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Sample records for estimate body composition

  1. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  2. Body composition estimation from selected slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...

  3. Estimate of body composition by Hume's equation: validation with DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Pamela Angela; Minonne, Rita; Castriotta, Valeria; Cipriani, Cristiana; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Scillitani, Alfredo; Romagnoli, Elisabetta

    2015-05-01

    We investigated how the Hume's equation, using the antipyrine space, could perform in estimating fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM). In 100 (40 male ad 60 female) subjects, we estimated FM and LBM by the equation and compared these values with those measured by a last generation DXA device. The correlation coefficients between measured and estimated FM were r = 0.940 (p LBM were r = 0.913 (p LBM, though the equation underestimated FM and overestimated LBM in respect to DXA. The mean difference for FM was 1.40 kg (limits of agreement of -6.54 and 8.37 kg). For LBM, the mean difference in respect to DXA was 1.36 kg (limits of agreement -8.26 and 6.52 kg). The root mean square error was 3.61 kg for FM and 3.56 kg for LBM. Our results show that in clinically stable subjects the Hume's equation could reliably assess body composition, and the estimated FM and LBM approached those measured by a modern DXA device.

  4. Estimating body weight and body composition of chickens by using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B L

    2001-07-01

    The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study

  5. Can you estimate body composition in dogs from photographs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, Poppy; Holden, Shelley L; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander J

    2016-01-20

    A validated method for assessing the visual characteristics of body condition from photographs (vBCS), would be a useful initial screening tool for client-owned dogs. In this retrospective study, photographs taken before and after weight loss from 155 overweight and obese dogs attending a weight management referral clinic were used in designing and testing the feasibility of vBCS. Observers with a range of experience examined the photographs, and estimated body condition indirectly (vBCS) using three different methods. In the first method (vBCSmeasured), the ratio of abdominal width to thoracic width (A:T) was measured, and cut-points used to determine body condition; the second method (iBCSsubjective) involved semi-quantitative examination using visual descriptors of BCS; the third (vBCSadjusted) was a combined approach whereby A:T ratio was first determined, and the final score modified if necessary after assessing photographs. When an experienced observer performed vBCS, there were moderate-to-good associations between body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and the three vBCS methods (median Rs: 0.51-0.75; P  0.05 for all). Compared with ideal weight and obese dogs, errors in assessing body condition were more common for overweight dogs (e.g. BCS 6-7/9, P photographs, but performance varies amongst observers.

  6. Estimation of Body Composition from Urinay Creatinine Excretion

    OpenAIRE

    小室, 史恵; 小宮, 秀一

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of total body water, using the deuterium oxide dilution method, and urinary creatinine excretion have been carried out in 26 males and females. Total body water and FFM may be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion by T.B.W.=0.0165 Cr. +17.773. FFM=0.0225 Cr. +17.446. In this subjects a high correlation (r=0.874) was found between T.B.W, FFM and urinary creatinine excretion. It appears that FFM can be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion.

  7. Use of tritiated water for estimating body composition in grazing ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.J.F.; Foot, J.Z.; McFarlane, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated water was used to estimate total body water, body composition and water turnover of non-pregnant, pregnant, non-lactating and lactating grazing sheep. Body composition was estimated from equilibrated and extrapolated values of tritiated water space. These methods both overestimated the total body water measured directly. Body fat could be predicted satisfactorily from tritiated water space within the physiological states of ewes, i.e. lactating, pregnant, etc., although for lactating ewes the error of prediction is greater. It appears inadvisable at this stage to use equations derived from all classes of ewes to estimate body fat in ewes of any one physiological state. Water turnover varied, with the physiological state being highest for lactating ewes. (author)

  8. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, R.N.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Lichtman, S.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, 3 H 2 O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition

  9. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition in surgical and oncological patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, E. B.; Reijven, P. L. M.; Binnekade, J. M.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.; Earthman, C. P.; Gouma, D. J.; de Haan, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for the evaluation of body composition. However, BIA estimations are subject to uncertainties.The aim of this systematic review was to explore the variability of empirical prediction equations used in BIA estimations and to evaluate

  10. In vivo body composition estimation in nongravid and reproducing first-litter sows with deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.G. Jr.; Mahan, D.C.; Byers, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 64 first-litter sows to evaluate the efficacy of a D 2 O dilution procedure for measuring in vivo body composition during the reproduction cycle. Eight gilts were each infused at breeding, 57 and 105 d postcoitum and at 5 and 25 d postpartum, with equivalent numbers of nongravid controls infused at corresponding periods except at 5 d postpartum. Results from D 2 O dilution were compared with body water estimates obtained from chemical analysis. An early-equilibrating D 2 O pool (before 15 min) was similar quantitatively to empty body (ingesta free) water in nongravid and lactating animals, but not in pregnant sows. Because of inconsistent D 2 O equilibration patterns in gravid sows, the early pool was considered to have equilibrated with part but not all of the water in the conceptus products. Total body D 2 O space measurement obtained from data following equilibration of D 2 O in the entire body (1 to 2 h) overestimated total body water (including gastrointestinal water) by approximately 19%. Coefficients of determination for equations relating total body D 2 O space to empty body and maternal body water were .96 and .88, respectively, in gestating sows and .67 and .74, respectively, for lactating sows, while coefficients of variation were below 6% in all cases. Prediction equations were developed to estimate empty and maternal body components (protein, fat and ash) from body weight and D 2 O space. Accuracy of protein and ash weight prediction is lowest with this procedure because it involves the composite error of estimation of the other body components

  11. Manipulation of Muscle Creatine and Glycogen Changes Dual X-ray Absorptiometry Estimates of Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Julia L; Ross, Megan L; Tomcik, Kristyen A; Jeacocke, Nikki A; Hopkins, Will G; Burke, Louise M

    2017-05-01

    Standardizing a dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) protocol is thought to provide a reliable measurement of body composition. We investigated the effects of manipulating muscle glycogen and creatine content independently and additively on DXA estimates of lean mass. Eighteen well-trained male cyclists undertook a parallel group application of creatine loading (n = 9) (20 g·d for 5 d loading; 3 g·d maintenance) or placebo (n = 9) with crossover application of glycogen loading (12 v 6 g·kg BM per day for 48 h) as part of a larger study involving a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol. Body composition, total body water, muscle glycogen and creatine content were assessed via DXA, bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and standard biopsy techniques. Changes in the mean were assessed using the following effect-size scale: >0.2 small, >0.6, moderate, >1.2 large and compared with the threshold for the smallest worthwhile effect of the treatment. Glycogen loading, both with and without creatine loading, resulted in substantial increases in estimates of lean body mass (mean ± SD; 3.0% ± 0.7% and 2.0% ± 0.9%) and leg lean mass (3.1% ± 1.8% and 2.6% ± 1.0%) respectively. A substantial decrease in leg lean mass was observed after the glycogen depleting condition (-1.4% ± 1.6%). Total body water showed substantial increases after glycogen loading (2.3% ± 2.3%), creatine loading (1.4% ± 1.9%) and the combined treatment (2.3% ± 1.1%). Changes in muscle metabolites and water content alter DXA estimates of lean mass during periods in which minimal change in muscle protein mass is likely. This information needs to be considered in interpreting the results of DXA-derived estimates of body composition in athletes.

  12. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum

  13. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  14. Validity of Standing Posture Eight-electrode Bioelectrical Impedance to Estimate Body Composition in Taiwanese Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Chun Lee

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the impedance index and LST in the whole body, upper limbs, and lower limbs derived from DXA findings were highly correlated. The LST and BF% estimated by BIA8 in whole body and various body segments were highly correlated with the corresponding DXA results; however, BC-418 overestimates the participants' appendicular LST and underestimates whole body BF%. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting the results of appendicular LST and whole body BF% estimated for elderly adults.

  15. Body composition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. iiv vito estimation of body composition in cattle with tritium and urea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate the tritium and urea dilution techniques for accurate predictron of body composition. Approximately l,l - 1,4 g ut"u/W9:]5 ... live aninral and the carcass, and to evaluate their accuracy in cornparison to those derived from ... to be infused, was carefully weighed into 20 and 50 ml sterilized disposable syringes which.

  17. A Comparison of Methods for the Estimation of Body Composition in Highly Trained Wheelchair Games Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V.; Keil, M.; Brooke-Wavell, K.; de Groot, S.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement in body composition measurements of wheelchair athletes using skinfolds, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) relative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A secondary objective was to develop new skinfold

  18. Estimation of body composition depends on applied device in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Elizabeth B.; Binnekade, Jan M.; de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Gouma, Dirk J.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a method used to estimate body compartments such as fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Two BIA devices, a single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) device and a bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) approach, were compared to evaluate their reliability and to study

  19. Estimation of Body Composition Depends on Applied Device in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, E.B.; Binnekade, J.M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Gouma, D.J.; de Haan, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a method used to estimate body compartments such as fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Two BIA devices, a single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) device and a bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) approach, were compared to evaluate their reliability and to

  20. Validation of equations using anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance for estimating body composition of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Ricardo Rech

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the elderly population has enhanced the need for studying aging-related issues. In this context, the analysis of morphological alterations occurring with the age has been discussed thoroughly. Evidences point that there are few information on valid methods for estimating body composition of senior citizens in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to cross-validate equations using either anthropometric or bioelectrical impedance (BIA data for estimation of body fat (%BF and of fat-free mass (FFM in a sample of older individuals from Florianópolis-SC, having the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA as the criterion-measurement. The group was composed by 180 subjects (60 men and 120 women who participated in four community Groups for the elderly and were systematically randomly selected by a telephone interview, with age ranging from 60 to 81 years. The variables stature, body mass, body circumferences, skinfold thickness, reactance and resistance were measured in the morning at The Sports Center of the Federal University of Santa Catarina. The DEXA evaluation was performed in the afternoon at The Diagnosis Center through Image in Florianópolis-SC. Twenty anthropometric and 8 BIA equations were analyzed for cross-validation. For those equations that estimate body density, the equation of Siri (1961 and the adapted-equation by Deurenberg et al. (1989 were used for conversion into %BF. The analyses were performed with the statistical package SPSS, version 11.5, establishing the level of significance at 5%. The criteria of cross-validation suggested by Lohman (1992 and the graphic dispersion analyses in relation to the mean, as proposed by Bland and Altman (1986 were used. The group presented values for the body mass index (BMI between 18.4kg.m-2 and 39.3kg.m-2. The mean %BF was of 23.1% (sd=5.8 for men and 37.3% (sd=6.9 in women, varying from 6% to 51.4%. There were no differences among the estimates of the equations

  1. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  2. Body composition estimation from selected slices: equations computed from a new semi-automatic thresholding method developed on whole-body CT scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizé Lacoste Jeanson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. Methods We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT and lean tissue (LT in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR. Results and Discussion The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single slice located between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5 and produced lower prediction errors (|PE| = 1.86 liters, %PE = 8.77 than previous equations also based on CT scans. The LT area of the mid-thigh provided the lowest prediction errors (|PE| = 2.52 liters, %PE = 7.08 for estimating whole-body LT volume. We also present equations to predict total body AT and LT masses from a slice located at L4-L5 that resulted in reduced error compared with the previously published equations based on CT scans. The multislice SVMR predictor gave the theoretical upper limit for prediction precision of volumes and cross-validated the results.

  3. Body composition estimation from selected slices: equations computed from a new semi-automatic thresholding method developed on whole-body CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR). The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single slice located between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) and produced lower prediction errors (|PE| = 1.86 liters, %PE = 8.77) than previous equations also based on CT scans. The LT area of the mid-thigh provided the lowest prediction errors (|PE| = 2.52 liters, %PE = 7.08) for estimating whole-body LT volume. We also present equations to predict total body AT and LT masses from a slice located at L4-L5 that resulted in reduced error compared with the previously published equations based on CT scans. The multislice SVMR predictor gave the theoretical upper limit for prediction precision of volumes and cross-validated the results.

  4. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body composition of pigs: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible, while of comparative slaughter and dissection the fact that examinations can be made only once on the same pig. The non-invasive imaging techniques, such as real time ultrasound, computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could constitute a valuable tool for the estimation of body composition performed in series on living animals. The aim of this paper was to compare these methods. Ultrasound equipment entails a relatively low cost and great mobility, but provides less information and lower accuracy about whole body composition compared to CT and MRI. For this reason the ultrasound technique will in the future most probably remain for field application. Computer tomography and MRI with standardized and verified application methods could provide a tool to substitute whole body analysis and physical dissection. With respect to the disadvantages of CT and MRI techniques, the expense and the lack of portability should be cited, and for these reasons it is most likely that in future such techniques will be applied only in research and breeding programs

  5. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furth...

  6. Making the most of the imaging we have: using head MRI to estimate body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lack, C.M.; Lesser, G.J.; Umesi, U.N.; Bowns, J.; Chen, M.Y.; Case, D.; Hightower, R.C.; Johnson, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the use of clinical head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining body composition and to evaluate how well it correlates with established measures based on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Ninety-nine consecutive patients were identified who had undergone both brain MRI and abdominal CT within a 2-week span. Volumes of fat and muscle in the extracranial head were measured utilising several techniques by both abdominal CT and head MRI. Results: MRI-based total fat volumes in the head correlated with CT-based measurements of fat in the abdomen using both single-section (r=0.64, p<0.01) and multisection (r=0.60, p<0.01) techniques. No significant correlation was found between muscle volumes in the abdomen and head. Conclusion: Based on the present results, head MRI-based measures may provide a useful surrogate for CT measurements of abdominal fat, particularly in patients with neurological cancers, as head MRI (and not abdominal CT) is routinely and repeatedly obtained for the purpose of clinical care for these patients. - Highlights: • We compared body composition using brain MRI with previously proven abdominal CT. • Fat and muscle volumes of the extracranial compartment can be measured by MRI. • Muscle volume in the face does not correlate with abdominal muscle volume. • Fat volume in the face can be used as a surrogate for abdominal fat volume.

  7. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zimian; Pierson, Richard N; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen Zhao; Zhu Shankuan

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R ST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R ST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R ST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R ST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40 K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R ST values. The DXA R ST values were strongly associated with the R ST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P ST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R ST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P ST is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  8. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese individuals: The possibility to estimate whole body composition from DXA half-body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.; Neovius, M.; Grigorenko, A.; Nordenstroem, J.; Roessner, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because of its high accuracy, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become one of the most frequently used methods for estimating human body composition. One limiting factor concerning measuring obese people with the DXA technique is the size of the scanning area. Objective: To explore the possibility of estimating whole body composition from half-body scans before and after weight reduction, and compare the results with densitometry measurements. Design: Intervention study of 15 obese adults (age 47.2 ± 13.4; BMI 35.9 ± 3.1) who were measured with full- and half-body DXA scans before and after a 7-week weight loss program. On both occasions, body composition was also assessed with air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Results: The mean weight loss at follow-up was 14.9 ± 4.1 kg (5.0 kg/m 2 ), corresponding to a 14% decrease in body weight. When comparing the results from full- and half-body DXA, between 96% and 98% of the variance was explained. At baseline, %Body Fat (%BF) did not differ significantly between full and half-body measurements (0.6, -0.1-1.3), but the half-body method overestimated it by 1.0% (0.2-1.8) at follow-up. On the contrary, the difference between DXA and ADP in the assessment of %BF was both significant and of large magnitude (5.2; 2.4-8.0) at baseline, while non-significant and near zero (0.4; -1.3-2.2) at follow-up when the subjects had lost a significant amount of weight. Conclusion: The results obtained from half-body DXA scans can accurately predict whole body composition, as measured by full-body DXA, before and after significant weight reduction, in obese patients who barely fit into the scanning area. However, increasing discordance between DXA and ADP with increasing adiposity was seen, indicating that the measurements might not be as reliable on extreme obese subjects as on normal and overweight ditto

  9. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese individuals: The possibility to estimate whole body composition from DXA half-body scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: kent.lundqvist@karolinska.se; Neovius, M. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Grigorenko, A. [Research and Development Unit, YLab Wellcare Institute, SE-113 60 Stockholm (Sweden); Nordenstroem, J. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Roessner, S. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Background: Because of its high accuracy, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become one of the most frequently used methods for estimating human body composition. One limiting factor concerning measuring obese people with the DXA technique is the size of the scanning area. Objective: To explore the possibility of estimating whole body composition from half-body scans before and after weight reduction, and compare the results with densitometry measurements. Design: Intervention study of 15 obese adults (age 47.2 {+-} 13.4; BMI 35.9 {+-} 3.1) who were measured with full- and half-body DXA scans before and after a 7-week weight loss program. On both occasions, body composition was also assessed with air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Results: The mean weight loss at follow-up was 14.9 {+-} 4.1 kg (5.0 kg/m{sup 2}), corresponding to a 14% decrease in body weight. When comparing the results from full- and half-body DXA, between 96% and 98% of the variance was explained. At baseline, %Body Fat (%BF) did not differ significantly between full and half-body measurements (0.6, -0.1-1.3), but the half-body method overestimated it by 1.0% (0.2-1.8) at follow-up. On the contrary, the difference between DXA and ADP in the assessment of %BF was both significant and of large magnitude (5.2; 2.4-8.0) at baseline, while non-significant and near zero (0.4; -1.3-2.2) at follow-up when the subjects had lost a significant amount of weight. Conclusion: The results obtained from half-body DXA scans can accurately predict whole body composition, as measured by full-body DXA, before and after significant weight reduction, in obese patients who barely fit into the scanning area. However, increasing discordance between DXA and ADP with increasing adiposity was seen, indicating that the measurements might not be as reliable on extreme obese subjects as on normal and overweight ditto.

  10. Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis-based equations for estimation of body composition in postpartum rural Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Schulze, Kerry J; Kurpad, Anura; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee S-F; Rashid, Mahbubar; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2013-02-28

    Equations for predicting body composition from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) parameters are age-, sex- and population-specific. Currently there are no equations applicable to women of reproductive age in rural South Asia. Hence, we developed equations for estimating total body water (TBW), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass in rural Bangladeshi women using BIA, with ²H₂O dilution as the criterion method. Women of reproductive age, participating in a community-based placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation, were enrolled at 19·7 (SD 9·3) weeks postpartum in a study to measure body composition by ²H₂O dilution and impedance at 50 kHz using multi-frequency BIA (n 147), and resistance at 50 kHz using single-frequency BIA (n 82). TBW (kg) by ²H2O dilution was used to derive prediction equations for body composition from BIA measures. The prediction equation was applied to resistance measures obtained at 13 weeks postpartum in a larger population of postpartum women (n 1020). TBW, FFM and fat were 22·6 (SD 2·7), 30·9 (SD 3·7) and 10·2 (SD 3·8) kg by ²H₂O dilution. Height²/impedance or height²/resistance and weight provided the best estimate of TBW, with adjusted R² 0·78 and 0·76, and with paired absolute differences in TBW of 0·02 (SD 1·33) and 0·00 (SD 1·28) kg, respectively, between BIA and ²H₂O. In the larger sample, values for TBW, FFM and fat were 23·8, 32·5 and 10·3 kg, respectively. BIA can be an important tool for assessing body composition in women of reproductive age in rural South Asia where poor maternal nutrition is common.

  11. Unbiased estimation of human body composition by the Cavalieri method using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.; Reid, N.M.K.; Brodie, D.A.; Bourne, M.; Edwards, R.H.T.; Cruz-Orive, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The classical methods for estimating the volume of human body compartments in vivo (e.g. skin-fold thickness for fat, radioisotope counting for different compartments, etc.) are generally indirect and rely on essentially empirical relationships - hence they are biased to unknown degrees. The advent of modern non-invasive scanning techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now widening the scope of volume quantification, especially in combination with stereological methods. Apart from its superior soft tissue contrast, MRI enjoys the distinct advantage of not using ionizing radiations. By a proper landmarking and control of the scanner couch, an adult male volunteer was scanned exhaustively into parallel systematic MR ''sections''. Four compartments were defined, namely bone, muscle, organs and fat (which included the skin), and their corresponding volumes were easily and efficiently estimated by the Cavalieri method: the total section area of a compartment times the section interval estimates the volume of the compartment without bias. Formulae and nomograms are given to predict the errors and to optimize the design. To estimate an individual's muscle volume with a 5% coefficient of error, 10 sections and less than 10 min point counting (to estimate the relevant section areas) are required. Bone and fat require about twice as much work. To estimate the mean muscle volume of a population with the same error contribution, from a random sample of six subjects, the workload per subject can be divided by √ 6, namely 4 min per subject. For a given number of sections planimetry would be as accurate but far more time consuming than point counting. (author)

  12. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  13. Sex and age specific prediction formulas for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance : a cross-validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Weststrate, J A; Seidell, J C

    In 827 male and female subjects, with a large variation in body composition and an age range of 7-83 years, body composition was measured by densitometry, anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. The relationship between densitometrically determined fat free mass (FFM) with body impedance (R),

  14. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zimian; Pierson, Richard N [Obesity Research Center, St Luke' s-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States); Heymsfield, Steven B [Clinical Research, Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (United States); Chen Zhao [Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Zhu Shankuan, E-mail: zw28@columbia.ed [Obesity and Body Composition Research Center, Zhejiang University, School of Public Health, Hangzhou (China)

    2010-05-07

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R{sub ST} value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R{sub ST} concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R{sub ST} values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R{sub ST} value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body {sup 40}K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R{sub ST} values. The DXA R{sub ST} values were strongly associated with the R{sub ST} values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted R{sub ST} to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R{sub ST} (mean {+-} SD, 1.389 {+-} 0.024 versus 1.341 {+-} 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 {+-} 12.0% versus 24.9 {+-} 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA R{sub ST} is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  15. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body composition of pigs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible,

  16. Modeling the movement and equilibrium of water in the body of ruminants in relation to estimating body composition by deuterium oxide dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution was evaluated for use in estimating body composition of ruminants. Empty body composition of cattle could not be accurately estimated by two- or three-compartment models when solved on the basis of clearance of D 2 O from blood. A 29-compartment blood-flow model was developed from measured blood flow rates and water volumes of tissues of sheep. The rates of equilibration of water in tissues that were simulated by the blood-flow model were much faster than actual rates measured in sheep and cattle. The incorporation of diffusion hindrances for movement of water into tissues enabled the blood flow model to simulate the measured equilibration rates in tissues, but the values of the diffusion coefficients were different for each tissue. The D 2 O-disappearance curve for blood simulated by the blood-flow model with diffusion limitations was comprised for four exponential components. The tissues and gastrointestinal tract contents were placed into five groups based upon the rate of equilibration. Water in the organs of the body equilibrated with water in blood within 3 min. Water in visceral fat, head, and some of the gastrointestinal tract tissues equilibrated within 8 to 16 min. Water in skeletal muscle, fat, and bone and the contents of some segments of the gastrointestinal tract equilibrated within 30 to 36 min. Water in the tissues and contents of the cecum and upper-large intestine equilibrated within 160 to 200 min. Water in ruminal tissue and contents equilibrated within 480 min

  17. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in cancer patients with abnormal body composition and relation with carboplatin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, M; Jouinot, A; Durand, J P; Huillard, O; Boudou Rouquette, P; Tlemsani, C; Arrondeau, J; Sarfati, G; Goldwasser, F; Alexandre, J

    2017-07-01

    Carboplatin clearance is correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and usually estimated with creatinine clearance using Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula. Because plasma creatinine level is highly correlated with muscle mass, we hypothesized that an abnormal body composition with a low lean body mass (LBM) percentage [(LBM/weight) × 100] may result in inadequate carboplatin dosing. Serum cystatin C is an alternative marker of GFR, not affected by muscle mass. We aimed to investigate the influence of total LBM and LBM percentage on GFR calculation, using creatinine (CrCl) or cystatin C (GFR cysC-creat ) in cancer patients. Pretreatment serum creatinine and cystatin C were prospectively measured in consecutive patients. CrCl (CG formula), GFR cysC-creat (CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin equation), and LBM (CT scan) were calculated. Severe thrombocytopenia post-carboplatin were analyzed. In 131 patients without renal insufficiency, LBM was correlated with creatinine (r = 0.30, p LBM percentage, the CrCl was significantly higher than GFR cysC-creat indicating an overestimation of GFR with creatinine (p = 0.0004). In 24 patients treated with carboplatin AUC 5 (mg/ml min) ± paclitaxel, the risk of severe thrombocytopenia was associated with lower LBM percentage (p = 0.0002) and higher CrCl/GFR cysC-creat ratio (p = 0.006). By ROC analysis, the CrCl/GFR cysC-creat ratio threshold predicting severe thrombocytopenia was 1.23. A low LBM percentage increases the risk of inadequate GFR calculation by CG formula, and carboplatin overdosage with severe thrombocytopenia. High CrCl/GFR cysC-creat ratio allows the identification of these patients.

  18. RELEVANCE OF BIO IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BODY COMPOSITION IN DIALYSED AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Moreau

    2012-06-01

    DXA and BIS measurements were highly correlated in both DP and KTR. However, the large individual differences demonstrated that single values of FFM or FM may be interpreted carefully but BIS as DXA has ability to evaluate changes in body composition over time in longitudinal studies.

  19. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  20. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  1. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  2. Body composition: Where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  4. Body composition assessment in American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Hunsberger, S; Reid, R; Stewart, D; Skipper, B

    1999-04-01

    Although the high prevalence of obesity in American Indian children was documented in several surveys that used body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) as the measure, there is limited information on more direct measurements of body adiposity in this population. The present study evaluated body composition in 81 boys (aged 11.2+/-0.6 y) and 75 girls (aged 11.0+/-0.4 y) attending public schools in 6 American Indian communities: White Mountain Apache, Pima, and Tohono O'Odham in Arizona; Oglala Lakota and Sicangu Lakota in South Dakota; and Navajo in New Mexico and Arizona. These communities were participating in the feasibility phase of Pathways, a multicenter intervention for the primary prevention of obesity. Body composition was estimated by using a combination of skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance measurements, with a prediction equation validated previously in this same population. The mean BMI was 20.4+/-4.2 for boys and 21.1+/-5.0 for girls. The sum of the triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses averaged 28.6+/-7.0 mm in boys and 34.0+/-8.0 mm in girls. Mean percentage body fat was 35.6+/-6.9 in boys and 38.8+/-8.5 in girls. The results from this study confirmed the high prevalence of excess body fatness in school-age American Indian children and permitted the development of procedures, training, and quality control for measurement of the main outcome variable in the full-scale Pathways study.

  5. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  6. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  7. Body mass estimation from the skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age...

  8. Body composition of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Davies, Peter S W

    2010-07-01

    Nutritional status, as represented by body composition, is an important consideration in the treatment of pediatric cancer patients because it is linked to poor outcomes. Little is known about how a child's body composition responds to cancer and treatment. We aimed to compare the body composition of children undergoing treatment of cancer with that of healthy controls and to compare body composition between children with hematologic malignancies and children with solid tumors. This cross-sectional study measured height, weight, body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat mass in 48 children undergoing treatment of cancer and blood-related disorders and in age-matched healthy controls. Patients with cancer had a significantly lower body cell mass index z score (body cell mass/height raised to the power of 2.5 for females and 3 for males) than did controls (P = 0.0001), and 45% of the patients with cancer were considered malnourished according to body cell mass. Subjects with cancer had a significantly higher percentage of body fat (P = 0.0001) and fat mass (P = 0.0001) than did controls; however, there was no significant difference in fat-free mass (P = 0.09). On the basis of percentage fat, 77% of subjects with cancer were considered obese. No difference in body composition was observed between cancer types. This study showed that children undergoing treatment of all types of cancer have a significantly lower body cell mass and a significantly higher fat mass than do healthy controls. Nutritional support is suggested for all children undergoing treatment of cancer.

  9. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    , and a crust. Both Daubrée and Boisse also expected that the Earth was composed of a similar sequence of concentric layers (see Burke, 1986; Marvin, 1996).At the beginning of the twentieth century Harkins at the University of Chicago thought that meteorites would provide a better estimate for the bulk composition of the Earth than the terrestrial rocks collected at the surface as we have only access to the "mere skin" of the Earth. Harkins made an attempt to reconstruct the composition of the hypothetical meteorite planet by compiling compositional data for 125 stony and 318 iron meteorites, and mixing the two components in ratios based on the observed falls of stones and irons. The results confirmed his prediction that elements with even atomic numbers are more abundant and therefore more stable than those with odd atomic numbers and he concluded that the elemental abundances in the bulk meteorite planet are determined by nucleosynthetic processes. For his meteorite planet Harkins calculated Mg/Si, Al/Si, and Fe/Si atomic ratios of 0.86, 0.079, and 0.83, very closely resembling corresponding ratios of the average solar system based on presently known element abundances in the Sun and in CI-meteorites (see Burke, 1986).If the Earth were similar compositionally to the meteorite planet, it should have a similarly high iron content, which requires that the major fraction of iron is concentrated in the interior of the Earth. The presence of a central metallic core to the Earth was suggested by Wiechert in 1897. The existence of the core was firmly established using the study of seismic wave propagation by Oldham in 1906 with the outer boundary of the core accurately located at a depth of 2,900km by Beno Gutenberg in 1913. In 1926 the fluidity of the outer core was finally accepted. The high density of the core and the high abundance of iron and nickel in meteorites led very early to the suggestion that iron and nickel are the dominant elements in the Earth's core (Brush

  10. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  11. Spin State Estimation of Tumbling Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Russell, Ryan P.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that a non-trivial percentage of small bodies that future missions may visit are in non-principal axis rotation (i.e. "tumbling"). The primary contribution of this paper is the application of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) method to estimate the small body spin state, mass, and moments of inertia; the spacecraft position and velocity; and the surface landmark locations. The method uses optical landmark measurements, and an example scenario based on the Rosetta mission is used. The SLAM method proves effective, with order of magnitude decreases in the spacecraft and small body spin state errors after less than a quarter of the comet characterization phase. The SLAM method converges nicely for initial small body angular velocity errors several times larger than the true rates (effectively having no a priori knowledge of the angular velocity). Surface landmark generation and identification are not treated in this work, but significant errors in the initial body-fixed landmark positions are effectively estimated. The algorithm remains effective for a range of different truth spin states, masses, and center of mass offsets that correspond to expected tumbling small bodies throughout the solar system.

  12. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  13. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  14. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The interplay between nutrition and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or radiation treatment for cancer.3.4 The loss of body tissue may be .... adjacent to areas of damage or surgical injury should give valuable .... The composition of weight loss caused by chronic ... pancreatitis (E) (N = 6); burns IF) (N = 4).

  16. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  17. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  18. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  19. Body composition of term healthy Indian newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, V; Kurpad, A V; Kumar, B; Devi, S; Sreenivas, V; Paul, V K

    2016-04-01

    Previous anthropometry-based studies have suggested that in Indian newborns fat mass is conserved at the expense of lean tissue. This study was undertaken to assess the body composition of Indian newborns and to evaluate its relation with parents' anthropometry, birth weight and early postnatal weight gain. Body composition of healthy term singleton newborns was assessed by the deuterium dilution method in the second week of life. Anthropometry was carried out at birth and on the day of study. Data from 127 babies were analyzed. Birth weight was 2969±383 g. Body composition was assessed at a mean age of 12.7±3.1 days. Fat and fat-free mass were 354±246 and 2764±402 g, respectively, and fat mass percentage (FM%) was 11.3±7.3%. Birth weight and fat-free mass were higher among boys, but no gender difference was noted in FM%. Birth weight was positively correlated with fat as well as fat-free mass but not FM%. FM% showed positive correlation with gain in weight from birth to the day of assessment. This is the first study from India to report body composition in newborns using deuterium dilution. FM% was comparable to that reported for Western populations for babies of similar age. Our results suggest that the percentage of fat and fat-free mass is relatively constant over the range of birth weights included in this study, and greater weight gain during early postnatal period results in greater increase in FM%.

