of change necessary to ensure difference at a specified level of probability.

  16. Assessing the Suitability and Limitations of Satellite-based Measurements for Estimating CO, CO2, NO2 and O3 Concentrations over the Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbeja, M. A.; Hill, J. L.; Chatterton, T. J.; Longhurst, J. W.; Akinyede, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    Space-based satellite sensor technology may provide important tools in the study and assessment of national, regional and local air pollution. However, the application of optical satellite sensor observation of atmospheric trace gases, including those considered to be 'air pollutants', within the lower latitudes is limited due to prevailing climatic conditions. The lack of appropriate air pollution ground monitoring stations within the tropical belt reduces the ability to verify and calibrate space-based measurements. This paper considers the suitability of satellite remotely sensed data in estimating concentrations of atmospheric trace gases in view of the prevailing climate over the Niger Delta region. The methodological approach involved identifying suitable satellite data products and using the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst kriging interpolation technique to generate surface concentrations from satellite column measurements. The observed results are considered in the context of the climate of the study area. Using data from January 2001 to December 2005, an assessment of the suitability of satellite sensor data to interpolate column concentrations of trace gases over the Niger Delta has been undertaken and indicates varying degrees of reliability. The level of reliability of the interpolated surfaces is predicated on the number and spatial distributions of column measurements. Accounting for the two climatic seasons in the region, the interpolation of total column concentrations of CO and CO2 from SCIAMACHY produced both reliable and unreliable results over inland parts of the region during the dry season, while mainly unreliable results are observed over the coastal parts especially during the rainy season due to inadequate column measurements. The interpolation of tropospheric measurements of NO2 and O3 from GOME and OMI respectively produced reliable results all year. This is thought to be due to the spatial distribution of available column measurements

  17. Simultaneous estimation of vitamin K1 and heparin with low limit of detection using cascaded channels fiber optic surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-12-15

    We report an approach for the simultaneous estimation of vitamin K1 (VK1) and heparin via cascaded channel multianalyte sensing probe employing fiber optic surface plasmon resonance technique. Cladding from two well separated portions of the fiber is removed and are respectively coated with thin films of silver (channel-1) and copper (channel-2). The nanohybrid of multiwalled carbon nanotube in chitosan is fabricated over silver layer for the sensing of VK1 whereas core shell nanostructure of polybrene@ZnO is coated over copper layer for the sensing of heparin. Spectral interrogation method is used for the characterization of the sensor. Analyte selectivity of both the channels is performed by carrying out experiments using independent solutions of VK1 and heparin. Experiments performed on the solution of the mixture of VK1 and heparin show red shifts in both the channels on changing the concentration of both the analytes in the mixture. The operating range of both VK1 and heparin is from 0 to 10(-3)g/l. The limit of detection of the sensor is 2.66×10(-4)µg/l and 2.88×10(-4)µg/l for VK1 and heparin respectively which are lower than the reported ones. The additional advantages of the present sensor are low cost, possibility of online monitoring and remote sensing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteomics perspectives in rotator cuff research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other...... studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. Results We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy......, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although...

  19. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  20. Strong gravitational lensing by a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr compact object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shangyun; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: shangyun_wang@163.com, E-mail: csb3752@hunnu.edu.cn, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Konoplya and Zhidenko have proposed recently a rotating non-Kerr black hole metric beyond General Relativity and make an estimate for the possible deviations from the Kerr solution with the data of GW 150914. We here study the strong gravitational lensing in such a rotating non-Kerr spacetime with an extra deformation parameter. We find that the condition of existence of horizons is not inconsistent with that of the marginally circular photon orbit. Moreover, the deflection angle of the light ray near the weakly naked singularity covered by the marginally circular orbit diverges logarithmically in the strong-field limit. In the case of the completely naked singularity, the deflection angle near the singularity tends to a certain finite value, whose sign depends on the rotation parameter and the deformation parameter. These properties of strong gravitational lensing are different from those in the Johannsen-Psaltis rotating non-Kerr spacetime and in the Janis-Newman-Winicour spacetime. Modeling the supermassive central object of the Milk Way Galaxy as a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr compact object, we estimated the numerical values of observables for the strong gravitational lensing including the time delay between two relativistic images.

  1. Estimation of lower flammability limits of C-H compounds in air at atmospheric pressure, evaluation of temperature dependence and diluent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburu, Andrés Z; de Carvalho, João A; Coronado, Christian R

    2015-03-21

    Estimation of the lower flammability limits of C-H compounds at 25 °C and 1 atm; at moderate temperatures and in presence of diluent was the objective of this study. A set of 120 C-H compounds was divided into a correlation set and a prediction set of 60 compounds each. The absolute average relative error for the total set was 7.89%; for the correlation set, it was 6.09%; and for the prediction set it was 9.68%. However, it was shown that by considering different sources of experimental data the values were reduced to 6.5% for the prediction set and to 6.29% for the total set. The method showed consistency with Le Chatelier's law for binary mixtures of C-H compounds. When tested for a temperature range from 5 °C to 100 °C, the absolute average relative errors were 2.41% for methane; 4.78% for propane; 0.29% for iso-butane and 3.86% for propylene. When nitrogen was added, the absolute average relative errors were 2.48% for methane; 5.13% for propane; 0.11% for iso-butane and 0.15% for propylene. When carbon dioxide was added, the absolute relative errors were 1.80% for methane; 5.38% for propane; 0.86% for iso-butane and 1.06% for propylene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jui Chou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  3. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Jui, E-mail: agoodmanjerry.ep02g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Xiaoning, E-mail: wuxn@amss.ac.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yuan, Pei-Hung, E-mail: phyuan.py00g@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-10-10

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  4. Understand rotating isothermal collapses yet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohline, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A scalar virial equation is used to describe the dynamic properties of equilibrium gas clouds, taking into account the relative effects of surface pressure, rotation, self gravity and internal isothermal pressure. Details concerning the internal structure of the clouds are ignored in order to obtain a globalized analytical expression. The obtained solution to the equation is found to agree with the surface-pressure-dominated model of Stahler (1983), and the rotation-dominated model of Hayashi, Narita, and Miyama (1982). On the basis of the analytical expression of virial equilibrium in the clouds, some of the limiting properties of isothermal clouds are described, and a realistic starting model for cloud collapse is proposed. 18 references

  5. Asteroid rotation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Farinella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last decade the data base of asteroid rotation parameters (rotation rates and lightcurve amplitudes) has become sufficiently large to identify some definite rends and properties which can help us to interpret asteroid collisional evolution. Many significant correlations are found between rotation parameters and diameter, with distinct changes occurring near 125 km. The size range, which is also the diameter above which self-gravity may become important, perhaps represents a division between surviving primordial asteroids and collisional fragments. A Maxwellian is able to fit the observed rotation rate distributions of asteroids with D>125 km, implying that their rotation rates may be determined by collisional evolution. Asteroids with D<125 km show an excess of slow rotators and their non-Maxwellian distributions suggests that their rotation rates are more strongly influenced by other processes, such as the distribution resulting from their formation in catastrophic disruption events. Other correlations observed in the data set include different mean rotation rates for C, S and M type asteroids implying that their surface spectra are indicative of bulk properties

  6. Fundamental Relativistic Rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staruszkiewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)

  7. SMAP Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  8. Units of rotational information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping

    2017-12-01

    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  9. The rotating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, G.; Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    For a long time the question whether the universe rotates or not is discussed. Aspects of Huygens, Newton, Mach and other important historical scientists in this field are reported. The investigations of the mathematician Kurt Groedel in order to prove the rotation of the universe are illustrated. Kurt Groedel has shown that Einstein's gravitational equations of general relativity theory and the cosmological postulate of global homogeneity of cosmic matter (that is the Copernical principle) are not contradictionary to a rotating universe. Abberation measurements, position determination by means of radiointerferometry and methods for the determination of the rotation of the universe from the isotropy of the background radiation are presented. From these experiments it can be concluded that the universe seems not to rotate as already Einstein expected

  10. Rotation sensor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops is comprised of a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal

  11. Rotating stars in relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  12. Rotational Fourier tracking of diffusing polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Kenny; Kennair, Terry P; Zhu, Xiaoming; Milazzo, James; Ngo, Kathy; Fryd, Michael M; Mason, Thomas G

    2011-11-01

    We use optical microscopy to measure the rotational Brownian motion of polygonal platelets that are dispersed in a liquid and confined by depletion attractions near a wall. The depletion attraction inhibits out-of-plane translational and rotational Brownian fluctuations, thereby facilitating in-plane imaging and video analysis. By taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of the images and analyzing the angular position of rays in the FFTs, we determine an isolated particle's rotational trajectory, independent of its position. The measured in-plane rotational diffusion coefficients are significantly smaller than estimates for the bulk; this difference is likely due to the close proximity of the particles to the wall arising from the depletion attraction.

  13. Faraday Rotation Measurement with the SMAP Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Abraham, S.

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is an issue that needs to be taken into account in remote sensing of parameters such as soil moisture and ocean salinity at L-band. This is especially important for SMAP because Faraday rotation varies with azimuth around the conical scan. SMAP retrieves Faraday rotation in situ using the ratio of the third and second Stokes parameters, a procedure that was demonstrated successfully by Aquarius. This manuscript reports the performance of this algorithm on SMAP. Over ocean the process works reasonably well and results compare favorably with expected values. But over land, the inhomogeneous nature of the scene results in much noisier, and in some cases unreliable estimates of Faraday rotation.

  14. Near horizon geometry of rotating black holes in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Larsen, F.

    1998-01-01

    We interpret the general rotating black holes in five dimensions as rotating black strings in six dimensions. In the near-horizon limit the geometry is locally AdS 3 x S 3 , as in the non-rotating case. However, the global structure couples the AdS 3 and the S 3 , giving angular velocity to the S 3 . The asymptotic geometry is exploited to count the microstates and recover the precise value of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, with rotation taken properly into account. We discuss the perturbation spectrum of the rotating black hole, and its relation to the underlying conformal field theory. (orig.)

  15. Theoretical prediction of a rotating magnon wave packet in ferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Murakami, Shuichi

    2011-05-13

    We theoretically show that the magnon wave packet has a rotational motion in two ways: a self-rotation and a motion along the boundary of the sample (edge current). They are similar to the cyclotron motion of electrons, but unlike electrons the magnons have no charge and the rotation is not due to the Lorentz force. These rotational motions are caused by the Berry phase in momentum space from the magnon band structure. Furthermore, the rotational motion of the magnon gives an additional correction term to the magnon Hall effect. We also discuss the Berry curvature effect in the classical limit of long-wavelength magnetostatic spin waves having macroscopic coherence length.

  16. Equilibrium of rotating and nonrotating plasmas in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    One studied plasma equilibrium in tokamak in case of toroidal rotation. Rotation associated centrifugal force is shown to result in decrease of equilibrium limit as to β. One analyzes unlike opinion and considers its supports. It is shown that in possible case of local improvement of equilibrium conditions associated with special selection of profile of plasma rotation rate, the combined integral effect turns to be negative one. But in case of typical conditions, decrease of equilibrium β caused by plasma rotation is negligible one and one may ignore effect of plasma rotation on its equilibrium for hot plasma [ru

  17. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  18. Rotational velocities of low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.B.; Hartmann, L.W.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA)

    1986-01-01

    The rotational velocities of stars provide important clues to how stars form and evolve. Yet until recently, studies of stellar rotation were limited to stars more massive than the sun. This is beginning to change, and an observational outline of the rotational velocity evolution of stars less massive than the sun can now be provided. Low-mass stars rotate slowly during the early stages of premain-sequence evolution, and spin up as they contract to the main sequence. This spin-up culminates in a brief period of very rapid rotation at an age of order 50 million years. Physical interpretation of this increase in rotation and the subsequent main-sequence spin-down are complicated by the possibility of differential internal rotation. The observed rapidity of spin-down among G dwarfs suggests that initially only the outer convective envelopes of these stars are slowed. The data suggest an intrinsic spread in angular momentum among young stars of the same mass and age, a spread which is apparently minimized by the angular-momentum loss mechanism in old low-mass stars. 83 references

  19. On Job Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Metin M. Cosgel; Thomas J. Miceli

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental principle of economics with which Adam Smith begins The Wealth of Nations is the division of labor. Some firms, however, have been pursuing a practice called job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. We examine the practice of job rotation as a serious alternative to specialization, with three objectives. The first is to consider current and historical examples of job...

  20. Applications of lightweight composite materials in pulsed rotating electrical generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.A.; Maifold, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Present rotating electrical pulse power generators are limited in energy storage capability, specific energy, and peak power density by the use of iron-magnetic circuits. This paper discusses lightweight and compact iron-core homopolar generators (HPGs) which have attained specific energies of 6 kJ/kg and have the potential to achieve 8 kJ/kg in the near future. Prototype iron based pulsed alternators are the favored choice for high power to mass ratio applications and have estimated peak ratings of 180 kW/kg. In terms of total energy storage capability, these machines are limited to several hundred MJ due to the availability of large steel forgings for rotors and basic design considerations including rotor dynamics, allowable rotor tip speeds, and present high speed current collection technology

  1. Rotator cuff - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000358.htm Rotator cuff - self-care To use the sharing features on ... and shoulder exercises may help ease your symptoms. Rotator Cuff Problems Common rotator cuff problems include: Tendinitis , which ...

  2. Seismic constraints on the radial dependence of the internal rotation profiles of six Kepler subgiants and young red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deheuvels, S.; Doğan, G.; Goupil, M. J.; Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T. L.; Casagrande, L.; Ceillier, T.; Davies, G. R.; De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; García, R. A.; Lobel, A.; Mosser, B.; Reese, D. R.; Regulo, C.; Schou, J.; Stahn, T.; Thygesen, A. O.; Yang, X. H.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Eggenberger, P.; Gizon, L.; Mathis, S.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Pinsonneault, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. We still do not understand which physical mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the clear signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this question. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependence of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extracted the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then performed a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes Cesam2k and astec. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we inverted the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the core rotation rates for these stars, and upper limits to the rotation in their convective envelope. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, while their envelope spins down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found to be most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. Conclusions: We characterized the differential rotation pattern of six young giants with a range of metallicities, and with both radiative and convective cores on the main sequence. This will bring observational constraints to the

  3. Evolutionary optimization of rotational population transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouzee, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max Born Institut, Max Born Strasse 2A, D-12489, Berlin (Germany); Ghafur, Omair; Gijsbertsen, Arjan [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vidma, Konstantin; Meijer, Afric; Zande, Wim J. van der; Parker, David [Institute of Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Shir, Ofer M.; Baeck, Thomas [Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science (LIACS), Niels Bohrweg 1, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    We present experimental and numerical studies on control of rotational population transfer of NO(J=1/2) molecules to higher rotational states. We are able to transfer 57% of the population to the J=5/2 state and 46% to J=9/2, in good agreement with quantum mechanical simulations. The optimal pulse shapes are composed of pulse sequences with delays corresponding to the beat frequencies of states on the rotational ladder. The evolutionary algorithm is limited by experimental constraints such as volume averaging and the finite laser intensity used, the latter to circumvent ionization. Without these constraints, near-perfect control (>98%) is possible. In addition, we show that downward control, moving molecules from high to low rotational states, is also possible.