  20. body composition, and subjective assessments of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Giessing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of resistance training (RT examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n=13; females, n=17 were randomised to either a group performing low volume ‘High Intensity Training’ (HIT; n=16 or high volume ‘Body-building’ (3ST; n=14 RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant’s subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively. HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05 and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively. Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.

  1. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    of bone mineral and body composition included total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMC and BMD, forearm BMC and BMD, fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM), percentage fat mass (FM%) as well as a DXA estimate of the body weight. Body composition (FM, FFM and FM....../creatinine and Ca/creatinine (fU-OHpr/creat, fUCa/creat). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between OLS and placebo groups as to any of the body composition variables (FFM, FM, FM%) at baseline or after 1 y treatment. Weight loss was of 11.2+/-7.5 kg in the OLS group and 8.1+/-7.5 kg in the placebo...... group (NS). The changes in FM and FM% were significant in both groups determined by DXA as well as by TBK, but the group differences between these changes were not significant. The composition of the weight loss was approximately 80% fat in both groups. FFM only changed significantly by DXA in the OLS...

  2. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  3. Body composition of italian female hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this work the anthropometric features and the body composition of Italian hockey players, members of the Female National team, were analysed. The purpose of the research was to verify if morphological features could influence the performance of different positional groups. Materials and Methods: Each player was measured for her total and sitting height, weight, 9 skinfolds thickness and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Different equations were used to calculate the Fat% from skinfolds thickness. Results: Average height is not a crucial advantage for this sport. On the contrary the proportion trunk-limb seems to play an important role for the performance of the midfield players. Percentage of body fat of the hockey players was lower than the Fat% of the non-athletes women of the same age. Significant differences were found between Fat% determined by skinfolds thickness and Fat% obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in anthropometric features and in body composition between positional groups, stressing the importance of a specific training program. Keywords: field hockey, bioelectrical impedance, skinfolds thickness, anthropometry.

  4. Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African ... e between body composition and disordered eating in irregular vs normal menstruating athletes. ... measured by air displacement plethysmography.

  5. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  6. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  7. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ellen Brierley

    Full Text Available The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range, with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  8. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  9. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  10. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  11. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  12. Disease-related malnutrition: influence on body composition and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirlich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a frequent clincal problem with severe medical and economic impact. This work summarizes studies on body composition analysis, risk factors, prevalence and prognostic impact of malnutrition. The diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with chronic liver disease is hampered by hyperhydration and requires body composition analysis. Using four different methods for body composition analysis (total body potassium counting, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analy...

  13. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  14. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total body water, visceral fat accumulation, body mass index, resting metabolic rate, fat‑free mass, bone mass, and muscle mass were significantly higher in obese when compared to those with nonobese (P < 0.001). Thirteen ... Keywords: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss ...

  15. Tracking of Body Composition in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for

  16. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (Pshort and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  17. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  18. Hot Carcass Specific Gravity: Could Be Used Accurately for In-vivo Body Composition Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Shebaita, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve mature male goats (Bucks) of Egyptian Baladi breed aged 4 years old and body weight of 30.5 kg were used to verify the validation of predicting equations by which carcass specific gravity and body weight can be used to estimate body composition. Live body weight, TOH-space, Blood and plasma volume were determined. Two weeks later, all bucks were slaughtered and each of empty body weight, hot carcass weight, hot carcass specific gravity, offals, along with separating carcass components (muscle, fat, bone) and chemical components (water, protein, fat, ash) of the whole body, empty body and carcass were determined. Step-wise regression analyses of the relationships among hot carcass specific gravity, body and carcass weight (as independent variables) and body composition parameters were performed. The validation of the obtained predicting equations was examined by calculating the intercept and the slope of the regression of the predicted parameter on the observed parameter. The valid equation should have an insignificant intercept from zero and insignificant slope from one. The data revealed that hot carcass specific gravity has not any valid equation to predict body and carcass composition. Live body weight can be used to predict empty body weight and red blood cells volume. Empty body weight has a valid equation to estimate empty body water. However, hot carcass weight can be used to estimate carcass water, muscle and edible portion

  19. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.

    Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and

  20. Deuterium oxide dilution kinetics to predict body composition in dairy goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover

  1. A novel body circumferences-based estimation of percentage body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Yair; Epstein, Yoram; Kedem, Ron; Schermann, Haggai

    2018-03-01

    Anthropometric measures of body composition are often used for rapid and cost-effective estimation of percentage body fat (%BF) in field research, serial measurements and screening. Our aim was to develop a validated estimate of %BF for the general population, based on simple body circumferences measures. The study cohort consisted of two consecutive samples of health club members, designated as 'development' (n 476, 61 % men, 39 % women) and 'validation' (n 224, 50 % men, 50 % women) groups. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements as part of their registration to a health club. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was used as the 'gold standard' estimate of %BF. Linear regressions where used to construct the predictive equation (%BFcal). Bland-Altman statistics, Lin concordance coefficients and percentage of subjects falling within 5 % of %BF estimate by DEXA were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of the equation. The variance inflation factor was used to check multicollinearity. Two distinct equations were developed for men and women: %BFcal (men)=10·1-0·239H+0·8A-0·5N; %BFcal (women)=19·2-0·239H+0·8A-0·5N (H, height; A, abdomen; N, neck, all in cm). Bland-Altman differences were randomly distributed and showed no fixed bias. Lin concordance coefficients of %BFcal were 0·89 in men and 0·86 in women. About 79·5 % of %BF predictions in both sexes were within ±5 % of the DEXA value. The Durnin-Womersley skinfolds equation was less accurate in our study group for prediction of %BF than %BFcal. We conclude that %BFcal offers the advantage of obtaining a reliable estimate of %BF from simple measurements that require no sophisticated tools and only a minimal prior training and experience.

  2. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H 2 O and 82 Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support

  3. Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african sharptooth catfish ( Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed locally formulated and commercial pelleted diets in tarpaulin tanks.

  4. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of 32 hospital...

  5. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  6. Anthropometrics and body composition by dual energy X-ray in children of obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    of the RCT mothers and in 97 reference group children with Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-score as a primary outcome. Body composition was estimated by Dual Energy X-ray (DEXA) in 123 successful scans out of 147 (84%). RESULTS: No differences between randomized groups were seen in mean (95% C.I.) BMI Z...

  7. Nutrient Requirements, Body Composition, and Health of Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    .... As pan of the Defense Women's Health Research Program, a new report from the Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women of the Institute of the Institute of Medicine examines issues of body composition, fitness, and appearance standards and their impact on the health, nutritional status, and performance of active-duty women.

  8. Cylindrical concave body of composite fibrous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a cylindrical concave body of compound fibrous material which is intended to be exposed to high rotation speeds around its own longitudinal axis. The concave body in question has at least one layer of fibrils that are interwoven and enclose an identical angle with the longitudinal axis of the concave body in both directions. The concave body in question also has at least a second layer of fibrils that run in the direction of the circumference and are fitted radially to the outside. The cylindrical concave body of the invention is particularly well suited for application as a rotor tube in a gas ultra-centrifuge

  9. In vivo body composition studies in malnourished patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J; Blagojevic, N

    1987-09-01

    The establishment of an in vivo TBN facility at Lucas Heights, together with measurement techniques for whole body and extracellular water, is leading to an expanded interest in the relationships between clinical status, body composition and dietary regimes. The ANSTO program provides the opportunity for the first quantitative assessments of these factors in Australia. Body composition studies provide a common link with other-wise unrelated physiological or psychological diseases, and a pool of normal data is being established. Substantial improvements in patient care and quality of life should result from this project, together with a deeper understanding of the importance of body composition in disease-induced malnutrition.

  10. In vivo body composition studies in malnourished patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Blagojevic, N.

    1987-01-01

    The establishment of an in vivo TBN facility at Lucas Heights, together with measurement techniques for whole body and extracellular water, is leading to an expanded interest in the relationships between clinical status, body composition and dietary regimes. The ANSTO program provides the opportunity for the first quantitative assessments of these factors in Australia. Body composition studies provide a common link with other-wise unrelated physiological or psychological diseases, and a pool of normal data is being established. Substantial improvements in patient care and quality of life should result from this project, together with a deeper understanding of the importance of body composition in disease-induced malnutrition

  11. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight

  12. Body composition in acromegaly - before and after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Bengtsson, B.A.; Isaksson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disease caused by a benign pituitary tumor producing excess amount of growth hormone. A changed body composition can be a functional parameter of the disorder. The aim of this study is to describe body composition in acromegaly before and after therapy. Total body potassium (TBK) was measured as total exchangeable potassium using 42 K by dilution technique or by counting gamma radiation from the naturally present 40 K in a high sensitivity 3π whole body counter. Total body water (TBW) was determined with an isotope dilution technique using tritiated water as a tracer. The specific activity was measured in urine or plasma. The predicted values for TBK, TBW, and body fat (BF) were calculated by equations using body weight (BW), body height, age and sex as independent variables. The normal values for BW were calculated by using body height and sex as independent variables

  13. Body composition and perception of teenagers from public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Araújo Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is accompanied by cognitive, emotional, social and biological changes; situations that increase the risk for development of psychosomatic disorders. This study measured and classified body composition and compared it to body self-perception in adolescents. Students from the seventh to ninth grade in public primary education in Distrito Federal, Brazil, answered socio-demographic and body self-perception questionnaires. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated for body composition classification. From the 977 adolescents, 79.1% presented eutrophic BMI. Of the 473 boys, 11.4% were overweight and 4.7% underweight, 23.8% perceived the body as smaller than it really is and 25.5% tried to gain body mass. Of the 504 girls, 11.9% were overweight and 13.4% underweight, 24.1% perceived the body as larger than it really is and 32.5% tried to lose body mass. Inadequate body composition, prevalent in 20.9% of adolescents, may harm growth, development and health. These problems may be aggravated by the high prevalence of distorted body self-perception and attitudes for bodily changes. It is recommended the implementation of educational interventions on body composition, perception and culture and health, with different approaches by gender.

  14. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  15. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  16. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  17. Whole body BMC in pediatric Crohn disease: independent effects of altered growth, maturation, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Jon M; Shults, Justine; Semeao, Edisio; Foster, Bethany; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A; Leonard, Mary B

    2004-12-01

    Whole body BMC was assessed in 104 children and young adults with CD and 233 healthy controls. CD was associated with significant deficits in BMC and lean mass, relative to height. Adjustment for lean mass eliminated the bone deficit in CD. Steroid exposure was associated with short stature but not bone deficits relative to height. Children with Crohn disease (CD) have multiple risk factors for impaired bone accrual. The confounding effects of poor growth and delayed maturation limit the interpretation of prior studies of bone health in CD. The objective of this study was to assess BMC relative to growth, body composition, and maturation in CD compared with controls. Whole body BMC and lean mass were assessed by DXA in 104 CD subjects and 233 healthy controls, 4-26 years of age. Multivariable linear regression models were developed to sequentially adjust for differences in skeletal size, pubertal maturation, and muscle mass. BMC-for-height z scores were derived to determine CD-specific covariates associated with bone deficits. Subjects with CD had significantly lower height z score, body mass index z score, and lean mass relative to height compared with controls (all p BMC in CD relative to controls was significantly reduced in males (0.86; 95% CI, 0.83, 0.94) and females (0.91; 95% CI, 0.85, 0.98) with CD. Adjustment for pubertal maturation did not alter the estimate; however, addition of lean mass to the model eliminated the bone deficit. Steroid exposure was associated with short stature but not bone deficits. This study shows the importance of considering differences in body size and composition when interpreting DXA data in children with chronic inflammatory conditions and shows an association between deficits in muscle mass and bone in pediatric CD.

  18. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights

  19. Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural deviations in boys from two ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).

  20. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  1. Body Composition and Anti-Neoplastic Treatment in Adult and Older Subjects - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, S; Bréchemier, D; Lefort, A; Lozano, S; Abellan Van Kan, G; Filleron, T; Mourey, L; Bernard-Marty, C; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Soler, V; Vellas, B; Cesari, M; Rolland, Y; Balardy, L

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of the risk of poor tolerance and overdose of antineoplastic agents protocols represents a major challenge in oncology, particularly in older patients. We hypothesize that age-related modifications of body composition (i.e. increased fat mass and decreased lean mass) may significantly affect tolerance to chemotherapy. We conducted a systematic review for the last 25 years (between 1990 and 2015), using US National library of Medicine Medline electronic bibliographic database and Embase database of cohorts or clinical trials exploring (i) the interactions of body composition (assessed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses, or Computerized Tomography) with pharmacokinetics parameters, (ii) the tolerance to chemotherapy, and (iii) the consequences of chemotherapies or targeted therapies on body composition. Our search identified 1504 articles. After a selection (using pre-established criteria) on titles and abstract, 24 original articles were selected with 3 domains of interest: impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics (7 articles), relationship between body composition and chemotoxicity (14 articles), and effect of anti-cancer chemotherapy on body composition (11 articles). The selected studies suggested that pharmacokinetic was influenced by lean mass, that lower lean mass could be correlated with toxicity, and that sarcopenic patients experienced more toxicities that non-sarcopenic patients. Regarding fat mass, results were less conclusive. No studies specifically explored the topic of body composition in older cancer patients. Plausible pathophysiological pathways linking body composition, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics are sustained by the actual review. However, despite the growing number of older cancer patients, our review highlighted the lack of specific studies in the field of anti-neoplastic agents toxicity regarding body composition conducted in elderly.

  2. Validation of a new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of infant body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, K.G.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    For both clinical and research purposes, it is of great importance to be able to assess infant body composition. However, a safe, simple, non-invasive, and accurate method of estimating infant body composition is not currently available. The 'PEA POD', a new air displacement plethysmograph specially designed to measure the body volume of infants, has been developed by the same research team that developed the BOD POD, which measures body volume in adults. Body density can be calculated from the measurement of body volume and body mass. From body density, the body fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) compartments can be estimated. The purpose of this research study is to validate the accuracy of FM and FFM measurements in infants based on the PEA POD, as compared to the results obtained with estimating FM and FFM from measurement of total body water (TBW). TBW will be calculated using the back extrapolation method with an 18 O tracer. Twenty-five healthy, term infants between two weeks and two months of age and 25 healthy low birth weight infants will be measured by both methods and the results compared. If the PEA POD produces results not significantly different from those based on TBW, it will provide further evidence of this device's potential usefulness in both clinical and research applications. (author)

  3. A modeling approach for compounds affecting body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennemark, Peter; Jansson-Löfmark, Rasmus; Hyberg, Gina; Wigstrand, Maria; Kakol-Palm, Dorota; Håkansson, Pernilla; Hovdal, Daniel; Brodin, Peter; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Antonsson, Madeleine; Ploj, Karolina; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Body composition and body mass are pivotal clinical endpoints in studies of welfare diseases. We present a combined effort of established and new mathematical models based on rigorous monitoring of energy intake (EI) and body mass in mice. Specifically, we parameterize a mechanistic turnover model based on the law of energy conservation coupled to a drug mechanism model. Key model variables are fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), governed by EI and energy expenditure (EE). An empirical Forbes curve relating FFM to FM was derived experimentally for female C57BL/6 mice. The Forbes curve differs from a previously reported curve for male C57BL/6 mice, and we thoroughly analyse how the choice of Forbes curve impacts model predictions. The drug mechanism function acts on EI or EE, or both. Drug mechanism parameters (two to three parameters) and system parameters (up to six free parameters) could be estimated with good precision (coefficients of variation typically mass and FM changes at different drug provocations using a similar model for man. Surprisingly, model simulations indicate that an increase in EI (e.g. 10 %) was more efficient than an equal lowering of EI. Also, the relative change in body mass and FM is greater in man than in mouse at the same relative change in either EI or EE. We acknowledge that this assumes the same drug mechanism impact across the two species. A set of recommendations regarding the Forbes curve, vehicle control groups, dual action on EI and loss, and translational aspects are discussed. This quantitative approach significantly improves data interpretation, disease system understanding, safety assessment and translation across species.

  4. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...

  5. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  6. Body composition validation technique using anthropometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal bodyweights of the participantsweremeasured inlying positionsusing anadaptation of theGuthri Smith apparatus frame towhich a firmstretcher and two spring balances were attached on a horizontal level position. The heights of the subjects were also taken on supine lying on a firm plinth. The body weight and ...

  7. the foundation of anthropometry and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    method, and, in the case of infants and children, growth monitoring is ... should be remembered that that BMI as such is not the determinant of health and disease. ... regressed on BMI, the standard deviation of residuals is considerable: about 3.2kg. ... to be considered here, including short-term (within-day) body weight.

  8. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  9. Measuring body composition in overweight individuals by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownbill, Rhonda A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2005-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used for body composition measurements in normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The limitations of bone densitometers have been frequently addressed. However, the possible errors in assessing body composition in overweight individuals due to incorrect positioning or limitations of DXA to accurately assess both bone mineral density and body composition in obese individuals have not received much attention and are the focus of this report. We discuss proper ways of measuring overweight individuals and point to some studies where that might not have been the case. It appears that currently, the most prudent approach to assess body composition of large individuals who cannot fit under the scanning area would be to estimate regional fat, namely the regions of thigh and/or abdomen. Additionally, using two-half body scans, although time consuming, may provide a relatively accurate measurement of total body fat, however, more studies using this technique are needed to validate it. Researchers using bone densitometers for body composition measurements need to have an understanding of its limitations in overweight individuals and address them appropriately when interpreting their results. Studies on accuracy and precision in measurements of both bone and soft tissue composition in overweight individuals using available densitometers are needed

  10. PHYSIQUE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF GIRLS PRACTISING CONTEMPORARY DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przednowek Karolina H.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physique and body composition are often explored in sport-related research. This is due to the fact that morphological features can be useful for determining a person’s predispositions for practising a given type of physical activity. Dance, as any other sports discipline, has an impact on the physique and motor skills of those who practise it. Most research concerning the physique and body composition of dancers conducted so far has focused on persons practising ballet or competitive ballroom dancing. Investigating these issues in contemporary dancers is a new field of study. The aim of the current study was to examine the physique and body composition of girls aged 14-17 years practising contemporary dance. Material and methods. The study involved 23 girls who trained contemporary dance twice a week for 2 hours. The participants of the study had been training since the age of six. Basic anthropometric measurements were performed. Body composition was analysed based on parameters measured using a Tanita body composition analyser. Conclusions. The analysis found that girls training contemporary dance were characterised by a leptosomatic physique. BMI values in both younger and older contemporary dancers indicated that their weight was normal. Compared to girls who did not practise any particular type of sport, contemporary dancers had a lower weight, a lower body water percentage, and a lower body fat percentage. The dancers were also characterised by a greater circumference of the waist, hips, arm, and chest compared to untrained peers.

  11. Strength training and body composition in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrup, Rachelle; Tucker, Larry A; LE Cheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2018-01-01

    Strength training is a sound method to improve body composition. However, the effect of age, diet, menopause, and physical activity on the relationship between strength training and body composition in women remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the intricacies of the relationship between strength training and body composition in 257 middle-age women and to quantify the effect of these factors on the association. The study was cross-sectional. Five variables were used to index strength training participation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by 7-day weighed food records, and physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. There were 109 strength trainers in the sample. For each day per week of strength training, body fat was 1.3 percentage points lower (F=14.8, Pdevote to strength training, the lower their body fat and the higher their fat-free mass tend to be. A significant portion of the differences in body composition seems to result from lifters participating in more physical activity than non-lifters. Menopause status also contributes significantly to the relationship.

  12. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: a cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering ...

  13. PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION IN MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS (MHD PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that adult MHD pts had a higher % body fat. Measures of physical performance were markedly reduced in MHD pts as compared to Normals. Physical performance in MHD, measured especially by 6-MW, correlated negatively with some measures of body composition, particularly with LBMI.

  14. Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Maaike M.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this

  15. Bodies in Composition: Teaching Writing through Kinesthetic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Janine

    2017-01-01

    This article calls on composition instructors to reflect consciously on how we can use our bodies kinesthetically to perform multimodal writing processes through gestural, visual, and spatial modes. Teaching writing through kinesthetic performance can show students that our bodies are being constructed via interaction with audiences, akin to the…

  16. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  17. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  18. changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and other anthropometric .... showing a good fit between the values obtained from the equation ..... ideally at 6-monthly intervals, in order to provide useful information to ... training on quality of life in HAART-treated HIV-positive Rwandan subjects with body fat ...

  19. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  20. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  1. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  2. A comparison of three methods to assess body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Nilanjana; Awad, Sherif; Macdonald, Ian A; Lobo, Dileep N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of measurements of body composition made using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans at the L3 vertebral level, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). DXA, CT, and BIA were performed in 47 patients recruited from two clinical trials investigating metabolic changes associated with major abdominal surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for esophagogastric cancer. DXA was performed the week before surgery and before and after commencement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. BIA was performed at the same time points and used with standard equations to calculate fat-free mass (FFM). Analysis of CT scans performed within 3 mo of the study was used to estimate FFM and fat mass (FM). There was good correlation between FM on DXA and CT (r 2  = 0.6632; P FFM on DXA and CT (r 2  = 0.7634; P FFM on DXA and BIA (r 2  = 0.6275; P FFM on CT and BIA also was significant (r 2  = 0.2742; P FFM on DXA and CT, average bias was -0.1477, with LOA of -8.621 to 8.325. For FFM on DXA and BIA, average bias was -3.792, with LOA of -15.52 to 7.936. For FFM on CT and BIA, average bias was -2.661, with LOA of -22.71 to 17.39. Although a systematic error underestimating FFM was demonstrated with BIA, it may be a useful modality to quantify body composition in the clinical situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Yusuf; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Erkus, Muslihittin Emre; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kaya, Zekeriya; Gunebakmaz, Ozgur; Demirbag, Recep

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate. This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overweight and obese males. Body composition, arterial stiffness and echocardiography were assessed before and after Ramadan. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis using segmental body composition analyser. Arterial stiffness and haemodynamic parameters were also measured. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 100 subjects enrolled, 70(70%) were included. The overall mean age was 37±7 years. No significant changes were observed in blood pressures, resting heart rate, aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index-75, aortic pulse pressure, brachial pulse pressure, basal metabolic rate, total body water, fat-free mass, and echocardiographic parameters (p>0.05 each). Although aortic pulse wave velocity (m/s) and augmentation index-75 (%) decreased after fasting period compared to that of before Ramadan, these reductions did not reach statistically significant levels (8.6±1.8 vs. 8.9±1.9, and 13.6±6.6 vs. 14.7±9.3, respectively; p>0.05 each). Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body water rate, percentage of body fat mass, body fat mass, and visceral fat mass percentage were significantly reduced (pRamadan. Ramadan fasting had beneficial effects on body composition, but did not have any significant effect on arterial stiffness and resting heart rate.

  4. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  5. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  6. Body composition in chemotherapy: the promising role of CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M

    2013-09-01

    Reducing cancer-treatment toxicity was a largely ignored research agenda, which is now emerging as an active area of investigation. Studies of human body composition using computerized tomography scans have provided proof-of-concept that variability in drug disposition and toxicity profiles may be partially explained by different features in body composition. Collectively, studies suggest that skeletal muscle depletion (regardless of body weight) is an independent predictor of severe toxicity, affecting cancer treatment and its outcomes. Although precise mechanisms are unknown, pharmacokinetic parameters such as variations in volume of distribution and increased drug exposure may explain such findings. Computerized tomography scans are readily available in clinical databases of diagnostic images and provide feasible, reliable, and highly differentiated measurements of body composition. These images should be used to optimize screening and management of patients in order to prevent severe toxicity, and to improve the efficacy and cost-efficiency of chemotherapy treatments.

  7. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  8. West African donkey's liveweight estimation using body measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Nininahazwe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine a formula for estimating the liveweight in West African donkeys. Materials and Methods: Liveweight and a total of 6 body measurements were carried out on 1352 donkeys from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. The correlations between liveweight and body measurements were determined, and the most correlated body measurements with liveweight were used to establish regression lines. Results: The average weight of a West African donkey was 126.0±17.1 kg, with an average height at the withers of 99.5±3.67 cm; its body length was 104.4±6.53 cm, and a heart girth (HG of 104.4±6.53 cm. After analyzing the various regression lines and correlations, it was found that the HG could better estimate the liveweight of West African donkeys by simple linear regression method. Indeed, the liveweight (LW showed a better correlation with the HG (R2=0.81. The following formulas (Equations 1 and 2 could be used to estimate the LW of West Africa donkeys. Equation 1: Estimated LW (kg = 2.55 x HG (cm - 153.49; Equation 2: Estimated LW (kg = Heart girth (cm2.68 / 2312.44. Conclusion: The above formulas could be used to manufacture weighing tape to be utilized by veterinary clinicians and farmers to estimate donkey's weight in the view of medication and adjustment of load.

  9. Body Composition Assessment in Axial CT Images Using FEM-Based Automatic Segmentation of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Jägersand, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The proportions of muscle and fat tissues in the human body, referred to as body composition is a vital measurement for cancer patients. Body composition has been recently linked to patient survival and the onset/recurrence of several types of cancers in numerous cancer research studies. This paper introduces a fully automatic framework for the segmentation of muscle and fat tissues from CT images to estimate body composition. We developed a novel finite element method (FEM) deformable model that incorporates a priori shape information via a statistical deformation model (SDM) within the template-based segmentation framework. The proposed method was validated on 1000 abdominal and 530 thoracic CT images and we obtained very good segmentation results with Jaccard scores in excess of 90% for both the muscle and fat regions.

  10. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  11. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  12. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa Līga; Selga Guntars; Sauka Melita; Randoha Aija; Krasovska Eva; Lāriņš Viesturs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea). Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calcul...

  13. Estimation of 137Cs body burden in Japanese, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masashi

    1978-01-01

    The biological half-life of 137 Cs in the total body of human subjects was determined in 23 individuals of Japanese male adult in their normal works by measuring amount of 137 Cs in both their total body and daily urine in the same period. For the group, the value was determined by averaging the half-lives for individuals, by comparing the mean body burden and the mean daily urinary excretion, or by applying a curve fitting method to the body burden estimate. The biological half-life averaged 86 days, ranging from 50 to 161 days. The averages of the biological half-lives for the group were 83, 87 and 82 days in the different periods of observation. By the curve fitting method, 85 days was found for the group. The biological half-life for the individuals depended on both body weight and age, to a lesser extent, of the subjects. (author)

  14. Body composition in children based on anthropometric data - A presentation of normal values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerver, WJM; deBruin, R

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass is used in paediatrics to estimate a child's nutritional status. To obtain the fat content or protein content sophisticated techniques exist. These techniques are often difficult to apply in daily practice. An anthropometric

  15. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128

    2001-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...

  16. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition of Staff Review Advisory Bodies - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  18. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...

  19. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  20. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  1. Evaluation of Five Formulae for Estimating Body Surface Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for making decision on many critical treatments plans. For ... index[5,6] and oxygen consumption[7] is required. ... of weight and height of only nine patients including just ... Aim: To explore the suitability of existing formulae for estimating the BSA of ..... critically ill. .... Schmidt‑Nielsen K. Energy metabolism, body size, and.

  2. Estimates Of Genetic Parameters Of Body Weights Of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four (44) farrowings were used to estimate the genetic parameters (heritability and repeatability) of body weight of pigs. Results obtained from the study showed that the heritability (h2) of birth and weaning weights were moderate (0.33±0.16 ...

  3. State-of-the-art measurements in human body composition: A moving frontier of clinical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D.; Shaheen, I.; Zafar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of human body composition allows for the estimation of body tissues, organs, and their distributions in living persons without inflicting harm. From a nutritional perspective, the interest in body composition has increased multi-fold with the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and its complications. The latter has driven in part the need for improved measurement methods with greater sensitivity and precision. There is no single gold standard for body-composition measurements in-vivo. All methods incorporate assumptions that do not apply in all individuals and the more accurate models are derived by using a combination of measurements, thereby reducing the importance of each assumption. This review will discuss why the measurement of body composition or human phenotyping is important; discuss new areas where the measurement of body composition (human phenotyping) is recognized as having important application; and will summarize recent advances made in new methodology. Reference will also be made to areas we cannot yet measure due to the lack of appropriate measurement methodologies, most especially measurements methods that provide information on kinetic states (not just static state) and metabolic function. PMID:21234275

  4. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  5. The finite body triangulation: algorithms, subgraphs, homogeneity estimation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G; Levine, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    The concept of a finite body Dirichlet tessellation has been extended to that of a finite body Delaunay 'triangulation' to provide a more meaningful description of the spatial distribution of nonspherical secondary phase bodies in 2- and 3-dimensional images. A finite body triangulation (FBT) consists of a network of minimum edge-to-edge distances between adjacent objects in a microstructure. From this is also obtained the characteristic object chords formed by the intersection of the object boundary with the finite body tessellation. These two sets of distances form the basis of a parsimonious homogeneity estimation. The characteristics of the spatial distribution are then evaluated with respect to the distances between objects and the distances within them. Quantitative analysis shows that more physically representative distributions can be obtained by selecting subgraphs, such as the relative neighbourhood graph and the minimum spanning tree, from the finite body tessellation. To demonstrate their potential, we apply these methods to 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic images of foamed cement and their 2-dimensional cross sections. The Python computer code used to estimate the FBT is made available. Other applications for the algorithm - such as porous media transport and crack-tip propagation - are also discussed. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Dietary strategies and body composition in elite weightlifting: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez; Rafael M Tundidor-Duque; Pedro E Alcaraz; Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and ap...

  7. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K.; Visscher, P.M.; Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    ), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program...... effects under the assumptions of no nonadditive effect. The pattern of age trends was inconsistent. However, when significant there was a decrease in heritability with advancing age. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that adult body size, shape, and composition are highly heritable in both women and men...

  8. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  9. [Analysis of the body composition of Spanish women with fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Heredia, José M; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    To describe the anthropometric profile and body composition of women from Southern Spain diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) and to compare the observed values with values from other studies conducted on FM patients and with national reference values. The body composition of 104 women diagnosed with FM was assessed using an eight-electrode impedance meter. The reliability of the body composition measurement was tested in a randomly selected sub-sample (n=28). The reliability study showed a test-retest systematic error close to zero in most of the parameters studied. The women with FM who were studied had a mean weight of 71.3±13.4 kg, height of 158±6 cm, body mass index of 28.6±5.1 kg/m(2), body fat mass of 38.6±7.6%, total body water of 31.6±3.8 l and muscle mass of 23.4±3.0 kg. In general, there were no substantial differences in weight and body mass index between women with FM and those analyzed in other Spanish and European studies involving FM patients, nor when they were compared with regional or national reference values. However, the prevalence of obesity in the women with FM under study was 33.7%, a higher figure than that from the national reference data for obesity in similarly aged women (i.e. 26,4%). The results suggest that obesity is a common condition in women diagnosed with FM, its prevalence in this population being higher than the national reference values. This study provides detailed information about the body composition characteristics of women with FM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Correia de Faria Santar?m, G; de Cleva, R; Santo, Marco Aur?lio; Bernhard, Aline Biaseto; Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Greve, Julia Maria D?Andrea; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting University of S?o Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods Functional capacity was ...

  11. Body protein losses estimated by nitrogen balance and potassium-40 counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyea, R.L.; Babbitt, C.L.; Sedgwick, H.T.; Zinn, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Body protein losses estimated from N balance were compared with those estimated by 40K counting. Six nonlactating dairy cows were fed an adequate N diet for 7 wk, a low N diet for 9 wk, and a replete N diet for 3 wk. The low N diet contained high cell wall grass hay plus ground corn, starch, and molasses. Soybean meal was added to the low N diet to increase N in the adequate N and replete N diets. Intake was measured daily. Digestibilities, N balance, and body composition (estimated by 40K counting) were determined during each dietary regimen. During low N treatment, hay dry matter intake declined 2 kg/d, and supplement increased about .5 kg/d. Dry matter digestibility was not altered by N treatment. Protein and acid detergent fiber digestibilities decreased from 40 and 36% during adequate N to 20 and 2%, respectively, during low N. Fecal and urinary N also declined when cows were fed the low N diet. By the end of repletion, total intake, fiber, and protein digestibilities as well as N partition were similar to or exceeded those during adequate N intake. Body protein (N) loss was estimated by N balance to be about 3 kg compared with 8 kg by 40K counting. Body fat losses (32 kg) were large because of low energy digestibility and intake. Seven kilograms of body fat were regained during repletion, but there was no change in body protein

  12. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents.METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected.RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%, followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47% and triacylglycerol (22%. Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance(HOMA-IR were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI, waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range.

  13. Body composition assessment in Taiwanese individuals with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    To measure the changes in the total and regional body fat mass, and assess the clinical usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in detecting overweight subjects with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Prospective, cross-sectional study. General community. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n=17; age range, 42-57y; mean, 47y; 12 men, 5 women) and able-bodied people (n=17) matched by sex, age, body weight, and body height participated in the study. Not applicable. Total and regional body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical characteristics such as blood pressure, serum biochemical studies, and habitual behaviors (daily cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise regimen) of all participants were evaluated. Compared with able-bodied controls, subjects with poliomyelitis had a 50% greater total body fat mass, significant increases in the regional fat mass in every part of the body, and had the greatest increase of fat mass in the thorax. Nearly all the subjects (94%) with poliomyelitis were obese according to standards of body composition. However, one third of them had a BMI value of less than 25.0kg/m(2). People with poliomyelitis have a higher prevalence of obesity and a significant increase in total and regional fat mass. Current BMI underestimates the total body fat mass percentage compared with the control; therefore, a population-specific BMI should be used to address the prevalence of obesity in postpolio survivors. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  15. Impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of the body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrino Edilson Serpeloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the studies of body composition, it has been observed that several factors can interfere with the estimates of relative body fat using the skinfold thicknesses method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of body composition by skinfold thicknesses measurements. Two hundred and fifty nine male subjects (23.3 ± 2.9 years took part of the study. Nine skinfold thicknesses were measured (abdominal, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillary, chest, medial calf, and thigh using the Lange (USA and the Cescorf (Brazil calipers with accuracy of 1.0 and 0.1 mm, respectively. Significant differences were found in the comparison between the two calipers on all the investigated skinfold thicknesses (1.8 to 31.0% with highest values obtained by the Lange caliper (p < 0.01. When these values were applied to four different predictive equations, developed by different researchers, the body fat estimate was significantly modified (p < 0.01, resulting in differences of 5.2 to 6.9%. Results indicate that the use of different skinfold calipers may maximize the errors of estimation produced by different predictive equations used for the analysis of body composition.

  16. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  17. Validation of a portable bioelectrical impedance analyzer for the assessment of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelis, Antony D; Chamberland, Gabriel; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in field research has been the difficulty to adequately measure body composition, such as % body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the convergent validity of the portable bioelectrical impedance body composition analyzer, the Inbody 230, with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (General Electric Lunar Prodigy). The study population consisted of 145 men and women (age, 44.6 ± 20 years; BMI, 24.5 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2)). We measured body composition (fat mass, % body fat, total FFM, trunk FFM, and appendicular FFM) using DXA and the Inbody 230. Results show strong significant correlations between both methods for fat mass, % body fat, total FFM, and trunk FFM (r = 0.94-0.99). Furthermore, we showed a modest significant correlation between both methods for appendicular FFM (r = 0.63). Finally, as shown by Bland-Altman analysis, no significant biases were observed between Inbody 230 and DXA for fat mass, % body fat, and total FFM. However, trunk and appendicular FFM were shown to have significant biases between the Inbody 230 and DXA. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the portable Inbody 230 may be an acceptable device to measure fat mass, % body fat, and total FFM (except for women) in healthy adults. In addition, there appears to be a systematic bias for the estimation of trunk and appendicular FFM with the Inbody 230 in men and women.

  18. Neonatal Body Composition According to the Revised Institute of Medicine Recommendations for Maternal Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. Results: A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n = 87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n = 140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n = 212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, P weight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Conclusion: Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy. PMID:22821895

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer improves body composition and modulates metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Giulia; Almeida, Ana; Ravasco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review article is to present the most recent intervention studies with EPA on nutritional outcomes in cancer patients, e.g. nutritional status, weight & lean body mass. For this purpose a PubMed(®) and MedLine(®) search of the published literature up to and including January 2014 that contained the keywords: cancer, sarcopenia, EPA, ω-3 fatty acids, weight, intervention trial, muscle mass was conducted. The collected data was summarized and written in text format and in tables that contained: study design, patient' population, sample size, statistical significance and results of the intervention. The paper will cover malignancy, body composition, intervention with EPA, physiological mechanisms of action of EPA, effect of EPA on weight and body composition, future research. In cancer patients deterioration of muscle mass can be present regardless of body weight or Body Mass Index (BMI). Thus, sarcopenia in cancer patients with excessive fat mass (FM), entitled sarcopenic obesity, has gained greater relevance in clinical practice; it can negatively influence patients' functional status, tolerance to treatments & disease prognosis. The search for an effective nutritional intervention that improves body composition (preservation of muscle mass and muscle quality) is of utmost importance for clinicians and patients. The improvement of muscle quality is an even more recent area of interest because it has probable implications in patients' prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been identified as a promising nutrient with the wide clinical benefits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain EPA potential benefits on body composition: inhibition of catabolic stimuli by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines production and enhancing insulin sensitivity that induces protein synthesis; also, EPA may attenuate deterioration of nutritional status resulting from antineoplastic therapies by improving calorie and protein intake as well. Indeed

  20. Effects of bariatric surgery on the body composition of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Wally Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.

  1. Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can influence an athlete's speed, endurance and power, whereas body composition can affect an athlete's strength, agility and appear- ance.' 1. Determining ... activity, provide more consistent training sessions, improve recovery of muscle tissue ... per week (swimming, cycling and running) or triathletes who com- pleted an ...

  2. Radiographic analysis of body composition by computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymsfield, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic methods of evaluating body composition have been applied for over five decades. A marked improvement in this approach occurred in the mid-nineteen-seventies with the introduction of computerized axial tomography. High image contrast, cross-sectional imaging and rapid computerized data processing make this technique a sophisticated clinically applicable tool. (author)

  3. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  4. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  5. The association between leptin, body composition and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the association between leptin, body composition and physical fitness in black adolescents from two selected schools in Ikageng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Baseline measurements were obtained from 124 boys and 148 girls between the ages of 13 and 20 years, which participated in ...

  6. Effect of Spinning Cycling Training on Body Composition in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Fatih; Nar, Dilek; Erzeybek, Mustafa Said

    2018-01-01

    In this study the effects of a 6 week spinning cycling training on the body composition of women were investigated. Twelve sedentary women (32-47 years old) voluntarily participated in this study. The 6-week training program consisted of exercise sessions on 3 days per week. The intensity of the training program that was kept low in the beginning…

  7. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed three protein levels. E.H. Kemm,* F.K. Siebrits, M.N. Ras and H.A. Badenhorst. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. A group of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was ...

  8. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  9. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  10. Estimativa da composição corporal e análise de concordância entre analisadores de impedância bioelétrica bipolar e tetrapolar Body composition estimation and agreement analysis between bipolar and tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Jambassi Filho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as estimativas da composição corporal e a concordância das medidas produzidas por meio de dois diferentes analisadores de impedância bioelétrica em homens adultos jovens. Vinte e dois sujeitos (23,6 ± 2,9 anos; 73 ± 6,8kg; 177,6 ± 6,0cm; 23,1 ± 1,9kg/m², aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a medidas de impedância bioelétrica por meio dos analisadores tetrapolar de corpo inteiro (TCI, Biodynamic Body Composition Analyser, modelo 310 e bipolar para membros superiores (BMS, Omron tm, modelo HBF-306BL após jejum de 12h. Estimativas da gordura corporal relativa (%GC, massa livre de gordura (MLG e massa gorda (MG foram estabelecidas a partir das informações fornecidas pelos dois equipamentos. Nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante foi verificada para %GC (10,9 ± 4,3 vs. 10,0 ± 4,2%; P = 0,09, MG (8,1 ± 3,5 vs. 7,4 ± 3,5kg; P = 0,10 e MLG (64,9 ± 5,2 vs. 65,5 ± 4,9kg; P = 0,09 entre TCI e BMS, respectivamente. Correlações positivas e significantes (P The aim of this study was to analyze the body composition estimation and agreement of the measurements produced from two bioelectrical impedance analysers in young adult men. Twenty-two apparently healthy subjects (23.6 ± 2.9 yrs; 73.0 ± 6.8 kg; 177.6 ± 6.0 cm; 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m², were submitted to bioelectrical impedance measurements by tetra-polar whole body (TWB, Biodynamic Body Composition Analyser, model 310 and bipolar for upper body (BUB, OMRON TM, model HBF-306BL after 12 h fast. Relative body fat (%BF, lean body mass (LBM and fat mass (FM estimation were established from information supplied by two analysers. No significant difference was verified for %BF (10.9 ±4.3 vs. 10.0 ±4.2%; P = 0.09, FM (8.1 ±3.5 vs. 7.4 ±3.5 kg; P = 0.10 or LBM (64.9 ±5.2 vs. 65.5 ±4.9 kg; P = 0.09 between TWB and BUB, respectively. Positive significant correlations (P < 0.001 were found between both analysers for LBM (r = 0.948, FM (r

  11. Body composition in men with anorexia nervosa: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Bazzani, Paola Vittoria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    To compare body composition patterns before and after complete weight restoration in men with anorexia nervosa. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure body composition patterns in 10 men with anorexia nervosa before and after complete weight restoration, and in 10 healthy men matched to age and patients' post-treatment body mass index (BMI). Before weight restoration, men with anorexia nervosa displayed lower total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LBM) than those in the healthy comparison group, with a greater FM loss from the extremity than the trunk region. After short-term weight restoration, patients displayed complete normalization in total LBM and FM, but greater deposition of FM in the trunk region. Short-term weight restoration can normalize body composition patterns in men with anorexia nervosa, but results in a central adiposity phenotype. The clinical implication of this finding is unknown, but should be explored given the high levels of concern about central adiposity in anorexia nervosa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of the amount of dietary energy on growth and body composition of Sabi lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusina, N.T.; Hale, D.H.; Chesworth, J.M.; Mutisi, C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the amount of dietary energy on growth rate, food conversion efficiency and composition of the live body and of the carcass of 60 Sabi ram lambs were examined. The tails of the lambs were docked two days after birth. Six lambs (average 17 kg) were slaughtered at the start of the study to determine the initial body composition. The remaining (54) lambs were allocated to one of the three levels of feed (1.25, 1.50 and 2.00 times maintenance). Within each level of feeding, the animals were slaughtered at either 25, 30 or 35 kg liveweight. Carcass composition was determined by dissection of the slaughtered animals and body composition was predicted using regression equations derived from the in vivo dilution technique of tritiated water (TOH) injected into the animals. The average daily liveweight gain and feed conversion efficiency increased (p 0.05). Both total body water and total body fat were estimated more accurately when TOH space and liveweight were used jointly. TOH space alone overestimated total body water. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 8 tabs

  13. Obesity paradox in cancer: new insights provided by body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Pastore, Carla A; Orlandi, Silvana P; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2014-05-01

    Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), appears to have a paradoxical protective effect in several chronic diseases. We investigated the obesity paradox in cancer patients by using body composition. The study was an observational study of 175 cancer patients assessed before chemotherapy. Obesity was defined as BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 or fat mass index (FMI; fat mass divided by the square of height) ≥5.2 (men) and ≥8.2 (women) measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) was defined as fat-free mass index (fat-free mass divided by the square of height) cancer patients only when obesity is defined by BMI. Patients with sarcopenic obesity had the poorest prognosis. Cancer patients with high mortality risk can be identified by a body-composition assessment.

  14. Dietary strategies and body composition in elite weightlifting: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and application of eligibility criteria. A qualitative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings was made. The quality of studies was assessed. Results: Of the 610 articles found, 8 met the inclusion criteria, which were the studies performed in elite or high-level menopausal women, and information on dietary habits and/or body composition. Body composition identified that the percentage of fat mass was around 15%. A caloric intake of 4080.65±1602.69kcal, a protein intake of 17.29±3.2% of total daily energy (TDE, 42.48±5.6% TDE of carbohydrates and a 36.1±9.75% TDE of fats. A suboptimal dietary profile is suggested, showing an excess in fat intake, which could explain the excess body fat observed in some. Athletes’ protein intake and carbohydrates were within the recommended ranges except for 2 studies. Conclusions: An incorrect diet on the part of the elite weightlifting athletes was observed, which could condition their body composition negatively. The need for advice and intervention by a dietitian-nutritionist professionals was observed.

  15. Body Composition and Mortality Predictors in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Cristina; Valente, Ana; Oliveira, Telma; Garagarza, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate how different compartments of body composition can affect survival in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Multicenter longitudinal observational study of a cohort of patients in HD with 12 months of follow-up. Patients from 34 Nephrocare dialysis units in Portugal were included. A total of 697 patients on maintenance HD during 4 hours 3 days per week were enrolled. Dry weight, presence of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), lean tissue index (LTI), fat tissue index (FTI), body cell mass index (BCMI), albumin and hydration status were recorded at baseline. In all patients, the assessment of body composition was carried out using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM; Fresenius Medical Care a Deutschland GmbH, Germany). Survival during a 12-month period of follow-up. Patient's mean (±standard deviation) age was 65.4 ± 14.3 years, and median (interquartile range) HD vintage was 41 (19-81) months. Patients who died during the study period, had higher age (P < .001), lower dry weight (P = .001), BMI (P < .001), albumin (P < .001), LTI (P = .015), and also lower BCMI (P = .046). Patients with diabetes (P = .045), BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) (P < .001), albumin < 4.0 g/dL (P < .001), relative overhydration ≥ 15% (P = .001), low FTI (P = .019), and also those in the lowest tertile of BCMI (P = .022) displayed a significantly worse survival. In the Cox regression analysis, the overall mortality of patient was related to low FTI, relative overhydration, BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2), BCMI ≤ 5.2 kg/m(2), and albumin < 4.0 g/dL. Several body composition parameters demonstrated to have an important role in predicting 1-year mortality in HD patients. Albumin, FTI, and BMI were useful predictors of mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ESTIMATION OF HUMAN BODY SHAPE PARAMETERS USING MICROSOFT KINECTSENCOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Vasilkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a human body shape estimation technology based on scan data acquired from sensor controller Microsoft Kinect is described. This device includes an RGB camera and a depth sensor that provides, for each pixel of the image,a distance from the camera focus to the object. A scan session produces a triangulated high-density surface noised with oscillations, isolated fragments and holes. When scanning a human, additional noise comes from garment folds and wrinkles. An algorithm of creating a sparse and regular 3D human body model (avatar free of these defects, which approximates shape, posture and basic metrics of the scanned body is proposed. This solution finds application in individual clothing industry and computer games, as well.

  17. Numerically stable algorithm for combining census and sample estimates with the multivariate composite estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Czaplewski

    2009-01-01

    The minimum variance multivariate composite estimator is a relatively simple sequential estimator for complex sampling designs (Czaplewski 2009). Such designs combine a probability sample of expensive field data with multiple censuses and/or samples of relatively inexpensive multi-sensor, multi-resolution remotely sensed data. Unfortunately, the multivariate composite...

  18. Dose estimation of interventional cardiologists in different body regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Iana Q. de; Luz, Renata M. da; Capaverde, Alexandre S.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da; Caramori, Paulo Ricardo Avancini

    2015-01-01

    Interventional radiology is one of the medical specialties that provides the highest doses to professionals, widely used in cardiology, being called interventional cardiology. In order to contribute to the optimization of occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology procedures, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dose estimation received in different body regions by physicians in interventional cardiology procedures. Two physicians were followed, named as A and B, during one month period, performing a total of 127 procedures (70 for A and 57 for B) of interventional cardiology. During the procedures, dosimeters in different body regions beyond the full-body dosimeter were positioned. The results showed the highest values for the estimated dose received by workers were in the right wrist and left side face regions, for the physician A, and in the left knee and left side face, for the physician B. Results demonstrate the importance of using individual protection equipment by physicians in interventional cardiology, including lead glasses, besides monitoring dosimeters for other body regions, such as wrist, face and knee. (author)

  19. Cost estimates to guide manufacturing of composite waved beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jinrui; Zhang Boming; Qi Haiming

    2009-01-01

    A cost estimation model on the basis of manufacturing process has been presented. In the model, the effects of the material, labor, tool and equipment were discussed, and the corresponding formulas were provided. A method of selecting estimation variables has been provided based on a case study of composite waved beam using autoclave cure. The model parameters related to the process time estimation of the lay-up procedure were analyzed and modified for different part configurations. The result shows that there is little error while comparing the estimated process time with the practical one. The model is verified to be applicable to guide the design and manufacturing of the composite material

  20. Body Composition Response to Lower Body Positive Pressure Training in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Basant H. El-Refay; Nabeel T. Faiad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in Egypt has a great impact on the health care system, economic and social situation. Evidence suggests that even a moderate amount of weight loss can be useful. Aim of the study: To analyze the effects of lower body positive pressure supported treadmill training, conducted with hypocaloric diet, on body composition of obese children. Methods: Thirty children aged between 8 and 14 years, were randomly assigned into two groups: intervention group (15 ...

  1. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  2. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Macintosh, Alison; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2018-05-01

    Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  4. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  5. Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J.; Frederiksen, K.; Tjønneland, A.

    2005-01-01

    of waist circumference and body composition (body fat and fat-free mass), mutually adjusted, to all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A Danish prospective cohort study with a median follow-up period of 5.8 y. SUBJECTS: In all, 27 178 men and 29 875 women, born in Denmark, aged 50-64 y, and without diagnosis...... of cancer at the time of invitation. MEASUREMENTS: Waist circumference and body composition estimated from impedance measurements. Cox's regression models were used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (RR). RESULTS: Waist circumference was strongly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustment...... for body composition; the mortality RR was 1.36 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.22-1.52) times higher per 10% larger waist circumference among men and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.17-1.44) times higher among women. Adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the association between high values of the body fat mass...

  6. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.

  7. Reliability and validity for measurement of body composition: A field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this ...

  8. Estimation of effective thermal conductivity tensor from composite microstructure images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M; Boyard, N; Jarny, Y; Delaunay, D

    2008-01-01

    The determination of the effective thermal properties of inhomogeneous materials is a long-standing problem of continuously interest. The impressive number of methods developed to measure or estimate the thermal properties of composite materials clearly exhibits the importance given to their knowledge. Homogenization models are a cheap way to determine or predict them. Many different approaches of homogenization were developed, but the last advances are credited to numerical methods. In this study, a new computational model is developed to estimate the 2D thermal conductivity tensor and the thermal main directions of a pure carbon/epoxy unidirectional composite. This tool is based on real composite microstructure.

  9. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... water content. There was no significant influence of sex on body composition of W. attu. .... determined in duplicate for each fish using 1 g sub samples in a ... fish was calculated using a formula K = 100 x W/L3 by the method.

  10. Advanced Composite Air Frame Life Cycle Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    the ACCA based on the cost . This cost analysis takes into account the increased performance parameters of the new airframe structure. This research...20 Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft ( ACCA ) ..........................................................23 viii Cost Estimation...establishing the procurement strategies and life cycle cost (LCC) model cost estimations. The current LCC models do not take into account the potential cost

  11. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for linking a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data with a composite likelihood approach. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models are d...

  12. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.

  13. Body composition changes in essential hypertension before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T. Jr.; Worum, I.; Csongor, J.; Ujhelyi, L.; Foeris, G.

    1986-01-01

    The body composition of 30 elderly (22 females: 78,2+7,6; 8 males: 80,4+5,4 yrs) and 38 middle-aged (27 females: 45,5+10.3; 11 males: 42,3+8,7 yrs) people suffering of essential hypertension determined by complex clinical and biological examinations (BP: 160-180/100-200 Hgmm), was determined before and after treatment. Most of them (78%) could be reassessed after 3 month of treatment (beta-blocking drugs or diuretics). The authors also investigated a few numbers (n=10) of patients presenting a hypertensive crisis treated with vasodilatant drugs and diuretics during 1 week of period. The hormonal status of all of them was assessed at the same time. The body composition was determined by multiple-isotope method

  14. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  15. Studies on body composition of crossbred lambs determined by tritiated water with 50:50 roughage: concentrate ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder Ali, Md.; Saxena, K.K.; Shukla, V.P.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Six Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset and six Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs were fed 50 : 50 roughage : concentrate ratio having ME of 2.1 Mcal/kg of ratio until they attained 25 kg body weight. Body composition of all the lambs was determined at 25 kg body weight by direct (slaughter method) and indirect (TOH technique) methods. The average corrected TOH space expressed on percent of body weight was found to be 70.48 +- 0.82 and average total body water estimated by desiccation, expressed on percent of body weight, was observed as 69.8 +- 1.08. Body composition of Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk and Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was determined and expressed on empty body weight. The moisture content in Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs but fat and protein contents were not significantly different in the two processes. (author)

  16. General many-body formalism for composite quantum particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, M; Betbeder-Matibet, O

    2010-05-21

    This Letter provides a formalism capable of exactly treating Pauli blocking between n-fermion particles. This formalism is based on an operator algebra made of commutators and anticommutators which contrasts with the usual scalar formalism of Green functions developed half a century ago for elementary quantum particles. We also provide the diagrams which visualize the very specific many-body physics induced by fermion exchanges between composite quantum particles.

  17. Menstrual Changes in Body Composition of Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachoń, Aleksandra Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the tendencies and scope of changes in body mass, body composition and body girths across the menstrual cycle were similar or different in women of different body build. Anthropometric examinations were carried out in a group of 40 naturally regularly menstruated females practicing team sports (aged 19-21, B-v 169.3+/-6.4 cm, body mass 59.6+/-7.0 kg), in the follicular, periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The phases were determined on the basis of data from two consecutive menstrual cycles taking into account the cycle’s length. To establish the type of body build, Body Mass Index, hydration status and skinfold thickness were measured. For a statistical analysis, a multiple comparisons with multiple confidence intervals were applied. The increase in body mass between the follicular and the luteal phases was observed in all groups of women, the biggest gain was recorded in slim women, who in the luteal phase weighted 0.8 kg more. The amount of fat mass increased significantly across the menstrual cycle only in more hydrated (by about 0.66 kg) and slim women (by about 0.54 kg). Significant changes between consecutive phases of the menstrual cycle in waist and hip girths, and suprailiac skinfold thickness in some groups of women also indicate influence of fatness and hydration status and slenderness. In view of the presented results, the body build seems important for an analysis of the pattern of each component’s changes across the menstrual cycle, especially for female athletes. Certain changes can be seen only in some groups of women, therefore somatic features can be considered as a predictor of the intensity of changes.

  18. Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.

  19. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  20. Impact of eating and drinking on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Gerasimidis, K; Karanikolou, A; Reilly, J J; Edwards, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and body composition by the foot-to-foot method. Fifty-five healthy adults [30 males and 25 females; mean (SD) age 27.7 (7.1) years; mean (SD)body mass index 24 (3.8) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to a 2-day food trial (high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal) or a 2-day drink trial (water or high electrolyte drink). Body composition measurements were carried out in the fasting state, immediately after meal consumption and every 30 min for 2 h by the foot-to-foot single frequency bioimpedance technique. Bioimpedance increased significantly after the ingestion of food and fluid, although the changes were small. The electrolyte drink, high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals significantly increased the percentage body fat and fat mass. In all cases, the median percentage changes from baseline were approximately 1% in body fat percentage units. Although there were statistically significant changes in body composition estimates after food or drink consumption, these were small and within the imprecision of the impedance technique, and so are unlikely to be of clinical significance. The present study suggests that impedance measures of body fatness in clinical settings do not require strict adherence to fasting, and this should increase the opportunities for clinical application. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  2. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was als...

  3. Body composition and cardiac dimensions in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G

    2015-09-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Panalysis showed a lower percentage of body fat in the gymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.

  4. Heterogeneous composite bodies with isolated lenticular shaped cermet regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Andrew J [Cirtland Hills, OH

    2009-12-22

    A heterogeneous body having ceramic rich cermet regions in a more ductile metal matrix. The heterogeneous bodies are formed by thermal spray operations on metal substrates. The thermal spray operations apply heat to a cermet powder and project it onto a solid substrate. The cermet powder is composed of complex composite particles in which a complex ceramic-metallic core particle is coated with a matrix precursor. The cermet regions are generally comprised of complex ceramic-metallic composites that correspond approximately to the core particles. The cermet regions are approximately lenticular shaped with an average width that is at least approximately twice the average thickness. The cermet regions are imbedded within the matrix phase and generally isolated from one another. They have obverse and reverse surfaces. The matrix phase is formed from the matrix precursor coating on the core particles. The amount of heat applied during the formation of the heterogeneous body is controlled so that the core particles soften but do not become so fluid that they disperse throughout the matrix phase. The force of the impact on the surface of the substrate tends to flatten them. The flattened cermet regions tend to be approximately aligned with one another in the body.

  5. Approaches to estimate body condition from slaughter records in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olofsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term fluctuations in population densities of reindeer and caribou are common, where pasture is the limiting resource. Pasture quality affects the nutritional status and production of the animals. Therefore, continuous information about changes in the grazing resources is important when making management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate different possibilities of using routine and additional slaughter records as body condition indicators, and thereby indicators of pasture resources in the summer ranges of reindeer husbandry. Records from 696 reindeer slaughtered in the winter 2002/2003 were included in the study. We developed a model with carcass weight as body condition indicator and two different models combining fatness, conformation, carcass weight, and body size as body condition indicators. The results showed age and sex dependent differences between the variables, and differentiation of animal age and sex improved the precision of models. Adjusting weight for body size also improved weight as a body condition indicator in adults. Conformation and fatness had good resemblance to weight and body size adjusted weight and should preferably be included, together with carcass weight and body size measures, when estimating body condition from carcasses. Our analysis showed that using non-invasive slaughter records is a good and non-expensive method of estimating body condition in reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Tillvägagångssätt för skattning avkroppskondition hos ren från slaktregistreringarFluktuationer i ren- och caribou-populationers täthet över tiden är vanliga då betet är en begränsad resurs och beteskvalitén påverkar djurens kondition och produktion. Kontinuerligt uppdaterad information om förändringar i betesresurserna är viktigt i samband med beslutsfattande om förvaltning avresurserna. Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera olika möjliga sätt att anv

  6. BODY COMPOSITION IN HEMODIALYSIS AND PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ho Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance analysis is a reliable technique for determining post dialysis target weight. Using this technique, we can understand body fluid status easier and conveniently. Moreover this technique can be used for check nutrition status and nutritional status of dialysis patients. We compared the body fluid status and nutrition status between hemodialysis (HD patients and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients by BCM (Body composition monitor technique. We studied 48 (30 males and 18 females PD patients, 21 (10 males and 11 females HD patients. Body composition monitoring (BCM, Fesenitus Medical Care, Germany was used as a tool for the analysis of bioimpedance. Extracellular water, Total body water, Intracellular water, Overhydration, E/I, Lean tissue mass, Fat Tissue mass was measured and those results were compared between two groups. HD patients were more hydrated than PD patients (61.9% vs. 35.4% and nutritional status such as LTI was poorer than peritoneal dialysis patients (11.7±1.7 vs. 15.3±2.6. Although total body water is more abundant in peritoneal patients (29.4±5.5L vs. 35.9±6.2L, Extracellular water and intracellular water ratio was relatively higher in Hemodialysis patients (E/I 0.98±0.13 vs. 0.87±0.12. The nutrition status was better in PD patients by comparing the percent of lean tissue mass (LTM% between two groups (LTM% 52.1±10.6% vs. 66.8±11.3. In conclusions, Hemodialysis patients were more hydrated with poorer nutrition status than peritoneal dialysis patients, but, due to the significant difference of age between two groups, further study should be required.

  7. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  8. Whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density and body composition using a flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinten, J.M.; Robert-Coutant, C.; Gonon, G.; Bordy, T.

    2003-01-01

    Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems are used for the determination of bone mineral density (BMD) but also for body composition estimates (lean mass and fat mass). The calculation is based on the difference in attenuation of body tissues for a low-energy of about 50 KeV and a high-energy of about 80-100 KeV. The measurement of dual-energy projections allows first to compute to the body composition in the non-bone area, and then to extrapolate the fat / lean ratio of soft tissue into the bone area in order to compute the BMD. Since detectors have limited area, a whole body examination requires a scan of the patient and a reconstruction process in order to build up a large field image from smaller radiographs. This reconstruction process must keep the quantitative value of the radiographs, and avoid any distortion which could be a consequence of the conic acquisition geometry. The cone angle is low (6 at maximum) and the large overlap between radiographs helps to reconstruct an image equivalent with a parallel-beam geometry. Scatter is corrected from the radiographs before reconstruction, as described in a previous paper ('Dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry using a 2D digital radiography detector. Application to bone densitometry', SPIE Medical Imaging 2001, Medical Physics). We have developed an original reconstruction method dedicated to whole-body examinations which will be described. Thanks to the quasi-radiologic quality of the detector, reconstructed images are of very good quality and this makes the measurement of BMD and fat / lean masses easier. (author)

  9. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  10. Influence Of Number Of Pregnancies In Peak Expiratory Flow And Body Composition Of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Brandao da Costa Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to describe and compare the mean values of the body composition and the peak expiratory flow (PEF in primigravidae and multigravidae and, to determine its correlation with obstetric, anthropometric and body composition variables. Method: it was performed a cross-sectional study of 120 healthy pregnant women at low risk, including 77 primigravidae and 43 multigravidae. The PEF was measured by spirometry and the body composition by multisegmental electrical impedance. The unpaired t test was used to compare the groups and the Pearson correlation test was used to determine the association between PEF and independent variables. A multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the dependent variable, the PEF and the independent variables. Results: the body composition variables in multigravidae women showed higher values compared to the primigravidae, being statistically significant, except for fat mass. In primigravidae, the PEF was correlated significantly with maternal age and height. In multigravidae, the PEF was correlated with maternal age, height, pre-pregnancy and current weight, total body water, extracellular water, fat mass, lean mass and fat-free mass. A Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, in primigravidae, height and maternal age were associated with PEF, being responsible for explaining 14.5% of its variability. The current weight and the maternal age explained 42.3% of peak flow variability in multigravidae. Conclusion: The PEF seemed to be influenced by the number of pregnancies. Changes were observed in relation to the body composition, as it was evidenced in correlation with the PEF in multigravidae women. Keywords: Pregnancy. Spirometry. Weight gain.