  4. Evolutionary optimization of rotational population transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzee, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Ghafur, Omair; Gijsbertsen, Arjan; Vidma, Konstantin; Meijer, Afric; Zande, Wim J. van der; Parker, David; Shir, Ofer M.; Baeck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical studies on control of rotational population transfer of NO(J=1/2) molecules to higher rotational states. We are able to transfer 57% of the population to the J=5/2 state and 46% to J=9/2, in good agreement with quantum mechanical simulations. The optimal pulse shapes are composed of pulse sequences with delays corresponding to the beat frequencies of states on the rotational ladder. The evolutionary algorithm is limited by experimental constraints such as volume averaging and the finite laser intensity used, the latter to circumvent ionization. Without these constraints, near-perfect control (>98%) is possible. In addition, we show that downward control, moving molecules from high to low rotational states, is also possible.

  5. Secular stability of rotating stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, J.N.; Friedman, J.L.; Durisen, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this work, the authors calculate the secular stability limits of rotating polytropes to nonaxisymmetric perturbations of low m. Polytropic indices ranging from 1 to 3 and several angular momentum distributions are considered. Results are most conveniently presented in terms of the t-parameter, defined as the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the absolute value of the gravitational energy of the fluid. Previous work on polytropes considered only the m = 2 mode, which is unstable for values of the t-parameter greater than 0.14 +- 0.01 for the n values n = 1.5 and 3 and the angular momentum distributions tested (see Durisen and Imamura 1981). The GRR secular stability limit of the m - 2 mode for the Maclaurin spheroids (n = 0) was determined by Chandrasekhar (1970). GRR stability limits of higher m modes for the Maclaurin spheroids were located approximately by Comins (1979a,b) and more precisely by Friedman (1983). 16 references, 2 tables

  6. Rotating universe models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozini, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review is made of some properties of the rotating Universe models. Godel's model is identified as a generalized filted model. Some properties of new solutions of the Einstein's equations, which are rotating non-stationary Universe models, are presented and analyzed. These models have the Godel's model as a particular case. Non-stationary cosmological models are found which are a generalization of the Godel's metrics in an analogous way in which Friedmann is to the Einstein's model. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Rotation Invariance Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Rotation invariance and translation invariance have great values in image recognition tasks. In this paper, we bring a new architecture in convolutional neural network (CNN) named cyclic convolutional layer to achieve rotation invariance in 2-D symbol recognition. We can also get the position and orientation of the 2-D symbol by the network to achieve detection purpose for multiple non-overlap target. Last but not least, this architecture can achieve one-shot learning in some cases using thos...

  8. Faraday Rotation and L Band Oceanographic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Spaceborne radiometric measurements of the L band brightness temperature over the oceans make it possible to estimate sea surface salinity. However, Faraday rotation in the ionosphere disturbs the signals and must be corrected. Two different ways of assessing the disturbance directly from...

  9. Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jean-Michel; Laudon, Hjalmar; Björkman, Christer; Ranius, Thomas; Sandström, Camilla; Felton, Adam; Sténs, Anna; Nordin, Annika; Granström, Anders; Widemo, Fredrik; Bergh, Johan; Sonesson, Johan; Stenlid, Jan; Lundmark, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

  10. SPECTRALLY RESOLVED PURE ROTATIONAL LINES OF WATER IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Kaeufl, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We present ground-based high-resolution N-band spectra (Δv = 15 km s -1 ) of pure rotational lines of water vapor in two protoplanetary disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars AS 205N and RNO 90, selected based on detections of rotational water lines by the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope, we spectrally resolve individual lines and show that they have widths of 30-60 km s -1 , consistent with an origin in Keplerian disks at radii of ∼1 AU. The water lines have similar widths to those of the CO at 4.67 μm, indicating that the mid-infrared water lines trace similar radii. The rotational temperatures of the water are 540 and 600 K in the two disks, respectively. However, the line ratios show evidence of non-LTE excitation, with low-excitation line fluxes being overpredicted by two-dimensional disk LTE models. Due to the limited number of observed lines and the non-LTE line ratios, an accurate measure of the water ortho/para (O/P) ratio is not available, but a best estimate for AS 205N is O/P =4.5 ± 1.0, apparently ruling out a low-temperature origin of the water. The spectra demonstrate that high-resolution spectroscopy of rotational water lines is feasible from the ground, and further that ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is likely to significantly improve our understanding of the inner disk chemistry revealed by recent Spitzer observations.

  11. Passive RFID Rotation Dimension Reduction via Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Eric

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) has applications in object identification, position, and orientation tracking. RFID technology can be applied in hospitals for patient and equipment tracking, stores and warehouses for product tracking, robots for self-localisation, tracking hazardous materials, or locating any other desired object. Efficient and accurate algorithms that perform localisation are required to extract meaningful data beyond simple identification. A Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is the strength of a received radio frequency signal used to localise passive and active RFID tags. Many factors affect RSSI such as reflections, tag rotation in 3D space, and obstacles blocking line-of-sight. LANDMARC is a statistical method for estimating tag location based on a target tag's similarity to surrounding reference tags. LANDMARC does not take into account the rotation of the target tag. By either aggregating multiple reference tag positions at various rotations, or by determining a rotation value for a newly read tag, we can perform an expected value calculation based on a comparison to the k-most similar training samples via an algorithm called K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) more accurately. By choosing the average as the aggregation function, we improve the relative accuracy of single-rotation LANDMARC localisation by 10%, and any-rotation localisation by 20%.

  12. Interest and limits of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation with formulae using creatinine or cystatin C in the malnourished elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Emmanuelle E; Raynaud-Simon, Agathe; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Gourgouillon, Nadège; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Renal function is often altered in elderly patients. A lot of formulae are proposed to estimate GFR to adjust drug posology. French guidelines recommend the Cockcroft-Gault formula corrected with the body surface area (cCG), but the initially described unadjusted Cockcroft-Gault equation (CG) is mainly used in geriatric clinical practice. International recommendations have proposed the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula, since several authors recommended the Rule formula using cystatin C (cystC) in particular population. To appreciate the most accurate GFR estimation for posology adaptation in an elderly polypathological population, a cross-sectional study with prospective inclusion was carried out in Charles Foix Hospital. Plasma glucose levels (PGL), creatinine (CREA) levels and serum cystC, albumin (ALB), transthyretin (TTR), C-reactive protein (CRP), orosomucoid (ORO) total cholesterol (tCHOL) levels were determined among 193 elderly patients aged 70 and older. The results showed that in a malnourished, inflamed old population, CG, MDRD and Rule formulae resulted in different estimations of GFR, depending on nutritional and inflammatory parameters. Only cCG estimation was shown to be independent from these parameters. To conclude, cCG seems to be the most accurate and appropriate formula in a polypathological elderly population to evaluate renal function in order to adapt drug posology. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-01-01

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of identification limit for a small-type OSL dosimeter on the medical images by measurement of X-ray spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Takegami, Kazuki ; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi ; Maehata, Itsumi ; Kanazawa, Yuki ; Okazaki, Tohru ; Hashizume, Takuya ; Kobayashi, Ikuo 

    2016-01-01

    Our aim in this study is to derive an identification limit on a dosimeter for not disturbing a medical image when patients wear a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter on their bodies during X-ray diagnostic imaging. For evaluation of the detection limit based on an analysis of X-ray spectra, we propose a new quantitative identification method. We performed experiments for which we used diagnostic X-ray equipment, a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom (1–20 cm), and a CdTe X...

  15. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  16. Rotating positron tomographs revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, D.; Defrise, M.; Geissbuhler, A.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared the performance of a PET scanner comprising two rotating arrays of detectors with that of the more conventional stationary-ring design. The same total number of detectors was used in each, and neither scanner had septa. For brain imaging, we find that the noise-equivalent count rate is greater for the rotating arrays by a factor of two. Rotating arrays have a sensitivity profile that peaks in the centre of the field of view, both axially and transaxially. In the transaxial plane, this effect offsets to a certain extent the decrease in the number of photons detected towards the centre of the brain due to self-absorption. We have also compared the performance of a rotating scanner to that of a full-ring scanner with the same number of rings. We find that a full-ring scanner with an axial extent of 16.2 cm (24 rings) is a factor of 3.5 more sensitive than a rotating scanner with 40% of the detectors and the same axial extent. (Author)

  17. Estimation of isotropic nuclear magnetic shieldings in the CCSD(T) and MP2 complete basis set limit using affordable correlation calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupka, Teobald; Stachów, Michal; Kaminsky, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    , estimated from calculations with the family of polarizationconsistent pcS-n basis sets is reported. This dependence was also supported by inspection of profiles of deviation between CBS estimated nuclear shieldings and obtained with significantly smaller basis sets pcS-2 and aug-cc-pVTZ-J for the selected......A linear correlation between isotropic nuclear magnetic shielding constants for seven model molecules (CH2O, H2O, HF, F2, HCN, SiH4 and H2S) calculated with 37 methods (34 density functionals, RHF, MP2 and CCSD(T) ), with affordable pcS-2 basis set and corresponding complete basis set results...... set of 37 calculation methods. It was possible to formulate a practical approach of estimating the values of isotropic nuclear magnetic shielding constants at the CCSD(T)/CBS and MP2/CBS levels from affordable CCSD(T)/pcS-2, MP2/pcS-2 and DFT/CBS calculations with pcS-n basis sets. The proposed method...

  18. Estimation of the crystallographic strain limit during the reversible β ⇄ α″ martensitic transformation in titanium shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Yu. S.; Petrzhik, M. I.; Prokoshkin, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    Three methods are described to calculate the crystallographic strain limit that is determined by the maximum deformation of the crystal lattice in the reversible βbcc ⇄ α″orth martensitic transformation and ensures pseudoelastic deformation accumulation and shape recovery in Ti-Nb-Ta alloys.

  19. Asymmetric rotator as a detector of monochromatic gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliner, Eh.B.; Mitrofanov, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction between a rotating asymmetric (principal moments of inertia are different) body with a gravitational wave is considered. A resonance rotational detector of monocrhomatic gravitational waves is proposed in which the turning due to the incident wave and the rotation which ensures resonance between the detector and wave correspond to different degrees of freedom. This significantly facilitates the creation of such detectors. The interference due to the gradient of the gravitational acceleration of the Earth and to rotation of the detector as a whole is estimated

  20. Scale interactions in compressible rotating fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 6 (2014), s. 1703-1725 ISSN 0373-3114 Keywords : compressible fluid * rotating fluid * singular limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-013-0353-7

  1. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  2. Rotating quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space–time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress–energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space–time geometries

  3. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  4. Limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) method for the parameter estimation on geographically weighted ordinal logistic regression model (GWOLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari; Widyaningsih, Purnami

    2017-08-01

    In general, the parameter estimation of GWOLR model uses maximum likelihood method, but it constructs a system of nonlinear equations, making it difficult to find the solution. Therefore, an approximate solution is needed. There are two popular numerical methods: the methods of Newton and Quasi-Newton (QN). Newton's method requires large-scale time in executing the computation program since it contains Jacobian matrix (derivative). QN method overcomes the drawback of Newton's method by substituting derivative computation into a function of direct computation. The QN method uses Hessian matrix approach which contains Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) formula. The Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method is categorized as the QN method which has the DFP formula attribute of having positive definite Hessian matrix. The BFGS method requires large memory in executing the program so another algorithm to decrease memory usage is needed, namely Low Memory BFGS (LBFGS). The purpose of this research is to compute the efficiency of the LBFGS method in the iterative and recursive computation of Hessian matrix and its inverse for the GWOLR parameter estimation. In reference to the research findings, we found out that the BFGS and LBFGS methods have arithmetic operation schemes, including O(n2) and O(nm).

  5. A self-calibration method in single-axis rotational inertial navigation system with rotating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanpei; Wang, Lingcao; Li, Kui

    2017-10-01

    Rotary inertial navigation modulation mechanism can greatly improve the inertial navigation system (INS) accuracy through the rotation. Based on the single-axis rotational inertial navigation system (RINS), a self-calibration method is put forward. The whole system is applied with the rotation modulation technique so that whole inertial measurement unit (IMU) of system can rotate around the motor shaft without any external input. In the process of modulation, some important errors can be decoupled. Coupled with the initial position information and attitude information of the system as the reference, the velocity errors and attitude errors in the rotation are used as measurement to perform Kalman filtering to estimate part of important errors of the system after which the errors can be compensated into the system. The simulation results show that the method can complete the self-calibration of the single-axis RINS in 15 minutes and estimate gyro drifts of three-axis, the installation error angle of the IMU and the scale factor error of the gyro on z-axis. The calibration accuracy of optic gyro drifts could be about 0.003°/h (1σ) as well as the scale factor error could be about 1 parts per million (1σ). The errors estimate reaches the system requirements which can effectively improve the longtime navigation accuracy of the vehicle or the boat.