  11. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Brinton, John T; Shapiro, Allison; Kaar, Jill; Glueck, Deborah H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased

  12. The independent association between diet quality and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2014-05-12

    Excess body weight is associated with an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake but evidence on the association between diet quality and body composition remains equivocal. Rather than relying on differences in diet quality between overweight/obese and normal weight adults, this study examined the association between the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and body fatness on a continuous scale, independent of physical activity (PA). Further the association between components of the HEI-2010 and risk for overweight/obesity was explored. 407 adults (27.6 ± 3.7 years) provided at least two 24-hour diet recalls over a period of 14 days, which were used to calculate the HEI-2010. Percent body fat (BF) was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and PA was determined via a multi-sensor device, worn over a period of 10 days. PA was a stronger contributor to the variability in BF than the HEI-2010 and the association between HEI-2010 and BF was significant only in men. Particularly a high consumption of protein, sodium and empty calories increased the risk for overweight/obesity. Adherence to dietary guidelines positively affects body fatness in men, independent of PA. In contrast to current dietary recommendations, the risk for overweight/obesity was increased with a higher protein intake.

  13. Normalisation of body composition parameters for nutritional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Normalisation of body composition parameters to an index of body size facilitates comparison of a subject’s measurements with those of a population. There is an obvious focus on indexes of obesity, but first it is informative to consider Fat Free Mass (FFM) in the context of common anthropometric measures of body size namely, height and weight. The contention is that FFM is a more physiological measure of body size than body mass. Many studies have shown that FFM relates to height ^p. Although there is debate over the appropriate exponent especially in early life, it appears to lie between 2 and 3. If 2, then FFM Index (FFMI; kg/m2) and Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m2) can be summed to give BMI. If 3 were used as exponent, then FFMI (kg/m3) plus FMI (kg/m3) gives the Ponderal Index (PI; weight/height3). In 2013, Burton argued that that a cubic exponent is appropriate for normalisation as it is a dimensionless quotient. In 2012, Wang and co-workers repeated earlier observations showing a strong linear relationship between FFM and height3. The importance of the latter study comes from the fact that a 4 compartment body composition model was used, which is recognised as the most accurate means of describing FFM. Once the basis of a FFMI has been defined it can be used to compare measurements with those of a population, either directly, as a ratio to a norm or as a Z-score. FFMI charts could be developed for use in child growth. Other related indexes can be determined for use in specific circumstances such as: body cell mass index (growth and wasting); skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) or appendicular SMMI (growth and sarcopenia); bone mineral mass index (osteoporosis); extracellular fluid index (hydration). Finally, it is logical that the same system is used to define an adiposity index, so Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/height3) can be used as it is consistent with FFMI (kg/height3) and PI. It should also be noted that the index FM/FFM, describes an individual

  14. Host genetic variation impacts microbiome composition across human body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Goodrich, Julia K; Huang, Katherine; Sun, Qi; Bukowski, Robert; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Keinan, Alon; Ley, Ruth E; Gevers, Dirk; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-09-15

    The composition of bacteria in and on the human body varies widely across human individuals, and has been associated with multiple health conditions. While microbial communities are influenced by environmental factors, some degree of genetic influence of the host on the microbiome is also expected. This study is part of an expanding effort to comprehensively profile the interactions between human genetic variation and the composition of this microbial ecosystem on a genome- and microbiome-wide scale. Here, we jointly analyze the composition of the human microbiome and host genetic variation. By mining the shotgun metagenomic data from the Human Microbiome Project for host DNA reads, we gathered information on host genetic variation for 93 individuals for whom bacterial abundance data are also available. Using this dataset, we identify significant associations between host genetic variation and microbiome composition in 10 of the 15 body sites tested. These associations are driven by host genetic variation in immunity-related pathways, and are especially enriched in host genes that have been previously associated with microbiome-related complex diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity-related disorders. Lastly, we show that host genomic regions associated with the microbiome have high levels of genetic differentiation among human populations, possibly indicating host genomic adaptation to environment-specific microbiomes. Our results highlight the role of host genetic variation in shaping the composition of the human microbiome, and provide a starting point toward understanding the complex interaction between human genetics and the microbiome in the context of human evolution and disease.

  15. Using physical properties of molten glass to estimate glass composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwan Sik; Yang, Kyoung Hwa; Park, Jong Kil

    1997-01-01

    A vitrification process is under development in KEPRI for the treatment of low-and medium-level radioactive waste. Although the project is for developing and building Vitrification Pilot Plant in Korea, one of KEPRI's concerns is the quality control of the vitrified glass. This paper discusses a methodology for the estimation of glass composition by on-line measurement of molten glass properties, which could be applied to the plant for real-time quality control of the glass product. By remotely measuring viscosity and density of the molten glass, the glass characteristics such as composition can be estimated and eventually controlled. For this purpose, using the database of glass composition vs. physical properties in isothermal three-component system of SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 , a software TERNARY has been developed which determines the glass composition by using two known physical properties (e.g. density and viscosity)

  16. The association between calcium consumption and students body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Zając

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The consumption of calcium in the Polish population is insufficient, which may negatively influence the occurrence of osteoporosis, as well as cause overweight and obesity. Aim of the research : To analyse the relationship between calcium consumption and body composition of the participants of this study. Material and methods : The study was carried out on a sample group of 103 nursing students. The study group consisted of 91 (88.3% women and 12 (11.7% men, aged from 19 to 33 years. The participants of the study had their body composition analysed, the body mass index (BMI was calculated, and the authors carried out a survey involving the Dairy Products Frequency Questionnaire (ADOS-Ca as well as their own questionnaire to evaluate the socio-economic status of the subjects. Results : The students who had the lowest calcium consumption also had the lowest BMI (p = 0.0015 and the lowest amount of visceral fat (p = 0.0260. Individuals who consumed the lowest amount of calcium also had the lowest muscle mass (p = 0.007 and bone mass (p = 0.004. However, the authors did not notice a significant statistical difference between the level of calcium consumption and the percentage of adipose tissue (p = 0.5000 as well as body water percentage (p = 0.3200. Conclusions: The results of the research do not confirm the hypothesis that high calcium consumption is associated with a lower probability of the occurrence of excess body mass and adipose tissue.

  17. TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPERTHYROIDISM: EFFECT ON BODY COMPOSITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boj-Carceller, Diana; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Sánchez-Oriz, Enrique; García-Foncillas López, Rafael; Calmarza-Calmarza, Pilar; Blay-Cortes, Vicente; Abós-Olivares, Ma Dolores

    2015-11-01

    subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHT) is associated with harmful effects on cardiovascular system, bone metabolism and progression to clinical hyperthyroidism. Loss of weight is a common fact in patients with clinical hyperthyroidism and of particular relevance in elderly patients. to assess changes in body composition after radioiodine therapy for SHT due to toxic nodular goiter. prospective controlled cohort study. Patients with persistent SHT due to toxic nodular goiter were purposed to receive treatment with radioiodine (treatment group) or to delay treatment until the study was over (control group). All treated patients received 555 MBq of ¹³¹I. Body composition (lean mass, fat mass and bone mineral content) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at baseline and 12 months after. twenty-nine patients were studied (age 69.5 ± 11.5; 75.9% women; BMI 27.1 ± 5.7 kg/m²; serum thyrotropin (TSH) 0.20 ± 0.21 μUI/mL; serum free thyroxine (T4) 1.01 ± 0.19 ng/dL), 17 belonging to the treatment group and 12 to the control group. Study groups were comparable, although there was a trend for the treatment group to have more fat mass. No longitudinal changes in body composition were noted in either group, except for a trend to gain fat mass. However, when individuals with age > 65 years were selected, only patients who received radioiodine therapy showed a significant increase in body weight (from 64.1 ± 10.0 to 66.9 ± 9.2 kg), BMI (from 27.3 ± 4.8 to 28.7 ± 4.5 kg/m²), fat mass (from 26.1 ± 8.5 to 27.8 ± 7.9 kg), lean mass (from 36.3 ± 0.4 to 37.4 ± 0.4 kg) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) (from 6.0 ± 0.6 to 6.3 ± 0.6 kg/m²). treatment of SHT has impact on body composition in subjects older than 65 years. Weight gain reflects increases in fat and, more interestingly, in lean mass. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. New reusable elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M-V; Chaset, L; Bittner, P A; Barthod, C; Passard, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of telemedicine requires finding solutions of reusable electrodes for use in patients' homes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of reusable elastomer electrodes for measuring body composition. We measured a population of healthy Caucasian (n = 17). A measurement was made with a reference device, the Xitron®, associated with AgCl Gel electrodes (Gel) and another measurement with a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® associated with reusable elastomer electrodes (Elast). We obtained a low variability with an average error of repeatability of 0.39% for Re and 0.32% for Rinf. There is a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 200 ml between extracellular water Ve measured with Gel and Elast in supine and in standing position. For total body water Vt, we note a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 100 ml and 2.2 1 respectively in supine and standing position. The results give low dispersion, with R 2 superior to 0.90, with a 1.5% maximal error between Gel and Elast on Ve in standing position. It looks possible, taking a few precautions, using elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition.

  19. Comparison of two software versions for assessment of body-composition analysis by DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Wang, J; Weyer, C

    2001-01-01

    To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA.......To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA....

  20. Utility Estimation of the Manufactured Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ahn, Jong Ho; Seo, Jeong Min; Shin, Eun Hyeak; Choi, Byeong Gi; Song, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    Immobilizations used in order to maintain the reproducibility of a patient set-up and the stable posture for a long period are important more than anything else for the accurate treatment when the stereotactic body radiotherapy is underway. So the purpose of this study is to adapt the optimum immobilizations for the stereotactic body radiotherapy by comparing two commercial immobilizations with the self-manufactured immobilizations. Five people were selected for the experiment and three different immobilizations (A: Wing-board, B: BodyFix system, C: Arm up holder with vac-lock) were used to each target. After deciding on the target's most stable respiratory cycles, the targets were asked to wear a goggle monitor and maintain their respiration regularly for thirty minutes to obtain the respiratory signals. To analyze the respiratory signal, the standard deviation and the variation value of the peak value and the valley value of the respiratory signal were separated by time zone with the self-developed program at the hospital and each tie-downs were compared for the estimation by calculating a comparative index using the above. The stability of each immobilizations were measured in consideration of deviation changes studied in each respiratory time lapse. Comparative indexes of each immobilizations of each experimenter are shown to be A: 11.20, B: 4.87, C: 1.63 / A: 3.94, B: 0.67, C: 0.13 / A: 2.41, B: 0.29, C: 0.04 / A: 0.16, B: 0.19, C: 0.007 / A: 35.70, B: 2.37, C: 1.86. And when all five experimenters wore the immobilizations C, the test proved the most stable value while four people wearing A and one man wearing D expressed relatively the most unstable respiratory outcomes. The self-developed immobilizations, so called the arm up holder vac-lock for the stereotactic body radiotherapy is expected to improve the effect of the treatment by decreasing the intra-fraction organ motions because it keeps the respiration more stable than other two immobilizations

  1. Analysis of Ion Composition Estimation Accuracy for Incoherent Scatter Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ledesma, M.; Diaz, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) is one of the most powerful sounding methods developed to estimate the Ionosphere. This radar system determines the plasma parameters by sending powerful electromagnetic pulses to the Ionosphere and analyzing the received backscatter. This analysis provides information about parameters such as electron and ion temperatures, electron densities, ion composition, and ion drift velocities. Nevertheless in some cases the ISR analysis has ambiguities in the determination of the plasma characteristics. It is of particular relevance the ion composition and temperature ambiguity obtained between the F1 and the lower F2 layers. In this case very similar signals are obtained with different mixtures of molecular ions (NO2+ and O2+) and atomic oxygen ions (O+), and consequently it is not possible to completely discriminate between them. The most common solution to solve this problem is the use of empirical or theoretical models of the ionosphere in the fitting of ambiguous data. More recent works take use of parameters estimated from the Plasma Line band of the radar to reduce the number of parameters to determine. In this work we propose to determine the error estimation of the ion composition ambiguity when using Plasma Line electron density measurements. The sensibility of the ion composition estimation has been also calculated depending on the accuracy of the ionospheric model, showing that the correct estimation is highly dependent on the capacity of the model to approximate the real values. Monte Carlo simulations of data fitting at different signal to noise (SNR) ratios have been done to obtain valid and invalid estimation probability curves. This analysis provides a method to determine the probability of erroneous estimation for different signal fluctuations. Also it can be used as an empirical method to compare the efficiency of the different algorithms and methods on when solving the ion composition ambiguity.

  2. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  3. Body Composition Evaluation Issue among Young Elite Football Players: DXA Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Leão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of body composition is an important issue among athletes. Different methodologies generate controversial results, leading to a deep uncertainty on individual exercise prescriptions. Thus, this study aims to identify the differences between field methods, such as bioelectrical impedance (BIA and skinfold assessment, with a clinical method, highly accurate, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, among elite young football players. Thirty-eight male football players with a mean (sd age of 16.7 (0.87 years, involved in the Portuguese national competition of U16 (n = 13 and U19 (n = 25, were evaluated and objective measures of body composition, muscle strength and football skills were collected by trained specialists. Body composition was assessed using BIA (Tanita BC-418, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan, in agreement with all the evaluation premises. Additionally, all athletes were evaluated using the clinical method DXA (Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA, USA. Among the U19 athletes, three skinfold sites (SKF were assessed: chest, abdomin and thigh. The Spearman correlation coefficients and the mean difference between methods were calculated. The agreement between both methods was analyzed using Bland-Altman plots. Among the evaluated athletes, lower mean values of body fat % were found using BIA as a method of body composition assessment compared with DXA (12.05 vs. 15.58 for U16; 11.97 vs. 14.16 for U19. Despite the moderate correlation between methods (r = 0.33 to estimate the percentage of total fat, the median of the difference (DXA vs. BIA was relevant in clinical terms, with 2.90% and 1.47% for U16 and U19 athletes, respectively. Stronger correlations were found between the sum of the SKF and DXA fat estimation (r = 0.68. The Bland-Altman plots showed a clear underestimation in the evaluations using the BIA, namely among athletes with better body composition profiles (8%–12% of fat. Using BIA, an underestimation of body fat

  4. Sources of variation in estimates of lean body mass by creatinine kinetics and by methods based on body water or body mass index in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Murata, Glen H; Piraino, Beth; Raj, Dominic S C; VanderJagt, Dorothy J; Bernardini, Judith; Servilla, Karen S; Sun, Yijuan; Glew, Robert H; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2010-03-01

    We identified factors that account for differences between lean body mass computed from creatinine kinetics (LBM(cr)) and from either body water (LBM(V)) or body mass index (LBM(BMI)) in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD). We compared the LBM(cr) and LBM(V) or LBM(BMI) in hypothetical subjects and actual CPD patients. We studied 439 CPD patients in Albuquerque, Pittsburgh, and Toronto, with 925 clearance studies. Creatinine production was estimated using formulas derived in CPD patients. Body water (V) was estimated from anthropometric formulas. We calculated LBM(BMI) from a formula that estimates body composition based on body mass index. In hypothetical subjects, LBM values were calculated by varying the determinants of body composition (gender, diabetic status, age, weight, and height) one at a time, while the other determinants were kept constant. In actual CPD patients, multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with differences in the estimates of LBM (LBM(cr)LBM(V), or LBM(cr)LBM(BMI)). We sought predictors of the differences LBM(V) - LBM(cr) and LBM(BMI) - LBM(cr). Both LBM(V) (regardless of formula used to estimate V) and LBM(BMI) exceeded LBM(cr) in hypothetical subjects with average body compositions. The sources of differences between LBM estimates in this group involved differences in the coefficients assigned to gender, age, height, weight, presence or absence of diabetes, and serum creatinine concentration. In CPD patients, mean LBM(V) or LBM(BMI) exceeded mean LBM(cr) by 6.2 to 6.9 kg. For example, the LBM(V) obtained from one anthropometric formula was 50.4+/-10.4 kg and the LBM(cr) was 44.1+/-13.6 kg (P LBM(cr)>LBM(V). The differences in determinants of body composition between groups with high versus low LBM(cr) were similar in hypothetical and actual CPD patients. Multivariate analysis in actual CPD patients identified serum creatinine, height, age, gender, weight, and body mass

  5. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, G E; Brooks, A G; Withers, R T; Dollman, J; Leaney, F; Chatterton, B E

    2001-04-01

    To determine anthropometric and body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition. There was an attempt to match subjects in the control and experimental groups for height and percentage body fat (%BF) for the initial test of this longitudinal study. Five competitive bodybuilders (-X +/- s.d.: 35.3 +/- 5.7 y; 167.3 +/- 3.7 cm; 66.38 +/- 6.30 kg; 18.3 +/- 3.5 %BF) and five athletic females (-X +/- s.d.: 30.9 +/- 13.0 y; 166.9 +/- 3.9 cm; 55.94 +/- 3.59 kg; 19.1 +/- 3.3 %BF) were recruited from advertisements in a bodybuilding newsletter and placed on sports centre noticeboards. The following measurements were conducted 12 weeks, 6 weeks and 3-5 d before the bodybuilders' competitions: anthropometric profile, body density by underwater weighing, total body water via deuterium dilution and bone mineral mass from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. A combination of the last three measurements enabled the %BF to the determined by a four compartment model. A significant (P bodybuilders as they prepared for competition was primarily due to a reduction in fat mass (FM; -4.42 kg; 76.2%) as opposed to fat-free mass (FFM; -1.38 kg; 23.8%). The decreases in body mass and FM over the final 6 weeks were greater than those over the first 6 weeks. Their %BF decreased (P bodybuilders were accompanied by a significant decline (P bodybuilders presented with low %BFs at the start of the experiment, they still significantly decreased their body mass during the 12 week preparation for competition and most of this loss was due to a reduction in FM as opposed to FFM.

  6. Body image and body composition: comparisons of young male elite soccer players and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition and body image (perception and satisfaction) in a group of young elite soccer players and to compare the data with those of a control group (age and BMI matched). Participants were 56 volunteer males whose mean age and BMI were 19.6 (SD 1.3) years and 23.3 (SD 1.1) kg/m2, respectively. Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Moreover, body perception (difference between current and actual image) was more accurate in controls than in soccer players, and the results suggest a tendency for soccer players to aspire to have more muscle mass and body fat. Soccer players perceived an ideal image with significantly higher body-fat percentage than their current and actual images. There were no body-dissatisfaction differences between groups, however. Although the results are necessarily limited by the small sample size, the findings should be of interest to coaches of young elite soccer teams.

  7. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vlychou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  8. Exoskeleton Heterogeneity in Crustaceans: Quantifying Compositional and Structural Variations Across Body Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, R. N.; Mergelsberg, S. T.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Crustacean exoskeletons are a complex biocomposite of organic macromolecules and calcium carbonate minerals. The highly divergent functions and diverse morphologies of these biominerals across taxa raise the question of whether these differences are systematically reflected in exoskeleton composition and structure. Previous studies that investigated element concentrations in exoskeletons used spectroscopic methods. However, the findings were largely inconclusive because of analytical limitations and most studies concluded that magnesium, phosphorus, and other trace elements are mostly contained in the mineral fraction because concentrations in the organic framework could not be resolved. This experimental study was designed to quantify the distributions of Ca, P, Mg, and Sr in the mineral versus organic fractions of exoskeletons from the American Lobster (H. americanus), Dungeness Crab (M. magister), and Red Rock Crab (M. productus). Samples of exoskeleton from 10 body parts were collected in triplicate and dissolved using three procedures specific to extracting the 1) mineral, 2) protein, and 3) chitin phases separately. Chemical analyses of the resulting effluents using ICP-OES show the mineral fraction of the skeleton can contain significant amounts of mineralized Mg and P particularly for body parts associated with a significant difference in mineral structural ordering. The protein fraction contains more Mg and P than expected based on estimates from previous studies (Hild et al., 2008). While the element distributions vary greatly depending on the location, in body parts with thicker cuticle (e.g. claw) the mineral component appears to control overall composition. The findings have implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions based upon exoskeleton composition. First, the chemical composition of an exoskeleton cannot be assumed constant across the different body parts of an entire organism. This is particularly true when the exoskeleton of the claw is

  9. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, p<0.01), WC (r=0.858, p<0.01) and body fat percentage (r=0.757, <0.01). Body fat percentage also showed to have a high correlation with BMI (r=0.757, p<0.01) and WC (r=0.693, p<0.01). Furthermore, overweight and obesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of

  10. A Prospective Investigation of Body Size, Body Fat Composition and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luisa Saldana; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Cross, Amanda J; Morris, Jessica S; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil

    2017-12-19

    Obesity has been consistently associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk, but this relationship is weaker among women. In the UK Biobank, we investigated the associations between body size (body mass index [BMI], height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) and body fat composition (total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage) measurements with colorectal cancer risk among 472,526 men and women followed for 5.6 years on average. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for developing colorectal cancer (2,636 incident cases) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among men, when the highest and lowest fifths were compared, BMI (HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.13-1.61; P trend  body fat percentage (HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P trend  = 0.002), and trunk fat percentage (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.58; P trend  = 0.002) were associated with greater colorectal cancer risk. For women, only waist-to-hip ratio (HR for highest versus lowest fifth = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.08-1.65; P trend  = 0.005) was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. Greater body size (overall and abdominal adiposity) was positively associated with colorectal cancer development in men. For women, abdominal adiposity, rather than overall body size, was associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk.

  11. The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Cartwright, Laura; Corish, Clare; Sugrue, Sheila; Wood-Martin, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the body composition, nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and educational needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. Participants included 203 male rugby players age 15-18 yr competing at Senior School's Cup level in Leinster, Ireland. Estimation of body composition included measurement of height, weight, and percentage body fat (PBF; using bioelectrical impedance analysis, Tanita BC-418). Nutritional knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and education needs were assessed by questionnaire. The range of PBF was 5.1-25.3%. Sixty-eight percent of the players in this study had a healthy PBF (10-20%), 32 (22%) were classified as underweight (benefit from appropriate nutritional education.

  12. Detecting meaningful body composition changes in athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colyer, Steffi L; Roberts, Simon P; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Salo, Aki I T; Robinson, Jonathan B

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging is considered to provide a valid and reliable estimation of body composition when stringent scanning protocols are adopted. However, applied practitioners are not always able to achieve this level of control and the subsequent impact on measurement precision is not always taken into account when evaluating longitudinal body composition changes. The primary aim of this study was to establish the reliability of DXA in an applied elite sport setting to investigate whether real body composition changes can be detected. Additionally, the performance implications of these changes during the training year were investigated. Forty-eight well-trained athletes (from four diverse sports) underwent two DXA scans using a ‘real-world’ approach (with limited pre-scan controls), typically within 48 h, to quantify typical error of measurement (TEM). Twenty-five athletes underwent further scans, before and after specific training and competition blocks. ‘True’ body composition changes were evaluated using 2  ×  TEM thresholds. Twelve bob skeleton athletes also performed countermovement jump and leg press tests at each time point. Many ‘true’ body composition changes were detected and coincided with the primary training emphases (e.g. lean mass gains during hypertrophy-based training). Clear relationships (r  ±  90% CI) were observed between performance changes (countermovement jump and leg press) and changes in lean mass (0.53  ±  0.26 and 0.35  ±  0.28, respectively) and fat mass (−0.44  ±  0.27 and  −0.37  ±  0.28, respectively). DXA was able to detect real body composition changes without the use of stringent scanning controls. Associations between changes in body composition and performance demonstrated the potential influence of these changes on strength and power indices. (paper)

  13. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  14. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  15. Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Rakesh, Vineet; Oyama, Tatsuya; Kazman, Josh B; Yanovich, Ran; Ketko, Itay; Epstein, Yoram; Morrison, Shawnda; Reifman, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    A rising core body temperature (T c ) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate T c in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of T c requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between T c and noninvasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity). A Kalman filter adapts the model parameters to each individual and provides real-time personalized T c estimates. Using data from three distinct studies, comprising 166 subjects who performed treadmill and cycle ergometer tasks under different experimental conditions, we assessed model performance via the root mean squared error (RMSE). The individualized model yielded an overall average RMSE of 0.33 (SD = 0.18)°C, allowing us to reach the same conclusions in each study as those obtained using the T c measurements. Furthermore, for 22 unique subjects whose T c exceeded 38.5°C, a potential lower T c limit of clinical relevance, the average RMSE decreased to 0.25 (SD = 0.20)°C. Importantly, these results remained robust in the presence of simulated real-world operational conditions, yielding no more than 16% worse RMSEs when measurements were missing (40%) or laden with added noise. Hence, the individualized model provides a practical means to develop an early warning system for reducing heat-injury risk. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A model that uses an individual's noninvasive measurements and environmental variables can continually "learn" the individual's heat-stress response by automatically adapting the model parameters on the fly to provide real-time individualized core body temperature estimates. This

  16. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  17. Body Composition Early Identifies Cancer Patients With Radiotherapy at Risk for Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Liu, Wen-Shan; Chen, Lih-Mih; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2018-03-01

    The side effects of radiotherapy (RT) and the occurrence of comorbidity often result in appetite loss in patients, which leads to serious nutritional problems, significantly affecting the patients' treatment results and disease prognosis. We aimed to investigate changes in the body composition of patients with cancer from the time they received RT to three months after completion of RT. A total of 101 cancer patients who received RT, which included head or neck cancer, chest or breast cancer, and abdominal or pelvic cancer patients, were recruited. A longitudinal study design was adopted, in which the body composition analyzer In Body3.0 was used to obtain patient data at six different time points. The data were analyzed through generalized estimating equation. All patients with cancer had the lowest body mass index at the end of RT. For head or neck cancer patients, their total body water and muscle mass decreased significantly in the fourth week of RT and at the end of RT. For chest or breast cancer patients, their body fat mass changed significantly in the second and fourth weeks of RT (β = -0.57, P = 0.0233; β = -3.23, P = 0.0254). For abdominal or pelvic cancer patients, their total body weight and muscle mass decreased significantly in the second week of RT and at the end of RT (β = -1.07, P = 0.0248; β = -5.13, P = 0.0017; β = -1.37, P = 0.0245; β = -6.50, P = 0.0016); their body fat mass increased significantly in the third month after RT (β = 4.61, P = 0.0072). Body composition analysis can be used to promptly and effectively monitor changes in the nutritional status of patients with cancer during the cancer treatment period; changes in the body composition at different repetitions differ between patients with dissimilar cancers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Barr, Ronald D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm{sup -2} for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm{sup -2}). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences

  19. Reproducibility of DXA measurements of bone mineral density and body composition in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Cheryl M.; Roza, Melissa A.; Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The technique of X-ray-based dual photon absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used in children for the detection of changes in bone mass or body composition. Such changes can only be considered real if the uncertainties arising from the measurement technique are exceeded. Our objectives were twofold: (1) to determine the reproducibility of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in children at the spine and the hip and from the whole body, as well as of whole-body measurements of mineral mass, lean body mass and fat mass in children; and (2) to estimate, from the measured precision, the time interval that needs to elapse before a statistically significant change in a DXA variable can be detected. The reproducibility of techniques for the measurement of BMD and body composition using DXA was measured in 15 young children (9 girls and 6 boys) and 17 older children (9 girls and 8 boys). Reproducibility was derived from the standard deviation of three repeated measurements of spine BMD, total hip BMD, whole-body BMD (WBBMD), whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean mass and fat mass. Technique precision was better than 0.01 g cm -2 for spine BMD and for WBBMD. Hip BMD measurements were slightly less precise, particularly in younger children (0.013 g cm -2 ). For body composition variables, technique precision was 13 g for WBBMC, 201 g for lean body mass and 172 g for fat mass in younger children. Technique precision for older children was 18 g, 251 g and 189 g for the corresponding variables. Predictions showed that the absence of a normal increase in WBBMC in a small-for-age girl could be established after 12 months. For spine BMD, a significant increase should be observable after 6 months for boys over the age of 11 years. For younger boys, more than 12 months has to elapse before anticipated changes can be detected with confidence. The time intervals required to elapse before decisions can be made concerning the significance of observed differences between

  20. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  1. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia de Faria Santarém, G; de Cleva, R; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Bernhard, Aline Biaseto; Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andrea; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients. The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m) showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002) than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m). The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m) also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014) than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m). There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM), FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL), trunk (FFM_TR) and lower limbs (FFM_LL). Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.

  2. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  3. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  4. Body composition and metabolic profile in adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Murari ROCHA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the body composition and metabolic profile in individuals in terms of different concentrations of serum vitamin D, ranging from deficiency to sufficiency. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 106 adults of both genders, who were divided into three groups according to vitamin D levels: deficiency: <20ng/mL; insufficiency: 20-29.9ng/mL; and sufficiency: 30-100ng/mL. Anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and body circumferences. Fat mass and lean mass were assessed using the Tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method. Clinical and biochemical evaluations were also carried out. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin index. Results: The analysis showed that the main alterations in individuals in the vitamin D deficiency group were higher triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein - cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, body fat percentage, lean mass percentage, waist circumference, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin than those of the vitamin D sufficient group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was found that vitamin D deficiency causes important body composition and metabolic changes, which may lead to diseases such as diabetes Mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Body composition and pulmonary function in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eSheikh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower body mass index (BMI is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF. Hypothesis: Lean body mass (LBM is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is.Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z were generated for CF and controls. 1 Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and 2 age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: 208 PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (pConclusions: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. LBMI is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the undernourished child and adolescent with PI-CF.

  6. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  7. Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Deuterium in Costa Rican Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana-Guzmán, E.; Salas-Chaves, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been adopted as international measure for measuring adiposity in children with the disadvantage that it varies with age, sex and sexual maturation with no differentiation between fat mass and mass free of grease. The analysis of body composition allow to know if the overweight is due to fatty tissue being the deuterium isotope dilution a validated reference method using Infrared Spectrometry Transformed of Fourier (FTIR). We studied a total 118 boys and girls from 6 to 9 years old getting the values of z score of BMI for age and percentage of fat mass by FTIR. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Costa Rica does not escape to the global problem of childhood obesity founding by BMI 18.6% of overweight and 10% of obesity and by body composition 9% of overweight and 57% of obesity. Isotopic deuterium dilution method demonstrated in this study to be more suitable for the analysis of obesity and overweight in children since BMI presented false positive and false negative results giving less accurate information of adiposity of the subject. (author)

  8. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  9. Assessing Error Correlations in Remote Sensing-Based Estimates of Forest Attributes for Improved Composite Estimation

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    Sarah Ehlers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, non-expensive remote sensing (RS data from different sensors and platforms can be obtained at short intervals and be used for assessing several kinds of forest characteristics at the level of plots, stands and landscapes. Methods such as composite estimation and data assimilation can be used for combining the different sources of information to obtain up-to-date and precise estimates of the characteristics of interest. In composite estimation a standard procedure is to assign weights to the different individual estimates inversely proportional to their variance. However, in case the estimates are correlated, the correlations must be considered in assigning weights or otherwise a composite estimator may be inefficient and its variance be underestimated. In this study we assessed the correlation of plot level estimates of forest characteristics from different RS datasets, between assessments using the same type of sensor as well as across different sensors. The RS data evaluated were SPOT-5 multispectral data, 3D airborne laser scanning data, and TanDEM-X interferometric radar data. Studies were made for plot level mean diameter, mean height, and growing stock volume. All data were acquired from a test site dominated by coniferous forest in southern Sweden. We found that the correlation between plot level estimates based on the same type of RS data were positive and strong, whereas the correlations between estimates using different sources of RS data were not as strong, and weaker for mean height than for mean diameter and volume. The implications of such correlations in composite estimation are demonstrated and it is discussed how correlations may affect results from data assimilation procedures.