  6. EBR-II rotating plug seal maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The EBR-II rotating plug seals require frequent cleaning and maintenance to keep the plugs from sticking during fuel handling. Time consuming cleaning on the cover gas and air sides of the dip ring seal is required to remove oxidation and sodium reaction products that accumulate and stop plug rotation. Despite severely limited access, effective seal cleaning techniques have removed 11 800 lb (5 352 kg) of deposits from the seals since 1964. Temperature control modifications and repairs have also required major maintenance work. Suggested seal design recommendations could significantly reduce maintenance on future similar seals

  7. Assessment and treatment strategies for rotator cuff tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Wisam; Noorani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Tears of the rotator cuff are common and becoming an increasingly frequent problem. There is a vast amount of literature on the merits and limitations of the various methods of clinical and radiological assessment of rotator cuff tears. This is also the case with regard to treatment strategies. Certain popular beliefs and principles practiced widely and the basis upon which they are derived may be prone to inaccuracy. We provide an overview of the historical management of rotator cuff tears, as well as an explanation for how and why rotator cuff tears should be managed, and propose a structured methodology for their assessment and treatment. PMID:27582960

  8. How good a clock is rotation? The stellar rotation-mass-age relationship for old field stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The rotation-mass-age relationship offers a promising avenue for measuring the ages of field stars, assuming the attendant uncertainties to this technique can be well characterized. We model stellar angular momentum evolution starting with a rotation distribution from open cluster M37. Our predicted rotation-mass-age relationship shows significant zero-point offsets compared to an alternative angular momentum loss law and published gyrochronology relations. Systematic errors at the 30% level are permitted by current data, highlighting the need for empirical guidance. We identify two fundamental sources of uncertainty that limit the precision of rotation-based ages and quantify their impact. Stars are born with a range of rotation rates, which leads to an age range at fixed rotation period. We find that the inherent ambiguity from the initial conditions is important for all young stars, and remains large for old stars below 0.6 M ☉ . Latitudinal surface differential rotation also introduces a minimum uncertainty into rotation period measurements and, by extension, rotation-based ages. Both models and the data from binary star systems 61 Cyg and α Cen demonstrate that latitudinal differential rotation is the limiting factor for rotation-based age precision among old field stars, inducing uncertainties at the ∼2 Gyr level. We also examine the relationship between variability amplitude, rotation period, and age. Existing ground-based surveys can detect field populations with ages as old as 1-2 Gyr, while space missions can detect stars as old as the Galactic disk. In comparison with other techniques for measuring the ages of lower main sequence stars, including geometric parallax and asteroseismology, rotation-based ages have the potential to be the most precise chronometer for 0.6-1.0 M ☉ stars.

  9. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, P.; Froyland, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  10. Negative Rotation Cinch Strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project discloses an improved unitary parachute torso harness, having a single fastening means, wherein an auxillary tightening strap is...attached to the groin straps of said harness. Said auxillary straps are used to prevent torso rotation or harness slippage and to prevent harness elongation

  11. A rotating string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.

    1993-06-01

    The author presents a global solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating cosmic string with a finite coreradius. The importance of pressure for the generation of closed timelike curves outside the coreregion of such strings is clearly displayed in this model due to the simplicity of the source. 10 refs

  12. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  13. Rotational dynamics with Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadkhong, T; Danworaphong, S; Rajsadorn, R; Jannual, P

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia (I) of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction (b) for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive I for a cylindrical plate rotated around its central axis from the other two experiments based on the relation between torque and angular acceleration of rotational motion and conservation of energy. Movies of the rotating plate and hung masses are recorded. As a result, we have the deviation of I from its theoretical value of 0.4% and 3.3%, respectively. Our setup is completely constructed from locally available inexpensive materials and the experimental results indicate that the system is highly reliable. This work should pave the way for those who prefer to build a similar setup from scratch at relatively low cost compared to commercial units. (paper)

  14. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  15. Can planetary nebulae rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the inclination of spectral lines observed in a number of planetary nebulae when the spectrograph slit is placed along the major axis, which is presently ascribed to nonuniform expansion of the shells, actually may be due to rotation of the nebulae about their minor axes, as Campbell and Moore have suggested in their reports. It is assumed that the rotation of the central star (or, if the core is a binary system, circular motions of gas along quasi-Keplerian orbits) serves as the source of the original rotation of a protoplanetary nebula. The mechanism providing for strengthening of the original rotation in the process of expansion of the shell is the tangential pressure of L/sub α/ radiation due to the anisotropic properties of the medium and radiation field. The dynamic effect produced by them is evidently greatest in the epoch when the optical depth of the nebula in the L/sub c/ continuum becomes on the order of unity in the course of its expansion

  16. Serum Creatinine in Patients with Advanced Liver Disease Is of Limited Value for Identification of Moderate Renal Dysfunction: Are the Equations for Estimating Renal Function Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian MacAulay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cockcroft-Gault formula (CGF is used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR based on serum creatinine (Cr levels, age and sex. A new formula developed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD Study Group, based on the patient’s Cr levels, age, sex, race and serum urea nitrogen and serum albumin levels, has shown to be more accurate. However, the best formula to identify patients with advanced liver disease (ALD and moderate renal dysfunction (GFR 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare calculations of GFR, using published formulas (excluding those requiring urine collections with standard radionuclide measurement of GFR in patients with ALD.

  17. Usefulness and limitations of dK random graph models to predict interactions and functional homogeneity in biological networks under a pseudo-likelihood parameter estimation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Yihui

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many aspects of biological functions can be modeled by biological networks, such as protein interaction networks, metabolic networks, and gene coexpression networks. Studying the statistical properties of these networks in turn allows us to infer biological function. Complex statistical network models can potentially more accurately describe the networks, but it is not clear whether such complex models are better suited to find biologically meaningful subnetworks. Results Recent studies have shown that the degree distribution of the nodes is not an adequate statistic in many molecular networks. We sought to extend this statistic with 2nd and 3rd order degree correlations and developed a pseudo-likelihood approach to estimate the parameters. The approach was used to analyze the MIPS and BIOGRID yeast protein interaction networks, and two yeast coexpression networks. We showed that 2nd order degree correlation information gave better predictions of gene interactions in both protein interaction and gene coexpression networks. However, in the biologically important task of predicting functionally homogeneous modules, degree correlation information performs marginally better in the case of the MIPS and BIOGRID protein interaction networks, but worse in the case of gene coexpression networks. Conclusion Our use of dK models showed that incorporation of degree correlations could increase predictive power in some contexts, albeit sometimes marginally, but, in all contexts, the use of third-order degree correlations decreased accuracy. However, it is possible that other parameter estimation methods, such as maximum likelihood, will show the usefulness of incorporating 2nd and 3rd degree correlations in predicting functionally homogeneous modules.

  18. Usefulness and limitations of dK random graph models to predict interactions and functional homogeneity in biological networks under a pseudo-likelihood parameter estimation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Luan, Yihui; Sun, Fengzhu

    2009-09-03

    Many aspects of biological functions can be modeled by biological networks, such as protein interaction networks, metabolic networks, and gene coexpression networks. Studying the statistical properties of these networks in turn allows us to infer biological function. Complex statistical network models can potentially more accurately describe the networks, but it is not clear whether such complex models are better suited to find biologically meaningful subnetworks. Recent studies have shown that the degree distribution of the nodes is not an adequate statistic in many molecular networks. We sought to extend this statistic with 2nd and 3rd order degree correlations and developed a pseudo-likelihood approach to estimate the parameters. The approach was used to analyze the MIPS and BIOGRID yeast protein interaction networks, and two yeast coexpression networks. We showed that 2nd order degree correlation information gave better predictions of gene interactions in both protein interaction and gene coexpression networks. However, in the biologically important task of predicting functionally homogeneous modules, degree correlation information performs marginally better in the case of the MIPS and BIOGRID protein interaction networks, but worse in the case of gene coexpression networks. Our use of dK models showed that incorporation of degree correlations could increase predictive power in some contexts, albeit sometimes marginally, but, in all contexts, the use of third-order degree correlations decreased accuracy. However, it is possible that other parameter estimation methods, such as maximum likelihood, will show the usefulness of incorporating 2nd and 3rd degree correlations in predicting functionally homogeneous modules.

  19. Plasma residual poloidal rotation in TCABR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severo, J.H.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Tsypin, V.S.; Galvao, R.M.O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first measurement of the radial profiles of plasma poloidal and toroidal rotation performed on the TCABR tokamak for a collisional plasma (Pfirsch-Schluter regime), using Doppler shift of carbon spectral lines, measured with a high precision optical spectrometer. The results for poloidal rotation show a maximum velocity of (4.5±1.0)·10 3 m/s at r ∼ 2/3a, (a - limiter radius), in the direction of the diamagnetic electron drift. Within the error limits, reasonable agreement is obtained with calculations using the neoclassical theory for a collisional plasma, except near the plasma edge, as expected. For toroidal rotation, the radial profile shows that the velocity decreases from a counter-current value of (20 ± 1) · 10 3 m/s for the plasma core to a co-current value of (2.0 ± 1.0) · 10 3 m/s near the limiter. An agreement within a factor 2, for the plasma core rotation, is obtained with calculations using the model proposed by Kim, Diamond and Groebner. (author)

  20. Plasma residual rotation in the TCABR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severo, J.H.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Tsypin, V.S.; Galvao, R.M.O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first results on the measurement of the radial profiles of plasma poloidal and toroidal rotation performed on the TCABR tokamak, in the collisional regime (Pfirsch-Schluter), using Doppler shift of carbon spectral lines, measured with a high precision optical spectrometer. The results for poloidal rotation show a maximum velocity of (4.5±1.0) x 10 3 m s -1 at r ∼ 2/3a,(a-limiter radius), in the direction of the diamagnetic electron drift. Within the error limits, reasonable agreement is obtained with calculations using the neoclassical theory for a collisional plasma, except near the plasma edge, as expected. For toroidal rotation, the radial profile shows that the velocity decreases from a counter-current value of (20 ± 1) x 10 3 m s -1 , at the plasma core, to a co-current value of (2.0 ± 0.9) x 10 3 m s -1 near the limiter. An agreement within a factor 2, for the plasma core rotation, is obtained with calculations using the model proposed by Kim, Diamond and Groebner (1991 Phys. Fluids B 3 2050). (author)

  1. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah T.; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990 to 2007 in the US alone (Ref. 1). As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a nonrotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various non-rotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the prestress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in

  2. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES FOR M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v

  3. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  4. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  5. Multi-vortex crystal lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates with a rotating trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangquan; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    2018-05-01

    We consider vortex dynamics in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with a rotating trap, with or without anisotropy. Starting with the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) partial differential equation (PDE), we derive a novel reduced system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describes stable configurations of multiple co-rotating vortices (vortex crystals). This description is found to be quite accurate quantitatively especially in the case of multiple vortices. In the limit of many vortices, BECs are known to form vortex crystal structures, whereby vortices tend to arrange themselves in a hexagonal-like spatial configuration. Using our asymptotic reduction, we derive the effective vortex crystal density and its radius. We also obtain an asymptotic estimate for the maximum number of vortices as a function of rotation rate. We extend considerations to the anisotropic trap case, confirming that a pair of vortices lying on the long (short) axis is linearly stable (unstable), corroborating the ODE reduction results with full PDE simulations. We then further investigate the many-vortex limit in the case of strong anisotropic potential. In this limit, the vortices tend to align themselves along the long axis, and we compute the effective one-dimensional vortex density, as well as the maximum admissible number of vortices. Detailed numerical simulations of the GP equation are used to confirm our analytical predictions.

  6. Detection Thresholds for Rotation and Translation Gains in 360° Video-Based Telepresence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Langbehn, Eike; Krupke, Dennis; Katzakis, Nicholas; Steinicke, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Telepresence systems have the potential to overcome limits and distance constraints of the real-world by enabling people to remotely visit and interact with each other. However, current telepresence systems usually lack natural ways of supporting interaction and exploration of remote environments (REs). In particular, single webcams for capturing the RE provide only a limited illusion of spatial presence, and movement control of mobile platforms in today's telepresence systems are often restricted to simple interaction devices. One of the main challenges of telepresence systems is to allow users to explore a RE in an immersive, intuitive and natural way, e.g., by real walking in the user's local environment (LE), and thus controlling motions of the robot platform in the RE. However, the LE in which the user's motions are tracked usually provides a much smaller interaction space than the RE. In this context, redirected walking (RDW) is a very suitable approach to solve this problem. However, so far there is no previous work, which explored if and how RDW can be used in video-based 360° telepresence systems. In this article, we conducted two psychophysical experiments in which we have quantified how much humans can be unknowingly redirected on virtual paths in the RE, which are different from the physical paths that they actually walk in the LE. Experiment 1 introduces a discrimination task between local and remote translations, and in Experiment 2 we analyzed the discrimination between local and remote rotations. In Experiment 1 participants performed straightforward translations in the LE that were mapped to straightforward translations in the RE shown as 360° videos, which were manipulated by different gains. Then, participants had to estimate if the remotely perceived translation was faster or slower than the actual physically performed translation. Similarly, in Experiment 2 participants performed rotations in the LE that were mapped to the virtual rotations

  7. Molecular rotation and dynamics in superfluid helium-4 nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced laser radiation, coupled to molecular- beam bolometric detection has been used to study the spectroscopy of acetylenic molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets. The 2ν1 transition (CH stretch overtone) of HCN, DCCH, NCCCH, CH3CCH, CF3CCH, (CH 3)3CCCH, (CH3)3SiCCH, has been investigated in the 1.5 μm spectral region by means of a color center laser coupled to a resonant build-up cavity, which enhances the laser power experienced by the molecules in the beam by up to a factor of 400, thus overcoming the weakness of the (dipole forbidden) transitions. All molecules are observed to rotate freely in the liquid cluster environment, with strongly enhanced moments of inertia, but with negligible matrix induced shifts (less than 1 cm-1). We show that this enhancement is largely accounted for by hydrodynamic effects, which we have modeled and numerically calculated. While in the gas phase the rotational lines have instrument-limited widths (a few MHZ), in the droplets we have observed linewidths ranging from 600 MHz for (CH3)3SiCCH to 2.8GHz for (CH3) 3CCCH. To investigate the nature of the broadening (which was widely believed to be homogeneous), we have performed a series of infrared (IR) saturation experiments on the 2ν1 transition. We have also thoroughly investigated NCCCH by means of microwave (MW) single-resonance experiments (on rotational transitions) and double-resonance (MW-MW and MW-IR) experiments. The results demonstrate that the spectral features of molecules in He droplets are inhomogeneously broadened, and allow an estimate of the importance of the different broadening contributions. In particular, MW-IR measurements show that the size of the cluster greatly affects the way rotational energy is relaxed. Large clusters seem to follow a ``strong collision model'' where memory of the initial rotational state is completely lost after each ``relaxation'' event, while for smaller clusters relaxation rates are probably affected by the lower