  10. Validity and Reliability of Assessing Body Composition Using a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Elizabeth Z; Vehrs, Pat R; Fellingham, Gilbert W; Eggett, Dennis; George, James D; Hager, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the LeanScreen (LS) mobile application that estimates percent body fat (%BF) using estimates of circumferences from photographs. The %BF of 148 weight-stable adults was estimated once using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Each of two administrators assessed the %BF of each subject twice using the LS app and manually measured circumferences. A mixed-model ANOVA and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare the estimates of %BF obtained from each method. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities values were determined using multiple measurements taken by each of the two administrators. The LS app and manually measured circumferences significantly underestimated (P < 0.05) the %BF determined using DXA by an average of -3.26 and -4.82 %BF, respectively. The LS app (6.99 %BF) and manually measured circumferences (6.76 %BF) had large limits of agreement. All interrater and intrarater reliability coefficients of estimates of %BF using the LS app and manually measured circumferences exceeded 0.99. The estimates of %BF from manually measured circumferences and the LS app were highly reliable. However, these field measures are not currently recommended for the assessment of body composition because of significant bias and large limits of agreements.

  11. Gender differences in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and their relation to body composition in active Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Julia Aparecida Devide; Macedo da Costa, Teresa Helena

    2009-01-01

    Body weight and composition are determined by genotype, environment, and energy balance. Physical activity or sedentary behavior have different associations with body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass, a relationship that is not clear in adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the associations between gender, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body composition in physically active adolescents. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured in 326 physically active boys and girls age 11 to 15 years. All subjects answered a questionnaire assessing their usual daily activities for the last month. Time spent on each activity was used to estimate the physical activity level (PAL). PAL was associated with body composition after adjustment for age and maturation, with differences between genders. For boys, PAL was positively and significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index (beta=0.14 and 0.15, respectively). For girls, PAL was negatively and significantly associated with BMI and fat mass index (beta=-0.11 and -0.75, respectively). Sedentary behavior, expressed by hours of TV, videogame, and computer use, was not associated with any body-composition outcome for either gender. The accumulated amount of physical activity, but not of sedentary behavior, was related to body composition in active adolescents.

  12. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  13. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Anne; Geuss, Michael N; Mölbert, Simone C; Giel, Katrin E; Streuber, Stephan; Romero, Javier; Black, Michael J; Mohler, Betty J

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations) represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1), but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a). The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  14. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thaler

    Full Text Available Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI, on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1, but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a. The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  15. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  16. BODY BUILD AND BODY COMPOSITION VS. PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN YOUNG JUDO CONTESTANTS COMPARED TO UNTRAINED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lech

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to (1 find differences in body build and aerobic and anaerobic capacity between young judoists and untrained peers; (2 compare correlations for indicators of body build with indicators of aerobic and anaerobic capacity among the group of trained and untrained subjects. The study group comprised 18 subjects selected during a competitive period, who had taken at least fifth place in national judo tournaments. Their training experience ranged from 6 to 11 years, 8 to 10 hours a week. The control group was composed of 18 untrained students from one of the schools included in the study. Their body height and mass (BM did not differ compared to judoists. A body composition chart was employed for analysis of body build and body composition. Physiological investigations encompassed measurements of anaerobic (Wingate test and aerobic (graded exercise test on cycle ergometer capacity. Judo contestants are typically characterized by higher BMI, fat-free mass and fat-free mass index compared to the untrained. Compared to the group of untrained peers, young athletes in this sport are distinguished by the time needed to generate peak power. This difference is not observed in the indices characterising aerobic capacity. The level of the indices of body build and composition in young judo contestants shows a moderate and strong correlation with indices of anaerobic and aerobic capacity. The amount of total work in the Wingate test was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.65, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=0.63, p<0.01, body mass (r=0.49, p<0.05, fat mass index (r=0.49, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.48, p<0.05. Maximal peak anaerobic power was positively correlated with fat-free mass index (r=0.48, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.50, p<0.05. A strong negative correlation between ·VO2max with body mass (r=-0.75, p<0.001, BMI (r=-0.72, p<0.001, moderate correlation with PF%(r=-0.64, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=-0.52, p<0

  17. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, R.F.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was directly compared with deuterium-isotope dilution in a total of 58 subjects. First, sex-specific and group equations were developed by multiple regression analysis in (10 each) obese and nonobese men and women. Height/resistive impedance was the most significant variable used to predict deuterium-dilution space (D2O-TBW) and, combined with weight, yielded R = 0.99 and SE of estimate = 1.75 L. Equations predicted D2O-TBW equally well for obese and nonobese subjects. Second, the equations were prospectively tested in a heterogeneous group of 6 males and 12 females. Sex-specific equations predicted D2O-TBW with good correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.93), total error (2.34 and 2.89 L), and a small difference between mean predicted and measured D2O-TBW (-1.4 +/- 2.05 and -0.48 +/- 2.83 L). BIA predicts D2O-TBW more accurately than weight, height, and/or age. A larger population is required to validate the applicability of our equations

  18. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...

  19. Estimation of Live Weight of Calves from Body Measurements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All phenotypic correlations between body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.001). The highest correlation coefficient was found between chest girth and body weight. The polynomial equation using chest girth as an independent variable predicted body weight more accurately within breed as compared to the ...

  20. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry; basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue<0.021 and Huang et al. (Pvalue≤0.005 equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al’s. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  1. Mass of organs and composition of the body of Japanese Reference Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1990-01-01

    Reference Man as defined and described in ICRP Publication 23 is in the process of major revision, with an emphasis on the age and sex, and characteristics of non-European populations. Japanese Reference Man (or Woman) is to be defined as the subject, normal and healthy, 20 to 30 years of age, who inhabits in Japan and live on the 'standard diet'. He (or she) is a Mongoloid in race, and 170 (or 160) cm in height, and 60 (or 51) kg in weight. Physical properties such as masses of 114 organs, tissues and components, and their specific gravities of Japanese Reference Male are given. Body composition or body fat, LBM, skeleton, soft lean body mass (SLBM), body water, blood, muscle, ash, protein and specific gravity were also given as well as body surface. These data are primarily based on the data obtained for normal Japanese, and, where data unavailable, they were derived from ICRP Reference Man data by using a new concept of SLBM. Red bone marrow was estimated to be 1,000g as compared to 1,500g in Reference Man. Body fat was obtained by using Nagamine's equations, which showed a recent slight tendency of obesity. In conclusion, the present data for Japanese Reference Man could be used in designing appropriate phantoms, mathematical and real, for Japanese. Japanese Reference Man will also provide a basis for Asian Reference Man, which, in principle, should be consistent with ICRP concepts of Reference Man. (author)

  2. A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided. 

  3. Adverse Effects of Sporadic Dialysis on Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workeneh, Biruh; Shypailo, Roman; DeCastro, Iris; Shah, Maulin; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Mitch, William E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the body composition of patients receiving emergent dialysis and compare their body cell mass (BCM) and fat-free mass (FFM) with those of normal subjects. The care of patients receiving sporadic, emergent dialysis treatment is a growing public health concern and the magnitude of muscle wasting that occurs in this population is not known. We used a cross-sectional design with matching to determine differences in total body potassium--an indicator of both BCM and FFM--between emergent dialysis patients and healthy normal subjects. We studied 22 subjects using a 40K counter that measures BCM and FFM and compared them to controls after matching with sex, height and weight. In the matched comparison, BCM and FFM were significantly lower in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unadjusted BCM was 4.7 kg lower and FFM was 8.8 kg lower for those with ESRD compared to those without ESRD (p FFM (7.7 kg) in the ESRD subjects (p = 0.004). After adjusting for age, height, weight and gender, BCM and FFM were lower by 4.2 and 7.8 kg, respectively (p FFM loss over time was significant, with the ESRD subjects demonstrating 2.2 kg per year decline (p = 0.01). We conclude that among other consequences, muscle wasting indicated by decline in BCM and FFM is a significant concern in the growing emergent dialysis population. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  5. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  6. The discrepancy between emotional vs. rational estimates of body size, actual size, and ideal body ratings: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J K; Dolce, J J

    1989-05-01

    Thirty-two asymptomatic college females were assessed on multiple aspects of body image. Subjects' estimation of the size of three body sites (waist, hips, thighs) was affected by instructional protocol. Emotional ratings, based on how they "felt" about their body, elicited ratings that were larger than actual and ideal size measures. Size ratings based on rational instructions were no different from actual sizes, but were larger than ideal ratings. There were no differences between actual and ideal sizes. The results are discussed with regard to methodological issues involved in body image research. In addition, a working hypothesis that differentiates affective/emotional from cognitive/rational aspects of body size estimation is offered to complement current theories of body image. Implications of the findings for the understanding of body image and its relationship to eating disorders are discussed.

  7. Validity of anthropometric procedures to estimate body density and body fat percent in military men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez-Añez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the validity of the Katch e McArdle’s equation (1973,which uses the circumferences of the arm, forearm and abdominal to estimate the body density and the procedure of Cohen (1986 which uses the circumferences of the neck and abdominal to estimate the body fat percent (%F in military men. Therefore data from 50 military men, with mean age of 20.26 ± 2.04 years serving in Santa Maria, RS, was collected. The circumferences were measured according with Katch e McArdle (1973 and Cohen (1986 procedures. The body density measured (Dm obtained under water weighting was used as criteria and its mean value was 1.0706 ± 0.0100 g/ml. The residual lung volume was estimated using the Goldman’s e Becklake’s equation (1959. The %F was obtained with the Siri’s equation (1961 and its mean value was 12.70 ± 4.71%. The validation criterion suggested by Lohman (1992 was followed. The analysis of the results indicated that the procedure developed by Cohen (1986 has concurrent validity to estimate %F in military men or in other samples with similar characteristics with standard error of estimate of 3.45%. . RESUMO Através deste estudo objetivou-se verificar a validade: da equação de Katch e McArdle (1973 que envolve os perímetros do braço, antebraço e abdômen, para estimar a densidade corporal; e, o procedimento de Cohen (1986 que envolve os perímetros do pescoço e abdômen, para estimar o % de gordura (%G; para militares. Para tanto, coletou-se os dados de 50 militares masculinos, com idade média de 20,26 ± 2,04 anos, lotados na cidade de Santa Maria, RS. Mensurou-se os perímetros conforme procedimentos de Katch e McArdle (1973 e Cohen (1986. Utilizou-se a densidade corporal mensurada (Dm através da pesagem hidrostática como critério de validação, cujo valor médio foi de 1,0706 ± 0,0100 g/ml. Estimou-se o volume residual pela equação de Goldman e Becklake (1959. O %G derivado da Dm estimou

  8. Vitamin D and body composition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitezova, Anna; Muka, Taulant; Zillikens, M Carola; Voortman, Trudy; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association between vitamin D status and body composition in the elderly. This study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, including subjects aged 55 years and older. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured between 1997 and 1999. Total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat and lean mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during a follow-up visit after a median time of 5 years (2002-2004). We calculated body fat percentage, lean mass percentage, and android/gynoid fat ratio. We had 2158 participants included in our analysis. We used multivariable linear regression models. Serum 25(OH)D was analyzed continuously and after categorization according to cut-offs. Mean (±SD) serum 25(OH)D concentration of the study population was 52.6 ± 25.4 nmol/L. Compared to subjects with an adequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L), vitamin D deficient participants (25(OH)D D was associated with higher total body fat percentage specifically in participants without cardio-metabolic disease. Each 10 unit increase in serum 25(OH)D was associated with 0.03 unit decrease in android fat (β = -0.03, 95%CI: -0.06, -0.01); after adjustment for BMI the association was no longer significant. Serum 25(OH)D was also associated with the android/gynoid fat ratio but this was also mainly explained by BMI. Lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a higher fat mass percentage. The association between serum 25(OH)D and differential fat distribution in the elderly was mainly explained by BMI and deserves further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. A multivariate model for predicting segmental body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Simiao; Mioche, Laurence; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Morio, Béatrice

    2013-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to propose a multivariate model for predicting simultaneously body, trunk and appendicular fat and lean masses from easily measured variables and to compare its predictive capacity with that of the available univariate models that predict body fat percentage (BF%). The dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) dataset (52% men and 48% women) with White, Black and Hispanic ethnicities (1999-2004, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) was randomly divided into three sub-datasets: a training dataset (TRD), a test dataset (TED); a validation dataset (VAD), comprising 3835, 1917 and 1917 subjects. For each sex, several multivariate prediction models were fitted from the TRD using age, weight, height and possibly waist circumference. The most accurate model was selected from the TED and then applied to the VAD and a French DXA dataset (French DB) (526 men and 529 women) to assess the prediction accuracy in comparison with that of five published univariate models, for which adjusted formulas were re-estimated using the TRD. Waist circumference was found to improve the prediction accuracy, especially in men. For BF%, the standard error of prediction (SEP) values were 3.26 (3.75) % for men and 3.47 (3.95)% for women in the VAD (French DB), as good as those of the adjusted univariate models. Moreover, the SEP values for the prediction of body and appendicular lean masses ranged from 1.39 to 2.75 kg for both the sexes. The prediction accuracy was best for age < 65 years, BMI < 30 kg/m2 and the Hispanic ethnicity. The application of our multivariate model to large populations could be useful to address various public health issues.

  10. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  11. Long term survey of body composition in hemodialysis patients using the Body Composition Monitor® (BCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Trolonge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2 years all 265 incident patients in self-dialysis units were included in a prospective study. Every 6-months, clinical and biological nutritional evaluation was associated to a BCM measure. 205 pts have a complete set of data at start (age 60±16 years, BMI 25±5 kg/m2, albumin 37±4 g/L, prealbumin 0.32±0.1 g/L, CRP median 5 mg/L, 135 pts at 6 mo and 56 pts at 2 years. Measures were performed before HD session to ensure stability and reproducibility of body fluid compartments by the same examiner. Lean and fat masses (lean tissue index: LTI, fat tissue index: FTI were normalized by square body height and compared with a reference range derived from 2000 healthy controls, according to gender and age. 28% of pts had values of LTI below the 10th percentile. A linear correlation exists (p<0.001 between pre-dialysis creatinine level and LTI. Albumin or prealbumin were not predictive of sarcopenia. Prescribed post dialysis BW was underestimated in 25% of pts and 16% remain overhydrated. In stable patients repeated measures analysis reveal no significant variation of LTI even in case of reevaluation of BW and gain of BW is associated with fat mass increase. BCM is a simple tool in clinical practice to evaluate body composition and hydratation status and help to guide nutritional support.

  12. Bio-impedance body composition comparisons between athletes and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarion, A; Ribbe, E; Rebeyrol, J; Moreno, M-V; Rousseaux-Rousseaux-Blanchi, M-P; Dechavanne, C

    2013-01-01

    Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.

  13. Validação das equações desenvolvidas por Hankins e Howe para predição da composição da carcaça de zebuínos e desenvolvimento de equações para estimativa da composição corporal Validation of the equations proposed by Hankins and Howe for estimating the carcass composition of zebu cattle and development of equations to predict the body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2005-02-01

    ável.The equations developed by Hankins and Howe were validated in order to predict the physical and chemical carcass composition and equations were developed aiming to estimate the body composition of zebu cattle from the 9-10-11th rib cut composition. Nineteen Zebu steers, with 270 kg of initial live weight (LW and 2 years old were used. Four were slaughtered in the beginning of the trial, performing the reference group, three were fed to the maintenance level and the remaining were uniformly allotted into three treatments, with different levels of concentrate in the diets (5, 35, 65 %, in the total dry matter basis. Brachiaria brizantha and Cynodon spp haylage were used as the roughage source of the diets. The diets were isonitrogenous and the animals were fed ad libitum. The animals of the reference group and those of the treatments with 5, 35 and 65 % of concentrate were fed for a period of, respectively, 84, 109, 104 and 102 days, after which the animals were slaughtered, with average body weight of 340.25; 360.55 e 374.50 kg, respectively. After slaughter, the right side of all carcasses were totally dissected. The same was done to the 9-10-11th rib cut, obtained from the left sides of carcasses. The physical composition of the carcasses were well predicted by the 9-10-11th rib cut, which chemical composition predicted satisfactorily the contents of protein, water and minerals of the zebu cattle carcasses. The content of fat of the carcasses was overestimated in 7.8%. A regression equation was developed to estimate the percentage of ether extract (EE of the carcasses, in function of this component in the 9-10-11th rib cut: % EE carcass = 1.0709 + 0.7854 * % EE 9-10-11th rib cut, r² = 0.97. The empty body chemical composition can be predicted from the chemical composition of the 9-10-11th rib cut, however, more data should be gathered in order to develop equations that would be applicable in a wide range of situations, producing reliable estimates.

  14. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four ``virtual family'' members for thermoregulatory modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  15. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Weight Gain in Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotheraphy: Exploring Hormonal Body Composition and Behavioral Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Nagi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to prospectively and systematically observe the relative contribution of each viable mechanism such as nutritional intake, activity levels, body composition, hormonal...

  17. Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields

  18. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p < 0.001); however, femoral neck CSA and CSMI were not different between groups. E1G cycle mean and age of menarche were the strongest predictors of lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD, together explaining 25.5% and 22.7% of the variance, respectively. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of total hip and femoral neck aBMD as well as femoral neck CSMI and CSA, explaining 8.5-34.8% of the variance. Upon consideration of several potential osteogenic stimuli, reproductive function appears to play

  19. Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Youth Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Erdal Tekin; Roy Wada

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...

  20. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, A; Heitmann, B L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, inexpensive and non-invasive technique to measure body composition and is therefore suitable in field studies and larger surveys. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an overview of BIA-derived body fat percentages (BF......%) from 55 published studies of healthy populations aged 6-80 years. In addition, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body composition is documented in the context of BIA as a good alternative to closely differentiate which composition of the body better relates to the risk...

  1. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Aponte, Jose C.; Blackmond, Donna G.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplied by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large -enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to 60) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  2. Does a 3-month multidisciplinary intervention improve pain, body composition and physical fitness in women with fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Cuevas, Ana M; Alvarez, Inmaculada C; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado-Fernandez, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    To determine the effects of a 3-month multidisciplinary intervention on pain (primary outcome), body composition and physical fitness (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia (FM). 75 women with FM were allocated to a low-moderate intensity 3-month (three times/week) multidisciplinary (pool, land-based and psychological sessions) programme (n=33) or to a usual care group (n=32). The outcome variables were pain threshold, body composition (body mass index and estimated body fat percentage) and physical fitness (30 s chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8 feet up and go and 6 min walk test). The authors observed a significant interaction effect (group*time) for the left (L) and right (R) side of the anterior cervical (pbody composition variables. A 3-month multidisciplinary intervention three times/week had a positive effect on pain threshold in several tender points in women with FM. Though no overall improvements were observed in physical fitness or body composition, the intervention had positive effects on lower-body flexibility.

  3. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. ... Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ... lasting change in the determinants and impact of excess body weight.

  4. Body fat assessed from body density and estimated from skinfold thickness in normal children and children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J L; Leong, M S; Checkland, E G; Zuberbuhler, P C; Conger, P R; Quinney, H A

    1988-12-01

    Body density and skinfold thickness at four sites were measured in 140 normal boys, 168 normal girls, and 6 boys and 7 girls with cystic fibrosis, all aged 8-14 y. Prediction equations for the normal boys and girls for the estimation of body-fat content from skinfold measurements were derived from linear regression of body density vs the log of the sum of the skinfold thickness. The relationship between body density and the log of the sum of the skinfold measurements differed from normal for the boys and girls with cystic fibrosis because of their high body density even though their large residual volume was corrected for. However the sum of skinfold measurements in the children with cystic fibrosis did not differ from normal. Thus body fat percent of these children with cystic fibrosis was underestimated when calculated from body density and invalid when calculated from skinfold thickness.

  5. Comparing fishers' and scientific estimates of size at maturity and maximum body size as indicators for overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, Elizabeth L; Forrester, Graham E

    2018-04-01

    We tested whether fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) of two fish life-history parameters, size at maturity (SAM) at maximum body size (MS), was comparable to scientific estimates (SEK) of the same parameters, and whether LEK influenced fishers' perceptions of sustainability. Local ecological knowledge was documented for 82 fishers from a small-scale fishery in Samaná Bay, Dominican Republic, whereas SEK was compiled from the scientific literature. Size at maturity estimates derived from LEK and SEK overlapped for most of the 15 commonly harvested species (10 of 15). In contrast, fishers' maximum size estimates were usually lower than (eight species), or overlapped with (five species) scientific estimates. Fishers' size-based estimates of catch composition indicate greater potential for overfishing than estimates based on SEK. Fishers' estimates of size at capture relative to size at maturity suggest routine inclusion of juveniles in the catch (9 of 15 species), and fishers' estimates suggest that harvested fish are substantially smaller than maximum body size for most species (11 of 15 species). Scientific estimates also suggest that harvested fish are generally smaller than maximum body size (13 of 15), but suggest that the catch is dominated by adults for most species (9 of 15 species), and that juveniles are present in the catch for fewer species (6 of 15). Most Samaná fishers characterized the current state of their fishery as poor (73%) and as having changed for the worse over the past 20 yr (60%). Fishers stated that concern about overfishing, catching small fish, and catching immature fish contributed to these perceptions, indicating a possible influence of catch-size composition on their perceptions. Future work should test this link more explicitly because we found no evidence that the minority of fishers with more positive perceptions of their fishery reported systematically different estimates of catch-size composition than those with the more

  6. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Walker, Jacqueline L; Stevenson, Richard D; Davies, Peter S W

    2013-08-01

    Body composition assessment is an essential component of nutritional evaluation in children with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to validate bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy and determine best electrode placement in unilateral impairment. 55 young children with cerebral palsy across all functional ability levels were included. Height/length was measured or estimated from knee height. Total body water was estimated using a Bodystat 1500MDD and three equations, and measured using the gold standard, deuterium dilution technique. Comparisons were made using Bland Altman analysis. For children with bilateral impairment, the Fjeld equation estimated total body water with the least bias (limits of agreement): 0.0 L (-1.4 L to 1.5 L); the Pencharz equation produced the greatest: 2.7 L (0.6 L-4.8 L). For children with unilateral impairment, differences between measured and estimated total body water were lowest on the unimpaired side using the Fjeld equation 0.1 L (-1.5 L to 1.6 L)) and greatest for the Pencharz equation. The ability of bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water depends on the equation chosen. The Fjeld equation was the most accurate for the group, however, individual results varied by up to 18%. A population specific equation was developed and may enhance the accuracy of estimates. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12611000616976. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between inaccurate estimation of body size and obesity in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of inaccurate estimation of own body size among Brazilian schoolchildren of both sexes aged 7-10 years, and to test whether overweight/obesity; excess body fat and central obesity are associated with inaccuracy. Methods: Accuracy of body size estimation was assessed using the Figure Rating Scale for Brazilian Children. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations. Results: The overall prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation was 76%, with 34% of the children underestimating their body size and 42% overestimating their body size. Obesity measured by body mass index was associated with underestimation of body size in both sexes, while central obesity was only associated with overestimation of body size among girls. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest there is a high prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation and that inaccurate estimation is associated with obesity. Accurate estimation of own body size is important among obese schoolchildren because it may be the first step towards adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  8. Body composition and hydration factors in infants and young children using multicompartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Valle, Rosa Consuelo; Valencia, Mauro E; Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Lopez-Jimenez, Cesar A; Monreal-Barraza, Brianda I; Robles-Valenzuela, Edna L; Hurtado-Valenzuela, Jaime Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background. Until recently deuterium (2H2O) analysis has been performed almost exclusively by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The IAEA has promoted the FTIR methodology to measure deuterium (2H2O) enrichment, but there is limited information in infants and small children, which have different hydration status than adults. Due to the limited information available, the optimum deuterium dose amount to be administered to children in these studies has also been controversial. The aim of this investigation were to measure body composition and determine the hydration factors in infants and young children using multi-compartment models generating algorithms for prediction of body composition. Subjects and Methods. Seventy-eight male and female infants and young children (ages 3-24 months), from the urban and agricultural zones of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico participated. We measured weight, length and circumferences to evaluate nutritional status using the WHO Growth Reference 2006. We also measured total body water (TBW) by deuterium oxide dilution, bone mineral content (BMC) through a DXA scan and body density was estimated through published algorithms. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was also measured to explore the prediction of body composition using this technique. Results. In general, children from the urban area had better nutritional indicators than children from the agricultural area. Eleven (16.1%) children had some type of malnutrition (any nutritional index below -2 Z cutoff point) and 2 were overweight. Optimal amount of deuterium for dosing in this age range was 0.53 to 0.83 mg/kg body weight, which has implications for future studies of body composition in infants and young children. DXA overestimated body fat percentage compared to other 2, 3 and 4 compartment models (p 0.05). Resistance or impedance indexes (Height2/R or Z) were not important predictors of FFM or TBW (increase in R2 = 0.004). Prediction of FFM was then performed by using

  9. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  10. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (Penergy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  11. Body composition at birth and its relationship with neonatal anthropometric ratios: the newborn body composition study of the INTERGROWTH-21st project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Puglia, Fabien A; Fenton, Tanis R; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Giuliani, Francesca; Ohuma, Eric O; Victora, Cesar G; Sullivan, Peter; Barros, Fernando C; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Ochieng, Roseline; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Altman, Douglas G; Noble, Alison J; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Pang, Ruyan; Uauy, Ricardo; Kennedy, Stephen H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    BackgroundWe aimed to describe newborn body composition and identify which anthropometric ratio (weight/length; BMI; or ponderal index, PI) best predicts fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM).MethodsAir-displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) was used to estimate FM, FFM, and body fat percentage (BF%). Associations between FFM, FM, and BF% and weight/length, BMI, and PI were evaluated in 1,019 newborns using multivariate regression analysis. Charts for FM, FFM, and BF% were generated using a prescriptive subsample (n=247). Standards for the best-predicting anthropometric ratio were calculated utilizing the same population used for the INTERGROWTH-21 st Newborn Size Standards (n=20,479).ResultsFFM and FM increased consistently during late pregnancy. Differential FM, BF%, and FFM patterns were observed for those born preterm (34 +0 -36 +6 weeks' gestation) and with impaired intrauterine growth. Weight/length by gestational age (GA) was a better predictor of FFM and FM (adjusted R 2 =0.92 and 0.71, respectively) than BMI or PI, independent of sex, GA, and timing of measurement. Results were almost identical when only preterm newborns were studied. We present sex-specific centiles for weight/length ratio for GA.ConclusionsWeight/length best predicts newborn FFM and FM. There are differential FM, FFM, and BF% patterns by sex, GA, and size at birth.

  12. The influence of personal BMI on body size estimations and sensitivity to body size change in anorexia spectrum disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Katri; Bester, Andre; Cairns, Paul; Tovee, Martin; Cornelissen, Piers

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the influence of personal BMI on body size estimation in 42 women who have symptoms of anorexia (referred to henceforth as anorexia spectrum disorders, ANSD), and 100 healthy controls. Low BMI control participants over-estimate their size and high BMI controls under-estimate, a pattern which is predicted by a perceptual phenomenon called contraction bias. In addition, control participants' sensitivity to size change declines as their BMI increase...

  13. A Variational Approach to the Estimate of the Permittivity of a Composite with Dispersed Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites are inhomogeneous materials (heterogeneous solid body, which fall into the matrix and inclusions. The matrix in a composite is a binder between the inclusions. The properties of the inclusions mainly determine the application of composites. Selection of the characteristics of the matrix and inclusions enables us to meet the requirements for materials to be used in various fields of technology. Composites are widely used as structural or thermal protection material and as functional materials in various electrical devices, including dielectrics. One of the most important characteristics of the composite dielectric is the relative permittivity. The latter is primarily determined by the dielectric properties of the matrix and inclusions, as well as the shape and volume concentration of inclusions.For a composite with dispersed inclusions we are able to construct adequate mathematical models which enable us to predict sufficiently reliably the dependence of its dielectric constant on these defining parameters. In this paper, among the various approaches to the construction of such models we emphasize a variational approach which allows us not only to determine this dependence, but also obtain guaranteed bilateral boundaries of the area of possible values of the dielectric constant of the composite used to estimate the highest accuracy of calculated values.The representative element of the composite structure with inclusions of spherical shape modeling the form of dispersed inclusions with dimensions close to all directions is considered. For the representative element we obtained the electrostatic potential distribution that is permissible for the minimized functional. The latter is the part of the variational form of a mathematical model which describes the dielectric properties of the considered composite. From the equality of the values of this functional on the received permissible distribution in a representative element of the

  14. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  15. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja; Mitrić, Miodrag; Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D.; Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Park, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  16. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting

  17. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  18. Validity of dual X-ray absorptiometry scanning for determination of body composition in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A

    1995-01-01

    Data on body composition in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are scarce. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning has proved useful for this purpose in other groups of patients. We tested the validity of the DXA scanner for the determination of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat...... mass in IDDM patients and control subjects, as compared to other reference methods, i.e. total body potassium by 40K whole body counting (TBK), total body water by tritiated water (TBW), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 24-h urinary creatinine excretion (Ucrea). A total of 13 healthy controls....... The agreement between FFM estimated by DXA and the other methods, expressed as mean difference +/- 2 SD was; for DXA vs. TBK, 0.09 +/- 6.26 and 0.50 +/- 5.26 kg for controls and IDDM patients respectively; DXA vs. TBW, -2.07 +/- 2.56 and -1.07 +/- 4.58 kg; DXA vs. Ucrea, -2.62 +/- 8.02 and 2.00 +/- 10.0 kg; DXA...

  19. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  20. Effect of size and composition of the body on absolute measurement of calcium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of size and composition of the body on the measurement of total calcium in absolute units by neutron activation analysis is described. The neutron beam, produced from a cyclotron, was of mean energy 7.5 MeV. Counting of the activities induced in a patient was carried out with a multidetector whole body counter. Calibration of the system was achieved by using two phantoms of different sizes containing known quantities of calcium. The dimensions of various phantom sections were varied to determine the effect on efficiency of activation, an approximately linear relationship with body thickness being found. The influence of body habitus on counting efficiency was assessed by counting different patients who had been given known quantities of 42 K. The effects of (a) the non-uniform distribution of calcium and (b) the variation in density of different tissues on both activation and counting efficiency are discussed. It is estimated that the 68% confidence limits on the measurement of 49 Ca count rate per unit neutron fluence is +- 3.0% and on the measurement of calcium in grams +- 8.2%. (author)

  1. Body Composition Analysis in U.S. Navy Divers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gummin, D. D

    2000-01-01

    Physical readiness and body makeup are considered fundamental attributes of U.S. Navy divers. Methods to objectively determine body makeup are fraught with shortcomings and can be technically challenging, particularly in field operations...

  2. Body Composition Analysis in U.S. Navy Divers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gummin, David

    2001-01-01

    Physical readiness and body makeup are considered fundamental attributes of U.S. Navy divers. Methods to objectively determine body makeup are fraught with shortcomings and can be technically challenging, particularly in field operations...

  3. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  4. Functional body composition and related aspects in research on obesity and cachexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, M J; Baracos, V; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-01-01

    are determinants of body composition and its change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks' concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition...

  5. Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the MVC rugby players (N=35), 18 completed the sections on body composition and match-day dietary intake, while 11 completed the habitual dietary intake section. Body composition data were collected by an International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry-accredited biokineticist. Habitual dietary ...

  6. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low...

  7. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...

  8. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  9. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  10. Age estimation by 3D CT-scans of the Borremose Woman, a Danish bog body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Møller Rasmussen, Maria; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive estimation of age at death has been carried out by using 3D CT scanning of a bog body discovered in 1948 in a peat bog in Borremose (Denmark). The bog body has been dated to the 8th century BC, in the last part of the Bronze Age. The skeletal structures useful for age estimation have...

  11. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  12. Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, L T; Nguyen, P L T; Le, T T T; Doan, T A T; Tran, N T; Le, T A; Nguyen, T V

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional study showed that, although vegans had lower dietary calcium and protein intakes than omnivores, veganism did not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and did not alter body composition. Whether a lifelong vegetarian diet has any negative effect on bone health is a contentious issue. We undertook this study to examine the association between lifelong vegetarian diet and bone mineral density and body composition in a group of postmenopausal women. One hundred and five Mahayana Buddhist nuns and 105 omnivorous women (average age = 62, range = 50-85) were randomly sampled from monasteries in Ho Chi Minh City and invited to participate in the study. By religious rule, the nuns do not eat meat or seafood (i.e., vegans). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and whole body (WB) was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). Lean mass, fat mass, and percent fat mass were also obtained from the DXA whole body scan. Dietary calcium and protein intakes were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. There was no significant difference between vegans and omnivores in LSBMD (0.74 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2); mean +/- SD; P = 0.18), FNBMD (0.62 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.11 g/cm(2); P = 0.35), WBBMD (0.88 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.12 g/cm(2); P = 0.31), lean mass (32 +/- 5 vs. 33 +/- 4 kg; P = 0.47), and fat mass (19 +/- 5 vs. 19 +/- 5 kg; P = 0.77) either before or after adjusting for age. The prevalence of osteoporosis (T scores < or = -2.5) at the femoral neck in vegans and omnivores was 17.1% and 14.3% (P = 0.57), respectively. The median intake of dietary calcium was lower in vegans compared to omnivores (330 +/- 205 vs. 682 +/- 417 mg/day, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between dietary calcium and BMD. Further analysis suggested that whole body BMD, but not lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD, was positively correlated with the ratio of animal protein to vegetable protein. These

  13. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  14. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  15. Estimation of temperature change in human body using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikawa, Yoshio; Nakamura, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    In the field of traditional oriental medicine, two types of treatment style, which are an acupuncture treatment and a moxibustion treatment have been performed. These treatments are used and effected by doctor or acupuncturist in their clinic or hospital and are widely spread. In spite of such a general treatment, it is not deeply discussed about mechanism of heat transfer modality and about temperature distribution in the treatment of moxibustion. Also, it is not discussed about temperature distribution deep inside human tissue during acupuncture treatment. It comes from the difficulty of noninvasive measurement of temperature deep inside human body. In this study, a temperature distribution for acupuncture and moxibustion treatment is measured and analyzed using thermograph and MRI by measuring the phase of longitudinal relaxation time of protons. The experimental results of measured temperature distribution under the human legs have been demonstrated. The result of temperature analysis in the human body is also reported. (author)

  16. The alterations of serum FGF-21 levels, metabolic and body composition in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Murat; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Demir, Leyla; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Yildiz, Yasar; Gumus, Zehra; Kara, Mete; Salman, Tarik; Varol, Umut; Taskaynatan, Halil; Oflazoglu, Utku; Bayoglu, Vedat; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay

    2017-01-01

    In early breast cancer patients, the effects of hormonal therapy (tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors) on plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), lipid levels and body composition have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between FGF-21 and body composition as well as the effects of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors on plasma lipid levels, FGF-21, and body composition. A total of 72 patients were treated with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors due to their menopausal status after adjuvant radiotherapy. Each patient was followed-up over a period of 1 year. Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile, glucose and FGF-21 levels were evaluated. We recorded the type of hormonal therapy, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid profile, and FGF-21 levels both at the beginning and after 12 months. There was a statistically significant decrease in serum FGF-21 levels after 12 months of adjuvant endocrine therapy (46 ± 19.21 pg/ml vs. 30.99 ± 13.81 pg/ml, pbody water (pbody composition, glucose, lipid profile and FGF-21 were similar in tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor groups. A positive correlation was found between basal weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and serum FGF-21 levels; however, the correlation was maintained only for the fat-free mass at the 12th month. As part of the present study, we suggest that both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors can reduce FGF-21 levels independently of body compositions, and these drugs can provide antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic and cardio-protective effects. We also recommend that serum FGF-21 level can be utilized as a tumor biomarker in early-stage breast cancer and for monitoring purposes. FGF-21 levels may help physicians estimate prognosis, too. Further studies with larger populations may shed light on the role of FGF-21 in breast cancer.

  17. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Alan A.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P.; Arciero, Paul J.; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Willoughby, Darryn S.; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M.; Bannock, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limi...

  18. Body composition and hydration status changes in male and female open-water swimmers during an ultra-endurance event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Tim; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Body mass changes during ultra-endurance performances have been described for running, cycling and for swimming in a heated pool. The present field study of 20 male and 11 female open-water swimmers investigated the changes in body composition and hydration status during an ultra-endurance event. Body mass, both estimated fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, haematocrit, plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and urine specific gravity were determined. Energy intake, energy expenditure and fluid intake were estimated. Males experienced significant reductions in body mass (-0.5 %) and skeletal muscle mass (-1.1 %) (P 0.05). Changes in percent body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass were heterogeneous and did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05) between gender groups. Fluid intake relative to plasma volume was higher in females than in males during the ultra-endurance event. Compared to males, females' average increase in haematocrit was 3.3 percentage points (pp) higher, urine specific gravity decrease 0.1 pp smaller, and plasma [Na+] 1.3 pp higher. The observed patterns of fluid intake, changes in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, and plasma [Na+] suggest that, particularly in females, a combination of fluid shift from blood vessels to interstitial tissue, facilitated by skeletal muscle damage, as well as exercise-associated hyponatremia had occurred. To summarise, changes in body composition and hydration status are different in male compared to female open-water ultra-endurance swimmers.

  19. Measuring Nutritional Status, Hydration and Body Composition Changes in Acute Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Kafri, Mohannad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia and cognitive problems, both common after stoke, may affect dietary intake increasing the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition has adverse effects on body composition especially in conditions that escalate the stress response in the body and may be associated with immobility such as stroke. Study objective: The objective of my study was to understand the prognosis of malnutrition on post cardiovascular disease (CV) outcomes, understand body composition ch...

  20. THE INVESTIGATION TO THE SEX OF BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ELITE MASTER ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Aksel ÇELİK; Mert TUNER

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on body composition by bioelektrik impedance analysis (BIA) methods, respiratory function parameters and physical performance levels. 20 men and 10 women, total 30 long-distance elite master athletes who had joined World, European and The Balkans Championships in Athletics and into at least one degree, were included in the study. The body composition such as skeletal muscle mass, body fat weight, Waist-hip ratio an...

  1. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9–17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1–5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear...

  2. Effects of high-intensity strength interval training program on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Juránková, Michaela; Bílý, Jiří; Hrazdíra, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine effects of 10-week high-intensity strength interval training (HIIT) program on body composition. Seven women (31.0 ± 6.0 years old, 65.7 ± 9.8 kg body weight, 23.6 ± 2.8 kg*m−2 BMI, 18.6 ± 5.8 kg body fat, 26.0 ± 3.4 kg muscle mass) completed intervention program. We performed an analyze of body composition before and after training program. We focused especially on body fat and muscle mass. Each session consisted of short term bouts (until 30 s duration) w...

  3. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  4. Body composition, dietary intake and physical activity of young survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Alford, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Lockwood, Liane; Hallahan, Andrew; Davies, Peter S W

    2018-03-07

    To describe the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity and of paediatric, adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and examine the factors that impact body composition after treatment. This prospective cross-sectional study involved 74 subjects who were at least three years post treatment. Measurements included anthropometry, whole body potassium counting, air displacement plethysmography, and three day physical activity and diet diaries. The CCS had significantly reduced body cell mass index Z-scores compared to controls (p = 0.0001), with 59% considered undernourished. The CCS had a significantly higher percent fat (p = 0.002) than the controls, with 27% classified as obese. The intake of 60% of CCS met estimated energy requirements, but the CCS consumed high amount of energy from fat and low amount of energy from carbohydrates. A high percentage of CCS did not meet their dietary requirements for calcium (61%), magnesium (46%), folate (38%) and iodine (38%). The CCS group had a light active lifestyle with 64% spending more than 2 h daily on screen time. Receiving a bone marrow transplant (r = -0.27; p = 0.02) and physical activity level (r = 0.49; p = 0.0001) were significantly correlated with body cell mass index. This study demonstrates that increased fat mass and decreased body cell mass is a concern for CCS and that CCS have poor health behaviours including light active lifestyles, excessive screentime, high fat intake, and poor intake of essential nutrients. This study has highlighted that CCS are at risk of both obesity and undernutrition and that increasing body cell mass as well as decreasing fat mass should be a focus of energy balance interventions in survivorship. There is a need for parents and children undergoing treatment for cancer to be educated about diet quality and importance of daily physical activity to ensure healthy habits are established and maintained into survivorship. Copyright © 2018

  5. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    people is a very challenging problem for methods based on pictorials structure as for any other monocular pose estimation method. In this report we present work on a multi-view approach based on pictorial structures that integrate low level information from multiple calibrated cameras to improve the 2D...

  6. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess body composition in rural Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Hawkesworth, S.; Wright, A.; Fulford, A.J.C.; Jarjou, L.M.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (% FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. Subjects/Methods: One hundred and

  7. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Monyeki, K.D.; Toriola, A.L.; Pienaar, A.E.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary

  8. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean......±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample of 31 obese...

  9. Prevalence of cachexia in chronic heart failure and characteristics of body composition and metabolic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Schou, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiac cachexia has previously been estimated to 8-42 %. However, novel treatment strategies for chronic heart failure (CHF) have improved and decreased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to reassess the prevalence of cachexia in an outpatient CHF clinic...... and to characterize a CHF population with and without cachexia with respect to body composition and related biomarkers. From 2008 to 2011, we screened 238 optimally treated, non-diabetic CHF patients for cardiac cachexia, defined as unintentional non-oedematous weight loss of >5 % over ≥6 months. CHF patients (LVEF...... 45 % (n = 19). The groups were matched for age, sex, and kidney function. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of cachexia was 10.5 %. Abdominal fat ± SD (%) was reduced in cachectic CHF: 27.4 ± 10.0 versus 37.5 ± 10.6 % (CHF, no cachexia) and 40...

  10. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  11. Quantum process estimation via generic two-body correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, M.; Rezakhani, A. T.; Barreiro, J. T.; Kwiat, P. G.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of quantum process estimation is naturally limited by fundamental, random, and systematic imperfections of preparations and measurements. These imperfections may lead to considerable errors in the process reconstruction because standard data-analysis techniques usually presume ideal devices. Here, by utilizing generic auxiliary quantum or classical correlations, we provide a framework for the estimation of quantum dynamics via a single measurement apparatus. By construction, this approach can be applied to quantum tomography schemes with calibrated faulty-state generators and analyzers. Specifically, we present a generalization of the work begun by M. Mohseni and D. A. Lidar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 170501 (2006)] with an imperfect Bell-state analyzer. We demonstrate that for several physically relevant noisy preparations and measurements, classical correlations and a small data-processing overhead suffice to accomplish the full system identification. Furthermore, we provide the optimal input states whereby the error amplification due to inversion of the measurement data is minimal.

  12. Comparison of a mobile application to estimate percentage body fat to other non-laboratory based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Matthew P.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The measurement of body composition is important from a population perspective as it is a variable associated with a person’s health, and also from a sporting perspective as it can be used to evaluate training. This study aimed to examine the reliability of a mobile application that estimates body composition by digitising a two-dimensional image. Materials and methods: Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women volunteered to have their percentage body fat (%BF estimated via three different methods (skinfold measurements, SFM; bio-electrical impedance, BIA; LeanScreenTM mobile application, LSA. Intra-method reproducibility was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC, coefficient of variance (CV and typical error of measurement (TEM. The average measurement for each method were also compared. Results: There were no significant differences between the methods for estimated %BF (p = 0.818 and the reliability of each method as assessed via ICC was good (≥0.974. However the absolute reproducibility, as measured by CV and TEM, was much higher in SFM and BIA (≤1.07 and ≤0.37 respectively compared with LSA (CV 6.47, TEM 1.6. Conclusion: LSA may offer an alternative to other field-based measures for practitioners, however individual variance should be considered to develop an understanding of minimal worthwhile change, as it may not be suitable for a one-off measurement.

  13. The risk of eating disorders and bone health in young adults: the mediating role of body composition and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Miguel, Miriam; Torres-Costoso, Ana; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-11-13

    To analyze the independent relationship between the risk of eating disorders and bone health and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). In this cross-sectional study, bone-related variables, lean mass, fat mass (by DXA), risk of eating disorders (SCOFF questionnaire), height, weight, waist circumference and CRF were measured in 487 university students aged 18-30 years from the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. ANCOVA models were estimated to test mean differences in bone mass categorized by body composition, CRF or risk of eating disorders. Subsequently, linear regression models were fitted according to Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation analysis. The marginal estimated mean ± SE values of total body bone mineral density for the categories "no risk of eating disorders" and "risk of eating disorders" were 1.239 ± 0.126 eating disorders and bone health in young adults. Body composition and CRF mediate the association between the risk of eating disorders and bone health. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a healthy weight and good CRF for the prevention of the development of eating disorders and for the maintenance of good bone health in young adults. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  14. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation effect on mortality and some body compositions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; Gaber, H.; Fahmy, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and or protein in animals body before irradiation or using radio-protector material such as soybean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span and body compartments. Therefore,286 mice (144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet (basal diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group was fed on high protein diet for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation. The data showed that: 1. The male and the female of the chow diet group which were exposed to 800 and 1200 rads died within the first two weeks and the mortality percent in all the nutritional groups increased with increasing the post irradiation days and with increasing the dose level. 2. Feed additives (skim milk or starch) along with soybean oil as the radioprotector prevented the injuries effect of radiation on the life span. This because at 7 weeks after irradiation, the mortality percent was 27-40% in the dietary groups and on mortality was observed in the male basal diet group (Soybean oil) which exposed to 800 rads. 3. There was a correlation between the decrease in body weight and the percent mortality, since increasing the percent weight loss was paralleled with increasing the mortality percent. 4. The reduction in body fat as percent body weight in the male and in the female mice which were exposed to 800 rads were pronounced in the chow diet group rather than in other groups. 5. The radioprotector substance (Soybean oil) reduced the effect of radiation on the fat-free body. 6. The reduction in the fat-free body was mainly due to the reduction in

  16. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Farina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal assessments of body phenotype can enhance success in weight management but are limited by the lack of availability of practical methods. We describe a novel smart phone application of digital photography (DP and determine its validity to estimate fat mass (FM. This approach utilizes the percent (% occupancy of an individual lateral whole-body digital image and regions indicative of adipose accumulation associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease. We measured 117 healthy adults (63 females and 54 males aged 19 to 65 years with DP and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and report here the development and validation of this application. Inter-observer variability of the determination of % occupancy was 0.02%. Predicted and reference FM values were significantly related in females (R2 = 0.949, SEE = 2.83 and males (R2 = 0.907, SEE = 2.71. Differences between predicted and measured FM values were small (0.02 kg, p = 0.96 and 0.07 kg, p = 0.96 for females and males, respectively. No significant bias was found; limits of agreement ranged from 5.6 to −5.4 kg for females and from 5.6 to −5.7 kg for males. These promising results indicate that DP is a practical and valid method for personal body composition assessments.

  18. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients’ depression, sleep, and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder. PMID:26357429

  19. Genetic and environmental factors in body composition. A review based upon studies of familial aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal dessa revisão foi abordar aspectos relacionados com a influência dos fatores genéticos e ambientais nos indicadores da composição corporal. Realizou-se uma pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed, selecionandose os estudos que apresentassem informações acerca de agregação familiar, com base em estimativas de heritabilidade, em delineamentos de famílias nucleares e/ou pedigrees extensos, em que as técnicas para a avaliação da composição corporal fossem a densitometria computadorizada por absorciometria radiológica de dupla energia, a pesagem hidrostática, a tomografi a computadorizada, a impedância bioelétrica ou a mensuração de dobras cutâneas. Os resultados mostraram que uma parte moderada a elevada dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal são condicionados por fatores genéticos, evidenciando uma forte agregação familiar. Verifi cou-se uma ampla variabilidade nas estimativas de heritabilidade inter e intra fenótipos. Além das diferenças nas técnicas utilizadas, a discrepância pode ser devida a aspectos relacionados com a magnitude da amostra, aspectos étnicos e culturais inerentes a cada população e o design do estudo. Conclui-se que os fenótipos da composição corporal são de natureza multifatorial onde, em alguns casos, o ambiente possui uma forte contribuição na característica observada. Os fatores genéticos são responsáveis por 30 a 76% da variabilidade dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal. ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study was to review relevant information related to genetic and environmental factors influencing different indicators of body composition. Based upon Pubmed data, a search was made concerning studies related to information of familial aggregation with heritability estimates using nuclear families and/or extended pedigree and which had assessed body composition by means of DEXA, hydrostatic weighting, computerized tomography, bioelectric

  20. Nuclear-based techniques for the in vivo study of human body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report comprises working papers presented at an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen contributions from seven countries describe measurement systems, and their applications, for the in vivo study of human body composition, mainly with respect to the elements calcium, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus, cadmium and lead. The techniques used include neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, computerized axial tomography, nuclear resonance scattering and photon absorptiometry. Also included is a collection of ''system descriptions'' containing information on equipment developed for such measurements at seventeen centres in eight countries (institute address and name of persons to contact for more information, overall system performance, irradiation and country device, estimated cost)

  1. Validity of dual X-ray absorptiometry scanning for determination of body composition in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A

    1995-01-01

    Data on body composition in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are scarce. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning has proved useful for this purpose in other groups of patients. We tested the validity of the DXA scanner for the determination of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat....... The agreement between FFM estimated by DXA and the other methods, expressed as mean difference +/- 2 SD was; for DXA vs. TBK, 0.09 +/- 6.26 and 0.50 +/- 5.26 kg for controls and IDDM patients respectively; DXA vs. TBW, -2.07 +/- 2.56 and -1.07 +/- 4.58 kg; DXA vs. Ucrea, -2.62 +/- 8.02 and 2.00 +/- 10.0 kg; DXA...

  2. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p nutrition recommendations. The self-reported body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  3. BODY COMPOSITION OF A MILITARY POPULATION FT. CARSON 1963. I. BODY DENSITY, FAT, AND POTASSIUM 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body volumes were measured on 97 soldiers between the ages of 17 - 52 years by water displacement volumetry and corrected for respiratory gas by a...Effective ranking of body fat burden of populations was demonstrated by body volumetry and age differences were noted from potassium 40 counting. A

  4. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part I. Relationships between the anatomical distribution of adipose tissue, body composition and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of equine body fat content is important for nutritional and clinical purposes. However, our understanding of total body fat and its regional distribution in the body is sparse. Currently, body fat evaluation relies on the subjective assessment of body condition score (BCS), which has never been validated against 'gold standard' chemical analysis or dissection measurements in ponies. To define the relationships between subjective (BCS), objective (morphometric) indices of body fat and 'gold standard' measurements of actual body composition. BCS and morphometry offer valid, noninvasive methods for determination of body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, BCS 1.25-7/9), Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes), were used. For all ponies, body mass (BM), BCS and various morphometric measurements were recorded. Following euthanasia, all ponies were systematically dissected. Discrete white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were independently described. Gross, body chemical composition was determined by proximate analyses. Total somatic soft tissues increased linearly (r(2) = 1.00), whereas body WAT content (1-26% live BM) increased exponentially (r(2) = 0.96), with BCS. WAT was equally distributed between internal and external sites in all animals irrespective of BCS. Nuchal fat was a poor predictor of total WAT (r(2) = 0.66). Periorbital WAT did not alter with BCS (r(2) = 0.01). Heart girth:withers height and ultrasonic retroperitoneal fat depth were closely associated with total, chemically-extracted lipid which comprised 1-29% live BM (r(2) = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). The exponential relationship between BCS and total body WAT/lipid suggests that BCS is unlikely to be a sensitive index of body fat for animals in moderate-obese states. Morphometric measurements (body girths and retroperitonel fat depth) may be useful to augment subjective BCS systems. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Influence of segmental body composition and adiposity hormones on resting metabolic rate and substrate utilization in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, K R; Smith-Ryan, A E; Blue, M N M; Mock, M G; Trexler, E T

    2017-06-01

    Low resting metabolic rate (RMR) and high carbohydrate reliance at rest are associated with weight gain, but are highly variable in obese individuals. This study determined the relationship of total and segmental body composition and adiposity hormones with RMR and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in overweight and obese adults. In 49 men (n = 23) and premenopausal women (n = 26) [mean ± SD; age = 35.0 ± 8.9 years; body mass index (BMI) = 33.6 ± 5.2 kg·m -2 ; percent body fat (%fat) = 40.0 ± 8.0%], RMR and RER were evaluated using indirect calorimetry. Total and segmental body composition [fat mass (FM), percent fat (%fat), lean mass (LM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasted blood and saliva samples were analyzed for insulin, leptin, estradiol, and cortisol. In men (M) and women (W), RMR significantly correlated (p  0.05). Segmental evaluation of body composition, specifically in the lower extremities and abdomen, may be an effective and efficient way to evaluate metabolic status. Sex-specific evaluations are also imperative.

  6. Effects of Muay Thai training frequency on body composition and physical fitness in healthy untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.

  7. Role of body composition and metabolic profile in Barrett's oesophagus and progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Simona; Cheung, Wui Hang; Fini, Lucia; Keane, Margaret G; Theis, Belinda; Haidry, Rehan; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Lovat, Laurence; Batterham, Rachel L; Banks, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for Barrett's oesophagus (BE) on the basis of body composition, metabolic pathways, adipokines and metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as their role in cancer progression. In patients with and without BE at gastroscopy, data on MS, BMI, waist/hip ratio for abdominal obesity (AO) and body fat percentage by bioimpedance were obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid, serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured. The homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Histological findings for BE were correlated with the above parameters. Risk factors for BE identified using univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 250 patients and 224 controls (F/M: 189/285, mean age 58.08±15.51 years) were enroled. In the BE and control groups, 39.6 versus 31.3% were overweight, 32 versus 22.8% were obese, 75.6 versus 51.3% had AO, and 28.1 versus 18.9% were metabolically obese, respectively. AO [odds ratio (OR) 3.08], increased body fat percentage (OR 2.29), and higher BMI (overweight: OR 2.04; obese: OR 2.26) were significantly associated with BE. A positive trend was found in Normal Weight Obese Syndrome (OR 1.69). MS was associated with BE (overweight: OR 3.05; obese: OR 5.2; AO: OR 8.08). Insulin levels (P=0.05) and HOMA-IR (Pbody composition.

  8. Growth, feed intake and body composition of ostriches (Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the ostrich breeding flock of the Klein Karoo Agricultural. Development Centre and ... The diet was initially formulated according to poultry values. (Du Preez et al., 1984; Du ...... body weight on high or low nutrient density diets. Proc. 9th Symp.

  9. Body Composition in Military or Military Eligible Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    1998-01-01

    ...; specifically percent body fat (% fat). To date, data collection includes 128 white women and 111 black women who participated in a multi-compartment assessment of fat free mass (FFM) and % fat...

  10. Regression methodology in groundwater composition estimation with composition predictions for Romuvaara borehole KR10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, A.; Korkealaakso, J.; Pitkaenen, P. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy selected five investigation areas for preliminary site studies (1987Ae1992). The more detailed site investigation project, launched at the beginning of 1993 and presently supervised by Posiva Oy, is concentrated to three investigation areas. Romuvaara at Kuhmo is one of the present target areas, and the geochemical, structural and hydrological data used in this study are extracted from there. The aim of the study is to develop suitable methods for groundwater composition estimation based on a group of known hydrogeological variables. The input variables used are related to the host type of groundwater, hydrological conditions around the host location, mixing potentials between different types of groundwater, and minerals equilibrated with the groundwater. The output variables are electrical conductivity, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Fe, Cl, S, HS, SO{sub 4}, alkalinity, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 13}C, Al, Sr, F, Br and I concentrations, and pH of the groundwater. The methodology is to associate the known hydrogeological conditions (i.e. input variables), with the known water compositions (output variables), and to evaluate mathematical relations between these groups. Output estimations are done with two separate procedures: partial least squares regressions on the principal components of input variables, and by training neural networks with input-output pairs. Coefficients of linear equations and trained networks are optional methods for actual predictions. The quality of output predictions are monitored with confidence limit estimations, evaluated from input variable covariances and output variances, and with charge balance calculations. Groundwater compositions in Romuvaara borehole KR10 are predicted at 10 metre intervals with both prediction methods. 46 refs.

  11. Body composition differences between adults with multiple sclerosis and BMI-matched controls without MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Young, Hui-Ju; Motl, Robert W

    2018-04-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many health conditions related to overweight and obesity, but little is known about how body composition among those with MS compares to those without MS at the same weight. To compare differences in whole body and regional body composition between persons with and without MS matched for sex and body mass index (BMI). Persons with MS (n = 51) and non-MS controls (n = 51) matched for sex and BMI. Total mass, lean mass, fat mass, and percent body fat (%BF) of total body and arm, leg, and trunk segments were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Men with MS had significantly less whole body lean mass (mean difference: 9933.5 ± 3123.1 g, p MS counterparts. Further, men with MS had significantly lower lean mass in the arm (p = 0.02) and leg (p MS. Men with MS had significantly higher %BF in all three regions (p MS. There were no differences between women with and without MS. We observed significant differences in whole body and regional body composition between BMI-matched men with and without MS. Additional research is needed to further explore differences in body composition, adipose distribution, and the impact of these differences on the health and function of men with MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between motor proficiency and body composition in 6- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Veiga, Guida; Cansado, Hugo; Raimundo, Armando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between motor skill competence and body composition of 6- to 10-year-old children. Seventy girls and 86 boys participated. Body composition was measured by body mass index and skinfold thickness. Motor proficiency was evaluated through the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form, which included measures of gross motor skills and fine motor skills. Significant associations were found for both sexes between the percentage of body fat and (i) the performance in each gross motor task, (ii) the composite score for gross motor skills and (iii) the motor proficiency score. The percentage of body fat was not significantly associated with the majority of the fine motor skills items and with the respective composite score. Considering body weigh categories, children with normal weight had significantly higher scores than their peers with overweight or with obesity in gross motor skills and in overall motor proficiency. Children's motor proficiency is negatively associated with body fat, and normal weight children show better motor competence than those who are overweight or obese. The negative impact of excessive body weight is stronger for gross motor skills that involve dynamic body movements than for stationary object control skills; fine motor skills appear to be relatively independent of the constraints imposed by excessive body weight. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  14. The effect of oxandrolone on body proportions and body composition in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Ridder, M.A. de; Stijnen, T.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS) have short stature, relatively broad shoulders, a broad pelvis, short legs, a high fat mass and low muscle mass. Our objective was to assess the effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) on body proportions and composition in growth hormone

  15. Evaluation of body adiposity index (BAI) to estimate percent body fat in an indigenous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Patricia C; Vieira Filho, João Paulo B; Franco, Luciana; Dal Fabbro, Amaury; Franco, Laercio J; Moises, Regina S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) as a predictor of body fat in Xavante Indians and to investigate which anthropometric measures of adiposity best correlate with body fat in this population. We evaluated 974 individuals (476 male), aged 42.3 ± 19.5 years. Percentage of body fat (%BF) determined by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used as the reference measure of adiposity. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between the two methods: BAI and BIA. Associations between anthropometric measures of adiposity were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis. BAI overestimates %BF (mean difference: 4.10%), mainly at lower levels of adiposity. Significant correlations were found between %BF and all measurements, being the strongest correlation with BAI. However, stratified analyses according to gender showed that among men waist circumference has the strongest correlation (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and among women BAI (r = 0.71, p < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) performed similarly. BAI can be a useful tool to predict %BF in Xavante Indians, although it has some limitations. However, it is not a better predictor of adiposity than waist circumference in men or BMI and waist circumference in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  17. Brief Report: Body Image in Autism--Evidence from Body Size Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kosuke; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Hakarino, Koichiro; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kumagaya, Shinichiro

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with social interaction and communication. First-hand accounts written by individuals with ASD have shown the existence of other atypical characteristics such as difficulties with body awareness. However, few studies have examined whether such atypicalities are found more generally…

  18. A photogrammetric methodology for estimating construction and demolition waste composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.H.; Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.; Seibert, S.; Medeiros, S.; Cochran, K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2002-01-01

    Manual sorting of construction, demolition, and renovation (C and D) waste is difficult and costly. A photogrammetric method has been developed to analyze the composition of C and D waste that eliminates the need for physical contact with the waste. The only field data collected is the weight and volume of the solid waste in the storage container and a photograph of each side of the waste pile, after it is dumped on the tipping floor. The methodology was developed and calibrated based on manual sorting studies at three different landfills in Florida, where the contents of twenty roll-off containers filled with C and D waste were sorted. The component classifications used were wood, concrete, paper products, drywall, metals, insulation, roofing, plastic, flooring, municipal solid waste, land-clearing waste, and other waste. Photographs of each side of the waste pile were taken with a digital camera and the pictures were analyzed on a computer using Photoshop software. Photoshop was used to divide the picture into eighty cells composed of ten columns and eight rows. The component distribution of each cell was estimated and results were summed to get a component distribution for the pile. Two types of distribution factors were developed that allow the component volumes and weights to be estimated. One set of distribution factors was developed to correct the volume distributions and the second set was developed to correct the weight distributions. The bulk density of each of the waste components were determined and used to convert waste volumes to weights. (author)

  19. A photogrammetric methodology for estimating construction and demolition waste composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, H.H. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Dept. of divil Engineering, Melbourne, Florida (United States); Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.; Seibert, S.; Medeiros, S.; Cochran, K.; Chakrabarti, S

    2002-06-15

    Manual sorting of construction, demolition, and renovation (C and D) waste is difficult and costly. A photogrammetric method has been developed to analyze the composition of C and D waste that eliminates the need for physical contact with the waste. The only field data collected is the weight and volume of the solid waste in the storage container and a photograph of each side of the waste pile, after it is dumped on the tipping floor. The methodology was developed and calibrated based on manual sorting studies at three different landfills in Florida, where the contents of twenty roll-off containers filled with C and D waste were sorted. The component classifications used were wood, concrete, paper products, drywall, metals, insulation, roofing, plastic, flooring, municipal solid waste, land-clearing waste, and other waste. Photographs of each side of the waste pile were taken with a digital camera and the pictures were analyzed on a computer using Photoshop software. Photoshop was used to divide the picture into eighty cells composed of ten columns and eight rows. The component distribution of each cell was estimated and results were summed to get a component distribution for the pile. Two types of distribution factors were developed that allow the component volumes and weights to be estimated. One set of distribution factors was developed to correct the volume distributions and the second set was developed to correct the weight distributions. The bulk density of each of the waste components were determined and used to convert waste volumes to weights. (author)

  20. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  1. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  2. Assessment of body fat composition in crossbred Angus × Nellore using biometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Filho, S C Valadares; De Paula, N F; Villadiego, F A C; Junior, J M Silva; Abreu, D C; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the body and empty body fat physical and chemical composition through biometric measurements (BM) as well as postmortem measurements taken in 40 F Angus × Nellore bulls and steers. The animals used were 12.5 ± 0.51 mo of age, with an average shrunk BW of 233 ± 23.5 and 238 ± 24.6 kg for bulls and steers, respectively. Animals were fed 60:40 ratio of corn silage to concentrate diets. Eight animals (4 bulls and 4 steers) were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial, and the remaining animals were randomly assigned to a 1 + 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (1 reference group, 2 sexes, and 3 slaughter weights). The remaining animals were slaughtered when the average BW of the group reached 380 ± 19.5 (6 bulls and 5 steers), 440 ± 19.2 (6 bulls and 5 steers), and 500 ± 19.5 kg (5 bulls and 5 steers). Before the slaughter, the animals were led through a squeeze chute in which BM were taken, including hook bone width (HBW), pin bone width, abdomen width (AW), body length (BL), rump height, height at the withers, pelvic girdle length (PGL), rib depth (RD), girth circumference (GC), rump depth, body diagonal length (BDL), and thorax width. Additionally, the following postmortem measurements were obtained: total body surface (TBS), body volume (BV), subcutaneous fat (SF), internal physical fat (InF), intermuscular fat, carcass physical fat (CF), empty body physically separable fat (EBF), carcass chemical fat (CFch), empty body chemical fat (EBFch), fat thickness in the 12th rib, and 9th to 11th rib section fat. The equations were developed using a stepwise procedure to select the variables that should enter into the model. The and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to account for precision and accuracy. The ranges for and RMSE were 0.852 to 0.946 and 0.0625 to 0.103 m, respectively for TBS; 0.942 to 0.998 and 0.004 to 0.022 m, respectively, for BV; 0.767 to 0.967 and 2.70 to 3.24 kg, respectively, for SF; 0.816 to 0.900 and 3

  3. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou: effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective: Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion. Design: A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2, male (25% and female (75% subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day. Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results: Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions: Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  4. Mediating effects of body composition between physical activity and body esteem in Hong Kong adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cerin, Ester; McManus, Alison M; Lai, Ching-Man; Day, Jeffrey R; Ho, Sai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of body mass index (BMI) in the relationship between physical activity and body esteem in adolescents. Nine hundred and five Hong Kong Chinese students aged 12-18 years participated in a cross-sectional study in 2007. Students' BMI was computed as an indicator of their body composition. Their physical activity level and body esteem were examined using the Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth (PARCY) and Body Esteem Scale (BES), respectively. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediating effects of BMI and physical activity in predicting body esteem, with stratification by sex. The overall fit of the hypothesized models was satisfactory in boys (NFI = 0.94; NNFI = 0.88; CFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07) and girls (NFI = 0.89; NNFI = 0.77; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.11). When BMI was considered as a mediator, higher physical activity had a significant negative total effect on body esteem in boys, but not in girls. The indirect effect of higher physical activity on body esteem via BMI was positive in boys, but negative in girls. Regular physical activity may help overweight adolescents, especially boys, improve their body esteem. Kinesiologists and health professionals could explore the use of physical activity prescriptions for weight management, aiming at body esteem improvement in community health programs for adolescents. Among Western adolescents, negative body esteem is more pervasive in girls than in boys. There are consistent findings of the association between higher body mass index and lower body esteem in adolescents, but the association between physical activity and body esteem are equivocal. A negative association between body mass index and body esteem was found in both Hong Kong adolescent boys and girls. The indirect effect of physical activity on body esteem via body mass index was positive in Hong Kong adolescent boys, but negative in girls.