  8. Molecular rotation and dynamics in superfluid ^4He nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Carlo

    2001-05-01

    Cavity-enhanced laser radiation, coupled to molecular-beam bolometric detection has been used to study the spectroscopy of acetylenic molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets. The 2ν1 transition (CH stretch overtone) of HCN, DCCH, NCCCH, CH_3CCH, CF_3CCH, (CH_3)_3CCCH, (CH_3)_3SiCCH, has been investigated in the 1.5 μm spectral region by means of a color center laser coupled to a resonant buildup cavity, which enhances the laser power experienced by the molecules in the beam by up to a factor of 400, thus overcoming the weakness of the (harmonically forbidden) transitions. All molecules are observed to rotate freely in the liquid cluster environment, with strongly enhanced moments of inertia, but with negligible matrix induced shifts (less than 1 cm-1). We show that this enhancement is largely accounted for by hydrodynamic effects, which we have modeled and numerically calculated. While in the gas phase the rotational lines have instrument-limited widths (a few MHz), in the droplets we have observed linewidths ranging from 600 MHz for (CH_3)_3SiCCH to 2.8 GHz for (CH_3)_3CCCH. To investigate the nature of the broadening (which was widely believed to be homogeneous), we have performed a series of infrared (IR) saturation experiments on the 2ν1 transition. We have also thoroughly investigated NCCCH by means of microwave (MW) single-resonance experiments (on rotational transitions) and double-resonance (MW-MW and MW-IR) experiments. The results demonstrate that the spectral features of molecules in He droplets are inhomogeneously broadened, and allow an estimate of the importance of the different broadening contributions. In particular, MW-IR measurements show that the size of the cluster greatly affects the way rotational energy is relaxed. Large clusters seem to follow a ``strong collision model'' where memory of the initial rotational state is completely lost after each ``relaxation'' event, while for smaller clusters relaxation rates are probably affected by

  9. INTERNAL ROTATION OF THE RED-GIANT STAR KIC 4448777 BY MEANS OF ASTEROSEISMIC INVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mauro, M. P.; Cardini, D. [INAF, IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Roma (Italy); Ventura, R.; Paternò, L. [INAF, Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, Catania (Italy); Stello, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Hekker, S. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Dziembowski, W. A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Beck, P. G.; De Smedt, K.; Tkachenko, A. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Bloemen, S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Davies, G. R.; Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Univ. Paris Diderot, IRFU/Sap, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Elsworth, Y. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mosser, B. [LESIA, PSL Research University, CNRS, Universitè Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon Cedex (France)

    2016-01-20

    We study the dynamics of the stellar interior of the early red-giant star KIC 4448777 by asteroseismic inversion of 14 splittings of the dipole mixed modes obtained from Kepler observations. In order to overcome the complexity of the oscillation pattern typical of red-giant stars, we present a procedure to extract the rotational splittings from the power spectrum. We find not only that the core rotates from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 17 times faster than the surface, confirming previous inversion results generated for other red giants (Deheuvels et al.), but we also estimate the variation of the angular velocity within the helium core with a spatial resolution of 0.001R and verify the hypothesis of a sharp discontinuity in the inner stellar rotation. The results show that the entire core rotates rigidly and provide evidence for an angular velocity gradient around the base of the hydrogen-burning shell; however, we do not succeed in characterizing the rotational slope, due to the intrinsic limits of the applied techniques. The angular velocity, from the edge of the core, appears to decrease with increasing distance from the center, reaching an average value in the convective envelope of 68 ± 22 nHz. We conclude that a set of data that includes only dipolar modes is sufficient to infer quite accurately the rotation of a red giant not only in the dense core but also, with a lower level of confidence, in part of the radiative region and in the convective envelope.

  10. SPARSE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrecut, M.; Stil, J. M.; Taylor, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Faraday rotation measure synthesis is a method for analyzing multichannel polarized radio emissions, and it has emerged as an important tool in the study of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. The method requires the recovery of the Faraday dispersion function from measurements restricted to limited wavelength ranges, which is an ill-conditioned deconvolution problem. Here, we discuss a recovery method that assumes a sparse approximation of the Faraday dispersion function in an overcomplete dictionary of functions. We discuss the general case when both thin and thick components are included in the model, and we present the implementation of a greedy deconvolution algorithm. We illustrate the method with several numerical simulations that emphasize the effect of the covered range and sampling resolution in the Faraday depth space, and the effect of noise on the observed data.

  11. Microbes in nature are limited by carbon and energy: the starving-survival lifestyle in soil and consequences for estimating microbial rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eyres Hobbie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding microbial transformations in soils is important for predicting future carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling. This review questions some methods of assessing one key microbial process, the uptake of labile organic compounds. First, soil microbes have a starving-survival life style of dormancy, arrested activity, and low activity. Yet they are very abundant and remain poised to completely take up all substrates that become available. As a result, dilution assays with the addition of labeled substrates cannot be used. When labeled substrates are transformed into 14CO2, the first part of the biphasic release follows metabolic rules and is not affected by the environment. As a consequence, when identical amounts of isotopically substrates are added to soils from different climate zones, the same percentage of the substrate is respired and the same half-life of the respired 14CO2 from the labeled substrate is estimated. Second, when soils are sampled by a variety of methods from taking 10 cm diameter cores to millimeter-scale dialysis chambers, amino acids (and other organic compounds appear to be released by the severing of fine roots and mycorrhizal networks as well as from pressing or centrifuging treatments. As a result of disturbance as well as of natural root release, concentrations of individual amino acids of ~10 µM are measured. This contrasts with concentrations of a few nM found in aquatic systems and raises questions about possible differences in the bacterial strategy between aquatic and soil ecosystems. The small size of the hyphae (2-10 μm diameter and of the fine roots (0.2 to 2 mm diameter, make it very difficult to sample any volume of soil without introducing artifacts. Third, when micromolar amounts of labeled amino acids are added to soil, some of the isotope enters plant roots. This may be an artifact of the high µM concentrations applied.

  12. Microbes in nature are limited by carbon and energy: the starving-survival lifestyle in soil and consequences for estimating microbial rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, John E; Hobbie, Erik A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding microbial transformations in soils is important for predicting future carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling. This review questions some methods of assessing one key microbial process, the uptake of labile organic compounds. First, soil microbes have a starving-survival life style of dormancy, arrested activity, and low activity. Yet they are very abundant and remain poised to completely take up all substrates that become available. As a result, dilution assays with the addition of labeled substrates cannot be used. When labeled substrates are transformed into (14)CO2, the first part of the biphasic release follows metabolic rules and is not affected by the environment. As a consequence, when identical amounts of isotopically substrates are added to soils from different climate zones, the same percentage of the substrate is respired and the same half-life of the respired (14)CO2 from the labeled substrate is estimated. Second, when soils are sampled by a variety of methods from taking 10 cm diameter cores to millimeter-scale dialysis chambers, amino acids (and other organic compounds) appear to be released by the severing of fine roots and mycorrhizal networks as well as from pressing or centrifuging treatments. As a result of disturbance as well as of natural root release, concentrations of individual amino acids of ~10 μM are measured. This contrasts with concentrations of a few nanomolar found in aquatic systems and raises questions about possible differences in the bacterial strategy between aquatic and soil ecosystems. The small size of the hyphae (2-10 μm diameter) and of the fine roots (0.2-2 mm diameter), make it very difficult to sample any volume of soil without introducing artifacts. Third, when micromolar amounts of labeled amino acids are added to soil, some of the isotope enters plant roots. This may be an artifact of the high micromolar concentrations applied.

  13. Impacts of Rotation Schemes on Ground-Dwelling Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2016-10-01

    Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  15. Asteroid rotation. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.; Young, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the year 1979 of an ongoing program of asteroid photometry at Table Mountain Observatory are presented. The results for 53 asteroids are summarized in a table, showing the number, name, opposition date, taxonomic class, diameter, absolute magnitude, mean absolute magnitude at zero phase angle and values of the absolute magnitude and linear phase coefficient derived from it, the rotation period in hours, peak-to-peak amplitude of variation, difference between mean and maximum brightness, and reliability index. Another table presents data on aspect and comparison stars, including brightness and distance data. Reliable rotation periods are reported for 22 asteroids for which no previous values are known. For seven asteroids, periods are reported which are revisions of previously reported values

  16. Rotatable seal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, J.L.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an oring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers

  17. Rotator cuff disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziatkin, M.B.; Iannotti, J.P.; Roberts, M.; Dalinka, M.K.; Esterhai, J.L.; Kressel, H.Y.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    A dual-surface-coil array in a Helmholtz configuration was used to evaluate th rotator cuff in ten normal volunteers and 44 patients. Studies were performed with a General Electric 1.5-T MR imager. Thirty-two patients underwent surgery, 25 of whom also underwent arthrography. In comparison with surgery, MR imaging was more sensitive than arthrography for rotator cuff tears (91% vs 71%). The specificity and accuracy of MR imaging were 88% and 91%. The accuracy increased with use of an MR grading system. MR findings correlated with surgical findings with regard to the size and site of tears. MR findings of cuff tears were studied with multivariate analysis. Correlation was also found between a clinical score, the MR grade, and the clinical outcome

  18. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  19. Rotator cuff tendon connections with the rotator cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Madis; Kolts, Ivo; Põldoja, Elle; Kask, Kristo

    2017-07-01

    The literature currently contains no descriptions of the rotator cuff tendons, which also describes in relation to the presence and characteristics of the rotator cable (anatomically known as the ligamentum semicirculare humeri). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the rotator cuff tendons in association with the rotator cable. Anatomic dissection was performed on 21 fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with an average age of 68 years. The rotator cuff tendons were dissected from each other and from the glenohumeral joint capsule, and the superior glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoglenoidal and semicircular (rotator cable) ligaments were dissected. Dissection was performed layer by layer and from the bursal side to the joint. All ligaments and tendons were dissected in fine detail. The rotator cable was found in all specimens. It was tightly connected to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, which was partly covered by the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon. The posterior insertion area of the rotator cable was located in the region between the middle and inferior facets of the greater tubercle of the humerus insertion areas for the teres minor (TM), and ISP tendons were also present and fibres from the SSP extended through the rotator cable to those areas. The connection between the rotator cable and rotator cuff tendons is tight and confirms the suspension bridge theory for rotator cuff tears in most areas between the SSP tendons and rotator cable. In its posterior insertion area, the rotator cable is a connecting structure between the TM, ISP and SSP tendons. These findings might explain why some patients with relatively large rotator cuff tears can maintain seamless shoulder function.

  20. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  1. The rotational spectrum of IBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiemann, E.; Moeller, T.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave spectrum of IBr was measured in the low rotational transition J = 3 → 2 in order to resolve the hyperfine structure as completely as possible. Rotational constants and quadrupole coupling constants were derived for both nuclei. The observation of the rotational spectrum in different vibrational states yields the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants as well as of the hyperfine parameters. The Dunham potential coefficients α 0 , α 1 , α 2 , α 3 are given. (orig.) [de

  2. Morphology of large rotator cuff tears and of the rotator cable and long-term shoulder disability in conservatively treated elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A; Miller, Bruce; Brandon, Catherine; Gandikota, Girish; Jacobson, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the rotator cuff tendon tears and long-term shoulder disability in conservatively treated elderly patients and determine if an association exists between these factors. Assessment of the rotator cuff tendon tear dimensions and depth, rotator interval involvement, rotator cable morphology and location, and rotator cuff muscle status was carried out on magnetic resonance studies of 24 elderly patients treated nonoperatively for rotator cuff tendon tears. Long-term shoulder function was measured using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index; Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand questionnaire; and the American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment form, and a correlation between the outcome scores and morphologic magnetic resonance findings was carried out. The majority of large rotator cuff tendon tears are limited to the rotator cuff crescent. Medial rotator interval involvement (isolated or in association with lateral rotator interval involvement) was significantly associated with WORC physical symptoms total (P = 0.01), WORC lifestyle total (P = 0.04), percentage of all WORC domains (P = 0.03), and American Shoulder Elbow Self-assessment total (P = 0.01), with medial rotator interval involvement associated with an inferior outcome. Medial rotator interval tears are associated with long-term inferior outcome scores in conservatively treated elderly patients with large rotator cuff tendon tears.

  3. Measurements of coronal Faraday rotation at 4.6 R ☉

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, Patrick D.; Buffo, Jacob J.; Spangler, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Many competing models for the coronal heating and acceleration mechanisms of the high-speed solar wind depend on the solar magnetic field and plasma structure in the corona within heliocentric distances of 5 R ☉ . We report on sensitive Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations made in 2011 August, at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz (each with a bandwidth of 128 MHz) of the radio galaxy 3C 228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6-5.0 R ☉ . Observations at 5.0 GHz permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These Faraday rotation observations provide unique information on the magnetic field in this region of the corona. The measured Faraday rotation on this day was lower than our a priori expectations, but we have successfully modeled the measurement in terms of observed properties of the corona on the day of observation. Our data on 3C 228 provide two lines of sight (separated by 46'', 33,000 km in the corona). We detected three periods during which there appeared to be a difference in the Faraday rotation measure between these two closely spaced lines of sight. These measurements (termed differential Faraday rotation) yield an estimate of 2.6-4.1 GA for coronal currents. Our data also allow us to impose upper limits on rotation measure fluctuations caused by coronal waves; the observed upper limits were 3.3 and 6.4 rad m –2 along the two lines of sight. The implications of these results for Joule heating and wave heating are briefly discussed.

  4. Earth rotation measured by lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, A.; Bender, P. L.; Faller, J. E.; Silverberg, E. C.; Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Williams, J. G.; Carter, W. E.; Currie, D. G.; Kaula, V. M.

    1976-01-01

    The estimated median accuracy of 194 single-day determinations of the earth's angular position in space is 0.7 millisecond (0.01 arc second). Comparison with classical astronomical results gives agreement to about the expected 2-millisecond uncertainty of the 5-day averages obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure. Little evidence for very rapid variations in the earth's rotation is present in the data.

  5. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in

  6. Estimation of the long-term slip, surface uplift and block rotation along the northern strand of the North Anatolian Fault Zone: Inferences from geomorphology of the Almacık Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan

    2017-11-01

    The Almacık Block is one of the key morphotectonic units in the eastern Marmara Region associated with the long-term slip partitioning within the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). In this study, we provide new geomorphic reconstructions of offset drainage basins, morphometric analysis of topography, and longitudinal profiles of the rivers crossing different flanks of the Almacık Block. Our geomorphic reconstructions of offset drainage basins along the Hendek and Karadere faults imply mean offsets of 2.3 ± 0.4 km and 8.4 ± 0.7 km, respectively, during the Quaternary. Our dataset also imply that slip partitioning occurs in a broader zone than previously proposed, and that the total 10.7 ± 0.6 km offset along the Hendek and Karadere faults of the northern strand must be taken into account for long-term slip partitioning in the Eastern Marmara Region. Together with previously suggested 10 km offset along the southern strand (Yaltırak, 2002), 16 ± 1.0 km offset along the middle strand (Özalp et al., 2013) and the 52 ± 1.0 km offset along the Mudurnu Segment of the northern strand (Akbayram et al., 2016) our newly proposed geomorphic markers raise the cumulative offset in the eastern Marmara region associated with the NAF to 89 ± 1.0 km since the Latest Pliocene - Quaternary. In addition to these lateral displacements, our morphometric analysis and longitudinal profiles of the rivers imply up to 1130 ± 130 m surface uplift of the Almacık Block as a combined result of vertical displacement within the deformation zone of the northern strand of the NAFZ. Finally, by assuming that river basins act as passive deformation markers, our basin azimuth analyses imply 20° ± 2° clockwise rotation of the Almacık Block associated with the NAFZ.