  5. Effects on body size and composition of chronic exposure to altered gravity. [centrifuging stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on body composition and growth of rats, mice, monkeys, and man are studied. The benefits of exercise and restraint during acceleration are investigated. Physiological regulation and energy balance are also discussed.

  6. Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the body composition, habitual and game-specific nutritional practices of FNB Maties Varsity Cup (MVC) rugby ... After soccer, rugby is the most popular South .... supplements was quantified and added to the total habitual dietary.

  7. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  8. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  9. Estimation of carcass composition using rib dissection of calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Walter, L J; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2018-04-14

    A serial harvest was conducted every 28 d from 254 to 534 d on feed (DOF) to quantify changes in growth and composition of calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 115, initial body weight (BW) = 449.2 ± 19.9 kg). One-half were supplemented with the β-2 adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.33 mg/kg 100% dry matter (DM) basis) during the final 20 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal prior to harvest; the remainder was fed a non-ZH control (CON) ration. Five steers were randomly selected and harvested after 226 DOF which served as a reference point for modeling purposes. Fabricated carcass soft tissue was ground, mixed, and subsampled for proximate analysis. Moreover, following the traditional method of rib dissection which includes the 9th, 10th, and 11th rib contained within the IMPS 103 primal, the relationship of carcass chemical composition to 9-10-11 rib composition was evaluated. Carcasses in this investigation had more (P carcasses and rib dissections. Using regression procedures, models were constructed to describe the relationship of rib dissection (RD) composition including separable lean (RDSL), separable fat (RDSF), separable bone (RDSB), ether extract (RDEE), protein (RDP), moisture (RDM), and ash (RDA) with carcass composition. Carcass lean (CL), carcass fat (CF), and carcass bone (CB) were correlated (P carcass, carcass ether extract (CEE), carcass protein (CP), carcass moisture (CM), and carcass ash (CA) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with simple r values of 0.75, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.37, respectively. Equations to predict carcass fatness from rib dissection variables and ZH supplementation status were only able to account for 50 and 56%, of the variability of CF and CEE, respectively. Overall, the relationships quantified and equations developed in this investigation do not support use of 9/10/11 rib dissection for estimation of carcass composition of calf-fed Holstein steers.

  10. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2015-01-01

    : Cross-sectional case-control study of people with diabetes with acute or chronic Charcot osteoarthropathy, matched with otherwise healthy people with diabetes. A total of 49 subjects (distribution ~1:1) had a total body DXA-scanning, measuring appendicular lean mass, android/gynoid and truncal...... (24.5-31.9%), whereas there were no significant differences found between the groups (P=0.065). Neither truncal/total fat percent nor android/gynoid fat percent ratios showed differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first published dataset investigating body...

  11. Sex-specific functional adaptation of the femoral diaphysis to body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Dupej, Ján; Velemínská, Jana; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2018-03-24

    The human femoral diaphysis is often used to reconstruct loading histories (mobility, activity, body mass). The proximal femur is known to be differentially affected by changes in total fat-mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat percentage (BF%), but the adaptation of the entire diaphysis to body composition has not been thoroughly characterized to date. Understanding how the femoral diaphysis adapts to body components would benefit biomechanical interpretations of the femoral variation and nutrition-related studies. Combining various methods from clinical nutrition, biological anthropology, and geometric morphometrics, we evaluated the correlation of measures taken on the entire femoral diaphysis with estimated FM, FFM, and BF% from 61 CT scans (17 females, 44 males). The sample was predominantly composed of people with obesity. Cortical area of the cross-sections and local cortical thickness showed high correlation with BF% in particular, in females only. The curvature significantly decreased with FM and BF% in both sexes. The lowest correlations are found with FFM. The observed sexual dimorphism is consistent with differing aging processes; cortical bone decreases in females through endosteal resorption while it remains almost constant in males who compensate for endosteal resorption by periosteal apposition on the diaphyseal surface. The functional adaptation to compressive forces indicates a systemic endosteal apposition of bone material with increased BF% and FM in females only. FM and BF% are linked to a straighter femur in both sexes, suggesting an optimization of the resistance to compressive loads by distributing them more linearly along the entire diaphysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalniņa Līga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea. Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calculated using the Nutri Survey software. Ballet dancers were slightly shorter, lighter, with less fat and fat-free mass compared to girls from ordinary school. 51.3% (95% CI 35.59 to 66.97 of ballet dancers and 4% (95% CI; 0.27 to 11.15 of ordinary school girls had a body fat level of 12% or less. The recommended amount of 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass for aesthetic sports was not reached by 42.1% (95% CI 27.61 to 50.65% of ballet dancers. No statistically significant difference was found in percent body fat between ballet dancers who consumed energy less than the recommended amount compared to those who ate normally, but fatfree mass (p < 0.05 was lower in those who consumed 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass or less compared to those who ate more. The investigated groups had an inadequate intake of minerals and vitamins during the winter period.

  13. Towards real-time body pose estimation for presenters in meeting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a computer vision-based approach to body pose estimation. The algorithm can be executed in real-time and processes low resolution, monocular image sequences. A silhouette is extracted and matched against a projection of a 16 DOF human body model. In addition, skin color is used

  14. Validation of the Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat percentage makes it possible for the body fat content of individuals and populations to be determined without the use of costly equipment. However, because the equations were derived using data from a young-adult (18-29 years old) Nigerian population, it is important ...

  15. A new Bayesian model applied to cytogenetic partial body irradiation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A.; Rothkamm, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A new zero-inflated Poisson model is introduced for the estimation of partial body irradiation dose and fraction of body irradiated. The Bayes factors are introduced as tools to help determine whether a data set of chromosomal aberrations obtained from a blood sample reflects partial or whole body irradiation. Two examples of simulated cytogenetic radiation exposure data are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this methodology in cytogenetic biological dosimetry. (authors)

  16. Development and Cross-Validation of Equation for Estimating Percent Body Fat of Korean Adults According to Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyong Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Using BMI as an independent variable is the easiest way to estimate percent body fat. Thus far, few studies have investigated the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent body fat of Korean adults according to the BMI. The goals of this study were the development and cross-validation of an equation for estimating the percent fat of representative Korean adults using the BMI. Methods : Samples were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. The samples from 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 were labeled as the validation group (n=10,624 and the cross-validation group (n=8,291, respectively. The percent fat was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the body mass index, gender, and age were included as independent variables to estimate the measured percent fat. The coefficient of determination (R², standard error of estimation (SEE, and total error (TE were calculated to examine the accuracy of the developed equation. Results : The cross-validated R² was 0.731 for Model 1 and 0.735 for Model 2. The SEE was 3.978 for Model 1 and 3.951 for Model 2. The equations developed in this study are more accurate for estimating percent fat of the cross-validation group than those previously published by other researchers. Conclusion : The newly developed equations are comparatively accurate for the estimation of the percent fat of Korean adults.

  17. Progress in photon absorptiometric determination of bone mineral and body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Witt, R.M.; Peppler, W.W.; Hanson, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry, with low energy radionuclides, has become widely accepted for measurement of bone mineral content in vivo. Dual-photon absorptiometry is a newer approach which overcomes previous limitations and allows measurement of total body and spinal bone mineral with high accuracy and precision (2 percent error). Dual-photon absorptiometry also permits measurement of the lean-fat composition of soft-tissue and the monitoring of shifts in body composition and/or fluid balance

  18. The effects of an individualized exercise intervention on body composition in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglini,Claudio; Bottaro,Martim; Dennehy,Carolyn; Rae,Logan; Shields,Edgar; Kirk,David; Hackney,Anthony

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Changes in metabolism have been reported in the majority of patients undergoing cancer treatment, and these are usually characterized by progressive change in body composition. The effects of aerobic exercise programs to combat the cancer and cancer treatment-related side effects, which include the negative changes in body composition, have been extensively reported in the literature. However, few resistance exercise intervention studies have hypothesized that breast ca...

  19. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  20. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…

  2. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... food availability and others (Oliveira et al., 2003). Body ... have reported high protein and low fat content in fish due to increasing depth. ... Collected fish were kept in plastic container and transported alive to the laboratory for ...

  3. Associations of body composition with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; Feskens, E.J.; Lean, M.E.J.; Seidell, J C

    The aims of this study were to establish the associations of stature, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and waist circumference with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in a random sample of 5887 men and 7018 women aged 20-59 years in a cross-sectional study set in The Netherlands.

  4. Effect of different dietary energy levels on the body composition of Muzaffarnagari lambs fattened to different body weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.H.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Pathak, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty eight male and 32 female Muzaffarnagari lambs were reared intensively on 4 rations containing 1.8, 2.0, 2.1 and 2.3 Mcal ME/kg of ration upto 25, 30 and 35 kg weights. Body composition of 27 lambs at 25 kg, 11 lambs at 30 kg and 14 lambs at 35 kg body weight was determined direct by slaughter and desiccation and indirect by TOH dilution techniques. The average corrected TOH space 72.30 +- 1.01 percent at 25 kg body weight and 69.61 +- 1.63 percent at 30 and 35 kg body weight (combined). Mean values by desiccation for corresponding body weights were 65.21 +- 1.04 and 65.00 +- 1.26 percent, respectively. There was no significant difference in the moisture content between the groups and sexes at different body weights. Protein content was significantly (P < 0.01) high in male lambs at all the weights. The difference in fat content due to treatments and sex was non-significant at 25 kg weight but significant (P < 0.01) at 30 and 35 kg body weights. The percentage of fat increased with the increase in the ME content of rations except in the female lambs of group 3 at 35 kg body weight which recorded least fat. (auth.)

  5. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  6. Human body mass estimation: a comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Ruff, Christopher B

    2004-12-01

    In the past, body mass was reconstructed from hominin skeletal remains using both "mechanical" methods which rely on the support of body mass by weight-bearing skeletal elements, and "morphometric" methods which reconstruct body mass through direct assessment of body size and shape. A previous comparison of two such techniques, using femoral head breadth (mechanical) and stature and bi-iliac breadth (morphometric), indicated a good general correspondence between them (Ruff et al. [1997] Nature 387:173-176). However, the two techniques were never systematically compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal measures taken from 1,173 Holocene adult individuals, representing diverse geographic origins, body sizes, and body shapes. Femoral head breadth, bi-iliac breadth (after pelvic rearticulation), and long bone lengths were measured on each individual. Statures were estimated from long bone lengths using appropriate reference samples. Body masses were calculated using three available femoral head breadth (FH) formulae and the stature/bi-iliac breadth (STBIB) formula, and compared. All methods yielded similar results. Correlations between FH estimates and STBIB estimates are 0.74-0.81. Slight differences in results between the three FH estimates can be attributed to sampling differences in the original reference samples, and in particular, the body-size ranges included in those samples. There is no evidence for systematic differences in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples, and the FH methods produced similar estimates, this argues that either may be applied to skeletal remains with some confidence. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Validation of two portable bioelectrical impedance analyses for the assessment of body composition in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Lee

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a convenient and child-friendly method for longitudinal analysis of changes in body composition. However, most validation studies of BIA have been performed on adult Caucasians. The present cross-sectional study investigated the validity of two portable BIA devices, the Inbody 230 (BIA8MF and the Tanita BC-418 (BIA8SF, in healthy Taiwanese children.Children aged 7-12 years (72 boys and 78 girls were recruited. Body composition was measured by the BIA8SF and the BIA8MF. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used as the reference method.There were strong linear correlations in body composition measurements between the BIA8SF and DXA and between the BIA8MF and DXA. Both BIAs underestimated fat mass (FM and percentage body fat (%BF relative to DXA in both genders The degree of agreement in lean body mass (LBM, FM, and %BF estimates was higher between BIA8MF and DXA than between BIA8SF and DXA. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (ρc for LBM8MF met the criteria of substantial to perfect agreement whereas the ρc for FM8MF met the criteria of fair to substantial agreement. Bland-Altman analysis showed a clinically acceptable agreement between LBM measures by BIA8MF and DXA. The limit of agreement in %BF estimation by BIA and DXA were wide and the errors were clinically important. For the estimation of ALM, BIA8SF and BIA8MF both provided poor accuracy.For all children, LBM measures were precise and accurate using the BIA8MF whereas clinically significant errors occurred in FM and %BF estimates. Both BIAs underestimated FM and %BF in children. Thus, the body composition results obtained using the inbuilt equations of the BIA8SF and BIA8MF should be interpreted with caution, and high quality validation studies for specific subgroups of children are required prior to field research.

  8. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  9. Body Composition in Relation to Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Alina; Kampman, Ellen; Knijnenburg, Nathalja C.; Mulders, Peter F.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Several studies suggest that body composition (ie, body proportions of muscle and fat defined by computed tomography) is associated with clinical outcomes of several cancer types, including renal cell cancer (RCC). Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence

  10. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  11. Holistic processing of human body postures: Evidence from the composite effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eWillems

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of socially relevant stimuli (e.g., faces and bodies has received considerable attention in the vision science community. It is now widely accepted that human faces are processed holistically and not only analytically. One observation that has been taken as evidence for holistic face processing is the face composite effect: Two identical top halves of a face tend to be perceived as being different when combined with different bottom halves. This supports the hypothesis that face processing proceeds holistically. Indeed, the interference effect disappears when the two face parts are misaligned (blocking holistic perception. In the present study, we investigated whether there is also a composite effect for the perception of body postures: Are two identical body halves perceived as being in different poses when the irrelevant body halves differ from each other? Both a horizontal (i.e., top-bottom body halves; Experiment 1 and a vertical composite effect (i.e., left-right body halves; Experiment 2 were examined by means of a delayed matching-to-sample task. Results of both experiments indicate the existence of a body posture composite effect. This provides evidence for the hypothesis that body postures, as faces, are processed holistically.

  12. Holistic processing of human body postures: evidence from the composite effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Sam; Vrancken, Leia; Germeys, Filip; Verfaillie, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The perception of socially relevant stimuli (e.g., faces and bodies) has received considerable attention in the vision science community. It is now widely accepted that human faces are processed holistically and not only analytically. One observation that has been taken as evidence for holistic face processing is the face composite effect: two identical top halves of a face tend to be perceived as being different when combined with different bottom halves. This supports the hypothesis that face processing proceeds holistically. Indeed, the interference effect disappears when the two face parts are misaligned (blocking holistic perception). In the present study, we investigated whether there is also a composite effect for the perception of body postures: are two identical body halves perceived as being in different poses when the irrelevant body halves differ from each other? Both a horizontal (i.e., top-bottom body halves; Experiment 1) and a vertical composite effect (i.e., left-right body halves; Experiment 2) were examined by means of a delayed matching-to-sample task. Results of both experiments indicate the existence of a body posture composite effect. This provides evidence for the hypothesis that body postures, as faces, are processed holistically.

  13. Eating frequency and weight and body composition: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Kac, Gilberto; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-08-01

    The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. A systematic review of the literature. Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe. Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake. There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.

  14. Impact of body composition changes on risk of all-cause mortality in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Christophe E; Herrmann, François R; Spoerri, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) changes and mortality in persons ≥65 years. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years with at least two body composition measurements (BCM) between 1990 and 2011 were included. We......: FFMI loss is related to increased mortality in older persons....

  15. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated

  16. Comparison of urea space, deuterium oxide space and body composition in growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.D.; Steele, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Urea and deuterium oxide (D 2 O) space were compared by simultaneous infusion into pigs weighing approximately 55 or 90 kg. Urea was cleared from the plasma pool more rapidly than D 2 O and appeared to equilibrate at a relative concentration which was lower than that of D 2 O. Consequently, urea and D 2 O space values were closest when extrapolated to zero time values. Correlations between urea space and D 2 O space were highest at 15 minutes post infusion (R2 = .75) or between urea space at 15 minutes and D 2 O at equilibrium (R2 = .86). Results of urea and D 2 O space measurements were compared with water, lipid and protein content of the carcass. Urea space at 15 minutes and D 2 O space at 35 minutes most closely approximated total body water while D 2 O space at 15 minutes was nearly equivalent to empty body water. Overall, D 2 O space at equilibrium had the highest correlations with carcass values of water, lipid and protein and appears to be preferable to urea space for estimating carcass composition in pigs

  17. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  18. Understanding the Essential Meaning of Measured Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women During and After Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Groenkjaer, Mette; Falkmer, Ursula; Delmar, Charlotte

    Changes in weight and body composition among women during and after adjuvant antineoplastic treatment for breast cancer may influence long-term survival and quality of life. Research on factual weight changes is diverse and contrasting, and their influence on women's perception of body and self seems to be insufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to expand the understanding of the association between changes in weight and body composition and the women's perception of body and selves. A mixed-methods research design was used. Data consisted of weight and body composition measures from 95 women with breast cancer during 18 months past surgery. Twelve women from this cohort were interviewed individually at 12 months. Linear mixed model and logistic regression were used to estimate changes of repeated measures and odds ratio. Interviews were analyzed guided by existential phenomenology. Joint displays and integrative mixed-methods interpretation demonstrated that even small weight gains, extended waist, and weight loss were associated with fearing recurrence of breast cancer. Perceiving an ambiguous transforming body, the women moved between a unified body subject and the body as an object dissociated in "I" and "it" while fighting against or accepting the body changes. Integrating findings demonstrated that factual weight changes do not correspond with the perceived changes and may trigger existential threats. Transition to a new habitual body demand health practitioners to enter a joint narrative work to reveal how the changes impact on the women's body and self-perception independent of how they are displayed quantitatively.

  19. Association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on infant growth and body composition: Evidence from a pregnancy cohort study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalbahar, Nurzalinda; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Loy, See Ling; Najman, Jake; McIntyre, Harold David; Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Parental body mass index (BMI) is strongly linked with the development of offspring overweight and obesity. However, there are a limited number of studies focusing on the association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on offspring growth and body composition in early life, particularly in developing countries. Data from the University Sains Malaysia (USM) Pregnancy Cohort which consists of 153 mother-offspring pairs were used. Data were collected using interview-administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and generalised equation estimation (GEE) were used to examine the direction and impact of the association between parental BMI and child growth and body composition (weight for age, height for age, body mass index for age, weight for height and fat mass at age 2m, 6m, and 12m). Potential confounders, including validated measures of maternal diets and physical activity during pregnancy, were considered. Of 153 parents, one-quarter of the mothers and 42.2% of the fathers, respectively, were overweight or obese before pregnancy. A significant association was found between maternal BMI and child's weight for height z-score (WHZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ). Having high pre-pregnancy BMI may increase BMI and WAZ of offspring in early life. Findings from this study emphasise the importance of monitoring maternal weight status, particularly before and during pregnancy and early life of offspring among Malaysians. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Amanda J; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2009-03-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted.

  1. Bulimia nervosa: mood changes do have an impact on body width estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbartz-Klatt, Y J; Florin, I; Pook, M

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of mood changes on body width estimation in women with bulimia nervosa. A pre-post controlled experimental design was chosen. Mood changes were induced in 40 women with bulimia nervosa, 20 women with panic disorder and 40 women with no diagnosis of a psychological disorder. A combination of autobiographical memory method and music induction method was used to induce positive and negative mood, respectively. Before and after mood induction a video distorting technique was used for body width estimation. Induction of negative mood increased and induction of positive mood decreased the body width estimations of women with bulimia. Patients with panic disorder and 'healthy' controls did not show these changes after mood induction. The findings suggest that change in mood state rather than the more habitual mood quality are relevant for bulimic women's body perception.

  2. Seasonal changes in body composition of inter-county Gaelic Athletic Association hurlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert W; Toomey, Clodagh; McCormack, William; O'Neill, Cian; Hughes, Katie; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Longitudinal change in body composition for elite-level inter-county hurlers was reported over a single season and four consecutive seasons. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of 66 senior, male, outfield players was obtained. Four successive measurements were taken: off-season (OFF 1 ), pre-season (PRE), mid-season (MID) and the off-season of the following season (OFF 2 ). A subsample of 11 hurlers were measured at all time points over 4 consecutive seasons. DXA-derived estimates of fat and lean mass were normalised to stature for analysis (kg∙m ‒2 ); data are (mean [lower: upper, 95% confidence interval]). A concurrent increase of lean mass (0.31 [0.19: 0.43] kg∙m ‒2 ) and loss of fat mass occurred (-0.38 [-0.50: -0.26] kg∙m ‒2 ) OFF 1 to PRE. Lean mass accrual was maintained PRE to OFF 2 while the initial loss of fat mass was restored MID to OFF 2 (0.52 [0.40: 0.64] kg ∙ m ‒2 ), with the trunk acting as the primary region of change. Over the four seasons, a net increase of lean mass was observed (~ 0.9 [0.4: 1.4] kg per annum) with a negligible overall change for fat mass over time. However, the cycling of fat mass (OFF to PRE and MID to OFF) within each season was recurrent season-to-season.

  3. Oxidative stress and body composition in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Sebastiano; Favilla, Vincenzo; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; DI Rosa, Alessandro; Madonia, Massimo; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the role of body composition and oxidative stress measured by total thiol groups (TTG) levels in prostate specimens of patients affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer (PCa). From January 2011 to January 2013, a cohort of 150 consecutive male patients who underwent first prostate biopsy were enrolled. Twelve-core needle biopsy was performed as standard procedure, while twelve more needle tissue cores matched with the previous group were also collected for glutathione determination. After definitive diagnosis, measurement of glutathione was performed in the correspondent one matched prostatic sample where PCa or BPH were identified. A day after the prostatic biopsy, body composition was estimated by air plethysmography (BOD POD®). A significant difference of TTG was observed in BPH and PCa patients; 34 nanomole (nmol) reagent sulfihydrylc (RSH)/ mg protein vs. 1.1 nmol RSH/ mg protein respectively (p<0.05). In BPH patients, a negative correlation was found between TTG and age (r=-0.46; p<0.05), while, in PCa patients, a positive correlation was observed between TTG and fat mass (FM) (r=0.76; p<0.01) and waist circumference (WC) (r=0.49; p<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed TTG to be negatively associated with age (β-coefficient=-0.4; p<0.05) in BPH patients and positively with FM (β-coefficient=3.4; p<0.01) and WC (β-coefficient=2.7; p<0.05) in PCa patients. Aging determines a progressive reduction of TTG in BPH patients, while in PCa subjects glutathione concentrations are significantly lower and FM and WC are associated with an unbalance of its levels. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  5. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM, which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years; (2 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years and (3 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years. LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance, body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day. Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  6. Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praygod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV statu...

  7. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  8. Estimating Small-Body Gravity Field from Shape Model and Navigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ryan S.; Werner, Robert A.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method to model the external gravity field and to estimate the internal density variation of a small-body. We first discuss the modeling problem, where we assume the polyhedral shape and internal density distribution are given, and model the body interior using finite elements definitions, such as cubes and spheres. The gravitational attractions computed from these approaches are compared with the true uniform-density polyhedral attraction and the level of accuracies are presented. We then discuss the inverse problem where we assume the body shape, radiometric measurements, and a priori density constraints are given, and estimate the internal density variation by estimating the density of each finite element. The result shows that the accuracy of the estimated density variation can be significantly improved depending on the orbit altitude, finite-element resolution, and measurement accuracy.

  9. EKF composition estimation and GMC control of a reactive distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintavon, Sirivimon; Kittisupakorn, Paisan

    2017-08-01

    This research work proposes an extended Kalman filter (EKF) estimator to give estimates of product composition and a generic model controller (GMC) to control the temperature of a reactive distillation column (RDC). One of major difficulties to control the RDC is large time delays of product composition measurement. Therefore, the estimates of the product composition are needed and determined based on available and reliable measured tray temperature via the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). With these estimates, the GMC controller is applied to control the RDC's temperature. The performance of the EKF estimator under the GMC control is evaluated in various disturbances and set point change.

  10. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect

  11. Precision of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, N.C.; Vasconcellos, R.S.; Canola, J.C.; Carciofi, A.C.; Pereira, G.T.; Paula, F.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term precision error of the individual subject and the DEXA technique, such as the effect of the repositioning of the cat on the examination table, were established. Four neutered adult cats (BW=4342 g) and three females (BW=3459 g) were submitted to five repeated scans with and without repositioning between them. Precision was estimated from the mean of the five measurements and expressed by the individual coefficient of variation (CV). The precision error of the technique was estimated by the variance of scan pool (n=35) and expressed in CV for the technique (CVt). The degrees of freedom and confidence intervals were determined to avoid underestimation of precision errors. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) averages were higher (P<0.05) when animals were repositioned. The CVt was significantly higher (P<0.05) for bone mineral density (BMD), LM, and FM when the animals were repositioned. For short-term precision measurements, the repositioning of the animal was important to establish the precision of the technique. The dual energy xray absorptiometry method provided precision for body composition measurements in adult cats. (author)

  12. Does body composition differ between fibromyalgia patients and controls? the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jimenez, Victor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Alvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculata C; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Tornero-Quinones, Inmaculada; Delgado-Fernandez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterise the anthropometric and body composition profile of a sample of fibromyalgia women and men from southern Spain and compare them with non-fibromyalgia controls. The cross-sectional study comprised 566 (51.9 ± 8.3 years) fibromyalgia women vs. 249 (49.3 ± 9.9 years) control women; and 24 (47.0 ± 8.4 years) fibromyalgia men vs. 56 (49.7 ± 11.5 years) control men. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed by means of a bioelectric impedanciometer and the 6-minute walk test, respectively. All body composition para-meters (except muscle mass) differed between fibromyalgia and control women (all, pbody composition was no longer different between the women study groups. No differences in body composition were observed between fibromyalgia and control men (all, p>0.05). Weight status differed between women groups, with 11% lower normal-weight and 17% higher obesity prevalence for the fibromyalgia women group (pfibromyalgia women and 79% of the fibromyalgia men were overweight-obese. Sixty-one percent of the control women and 83% of the control men were overweight-obese. Obesity is a greater common condition among fibromyalgia women compared to their counterparts from southern Spain, which might be explained by lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in fibromyalgia. However, fibromyalgia and control men do not differ on either body composition or weight status, in spite of the lower cardiorespiratory fitness found in the fibromyalgia men group.

  13. Holistic integration of gaze cues in visual face and body perception: Evidence from the composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Leia; Germeys, Filip; Verfaillie, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of research on identity recognition and emotion identification with the composite design points to the holistic processing of these aspects in faces and bodies. In this paradigm, the interference from a nonattended face half on the perception of the attended half is taken as evidence for holistic processing (i.e., a composite effect). Far less research, however, has been dedicated to the concept of gaze. Nonetheless, gaze perception is a substantial component of face and body perception, and holds critical information for everyday communicative interactions. Furthermore, the ability of human observers to detect direct versus averted eye gaze is effortless, perhaps similar to identity perception and emotion recognition. However, the hypothesis of holistic perception of eye gaze has never been tested directly. Research on gaze perception with the composite design could facilitate further systematic comparison with other aspects of face and body perception that have been investigated using the composite design (i.e., identity and emotion). In the present research, a composite design was administered to assess holistic processing of gaze cues in faces (Experiment 1) and bodies (Experiment 2). Results confirmed that eye and head orientation (Experiment 1A) and head and body orientation (Experiment 2A) are integrated in a holistic manner. However, the composite effect was not completely disrupted by inversion (Experiments 1B and 2B), a finding that will be discussed together with implications for future research.