  7. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  8. COMMISSIONING SPIN ROTATORS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKAY, W.W.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.; COURANT, E.D.; FISCHER, W.; HUANG, H.; LUCCIO, A.; MONTAG, C.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VANZIEJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, eight superconducting helical spin rotators were installed into RHIC in order to control the polarization directions independently at the STAR and PHENIX experiments. Without the rotators, the orientation of polarization at the interaction points would only be vertical. With four rotators around each of the two experiments, we can rotate either or both beams from vertical into the horizontal plane through the interaction region and then back to vertical on the other side. This allows independent control for each beam with vertical, longitudinal, or radial polarization at the experiment. In this paper, we present results from the first run using the new spin rotators at PHENIX

  9. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  10. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  11. Parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, T.P. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation has been performed on the 1.28 μm atomic lead magnetic dipole transition. Although the technique used in this measurement was similar to that used in earlier measurements done on the 0.876 μm line in atomic bismuth, important differences exist. These are discussed in detail. Since the accuracy of this measurement is limited by systematic errors, a complete analysis of the data is included with a lengthy discussion of systematic effects. The final value obtained for the optical rotation is given. This agrees with atomic calculations based on the Weinberg-Salam-Galshow model for weak interactions. A discussion of the limits on weak interaction theories placed by all the atomic parity nonconservation experiments appears in the conclusion

  12. CONFERENCE: Muon spin rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik

    1986-11-15

    An international physics conference centred on muons without a word about leptons, weak interactions, EMC effects, exotic decay modes or any other standard high energy physics jargon. Could such a thing even have been imagined ten years ago? Yet about 120 physicists and chemists from 16 nations gathered at the end of June in Uppsala (Sweden) for their fourth meeting on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance, without worrying about the muon as an elementary particle. This reflects how the experimental techniques based on the muon spin interactions have reached maturity and are widely recognized by condensed matter physicists and specialized chemists as useful tools.

  13. Autonomous quantum rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Imparato, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    to a directed rotary motion. At variance with the classical case, the thermal fluctuations in the baths give rise to a non-vanishing average torque contribution; this is a genuine quantum effect akin to the Casimir effect. In the steady state the heat current flowing between the two baths is systematically......, the rotator cannot work either as a heat pump or as a heat engine. We finally use our exact results to extend an ab initio quantum simulation algorithm to the out-of-equilibrium regime. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2018...

  14. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  15. Rotational anomalies without anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    A specific field theory is proposed in two spatial dimensions which has anomalous rotational properties. Although this might be expected to lead to a concrete realization of what Wilczek refers to as the anyon, it is shown by utilizing the transformation properties of the system and the statistics of the underlying charge fields that anyonic interpolations between bosons and fermions do not occur. This leads to the suggestion that anyons inferred from semiclassical considerations will not survive the transition to a fully relativistic field theory

  16. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  17. The Fastest Rotating Pulsar: a Strange Star?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仁新; 徐轩彬; 吴鑫基

    2001-01-01

    According to the observational limits on the radius and mass, the fastest rotating pulsar (PSR 1937+21) is probably a strange star, or at least some neutron star equations of state should be ruled out, if we suggest that a dipole magnetic field is relevant to its radio emission. We presume that the millisecond pulsar is a strange star with much low mass, small radius and weak magnetic moment.

  18. Applications of seismic spatial wavefield gradient and rotation data in exploration seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzbach, C.; Van Renterghem, C.; Sollberger, D.; Häusler, M.; Robertsson, J. O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic spatial wavefield gradient and rotation data have the potential to open up new ways to address long-standing problems in land-seismic exploration such as identifying and separating P-, S-, and surface waves. Gradient-based acquisition and processing techniques could enable replacing large arrays of densely spaced receivers by sparse spatially-compact receiver layouts or even one single multicomponent station with dedicated instruments (e.g., rotational seismometers). Such approaches to maximize the information content of single-station recordings are also of significant interest for seismic measurements at sites with limited access such as boreholes, the sea bottom, and extraterrestrial seismology. Arrays of conventional three-component (3C) geophones enable measuring not only the particle velocity in three dimensions but also estimating their spatial gradients. Because the free-surface condition allows to express vertical derivatives in terms of horizontal derivatives, the full gradient tensor and, hence, curl and divergence of the wavefield can be computed. In total, three particle velocity components, three rotational components, and divergence, result seven-component (7C) seismic data. Combined particle velocity and gradient data can be used to isolate the incident P- or S-waves at the land surface or the sea bottom using filtering techniques based on the elastodynamic representation theorem. Alternatively, as only S-waves exhibit rotational motion, rotational measurements can directly be used to identify S-waves. We discuss the derivations of the gradient-based filters as well as their application to synthetic and field data, demonstrating that rotational data can be of particular interest to S-wave reflection and P-to-S-wave conversion imaging. The concept of array-derived gradient estimation can be extended to source arrays as well. Therefore, source arrays allow us to emulate rotational (curl) and dilatational (divergence) sources. Combined with 7C

  19. Development of a fast response rotating polarimeter for a faraday rotation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Ogiwara, Norio; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Toshiaki

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes a method for using a spindle sustained with active magnetic bearing to make a rotating half waveplate frequency more fast. The time interval of the zero-cross phase measurement is 189 μsec in this experiment. The magnetic bearing is applicable to increase the rotating waveplate frequency by a factor of 2-3 compared with the conventional one. The waveplate speed as well as the deviation with respect to the stationary laser beam has no influence on the amplitude and phase shift of the rotating polarized beam signal. There is also no influence of the mirror reflections on the phase shift. The overall phase resolution is estimated to be about 0.1 degrees. (author)

  20. 26Al yields from rotating Wolf--Rayet star models

    OpenAIRE

    Vuissoz, C.; Meynet, G.; Knoedlseder, J.; Cervino, M.; Schaerer, D.; Palacios, A.; Mowlavi, N.

    2003-01-01

    We present new $^{26}$Al stellar yields from rotating Wolf--Rayet stellar models which, at solar metallicity, well reproduce the observed properties of the Wolf-Rayet populations. These new yields are enhanced with respect to non--rotating models, even with respect to non--rotating models computed with enhanced mass loss rates. We briefly discuss some implications of the use of these new yields for estimating the global contribution of Wolf-Rayet stars to the quantity of $^{26}$Al now present...

  1. Power dependence on the rotational strength in a quartz crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.V.; Salcedo, D.; Gil, H.

    2007-01-01

    The rotational strength of optical activity has been examined as a function of power of the incident radiation in a quartz crystal for the first time. It has been observed that the angle of rotation is proportional to the square root of the intensity of the radiation. The present experimental data directly support the recently proposed model which takes into account the electronic polarizability rather than the atomic polarizability. This model explicitly explains the role of the incident power in estimating the angle of rotation

  2. Generation of plasma rotation by ICRH in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Phillips, C.K.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Rice, J.; Greenwald, M.; Grassie, J.S. de

    2001-01-01

    A physical mechanism to generate plasma rotation by ICRH is presented in a tokamak geometry. By breaking the omnigenity of resonant ion orbits, ICRH can induce a non-ambipolar minor-radial flow of resonant ions. This induces a return current j p r in the plasma, which then drives plasma rotation through the j p r xB force. It is estimated that the fast-wave power in the present-day tokamak experiments can be strong enough to give a significant modification to plasma rotation. (author)

  3. Zero-point vibrational effects on optical rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Taylor, P.R.; Åstrand, P.-O.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of molecular vibrations on the optical rotation in two chiral molecules, methyloxirane and trans-2,3-dimethylthiirane. It is shown that the magnitude of zero-point vibrational corrections increases as the electronic contribution to the optical rotation increases....... Vibrational effects thus appear to be important for an overall estimate of the molecular optical rotation, amounting to about 20-30% of the electronic counterpart. We also investigate the special case of chirality introduced in a molecule through isotopic substitution. In this case, the zero-point vibrational...

  4. Tidal synchronization of an anelastic multi-layered body: Titan's synchronous rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folonier, Hugo A.; Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio

    2017-12-01

    Tidal torque drives the rotational and orbital evolution of planet-satellite and star-exoplanet systems. This paper presents one analytical tidal theory for a viscoelastic multi-layered body with an arbitrary number of homogeneous layers. Starting with the static equilibrium figure, modified to include tide and differential rotation, and using the Newtonian creep approach, we find the dynamical equilibrium figure of the deformed body, which allows us to calculate the tidal potential and the forces acting on the tide generating body, as well as the rotation and orbital elements variations. In the particular case of the two-layer model, we study the tidal synchronization when the gravitational coupling and the friction in the interface between the layers is added. For high relaxation factors (low viscosity), the stationary solution of each layer is synchronous with the orbital mean motion ( n) when the orbit is circular, but the rotational frequencies increase if the orbital eccentricity increases. This behavior is characteristic in the classical Darwinian theories and in the homogeneous case of the creep tide theory. For low relaxation factors (high viscosity), as in planetary satellites, if friction remains low, each layer can be trapped in different spin-orbit resonances with frequencies n/2,n,3n/2,2n,\\ldots . When the friction increases, attractors with differential rotations are destroyed, surviving only commensurabilities in which core and shell have the same velocity of rotation. We apply the theory to Titan. The main results are: (i) the rotational constraint does not allow us to confirm or reject the existence of a subsurface ocean in Titan; and (ii) the crust-atmosphere exchange of angular momentum can be neglected. Using the rotation estimate based on Cassini's observation (Meriggiola et al. in Icarus 275:183-192, 2016), we limit the possible value of the shell relaxation factor, when a deep subsurface ocean is assumed, to γ _s≲ 10^{-9} s^{-1}, which

  5. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  6. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  7. Investigation of intrinsic toroidal rotation scaling in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J. W.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, S. H.; Seol, J.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, J. H.

    2017-07-01

    The behaviors of an intrinsic toroidal rotation without any external momentum sources are investigated in KSTAR. In these experiments, pure ohmic discharges with a wide range of plasma parameters are carefully selected and analyzed to speculate an unrevealed origin of toroidal rotation excluding any unnecessary heating sources, magnetic perturbations, and strong magneto-hydrodynamic activities. The measured core toroidal rotation in KSTAR is mostly in the counter-current direction and its magnitude strongly depends on the ion temperature divided by plasma current (Ti/IP). Especially the core toroidal rotation in the steady-state is well fitted by Ti/IP scaling with a slope of ˜-23, and the possible explanation of the scaling is compared with various candidates. As a result, the calculated offset rotation could not explain the measured core toroidal rotation since KSTAR has an extremely low intrinsic error field. For the stability conditions for ion and electron turbulences, it is hard to determine a dominant turbulence mode in this study. In addition, the intrinsic toroidal rotation level in ITER is estimated based on the KSTAR scaling since the intrinsic rotation plays an important role in stabilizing resistive wall modes for future reference.

  8. [A Model for Predicting Career Satisfaction of Nurses Experiencing Rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sook; Yu, Mi

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to present and test a structural model for describing and predicting the factors affecting subjective career satisfaction of nurses experiencing rotation and to develop human resources management strategies for promoting their career satisfaction related to rotation. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 233 nurses by convenience sampling who had over 1 year of career experience and who had experienced rotation at least once at G university hospital. Data were collected from August to September in 2016 using self-reported questionnaires. The exogenous variables consisted of rotation perception and rotation stress. Endogenous variables consisted of career growth opportunity, work engagement, and subjective career satisfaction. A hypothetical model was tested by asymptotically distribution-free estimates, and model goodness of fit was examined using absolute fit, incremental fit measures. The final model was approved and had suitable fit. We found that subjective career satisfaction was directly affected by rotation stress (β=.20, p=.019) and work engagement (β=.58, pcareer growth opportunity and work engagement. However, there was no total effect of rotation stress on subjective career satisfaction (β=-.09, p=.270). Career growth opportunity directly and indirectly affected subjective career satisfaction (β=.29, pcareer satisfaction. The results of this study suggest that it is necessary to establish systematic and planned criteria for rotation so that nurses can grow and develop through sustained work and become satisfied with their career. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  9. Rotator Cuff Repair in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Michael G; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R; Goldstein, Samuel R; Emblom, Benton A; Cain, E Lyle

    2018-04-01

    Rotator cuff tears are rare injuries in adolescents but cause significant morbidity if unrecognized. Previous literature on rotator cuff repairs in adolescents is limited to small case series, with few data to guide treatment. Adolescent patients would have excellent functional outcome scores and return to the same level of sports participation after rotator cuff repair but would have some difficulty with returning to overhead sports. Case series; Level of evidence 4. A retrospective search of the practice's billing records identified all patients participating in at least 1 sport who underwent rotator cuff repair between 2006 and 2014 with an age Rotator Cuff Index. Thirty-two consecutive adolescent athletes (28 boys and 4 girls) with a mean age of 16.1 years (range, 13.2-17.9 years) met inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine patients (91%) had a traumatic event, and 27 of these patients (93%) had no symptoms before the trauma. The most common single tendon injury was to the supraspinatus (21 patients, 66%), of which 2 were complete tendon tears, 1 was a bony avulsion of the tendon, and 18 were high-grade partial tears. Fourteen patients (56%) underwent single-row repair of their rotator cuff tear, and 11 (44%) underwent double-row repair. All subscapularis injuries were repaired in open fashion, while all other tears were repaired arthroscopically. Twenty-seven patients (84%) completed the outcome questionnaires at a mean 6.2 years after surgery (range, 2-10 years). The mean ASES score was 93 (range, 65-100; SD = 9); mean Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, 89% (range, 60%-100%; SD = 13%); and mean numeric pain rating, 0.3 (range, 0-3; SD = 0.8). Overall, 25 patients (93%) returned to the same level of play or higher. Among overhead athletes, 13 (93%) were able to return to the same level of play, but 8 (57%) were forced to change positions. There were no surgical complications, but 2 patients did undergo a subsequent operation. Surgical repair of high-grade partial

  10. Rotation and rotation-vibration spectroscopy of the 0+-0- inversion doublet in deuterated cyanamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Kraśnicki, Adam; Jabs, Wolfgang; Herbst, Eric; Winnewisser, Brenda P; Winnewisser, Manfred

    2013-10-03

    The pure rotation spectrum of deuterated cyanamide was recorded at frequencies from 118 to 649 GHz, which was complemented by measurement of its high-resolution rotation-vibration spectrum at 8-350 cm(-1). For D2NCN the analysis revealed considerable perturbations between the lowest Ka rotational energy levels in the 0(+) and 0(-) substates of the lowest inversion doublet. The final data set for D2NCN exceeded 3000 measured transitions and was successfully fitted with a Hamiltonian accounting for the 0(+) ↔ 0(-) coupling. A smaller data set, consisting only of pure rotation and rotation-vibration lines observed with microwave techniques was obtained for HDNCN, and additional transitions of this type were also measured for H2NCN. The spectroscopic data for all three isotopic species were fitted with a unified, robust Hamiltonian allowing confident prediction of spectra well into the terahertz frequency region, which is of interest to contemporary radioastronomy. The isotopic dependence of the determined inversion splitting, ΔE = 16.4964789(8), 32.089173(3), and 49.567770(6) cm(-1), for D2NCN, HDNCN, and H2NCN, respectively, is found to be in good agreement with estimates from a simple reduced quartic-quadratic double minimum potential.

  11. Biomaterials based strategies for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Su, Wei; Shah, Vishva; Hobson, Divia; Yildirimer, Lara; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo; Zhao, Xin

    2017-09-01

    Tearing of the rotator cuff commonly occurs as among one of the most frequently experienced tendon disorders. While treatment typically involves surgical repair, failure rates to achieve or sustain healing range from 20 to 90%. The insufficient capacity to recover damaged tendon to heal to the bone, especially at the enthesis, is primarily responsible for the failure rates reported. Various types of biomaterials with special structures have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing and tendon regeneration, and have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of the anatomy of the rotator cuff and then discuss various design strategies to augment rotator cuff repair. Furthermore, we highlight current biomaterials used for repair and their clinical applications as well as the limitations in the literature. We conclude this article with challenges and future directions in designing more advanced biomaterials for augmentation of rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rotational temperature determinations in molecular gas lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, L.A.; Taylor, L.H.; Denes, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    The small-signal gain expressions for vibrational-rotational transitions are examined in detail to determine possible methods of extracting the rotational temperature from experimental gain measurements in molecular gas lasers. Approximate values of T/subr/ can be deduced from the rotational quantum numbers for which the P- and R-branch gains are maximum. Quite accurate values of T/subr/ and the population inversion density (n/subv//sub prime/-n/subv//sub double-prime/) can be determined by fitting data to suitably linearized gain relationships, or by performing least-squares fits of the P- and R-branch experimental data to the full gain expressions. Experimental gain measurements for 15 P-branch and 12 R-branch transitions in the 10.4-μm CO 2 band have been performed for pulsed uv-preionized laser discharges in CO 2 : N 2 : He=1 : 2 : 3 mixtures at 600 Torr. These data are subjected to the several gain analyses described herein, yielding a rotational temperature of 401plus-or-minus10 degreeK and an inversion density of (3.77plus-or-minus0.07) times10 17 cm -3 for conditions of maximum gain. These techniques provide accurate values of the gas temperature in molecular gas lasers with excellent temporal and spatial resolution, and should be useful in extending the conversion efficiency and arcing limits of high-energy electrically exc []ted lasers

  13. Electromagnetic fields of rotating magnetized NUT stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.; Khugaev, A.V.; Ahmedov, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Analytic general relativistic expressions for the electromagnetic fields external to a slowly-rotating magnetized NUT star with nonvanishing gravitomagnetic charge have been presented. Solutions for the electric and magnetic fields have been found after separating the Maxwell equations in the external background spacetime of a slowly rotating NUT star into angular and radial parts in the lowest order approximation. The star is considered isolated and in vacuum, with different models for stellar magnetic field: i) monopolar magnetic field and II) dipolar magnetic field aligned with the axis of rotation. We have shown that the general relativistic corrections due to the dragging of reference frames and gravitomagnetic charge are not present in the form of the magnetic fields but emerge only in the form of the electric fields. In particular, we have shown that the frame-dragging and gravitomagnetic charge provide an additional induced electric field which is analogous to the one introduced by the rotation of the star in the flat spacetime limit

  14. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  15. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  16. Wormholes immersed in rotating matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hoffmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that rotating matter sets the throat of an Ellis wormhole into rotation, allowing for wormholes which possess full reflection symmetry with respect to the two asymptotically flat spacetime regions. We analyze the properties of this new type of rotating wormholes and show that the wormhole geometry can change from a single throat to a double throat configuration. We further discuss the ergoregions and the lightring structure of these wormholes.

  17. Internal rotation of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvall, T.L. Jr.; Goode, P.R.; Gouch, D.O.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency difference between prograde and retrograde sectoral solar oscillations is analysed to determine the rotation rate of the solar interior, assuming no latitudinal dependence. Much of the solar interior rotates slightly less rapidly than the surface, while the innermost part apparently rotates more rapidly. The resulting solar gravitational quadrupole moment is J 2 = (1.7 +- 0.4) x 10 -7 and provides a negligible contribution to current planetary tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity. (author)

  18. ROTATING BULLETS FROM A VARIABLE PROTOSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuepeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xpchen@pmo.ac.cn [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) CO (2–1) observations toward the protostellar jet driven by SVS 13 A, a variable protostar in the NGC 1333 star-forming region. The SMA CO (2–1) images show an extremely high-velocity jet composed of a series of molecular “bullets.” Based on the SMA CO observations, we discover clear and large systematic velocity gradients, perpendicular to the jet axis, in the blueshifted and redshifted bullets. After discussing several alternative interpretations, such as twin-jets, jet precession, warped disk, and internal helical shock, we suggest that the systematic velocity gradients observed in the bullets result from the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet. From the SMA CO images, the measured rotation velocities are 11.7–13.7 km s{sup −1} for the blueshifted bullet and 4.7 ± 0.5 km s{sup −1} for the redshifted bullet. The estimated specific angular momenta of the two bullets are comparable to those of dense cores, about 10 times larger than those of protostellar envelopes, and about 20 times larger than those of circumstellar disks. If the velocity gradients are due to the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet, the significant amount of specific angular momenta of the bullets indicates that the rotation of jets/outflows is a key mechanism to resolve the so-called “angular momentum problem” in the field of star formation. The kinematics of the bullets suggests that the jet launching footprint on the disk has a radius of ∼7.2–7.7 au, which appears to support the extended disk-wind model. We note that further observations are needed to comprehensively understand the kinematics of the SVS 13 A jet, in order to confirm the rotation nature of the bullets.

  19. Earth's variable rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  20. Sporcularda rotator cuff problemleri

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Osman; Guven, Zeynep; Gundes, Hakan; Yalcin, Selim

    2004-01-01

    Rotator cuff tendinitinin etyolojisinde genellikle birden çok faktörün kombinasyonu görülür. Yüzme, raket sporları ve fırlatma sporlarının özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde giderek yaygınlaşması bu konuya olan ilginin artmasına sebep olmuştur. Eski konseptlerde aktif bir sporcuda tedavinin başarısı genellikle eski atletik seviyesine dönmesi ile ölçülürdü. Son zamanlarda atletik tekniklerin analizi, atroskopik evaluasyon gibi yeni bir Iükse sahip olmamız ve Iiteratürün yeniden gözden geçirilmesi il...

  1. Rotation Period Determination for 5143 Heracles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Frederick; Briggs, John W.; Franco, Lorenzo; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotiv, Igor E.; Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III; Pollock, Joe; Pravec, Petr

    2012-07-01

    The Earth crossing minor planet 5143 Heracles made in late 2011 its closest approach to Earth since discovery. A consortium of observers found a synodic rotation period near 2.706 hours and amplitude increasing from 0.08 ±0.02 magnitudes at phase angle 20 degrees to 0.18 ±0.03 magnitudes at phase angle 87 degrees, with 3 unequal maxima and minima per cycle. Magnitude parameters H = 14.10 ±0.04 and G = 0.08 ±0.02 are found, and the color index V-R = 0.42 ±0.07. For an asteroid of taxonomic class Q, a suggested albedo pv = 0.20 ±0.05 yields estimated diameter D = 4.5 ±0.7 km. Three possible binary events were recorded, but these are insufficient for binary detection to be secure. Retrograde rotation is suggested.

  2. Vortex Noise from Rotating Cylindrical Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, E Z; Deming, A F

    1935-01-01

    A series of round rods of the some diameter were rotated individually about the mid-point of each rod. Vortices are shed from the rods when in motion, giving rise to the emission of sound. With the rotating system placed in the open air, the distribution of sound in space, the acoustical power output, and the spectral distribution have been studied. The frequency of emission of vortices from any point on the rod is given by the formula von Karman. From the spectrum estimates are made of the distribution of acoustical power along the rod, the amount of air concerned in sound production, the "equivalent size" of the vortices, and the acoustical energy content for each vortex.

  3. Enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition of flow past rotating cylinder at super-critical rotating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Tapan K.; Gullapalli, Atchyut

    2016-11-01

    Spinning cylinder rotating about its axis experiences a transverse force/lift, an account of this basic aerodynamic phenomenon is known as the Robins-Magnus effect in text books. Prandtl studied this flow by an inviscid irrotational model and postulated an upper limit of the lift experienced by the cylinder for a critical rotation rate. This non-dimensional rate is the ratio of oncoming free stream speed and the surface speed due to rotation. Prandtl predicted a maximum lift coefficient as CLmax = 4π for the critical rotation rate of two. In recent times, evidences show the violation of this upper limit, as in the experiments of Tokumaru and Dimotakis ["The lift of a cylinder executing rotary motions in a uniform flow," J. Fluid Mech. 255, 1-10 (1993)] and in the computed solution in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)]. In the latter reference, this was explained as the temporal instability affecting the flow at higher Reynolds number and rotation rates (>2). Here, we analyze the flow past a rotating cylinder at a super-critical rotation rate (=2.5) by the enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of direct simulation results. POD identifies the most energetic modes and helps flow field reconstruction by reduced number of modes. One of the motivations for the present study is to explain the shedding of puffs of vortices at low Reynolds number (Re = 60), for the high rotation rate, due to an instability originating in the vicinity of the cylinder, using the computed Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) from t = 0 to t = 300 following an impulsive start. This instability is also explained through the disturbance mechanical energy equation, which has been established earlier in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)].

  4. Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, P.; Bejger, M.; Fortin, M.; Zdunik, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency (716Hz) and the maximum measured mass (2M {sub CircleDot}). The present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a first-order phase transition, both between pure phases, and into a mixed-phase state, are reviewed. The case of two disjoint families (branches) of rotating neutron stars is discussed and generic features of neutron-star families and of core-quakes triggered by the instabilities are considered. (orig.)

  5. Imaging with rotating slit apertures and rotating collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gindi, G.R.; Arendt, J.; Barrett, H.H.; Chiu, M.Y.; Ervin, A.; Giles, C.L.; Kujoory, M.A.; Miller, E.L.; Simpson, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical quality of conventional nuclear medical imagery is limited by the small signal collect through low-efficiency conventional apertures. Coded-aperture imaging overcomes this by employing a two-step process in which the object is first efficiently detected as an ''encoded'' form which does not resemble the object, and then filtered (or ''decoded'') to form an image. We present here the imaging properties of a class of time-modulated coded apertures which, unlike most coded apertures, encode projections of the object rather than the object itself. These coded apertures can reconstruct a volume object nontomographically, tomographically (one plane focused), or three-dimensionally. We describe a new decoding algorithm that reconstructs the object from its planar projections. Results of noise calculations are given, and the noise performance of these coded-aperture systems is compared to that of conventional counterparts. A hybrid slit-pinhole system which combines the imaging advantages of a rotating slit and a pinhole is described. A new scintillation detector which accurately measures the position of an event in one dimension only is presented, and its use in our coded-aperture system is outlined. Finally, results of imaging test objects and animals are given

  6. Imaging with rotating slit apertures and rotating collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gindi, G.R.; Arendt, J.; Barrett, H.H.; Chiu, M.Y.; Ervin, A.; Giles, C.L.; Kujoory, M.A.; Miller, E.L.; Simpson, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical quality of conventional nuclear medical imagery is limited by the small signal collected through low-efficiency conventional apertures. Coded-aperture imaging overcomes this by employing a two-step process in which the object is first efficiently detected as an encoded form which does not resemble the object, and then filtered (or decoded) to form an image. We present here the imaging properties of a class of time-modulated coded apertures which, unlike most coded apertures, encode projections of the object rather than the object itself. These coded apertures can reconstruct a volume object nontomographically, tomographically (one plane focused), or three-dimensionally. We describe a new decoding algorithm that reconstructs the object from its planar projections. Results of noise calculations are given, and the noise performance of these coded-aperture systems is compared to that of conventional counterparts. A hybrid slit-pinhole system which combines the imaging advantages of a rotating slit and a pinhole is described. A new scintillation detector which accurately measures the position of an event in one dimension only is presented, and its use in our coded-aperture system is outlined. Finally, results of imaging test objects and animals are given

  7. Visualization and spectral synthesis of rotationally distorted stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, T H; Sbordone, L

    2011-01-01

    Simple spherical, non-rotating stellar models are inadequate when describing real stars in the limit of very fast rotation: Both the observable spectrum and the geometrical shape of the star deviate strongly from simple models. We attempt to approach the problem of modeling geometrically distorted, rapidly rotating stars from a new angle: By constructing distorted geometrical models and integrating standard stellar models with varying temperature, gravity, and abundances, over the entire surface, we attempt a semi-empirical approach to modeling. Here we present our methodology, and present simple examples of applications.

  8. Collective rotations of active particles interacting with obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Zahra; Aspelmeier, Timo; Zippelius, Annette

    2017-10-01

    We consider active particles in a heterogeneous medium, modeled by static, random obstacles. In accordance with the known tendency of active particles to cluster, we observe accumulation and crystallization of active particles around the obstacles which serve as nucleation sites. In the limit of high activity, the crystals start to rotate spontaneously, resembling a rotating rigid body. We trace the occurrence of these oscillations to the enhanced attraction of particles whose orientation points along the rotational velocity as compared to those whose orientation points in the opposite direction.

  9. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  10. Rotating field current drive in spherical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotherton-Ratcliffe, D.; Storer, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of driving a steady Hall current in plasmas using a rotating magnetic field is studied both numerically and analytically in the approximation of negligible ion flow. A spherical plasma bounded by an insulating wall and immersed in a uniform magnetic field which has both a rotating component (for current drive) and a constant ''vertical'' component (for MHD equilibrium) is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of an expansion of field quantities in vector spherical harmonics. The numerical code SPHERE solves the resulting pseudo-harmonic equations by a multiple shooting technique. The results presented, in addition to being relevant to non-inductive current drive generally, have a direct relevance to the rotamak experiments. For the case of no applied vertical field the steady state toroidal current driven by the rotating field per unit volume of plasma is several times less than in the long cylinder limit for a plasma of the same density, resistivity and radius. The application of a vertical field, which for certain parameter regimes gives rise to a compact torus configuration, improves the current drive dramatically and in many cases gives ''better'' current drive than the long cylinder limit. This result is also predicted by a second order perturbation analysis of the pseudo-harmonic equations. A steady state toroidal field is observed which appears consistent with experimental observations in rotamaks regarding magnitude and spatial dependence. This is an advance over previous analytical theory which predicted an oppositely directed toroidal field of undefined magnitude. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Repair Tension in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Does It Really Matter to the Integrity of the Rotator Cuff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hoon; Jang, Young Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Hwa-Ryeong; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-11-01

    Repair tension of a torn rotator cuff can affect healing after repair. However, a measurement of the actual tension during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is not feasible. The relationship between repair tension and healing of a rotator cuff repair remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repair tension on healing at the repair site. The hypothesis was that repair tension would be a major factor in determining the anatomic outcome of rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs (132 patients) for full-thickness rotator cuff tears were analyzed. An intraoperative model was designed for the estimation of repair tension using a tensiometer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed approximately 1 year (mean [±SD], 12.7 ± 3.2 months) postoperatively for the evaluation of healing at the repair site. Multivariable analysis was performed for tear size, amount of retraction, and fatty degeneration (FD) of rotator cuff muscles. The mean repair tension measured during the arthroscopic procedure was 28.5 ± 23.1 N. There was a statistically significant correlation between tension and tear size (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC], 0.529; P repair tension also showed a significant inverse correlation with healing at the repair site (SCC, 0.195; P = .025). However, when sex, age, tear size, amount of retraction, tendon quality, and FD of rotator cuff muscles were included for multivariable logistic regression analysis, only FD of the infraspinatus showed an association with the anatomic outcome of repair (Exp(B) = 0.596; P = .010). Our intraoperative model for the estimation of rotator cuff repair tension showed an inverse correlation of repair tension with healing at the repair site, suggesting that complete healing is less likely with high-tension repairs. A significant association was observed on MRI between a high level of FD of the infraspinatus and repaired tendon integrity. © 2016

  12. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  13. Stabilities of MHD rotational discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.

    1984-11-01

    In this paper, the stabilities of MHD rotational discontinuities are analyzed. The results show that the rotational discontinuities in an incompressible magnetofluid are not always stable with respect to infinitesimal perturbation. The instability condition in a special case is obtained. (author)

  14. Optical isolation by Faraday rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takeshi; Matsushima, Isao; Nemoto, Fusashi; Yano, Masaaki

    1984-01-01

    Three Faraday rotators designed as optical isolators in a high power glass laser system are described. The spatial fluctuation of applied magnetic field is less than 1% throughout the Faraday glass rod. The Faraday rotators transmit more than 80% of the forward-going laser light and reject more than 96% of the backward-going light. (author)

  15. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  16. Flow past a rotating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sanjay; Kumar, Bhaskar

    2003-02-01

    Flow past a spinning circular cylinder placed in a uniform stream is investigated via two-dimensional computations. A stabilized finite element method is utilized to solve the incompressible Navier Stokes equations in the primitive variables formulation. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and free-stream speed of the flow is 200. The non-dimensional rotation rate, [alpha] (ratio of the surface speed and freestream speed), is varied between 0 and 5. The time integration of the flow equations is carried out for very large dimensionless time. Vortex shedding is observed for [alpha] cylinder. The results from the stability analysis for the rotating cylinder are in very good agreement with those from direct numerical simulations. For large rotation rates, very large lift coefficients can be obtained via the Magnus effect. However, the power requirement for rotating the cylinder increases rapidly with rotation rate.

  17. Bidirectional optical rotation of cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyi Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise and controlled rotation manipulation of cells is extremely important in biological applications and biomedical studies. Particularly, bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells is a challenge for cell tomography and analysis. In this paper, we report an optical method that is capable of bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells. By launching a laser beam at 980 nm into dual-beam tapered fibers, a single or multiple cells in solutions can be trapped and rotated bidirectionally under the action of optical forces. Moreover, the rotational behavior can be controlled by altering the relative distance between the two fibers and the input optical power. Experimental results were interpreted by numerical simulations.

  18. Experimental verification of a GPC-LPV method with RLS and P1-TS fuzzy-based estimation for limiting the transient and residual vibration of a crane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczek, Jaroslaw

    2015-10-01

    The paper deals with the problem of reducing the residual vibration and limiting the transient oscillations of a flexible and underactuated system with respect to the variation of operating conditions. The comparative study of generalized predictive control (GPC) and fuzzy scheduling scheme developed based on the P1-TS fuzzy theory, local pole placement method and interval analysis of closed-loop system polynomial coefficients is addressed to the problem of flexible crane control. The two alternatives of a GPC-based method are proposed that enable to realize this technique either with or without a sensor of payload deflection. The first control technique is based on the recursive least squares (RLS) method applied to on-line estimate the parameters of a linear parameter varying (LPV) model of a crane dynamic system. The second GPC-based approach is based on a payload deflection feedback estimated using a pendulum model with the parameters interpolated using the P1-TS fuzzy system. Feasibility and applicability of the developed methods were confirmed through experimental verification performed on a laboratory scaled overhead crane.

  19. Effects of Density-Dependent Bag Constant and Strange Star Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-Er; GUO Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the emphasis on the effects of the density-dependent bag constant and the rotation of strange star the limiting mass of strange star is calculated. The obtained results show that the limiting mass and the corresponding radius of strange star increase as the rotation frequency increases, and tend to be lowered when the density-dependent bag constant is considered.

  20. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  1. Hydrodynamics of rotating superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis, a coarse grained hydrodynamics is developed from the exact description of Tkachenko. To account for the dynamics of the vortex lattice, the macroscopic vortex displacement field is treated as an independent degree of freedom. The conserved energy is written in terms of the coarse-grained normal fluid, superfluid, and vortex velocities and includes an elastic energy associated with deformations of the vortex lattice. Equations of motion consistent with the conservation of energy, entropy and vorticity and containing mutual friction terms arising from microscopic interactions between normal fluid excitations and the vortex lines are derived. When the vortex velocity is eliminated from the damping terms, this system of equations becomes essentially that of BK with added elastic terms in the momentum stress tensor and energy current. The dispersion relation and damping of the first and second sound modes and the two transverse modes sustained by the system are investigated. It is shown that mutual friction mixes the transverse modes of the normal and superfluid components and damps the transverse mode associated with the relative velocity of these components, making this wave evanescent in the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. The wave associated with transverse motion of the total mass current is a generalized Tkachenko mode, whose dispersion relation reduces to that derived by Tkachenko wave when the wavevector lies in this plane

  2. Magnetostrophic Rotating Magnetoconvection

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eric; Aurnou, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Planetary magnetic fields are generated by turbulent convection within their vast interior liquid metal cores. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that local-scale convection naturally settles into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. To date, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a globally magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first turbulent magnetostrophic rotating magnetoconvection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the fluid dynamics saturate in magnetostrophic balance within turbulent liquid metal, planetary cores. The authors thank the NSF Geophysics Program for financial support.

  3. Rotating quantum Gaussian packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V V

    2015-01-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum Gaussian packets with a fixed value of mean angular momentum. This value is the sum of two independent parts: the ‘external’ momentum related to the motion of the packet center and the ‘internal’ momentum due to quantum fluctuations. The packets minimizing the mean energy of an isotropic oscillator with the fixed mean angular momentum are found. They exist for ‘co-rotating’ external and internal motions, and they have nonzero correlation coefficients between coordinates and momenta, together with some (moderate) amount of quadrature squeezing. Variances of angular momentum and energy are calculated, too. Differences in the behavior of ‘co-rotating’ and ‘anti-rotating’ packets are shown. The time evolution of rotating Gaussian packets is analyzed, including the cases of a charge in a homogeneous magnetic field and a free particle. In the latter case, the effect of initial shrinking of packets with big enough coordinate-momentum correlation coefficients (followed by the well known expansion) is discovered. This happens due to a competition of ‘focusing’ and ‘de-focusing’ in the orthogonal directions. (paper)

  4. Rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeau, I.; Doursounian, L.; Maigne, J.Y.; Guinet, C.; Meary, E.; Buy, J.N.; Touzard, R.C.; Vadrot, D.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2 * -weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2 * -weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  5. Elliptical Galaxies: Rotationally Distorted, After All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2009-12-01

    .15$, and low rotationparameters $(0lechi_v^2<0.15$, while fastrotators show large ellipticities $(0.2lehat{e}<0.65$, large anisotropy parameters$(0.15ledelta<0.35$, and large rotationparameters $(0.15lechi_v^2<0.5$. Analternative kinematic classification withrespect to earlier attempts (Emsellem etal. 2007 requires larger samples for providingadditional support to the above mentionedresults. A possible interpretation of slowrotators as nonrotating at all and elongated due to negative anisotropy parameters,instead of flattened due to positiveanisotropy parameters, is exploited.Finally, the elliptical side of the Hubblemorphological sequence is interpreted as asequence of equilibrium (adjoint configurations where the ellipticity is an increasing functionof the rotation parameter, slow rotators correspond to early classes (E0-E2 in the oblate limit and E2-E0 in the prolate limitand fast rotators to late classes (E3-E6.In this view, boundaries are rotationally distorted regardless of angular momentumand stress tensor, where rotation has tobe intended as due to additional kinetic energy of tangential equatorial velocity components,with respect to spherical configurations with isotropic stress tensor.

  6. Short period tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.; Dickey, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the tidal deformation of the earth's polar moment of inertia by the moon and sun cause periodic variations in rotation. The short period oscillations give rise to a meter-sized, diurnal signature in the lunar laser ranging data obtained at McDonald Observatory. A solution is given for the scale parameter k/C at fortnightly and monthly tidal frequencies. The results are compared with those obtained by other investigators and with a theoretical estimate which includes the effect of oceans and a decoupled fluid core.

  7. The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient’s lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost

  8. Estimation of single plane unbalance parameters of a rotor-bearing system using Kalman filtering based force estimation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Akash; Mohanty, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a model-based method to estimate single plane unbalance parameters (amplitude and phase angle) in a rotor using Kalman filter and recursive least square based input force estimation technique. Kalman filter based input force estimation technique requires state-space model and response measurements. A modified system equivalent reduction expansion process (SEREP) technique is employed to obtain a reduced-order model of the rotor system so that limited response measurements can be used. The method is demonstrated using numerical simulations on a rotor-disk-bearing system. Results are presented for different measurement sets including displacement, velocity, and rotational response. Effects of measurement noise level, filter parameters (process noise covariance and forgetting factor), and modeling error are also presented and it is observed that the unbalance parameter estimation is robust with respect to measurement noise.

  9. SU-G-JeP3-04: Estimating 4D CBCT from Prior Information and Extremely Limited Angle Projections Using Structural PCA and Weighted Free-Form Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using structure-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion-model extracted by global PCA and a free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using data fidelity constraint and the deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural-PCA method was developed to build a structural motion-model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the Volume-Percent-Difference (VPD)/Center-of-Mass-Shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and “ground-truth” on board 4D-CBCT. Results: Among 6 different XCAT scenarios corresponding to respirational and anatomical changes from planning CT to on-board using single 30° on-board projections, the VPD/COMS for SMM-WFD was reduced to 10.64±3.04%/1.20±0.45mm from 21.72±9.24%/1.80±0.53mm for GMM-FD. Using 15° orthogonal projections, the VPD/COMS was

  10. SU-G-JeP3-04: Estimating 4D CBCT from Prior Information and Extremely Limited Angle Projections Using Structural PCA and Weighted Free-Form Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Zhang, Y; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using structure-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion-model extracted by global PCA and a free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using data fidelity constraint and the deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural-PCA method was developed to build a structural motion-model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the Volume-Percent-Difference (VPD)/Center-of-Mass-Shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and “ground-truth” on board 4D-CBCT. Results: Among 6 different XCAT scenarios corresponding to respirational and anatomical changes from planning CT to on-board using single 30° on-board projections, the VPD/COMS for SMM-WFD was reduced to 10.64±3.04%/1.20±0.45mm from 21.72±9.24%/1.80±0.53mm for GMM-FD. Using 15° orthogonal projections, the VPD/COMS was

  11. Real-Time Rotational Activity Detection in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Muñoz, Gonzalo R.; Arenal, Ángel; Artés-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Rotational activations, or spiral waves, are one of the proposed mechanisms for atrial fibrillation (AF) maintenance. We present a system for assessing the presence of rotational activity from intracardiac electrograms (EGMs). Our system is able to operate in real-time with multi-electrode catheters of different topologies in contact with the atrial wall, and it is based on new local activation time (LAT) estimation and rotational activity detection methods. The EGM LAT estimation method is based on the identification of the highest sustained negative slope of unipolar signals. The method is implemented as a linear filter whose output is interpolated on a regular grid to match any catheter topology. Its operation is illustrated on selected signals and compared to the classical Hilbert-Transform-based phase analysis. After the estimation of the LAT on the regular grid, the detection of rotational activity in the atrium is done by a novel method based on the optical flow of the wavefront dynamics, and a rotation pattern match. The methods have been validated using in silico and real AF signals. PMID:29593566

  12. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  13. Toroidal rotation studies in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. G.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    Investigation of the toroidal rotation is one of the most important topics for the magnetically confined fusion plasma researches since it is essential for the stabilization of resistive wall modes and its shear plays an important role to improve plasma confinement by suppressing turbulent transport. The most advantage of KSTAR tokamak for toroidal rotation studies is that it equips two main diagnostics including the high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and charge exchange spectroscopy (CES). Simultaneous core toroidal rotation and ion temperature measurements of different impurity species from the XICS and CES have shown in reasonable agreement with various plasma discharges in KSTAR. It has been observed that the toroidal rotation in KSTAR is faster than that of other tokamak devices with similar machine size and momentum input. This may due to an intrinsically low toroidal field ripple and error field of the KSTAR device. A strong braking of the toroidal rotation by the n = 1 non-resonant magnetic perturbations (NRMPs) also indicates these low toroidal field ripple and error field. Recently, it has been found that n = 2 NRMPs can also damp the toroidal rotation in KSTAR. The detail toroidal rotation studies will be presented. Work supported by the Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under the KSTAR project.

  14. Rotational discontinuities in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetic structure of rotational discontinuities (RDs) in anisotropic plasmas with T perpendicular /T parallel > 1 is investigated by using a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. To form the RD, a new approach is used where the plasma is injected from one boundary and reflected from the other, resulting in the generation of a traveling fast shock and an RD. Unlike the previously used methods, no a priori assumptions are made regarding the initial structure (i.e. width or sense of rotation) of the rotational discontinuity. The results show that across the RD both the magnetic field strength and direction, as well as the plasma density change. Given that such a change can also be associated with an intermediate shock, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to confirm that the observed structures are indeed RDs. It is found that the thickness of RDs is a few ion inertial lengths and is independent of the rotation angle. Also, the preferred sense of rotation is in the electron sense; however, RDs with a rotation angle larger than 180 degree are found to be unstable, changing their rotation to a stable ion sense

  15. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  16. FTU pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  17. Rotating relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1991-07-21

    Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.

  18. Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.

  19. B polarization of the CMB from Faraday rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoccola, Claudia; Harari, Diego; Mollerach, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of Faraday rotation due to a uniform magnetic field on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Scalar fluctuations give rise only to parity-even E-type polarization of the cosmic microwave background. However in the presence of a magnetic field, a nonvanishing parity-odd B-type polarization component is produced through Faraday rotation. We derive the exact solution for the E and B modes generated by scalar perturbations including the Faraday rotation effect of a uniform magnetic field, and evaluate their cross correlations with temperature anisotropies. We compute the angular autocorrelation function of the B-modes in the limit that the Faraday rotation is small. We find that uniform primordial magnetic fields of present strength around B 0 =10 -9 G rotate E-modes into B-modes with amplitude comparable to those due to the weak gravitational lensing effect at frequencies around ν=30 GHz. The strength of B-modes produced by Faraday rotation scales as B 0 /ν 2 . We evaluate also the depolarizing effect of Faraday rotation upon the cross correlation between temperature anisotropy and E-type polarization

  20. Effect of rotation on convective mass transfer in rotating channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharoah, J.G.; Djilali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Laminar flow and mass transfer in rotating channels is investigated in the context of centrifugal membrane separation. The effect of orientation with respect to the rotational axis is examined for rectangular channels of aspect ratio 3 and the Rossby number is varied from 0.3 to 20.9. Both Ro and the channel orientation are found to have a significant effect on the flow. Mass transfer calculations corresponding to reverse osmosis desalination are carried out at various operating pressures and all rotating cases exhibit significant process enhancements at relatively low rotation rates. Finally, while it is common in the membrane literature to correlate mass transfer performance with membrane shear rates this is shown not to be valid in the cases presented herein. (author)

  1. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  2. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  3. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  4. On the relativity of rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gron, O.

    2010-01-01

    The question whether rotational motion is relative according to the general theory of relativity is discussed. Einstein's ambivalence concerning this question is pointed out. In the present article I defend Einstein's way of thinking on this when he presented the theory in 1916. The significance of the phenomenon of perfect inertial dragging in connection with the relativity of rotational motion is discussed. The necessity of introducing an extended model of the Minkowski spacetime, in which a globally empty space is supplied with a cosmic mass shell with radius equal to its own Schwarzschild radius, in order to extend the principle of relativity to accelerated and rotational motion, is made clear.

  5. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  6. Experimental studies of rotating exchange flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, B.; Smeed, D. A.; Dalziel, S. B.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2007-02-01

    Ocean basins are connected by straits and passages, geometrically limiting important heat and salt exchanges which in turn influence the global thermohaline circulation and climate. Such exchange can be modeled in an idealized way by taking into consideration the density-driven two-layer flow along a strait under the influence of rotation. We use a laboratory model of a lock exchange between two reservoirs of different density through a flat-bottom channel with a horizontal narrows, set up on two different platforms: a 1 m diameter turntable, where density interface position was measured by dye attenuation, and the 14 m diameter turntable at Coriolis/LEGI (Grenoble, France), where correlation imaging velocimetry, a particle imaging technique, allowed us to obtain for the first time detailed measurements of the velocity fields in these flows. The influence of rotation is studied by varying a parameter, Bu, a type of Burger number given by the ratio of the Rossby radius to the channel width at the narrows. In addition, a two-layer version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Model (MICOM) is used, to study the cases with low Burger number. Results from experiments by Dalziel [1988. Two-layer hydraulics: maximal exchange flows. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, see also people/sd103/papers/1988/Thesis_Dalziel.pdf>] are also included for comparison. Time-mean exchange fluxes for any Bu are in close agreement with the inviscid zero-potential vorticity theory of Dalziel [1990. Rotating two-layer sill flows. In: Pratt, L.J. (Ed.), The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 343-371] and Whitehead et al. [1974. Rotating hydraulics of strait and sill flows. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 6, 101-125], who found that fluxes for Bu>1 mainly vary with channel width, similar to non-rotating flow, but for Bu1 a steady, two-layer flow was observed that persisted across the channel at the narrows

  7. Additional measurements of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    New rotational-velocity measurements for pre-main-sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud are reported. Rotational velocities or upper limits of 10 km/s are now available for 90 percent of the T Tauri stars with V less than 14.7 in the catalog of Cohen and Kuhi. Measurements of 'continuum emission' stars, thought to be accreting high-angular-momentum material from a circumstellar disk, show that these objects are not especially rapid rotators. The results confirm earlier findings that angular-momentum loss proceeds very efficiently in the earliest stages of star formation, and suggest that stars older than about one million yr contract to the main sequence at nearly constant angular momentum. The slow rotation of T Tauri stars probably requires substantial angular-momentum loss via a magnetically coupled wind. 35 references

  8. Advances in Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy for Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Brent; Fields, Shelby S.; Pulliam, Robin; Muckle, Matt; Neill, Justin L.

    2017-06-01

    Advances in chemical sensitivity and robust, solid-state designs for microwave/millimeter-wave instrumentation compel the expansion of molecular rotational spectroscopy as research tool into applied science. It is familiar to consider molecular rotational spectroscopy for air analysis. Those techniques for molecular rotational spectroscopy are included in our presentation of a more broad application space for materials analysis using Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Resonance (FT-MRR) spectrometers. There are potentially transformative advantages for direct gas analysis of complex mixtures, determination of unknown evolved gases with parts per trillion detection limits in solid materials, and unambiguous chiral determination. The introduction of FT-MRR as an alternative detection principle for analytical chemistry has created a ripe research space for the development of new analytical methods and sampling equipment to fully enable FT-MRR. We present the current state of purpose-built FT-MRR instrumentation and the latest application measurements that make use of new sampling methods.

  9. Prediction of secular acceleration of axial rotation of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    axial rotation which as it would be possible to expect, essentially surpasses the similar characteristic of rotation of the Earth. The obtained result means, that angular velocity of Mars in present period increases on the law r = (0.708821808000+ 0.000000001038×t) × 10-4 1/s, here t - in years. It is possible assume that the estimation of acceleration can be obtained directly on the basis of the data of observations in the nearest years. Velocity of secular change of duration of day for Mars (LOD) thus can make significant value about -0.0903 ms/yr, that considerably surpasses similar value for non-tidal acceleration of the Earth (-0.006 ms/yr). The ratio of positive acceleration of the Earth rotation ṙ to its angular velocity ? makes ṙ•? = (6.9± 1.7) × 10-11 1/yr[7]. In case of Mars the estimation of acceleration was carried out under the formula [8]: ṙ/ ? = -Ċ• C -á¹ °• G ?-Ċ• C = 103.8 × 10-11 1/yr. We here have neglected by an influence of secular change of the axial angular momentum of fluid masses (atmospheric and underground) of Marsá¹ °. As shown in other my report on EGU GA 2009 in case of the Earth the total angular momentum of fluids really is small and within the limits of mistakes can be accepted equal to zero. In the case of Mars we the same as and in case of the Earth, expect of secular change of the angular momentum of Mars and change of global superrotation of its atmosphere which, at least, in part, will be compensated by the angular momentum of fluids. Thus, expected non-tidal acceleration of axial rotation of Mars can be at 10-15 times more those, but observably by astronomical methods, for the Earth. Certainly, the estimations obtained here are preliminary and the phenomena discussed here require more detailed studying with using of new data of precision observations. First of all it is important to obtain the specified values of secular variations ˙ J2 and ˙ J3. In case of the Earth the tidal deceleration

  10. The REVAMP trial to evaluate HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study in clinical trial design in resource limited settings to optimize effectiveness and cost effectiveness estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Bwana, Mwebesa B; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S; Paul, Michelle; Pillay, Selvan; McCluskey, Suzanne; Aturinda, Isaac; Ard, Kevin; Muyindike, Winnie; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Brijkumar, Jaysingh; Rautenberg, Tamlyn; George, Gavin; Johnson, Brent; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2017-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, rates of sustained HIV virologic suppression remain below international goals. HIV resistance testing, while common in resource-rich settings, has not gained traction due to concerns about cost and sustainability. We designed a randomized clinical trial to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of routine HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe challenges common to intervention studies in resource-limited settings, and strategies used to address them, including: (1) optimizing generalizability and cost-effectiveness estimates to promote transition from study results to policy; (2) minimizing bias due to patient attrition; and (3) addressing ethical issues related to enrollment of pregnant women. The study randomizes people in Uganda and South Africa with virologic failure on first-line therapy to standard of care virologic monitoring or immediate resistance testing. To strengthen external validity, study procedures are conducted within publicly supported laboratory and clinical facilities using local staff. To optimize cost estimates, we collect primary data on quality of life and medical resource utilization. To minimize losses from observation, we collect locally relevant contact information, including Whatsapp account details, for field-based tracking of missing participants. Finally, pregnant women are followed with an adapted protocol which includes an increased visit frequency to minimize risk to them and their fetuses. REVAMP is a pragammatic randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV resistance testing versus standard of care in sub-Saharan Africa. We anticipate the results will directly inform HIV policy in sub-Saharan Africa to optimize care for HIV-infected patients.

  11. First measurement of poloidal-field-induced Faraday rotation in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, W.; Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1978-01-01

    Faraday rotation measurements using a ferrite modulation technique were performed on one channel of the 337 μm-interferometer on TFR. The experiment is intended as a preparatory step towards poloidal-field determination on the basis of the Faraday effect in a multi-channel configuration. The technical feasibility of precise Faraday rotation measurements under machine conditions is demonstrated. The measured rotation is unambiguously due to the poloidal magnetic field and agrees fairly with what can be estimated. (author)

  12. On rapid rotation in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, Per

    2008-01-01

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)

  13. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Differential rotation in magnetic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, D.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility that large-scale magnetic fields in stars are the product of a contemporary dynamo situated in the convective stellar core, rather than being a fossil from an earlier stage in the history of the star, is investigated. It is demonstrated that then the envelope will almost inevitably be in a state of differential rotation. Some simple models are constructed to illustrate the magnitude of the effects on the structure of the envelope and magnetic field. It is found that, for models which are relatively rapidly rotating, a modest differential rotation at the surface of the core may increase considerably the ratio of internal to surface field, but only give rise to a small surface differential rotation. (author)

  15. Conjunct rotation: Codman's paradox revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian I; Fradet, Laetitia; Rettig, Oliver

    2009-05-01

    This contribution mathematically formalizes Codman's idea of conjunct rotation, a term he used in 1934 to describe a paradoxical phenomenon arising from a closed-loop arm movement. Real (axial) rotation is distinguished from conjunct rotation. For characterizing the latter, the idea of reference vector fields is developed to define the neutral axial position of the humerus for any given orientation of its long axis. This concept largely avoids typical coordinate singularities arising from decomposition of 3D joint motion and therefore can be used for postural (axial) assessment of the shoulder joint both clinically and in sports science in almost the complete accessible range of motion. The concept, even though algebraic rather complex, might help to get an easier and more intuitive understanding of axial rotation of the shoulder in complex movements present in daily life and in sports.

  16. Image acquisition optimization of a limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for lung radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Deng, Xinchen; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) has been previously developed for four-dimensional (4D) intrafraction target verification either during arc delivery or between three-dimensional (3D)/IMRT beams. Preliminary studies showed that LIVE can accurately estimate the target volume using kV/MV projections acquired over orthogonal view 30° scan angles. Currently, the LIVE imaging acquisition requires slow gantry rotation and is not clinically optimized. The goal of this study is to optimize the image acquisition parameters of LIVE for different patient respiratory periods and gantry rotation speeds for the effective clinical implementation of the system. Limited-angle intrafraction verification imaging acquisition was optimized using a digital anthropomorphic phantom (XCAT) with simulated respiratory periods varying from 3 s to 6 s and gantry rotation speeds varying from 1°/s to 6°/s. LIVE scanning time was optimized by minimizing the number of respiratory cycles needed for the four-dimensional scan, and imaging dose was optimized by minimizing the number of kV and MV projections needed for four-dimensional estimation. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by calculating both the center-of-mass-shift (COMS) and three-dimensional volume-percentage-difference (VPD) between the tumor in estimated images and the ground truth images. The robustness of LIVE was evaluated with varied respiratory patterns, tumor sizes, and tumor locations in XCAT simulation. A dynamic thoracic phantom (CIRS) was used to further validate the optimized imaging schemes from XCAT study with changes of respiratory patterns, tumor sizes, and imaging scanning directions. Respiratory periods, gantry rotation speeds, number of respiratory cycles scanned and number of kV/MV projections acquired were all positively correlated with the estimation accuracy of LIVE. Faster gantry rotation speed or longer respiratory period allowed less respiratory cycles to be scanned and less kV/MV projections

  17. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180 degrees apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90 degrees to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis

  18. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  19. Current status of rotational atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2014-04-01

    Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiedron, P; Schlemmer, J; Klassen, M

    2005-01-01

    The rotating shawdowband spectroradiometer (RSS) implements the same automated shadowbanding technique used by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), and so it too provides spectrally-resolved, direct-normal, diffuse-horizontal, and total-horizontal irradiances, and can be calibrated in situ via Langley regression. The irradiance spectra are measured simultaneously at all spectral elements (pixels) in 360-nm to 1050-nm range.