  14. Body Estimation and Physical Performance: Estimation of Lifting and Carrying from Fat-Free Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-30

    demanding Navy jobs is associat- ed with greater rates of low back injuries (Vickers, Hervig and White, 1997). Vickers (personal commu- nication) unpublished...adequate strength to reduce the risk of injury on the job to levels of less demanding jobs. The rate of injury on the job might be reduced if strength...of fatness. Individuals for whom body weight is elevated due to the presence of a large muscle mass (e.g. weightlifters ), do not have the same health

  15. The relationships of irisin with bone mineral density and body composition in PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Lingling; Chen, Yuxin; Liu, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Our study aims to assay the irisin level and investigate the relationships of irisin level with body mass index (BMI), body composition and bone metabolism in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women. Fifty two PCOS and 39 control women were recruited. Serum sex hormone, fasting insulin and C-peptide were tested. Fasting serum irisin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition and bone mineral density were assayed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Polycystic ovary syndrome women showed different body compositions compared with controls. Serum irisin level of PCOS did not show significant difference compared with controls although it was decreased. The level of adiponectin in PCOS patients was significantly reduced. BMI had no correlation with irisin level. It indicated a positive correlation between serum irisin levels and bone mineral density in the control group and a negative correlation in the PCOS group after BMI and age adjusted. Furthermore, total lean mass has a significant effect on irisin concentration in the PCOS group. There are no correlations between adiponection and body compositions and bone mineral density in both groups. The abnormal body composition in PCOS may contribute to the circulation irisin. The crosstalk of irisin in different organs was found and may be related to disease development in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Henrique A; Baracos, Vickie E; Dhillon, Navjot; Hong, David S; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2012-01-01

    Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown. We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI); body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT) images. A body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria. Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%); 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%), including 79% of patients with a BMIbody composition: 215 (71-358) (BMIcancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index. Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  17. A nonintrusive temperature measuring system for estimating deep body temperature in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S Y; Lee, W K; Baek, H J; Park, K S

    2012-01-01

    Deep body temperature is an important indicator that reflects human being's overall physiological states. Existing deep body temperature monitoring systems are too invasive to apply to awake patients for a long time. Therefore, we proposed a nonintrusive deep body temperature measuring system. To estimate deep body temperature nonintrusively, a dual-heat-flux probe and double-sensor probes were embedded in a neck pillow. When a patient uses the neck pillow to rest, the deep body temperature can be assessed using one of the thermometer probes embedded in the neck pillow. We could estimate deep body temperature in 3 different sleep positions. Also, to reduce the initial response time of dual-heat-flux thermometer which measures body temperature in supine position, we employed the curve-fitting method to one subject. And thereby, we could obtain the deep body temperature in a minute. This result shows the possibility that the system can be used as practical temperature monitoring system with appropriate curve-fitting model. In the next study, we would try to establish a general fitting model that can be applied to all of the subjects. In addition, we are planning to extract meaningful health information such as sleep structure analysis from deep body temperature data which are acquired from this system.

  18. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  19. Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, and Mobility: Comparison Between Regularly Exercising and Inactive Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Anni; Pihlak, Anu; Ereline, Jaan; Gapeyeva, Helena; Kums, Tatjana; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak; Pääsuke, Mati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

  20. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  1. Associations between maternal lifestyle factors and neonatal body composition in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (Cork) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahly, Darren L; Li, Xia; Smith, Hazel A; Khashan, Ali S; Murray, Deirdre M; Kiely, Mairead E; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; McCarthy, Fergus P; Kenny, Louise C; Kearney, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Neonatal body composition likely mediates fetal influences on life long chronic disease risk. A better understanding of how maternal lifestyle is related to newborn body composition could thus inform intervention efforts. Using Cork participant data (n = 1754) from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study [ECM5(10)05/02/08], we estimated how pre-pregnancy body size, gestational weight gain, exercise, alcohol, smoking and diet were related to neonatal fat and fat-free mass, as well as length and gestational age at birth, using quantile regression. Maternal factors were measured by a trained research midwife at 15 gestational weeks, in addition to a 3rd trimester weight measurement used to calculate weight gain. Infant body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography. Healthy (versus excess) gestational weight gain was associated with lower median fat-free mass [-112 g, 95% confidence interval (CI): -47 to -176) and fat mass (-33 g, 95% CI: -1 to -65) in the offspring; and a 103 g decrease in the 95th centile of fat mass (95% CI: -33 to -174). Maternal normal weight status (versus obesity) was associated with lower median fat mass (-48 g, 95% CI: -12 to -84). At the highest centiles, fat mass was lower among infants of women who engaged in frequent moderate-intensity exercise early in the pregnancy (-92 g at the 95th centile, 95% CI: -168 to -16). Lastly, women who never smoked tended to have longer babies with more fat mass and fat-free mass. No other lifestyle factors were strongly related to infant body composition. These results suggest that supporting healthy maternal lifestyles could reduce the risk of excess fat accumulation in the offspring, without adversely affecting fat-free mass development, length or gestational age. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  2. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  3. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  4. Effects of Meridian Acupressure Massage on Body Composition, Edema, Stress, and Fatigue in Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Geum-Sook; Choi, In-Ryoung; Kang, Hee-Young; Choi, Eun-Young

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of meridian acupressure massage on body composition, edema, stress, and fatigue in postpartum women. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group was utilized. The Postpartum Care Center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju City, Republic of Korea. The study group consisted of 39 postpartum women, 19 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group, recruited from the postpartum care center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju city, South Korea. The experimental group was provided with meridian acupressure massage for 90 min daily over 5 days as an experimental therapy. Body composition (body weight, BMI, total body water, ECW ratio, LBM, and body fat) Edema (subjective edema, average girth of the upper limbs, and average girth of the lower limbs), Stress (psychological stress and physical stress), and Fatigue. The experimental group demonstrated a significantly larger decrease compared with the control group in measures of body composition, edema, total subjective stress, psychological stress, and subjective fatigue. Meridian acupressure massage can hasten the return to original body composition after childbirth.

  5. Functional Body Composition and Related Aspects in Research on Obesity and Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.J.; Baracos, V.; Bosy-Westphal, A.; Dulloo, A.; Eckel, J.; Fearon, K.C.H.; Hall, K.D.; Pietrobelli, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Speakman, J.; Trayhurn, P.; Visser, M.; Heymsfield, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of “functional body composition” integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and tissue mass are fixed. Thus, an understanding of weight regulation involves an examination of organ-tissue regulation rather than of individual organ mass. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by cross-talk between organs and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones, and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition, and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue cross-talk mediators are determinants of body composition and its’ change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks’ concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition and metabolism. PMID:24835453

  6. Effect of HIV infection on body composition and fat distribution in Rwandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Anastos, Kathryn; Zheng Lin; Cohen, Mardge; Binagwaho, Agnes; Kotler, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association of HIV infection with body weight and composition in Rwandan women. Body weight and composition, the latter determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and by anthropometry, were compared in 620 HIV-positive and 211 HIV-negative participants. Associations of HIV with body composition were assessed, and t tests compared the groups. HIV-positive women were younger (-7.0 years, P < .001) and shorter (-2.1 cm, P < .001). Mean body weight, body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were similar. Mean fat-free mass was 2.5% greater in HIV-negative participants, and 19% of HIV-positive group had BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) versus 26% of the HIV-negative group (P < .05). CD4 counts and body composition were not associated. Malnutrition was common in this cohort of Rwandan women. However, HIV infection was not associated with nutritional status. Factors other than malnutrition may influence quality-of-life outcomes in HIV-infected Rwandan women. Initiatives to improve nutritional status should be population-wide and not restricted to the HIV-infected population.

  7. Association of body composition with sarcopenic obesity in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva AO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Oliveira Silva,1,2 Margô Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Marina Morato Stival,3 Ricardo Moreno Lima,3 Jéssica Cardoso de Souza,1 James Wilfred Navalta,4 Jonato Prestes11Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 4University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and its association with obesity and sarcopenia in elderly Brazilian women. Two hundred and seventy-two sedentary women with a mean age of 66.75 ± 5.38 years were recruited for participation in this study. Obesity was determined by both body mass index and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA evaluations. Sarcopenic obesity diagnosis was established from the ratio between fat-free mass and body surface area as obtained by DXA. There was no association of obesity with sarcopenic obesity (P = 0.424. In contrast, sarcopenia was significantly related to sarcopenic obesity (P < 0.001, although most of the elderly women with sarcopenia (n = 171 did not exhibit sarcopenic obesity. These results highlight the importance of diagnosing sarcopenic obesity as elderly women exhibiting sarcopenia could be either eutrophic or obese.Keywords: sarcopenic obesity, aging, obesity, sarcopenia, health

  8. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients

  9. Estimation of body tissue gain of entire and castrated male pigs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of tissue gain and body composition of 18 entire (E) and 18 castrated (C) male pigs, fed at one of two levels of feeding (high (H) or low (L)), were investigated in a 2x2 factorial experiment. Calorimetric, energy and nitrogen balances were carried out on each animal at 30, 60 and 90 kg live weight. The animals were ...

  10. Prevalence of malnutrition and validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, Moon J; Bultink, Irene E M; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Voskuyl, Alexandre E

    2017-06-01

    The aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and to validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against whole-body DXA for the assessment of body composition in patients with SSc. Malnutrition was defined as BMI 10% in combination with a fat-free mass index (FFMI) 70 years). Body composition was assessed in 72 patients with whole-body DXA (Hologic, Discovery A) and BIA (Bodystat Quadscan 400). The manufacturer's equation and the Geneva equation were used to estimate FFM and fat mass. The agreement between BIA and whole-body DXA was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient. Malnutrition was found in 8.3% (n = 6) and low FFMI in 20.8% (n = 15) of patients. The mean difference in FFM between BIA and DXA applying the Geneva equation was 0.02 ( s . d . 2.4) kg, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98). Limits of agreement were ±4.6 kg. The manufacturer's equation was less adequate to predict FFM. This study shows a relatively low prevalence of malnutrition in comparison with other studies, but a high prevalence of low FFMI, underlining the necessity of measuring body composition in SSc patients with a standardized and validated method. A good validity of BIA in determining FFM was found at a group level, while at an individual level the FFM may vary by 4.6 kg. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajji Salman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No published data is currently available that describes the dietary patterns or physiological profiles of athletes participating on the Kuwaiti national fencing team and its potential impact on health and physical performance. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1 collect baseline data on nutrient intake 2 collect, analyze and report baseline for body composition, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during the competitive season, 3 compare the results with the international norms, 4 and provide necessary health and nutritional information in order to enhance the athletes' performance and skills. Methods Fifteen national-class fencers 21.5 ± 2.6 years of age participated in this study. Food intake was measured using a 3-day food record. Body composition was estimated using both the BOD POD and Body Mass Index (BMI. Total blood lipid profiles and maximum oxygen consumption was measured for each of the subjects during the competitive season. Results The results of the present study showed significant differences in dietary consumption in comparison with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA. The blood lipids profile and body composition (BMI and % body fat were in normal range in comparison with international norms However, the average VO2 max value was less than the value of the other fencers. Conclusion Due to the results of the research study, a dietary regimen can be designed that would better enhance athletic performance and minimize any health risks associated with nutrition. Percent body fat and BMI will also be categorized for all players. In addition, the plasma blood tests will help to determine if any of the players have an excessive level of lipids or any blood abnormalities. The outcomes of present study will have a direct impact on the players health and therefore their skills and athletic performance.

  12. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  13. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N; Murphy, M; Ramphul, M; O'Connor, N; Kennelly, M M; Turner, M J

    2011-08-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (pIndian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  14. Seasonal variations in growth and body composition of 8-11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies on seasonality in growth reported the largest height gains during spring and largest body weight gains during autumn. We examined seasonality in height, body weight, BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) among contemporary Danish 8-11-year......-olds. METHODS: 760 children from the OPUS School Meal Study provided >2200 measurements on height, body weight and composition between September-June. Average velocities were calculated using change-score analyses based on three-month intervals. As a complementary analysis, point velocities derived from...... suggest seasonality in growth and body composition of Danish children. We recovered the well-known height velocity peak during spring time, but unlike earlier studies we found coincident peaks in body weight, BMI, and FFMI velocities.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.206....

  15. Patient-specific lean body mass can be estimated from limited-coverage computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2018-06-01

    In PET/CT, quantitative evaluation of tumour metabolic activity is possible through standardized uptake values, usually normalized for body weight (BW) or lean body mass (LBM). Patient-specific LBM can be estimated from whole-body (WB) CT images. As most clinical indications only warrant PET/CT examinations covering head to midthigh, the aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method to estimate LBM from limited-coverage (LC) CT images and test its validity. Head-to-toe PET/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semiautomatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units. LC was obtained by omitting image slices. Image segmentation was validated on the WB CT examinations by comparing CT-estimated BW with actual BW, and LBM estimated from LC images were compared with LBM estimated from WB images. A direct method and an indirect method were developed and validated on an independent data set. Comparing LBM estimated from LC examinations with estimates from WB examinations (LBMWB) showed a significant but limited bias of 1.2 kg (direct method) and nonsignificant bias of 0.05 kg (indirect method). This study demonstrates that LBM can be estimated from LC CT images with no significant difference from LBMWB.

  16. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  17. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, ... using a cast net and were transported live to the Institute of Pure .... Fawole OO, Ogundiran MA, Ayandiran TA, Olagunju OF (2007). Proximate and Mineral Composition in some selected fresh water fishes in Nigeria. Internet J. Food Saf. 9: 52-55.

  18. Properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team - the sabre event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagiełło, Władysław; Marina, Jagiełło; Maciej, Kalina Roman; Jan, Barczyński Bartłomiej; Artur, Litwiniuk; Jarosław, Klimczak

    2017-12-01

    Fencing is a combat sport whose form of direct confrontation involves hitting the opponent with a weapon. The purpose of the study was to determine the properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team. The study involved 11 female athletes of the Polish national fencing team. Their age was 16-22 years (19±2.32), body weight 52-78 kg (59.7±7.4), body height 158-183 cm (167.46±6.10) and the training experience 7.64±3.47 years. The reference group consisted of 153 students of Warsaw University of Technology (Poland). Twenty basic somatic characteristics were measured. The following indices were calculated: slenderness, Rohrer's, BMI, Manouvrier's, and pelvic-shoulder indices. Density of the body, total body fat, active tissue, the overall profile of body composition and internal proportions of the body were determined. Analysis of internal proportions of factors of the athletes' body composition revealed significant differences in particular groups of features. The total size of the athletes' bodies is due to less-than-average magnitude of the length and stoutness characteristics and a high magnitude of adiposity (M = 0.63) in the Polish female national team of fencers (sabre) calculated from the normalized values for the control group. The proportions of features within the analysed factors revealed a significant advantage of the length of the upper extremity over the lower one and a distinct advantage of forearm musculature. The specific profile of body composition of female athletes practising sabre fencing is most likely due to long-term effects of training as well as the system of selection of persons with specific somatic prerequisites developed in the course of many years of training practice.

  19. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  20. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wallago attu is one of the large freshwater catfish found in Pakistan. The rapid growth and high nutritional quality encouraged investigation into the aquaculture potential of this excellent food fish. It was observed that body size had a positive influence on percent ash, percent fat and percent protein contents (wet weight) but ...

  1. Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Henriksson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001 of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006 associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001 associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001, but not of sons (p = 0.65 (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  2. Clinical Assessment of Sarcopenia and Changes in Body Composition During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Takeshi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitomo; Ohue, Masayuki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Tomokuni, Akira; Akita, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yano, Masahiko

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and investigate whether chemotherapy-related toxicities affect body composition in patients with esophageal cancer. In ninety-four patients who underwent NAC for esophageal cancer, body composition was assessed before and after NAC. Associations between the incidence of toxicities and change in body composition during NAC were investigated. Forty-four (46.8%) and 50 (53.2%) out of 94 patients were defined as having sarcopenia before and after NAC, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any toxicity pre-treatment between patients with sarcopenia and those without sarcopenia. No significant reduction in skeletal muscle mass or fat mass was observed in the patients during NAC (p=0.501 and p=0.072). However, patients who experienced grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia during NAC showed a significantly larger decrease in change of skeletal muscle mass compared to patients who did not experience those toxicities (p=0.013 and 0.036, respectively). The incidence of serious adverse events such as febrile neutropenia and grade 4 neutropenia is associated with a significant reduction of skeletal muscle mass during NAC. We should make an effort to reduce the incidence of adverse events in order to maintain an appropriate body composition during NAC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges in the noninvasive detection of body composition using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive detection of body composition plays a significant role in the improvement of life quality and reduction in complications of the patients, and the near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy, with the advantages of painlessness and convenience, is considered as the most promising tool for the online noninvasive monitoring of body composition. However, quite different from other fields of online detection using NIR spectroscopy, such as food safety and environment monitoring, noninvasive detection of body composition demands higher precision of the instruments as well as more rigorousness of measurement conditions. Therefore, new challenges emerge when NIR spectroscopy is applied to the noninvasive detection of body composition, which, in this paper, are first concluded from the aspects of measurement methods, measurement conditions, instrument precision, multi-component influence, individual difference and novel weak-signal extraction method based on our previous research in the cutting-edge field of NIR noninvasive blood glucose detection. Moreover, novel ideas and approaches of our group to solve these problems are introduced, which may provide evidence for the future development of noninvasive blood glucose detection, and further contribute to the noninvasive detection of other body compositions using NIR spectroscopy.

  4. [Nutritional status assessment in a group of university students by means of dietary parameters and body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Roldán, C; Veiga Herreros, P; López de Andrés, A; Cobo Sanz, J Ma; Carbajal Azcona, A

    2005-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status in a young adults by means of dietary parameters and body composition. The sample comprises 49 young men (35 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 21.9 +/- 2.9 ages, at Alfonso X el Sabio University of Madrid. Body composition was analyzed through anthropometrical parameters. By means of validated questionnaires, physical activity performed within a week was assessed, as well as energy and nutrients intake. The later was estimated through a registry of all foods and beverages consumed for the last 14 days performed by each one of the participants (previously instructed) and estimating the amounts by weight or home or standard servings. The resting energy waste was determined by indirect calorimetry and through the Harris-Benedict predictive formula. Body mass index was similar in both men and women (p = 0.10) (23.5 +/- 1.9 and 22.0 +/- 2.8 kg/m2). The percentage of fat obtained through anthropometrics was 16.4 +/- 3.5% and 27.1 +/- 3.8% (p vitamin A in men, with levels below the recommended ones. In some aspects, the diet from this group deviates from current dietary standards. It would be advisable to increase the physical activity that would allow a higher food intake in order to cover for the insufficient intake of some nutrients without energetically unbalancing the diet. The assessment of resting energetic waste by indirect calorimetry seems to better predict the energetic needs.

  5. Changes in Body Compositions and Basal Metabolic Rates during Treatment of Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Joo Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Because thyroid hormone is an important determinant of body weight and basal metabolic rate, we investigated the changes in the basal metabolic rate and body composition sequentially after treatment for Graves’ disease. Methods. A prospective cohort study was performed with six women newly diagnosed with Graves’ disease. During a 52-week treatment of methimazole, body composition, resting respiratory expenditure (REE, and handgrip strength were measured consecutively. Results. After methimazole treatment, body weight was initially increased (0–8 weeks, subsequently plateaued (8–24 weeks, and gradually decreased in the later period (24–52 weeks despite the decreased food intake. The measured REE was 40% higher than the predicted REE at baseline, and it gradually decreased after treatment. REE positively correlated with thyroid hormone levels, peripheral deiodinase activity, and thyroid’s secretory capacity. Body compositional analyses showed that the fat mass increased during an earlier period (4–12 weeks, while the lean mass increased significantly during the later period (26–52 weeks. Consistent with the lean mass changes, muscle strength also significantly increased during the later period. Conclusions. Treatment of Graves’ disease increased body weight and fat mass transiently with decreased REE. However, long-term compositional changes moved in a beneficial direction increasing lean mass and reinforcing muscle strength, following decreasing fat percentages.

  6. Longitudinal body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Hull, Holly R; Shankar, Kartik; Casey, Patrick H; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal prepregnancy BMI and offspring body composition trajectories during the first 6 years of life. Healthy infants (N = 325) were assessed longitudinally (at ages 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mixed-effects regression for repeated measures was used to model each continuous outcome as a function of maternal BMI and covariates (race, gestational age, birth weight, and mode of infant feeding). Maternal obesity differentially impacted body fat, but not bone mineral content or density, of girls and boys. Boys born to mothers with obesity have higher body fat from ages 2-6 years compared to boys born to normal-weight and overweight mothers (P obesity was not different across groups during the first 6 years of life (P > 0.05). This clinical observational study demonstrates a sexual dimorphism in offspring body composition until age 6 years based on maternal BMI, with a greater effect of maternal adiposity seen in boys than in girls. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  8. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  10. Evaluation of nutritional indicators and body composition in patients with advanced liver disease enrolled for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Daniela Salate Biagioni; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Bakonyi Neto, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with advanced liver disease (LD) related to multifactorial causes. Fluid retention can underestimate the nutritional status based on anthropometric measures. We evaluated nutritional indicators and body composition (BC) in patients with liver cirrhosis and correlated them with LD severity. Forty three patients with LD enrolled for liver transplantation were evaluated by Anthropometric measures, subjective evaluation (Global Assessment of Nutritional Status - SGA) and biochemical indicators. Single-frequency electrical bioimpedance (SFE-BIA) was used to evaluate body composition (BC). It measured resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and the phase angle (PA). LD severity was estimated by Child-Pugh and Meld criteria (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease). Child-Pugh index between patients was 7.11 ± 1.70 and Meld was 12.23 ± 4.22. Arm Circumference, Arm Muscle Circumference and Arm Muscle Area, SGA, hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin showed better correlation with disease severity. Xc and PA showed correlation both with Meld and Child-Pugh score when BC were evaluated. PA was depleted in 55.8% of the patients. Diagnosis of malnutrition varied according to the method. Global assessment of nutritional status showed better correlation with disease severity than with objective methods. Single-frequency electrical bioimpedance for body composition analysis in cirrhotic patients must be cautiously used; however, primary vectors seems to be valid and promising in clinical practice.

  11. Multidisciplinary Shape Optimization of a Composite Blended Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Charles Maxwell

    A multidisciplinary shape optimization tool coupling aerodynamics, structure, and performance was developed for battery powered aircraft. Utilizing high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics analysis tools and a structural wing weight tool, coupled based on the multidisciplinary feasible optimization architecture; aircraft geometry is modified in the optimization of the aircraft's range or endurance. The developed tool is applied to three geometries: a hybrid blended wing body, delta wing UAS, the ONERA M6 wing, and a modified ONERA M6 wing. First, the optimization problem is presented with the objective function, constraints, and design vector. Next, the tool's architecture and the analysis tools that are utilized are described. Finally, various optimizations are described and their results analyzed for all test subjects. Results show that less computationally expensive inviscid optimizations yield positive performance improvements using planform, airfoil, and three-dimensional degrees of freedom. From the results obtained through a series of optimizations, it is concluded that the newly developed tool is both effective at improving performance and serves as a platform ready to receive additional performance modules, further improving its computational design support potential.

  12. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  13. Workstation Related Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Indian Women of Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the obesity epidemic, and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. Aim and Objectives: This study analyzed the variation in anthropometric dimensions and body composition parameters of working women employees of different geographical zones. Material and Methods: The study was undertaken on nine hundred forty (940 women employees of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO working in seventeen different laboratories and belonged to different states of India. The age range of studied women was between 20-60 years. Fourteen body dimensions namely stature, popliteal height, knee height, buttock to popliteal length, hip breadth, waist breadth, shoulder breadth, forearm length, arm length, eye height (sitting, sitting shoulder height, hand length, hand breadth and elbow width were measured in cm using Martin anthropometers and Martin's sliding caliper. Body composition parameters like weight, percentage body fat, fat mass and fat free mass were recorded. Results: All anthropometric parameters were found significantly different (p<0.001. Body composition variables of women were also found significantly different in all three zones but fat free mass was not significantly different. Conclusion:It can be concluded that diet, environmental conditions and living style of different regions can influence the anthropometry and body composition of the individuals, however the influence of ethnic, genetic and hereditary factor are not controlled in this study.

  14. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  15. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  16. Body composition in untreated adult patients with Laron syndrome (primary GH insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi; Ginsberg, Shira; Lilos, Pearl; Arbiv, Mira; Vaisman, Nahum

    2006-07-01

    To quantify body adiposity and its distribution in untreated adult patients with Laron syndrome (LS; primary GH insensitivity) caused by molecular defects of the GH receptor gene or postreceptor pathways and characterized by dwarfism, obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia. Eleven LS patients (seven females and four males) aged 28-53 years were studied. Seven healthy males and six healthy females served as controls. Body composition of the total body trunk, upper and lower extremities was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Statistical analysis using an analysis of variance (anova) and Mann-Whitney nonparametric methods was performed separately in males and females. Percentage body fat in the LS patients was much higher (P < 0.01) than that in the control population and the female LS patients were significantly more obese (59% total body fat) than the male patients (39% total body fat) (P < 0.002). It was also evident that in these types of patients with markedly increased body fat and decreased muscle and bone mass, body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect the body composition. Lifelong congenital IGF-I deficiency leads to extreme adiposity.

  17. The modular modality frame model: continuous body state estimation and plausibility-weighted information fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, Stephan; Butz, Martin V

    2013-02-01

    Humans show admirable capabilities in movement planning and execution. They can perform complex tasks in various contexts, using the available sensory information very effectively. Body models and continuous body state estimations appear necessary to realize such capabilities. We introduce the Modular Modality Frame (MMF) model, which maintains a highly distributed, modularized body model continuously updating, modularized probabilistic body state estimations over time. Modularization is realized with respect to modality frames, that is, sensory modalities in particular frames of reference and with respect to particular body parts. We evaluate MMF performance on a simulated, nine degree of freedom arm in 3D space. The results show that MMF is able to maintain accurate body state estimations despite high sensor and motor noise. Moreover, by comparing the sensory information available in different modality frames, MMF can identify faulty sensory measurements on the fly. In the near future, applications to lightweight robot control should be pursued. Moreover, MMF may be enhanced with neural encodings by introducing neural population codes and learning techniques. Finally, more dexterous goal-directed behavior should be realized by exploiting the available redundant state representations.

  18. Human Body 3D Posture Estimation Using Significant Points and Two Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures. PMID:24883422

  19. Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes over 104 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus

  20. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, Nadia M; Rasheed, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2 data were used for comparison. Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cutoff values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES 2), arm muscularity was substantially lower. Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention program is emphasized. (author)

  1. Body composition, energy expenditure and food intake in brazilian fashion models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Magna Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p1   The objective of this study was to compare body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR and food intake between adolescent fashion models and non-models. Thirty-three models and 33 non-models ranging in age from 15 to 18 years and matched for age and BMI participated in the study. Body composition was evaluated by plethysmography. RMR was determined using an indirect calorimetry method and food intake was evaluated based on three-day food records obtained on alternate days. No significant difference in mean body fat percentage was observed between groups (p>0.05. However, when the adolescents were classified according to body fat percentage, none of the models presented a body fat percentage lower than 15%, whereas 15.2% of the non-models presented a low body fat percentage (p0.05. Mean energy intake was 1480.93 ± 582.95 kcal in models and 1973.00 ± 557.63 kcal in non-models (p=0.001. In conclusion, most models presented a body composition within the limits considered to be normal for this phase of life. RMR was similar in the two groups. However, energy intake was lower among adolescent models compared to non-models.

  2. Body shape indices are predictors for estimating fat-free mass in male athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Toru; Komori, Daisuke; Oyamada, Kazuyuki; Murata, Kensuke; Fujita, Eiji; Akamine, Takuya; Urita, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown whether body size and body shape parameters can be predictors for estimating whole body fat-free mass (FFM) in male athletes. This study aimed to investigate whether body size and shape variables can be predictors for FFM in male athletes. Using a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, whole body fat mass (FM) and FFM were determined in 132 male athletes and 14 sedentary males. The sample was divided into two groups: validation (N = 98) and cross-validation (N = 48) groups. Body height (BH), body mass (BM), and waist circumference at immediately above the iliac crest (W) were measured. BM-to-W and W-to-BH ratios were calculated as indices of body shapes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that BM/W and W/BH were selected as explainable variables for predicting FFM. The equation developed in the validation group was FFM (kg) = 0.883 × BM/W (kg/m) + 43.674 × W/BH (cm/cm)– 41.480 [R2 = 0.900, SEE (%SEE) = 2.3 kg (3.8%)], which was validated in the cross-validation group. Thus, the current results demonstrate that an equation using BM/W and W/BH as independent variables is applicable for predicting FFM in male athletes. PMID:29346452

  3. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  4. Malnutrition and body composition in urban and rural schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study in San Rafael, Mendoza (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraza, Mariela; Cesani, María F; Navone, Graciela T; Oyhenart, Evelia E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional status and body composition of children from San Rafael, Mendoza, avoiding urban and rural categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socio-environmental characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3,596 schoolchildren from 4.0 to 13.9 years of age. Body weight, height, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured. Body mass index, total muscle, and fat areas of the arm were calculated. To estimate nutritional status and body composition, the NHANES III reference was used. The socio-environmental variables were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. These variables were processed by categorical principal-component analysis (catPCA). The catPCA allowed the differentiation of four groups, three with urban characteristics (high urban, medium urban, impoverished urban), and a rural group. Stunting occurred at a higher rate in the impoverished urban group, and the occurrence of underweight children was higher in the rural group. The prevalence of excess weight varied in the range of 20-26%. The latter value corresponded to children of the high urban group, who also did not show reduced muscle mass. Children from San Rafael presented differences in nutritional condition and body composition associated with pronounced socio-environmental heterogeneity. Thus, we could observe a gradient from the "high urban" group, with better social, economic, and sanitation conditions and at the same time a more obesogenic environment to the "impoverished urban" and "rural" groups, whose vulnerability reflected a higher prevalence of child undernutrition and the association with excess weight and reduced muscle mass. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:796-803, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique A Parsons

    Full Text Available Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown.We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT images. A body mass index (BMI≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria.Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%; 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%, including 79% of patients with a BMI<25 kg/m² and 34% of those with BMI≥25 kg/m². Sarcopenic patients were older and less frequently African-American. Symptom burden did not differ among patients classified according to BMI and presence of sarcopenia. Median (95% confidence interval survival (days varied according to body composition: 215 (71-358 (BMI<25 kg/m²; sarcopenic, 271 (99-443 (BMI<25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic, 484 (286-681 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; sarcopenic; 501 d (309-693 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic. Higher muscle index and gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index.Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  6. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  7. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  8. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Blasio F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesca de Blasio,1 Francesco de Blasio,2,3 Giulia Miracco Berlingieri,2 Andrea Bianco,3,4 Marta La Greca,1 Frits M E Franssen,5 Luca Scalfi1 1Department of Public Health, Medical School, “Federico II” University of Naples, 2Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Section, Clinic Center, Private Hospital, Naples, 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 5Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the NetherlandsBackground: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA is a technique that measures body impedance (Z at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz. Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality.Objectives: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients.Methods: MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients.Results: After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001 and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively. Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005, respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005, forced

  9. Body Composition and Catch-up in Height after Treatment of Malnourished Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badaloo, Asha; Morris, Richard; Forrester, Terrence; Reid, Marvin; Wootton, Steve; Jackson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and Objectives: The use of enriched diets to promote rapid catch-up-growth and the delay in catch-up in length/height relative to catch-up in weight may be associated with excess adiposity and poor lean tissue deposition. We aimed to assess lean mass (LM) during treatment of Jamaican malnourished children and to investigate if stunted malnourished children remained stunted as adults. Methods: All participants were managed in hospital and in accordance with WHO guidelines. Diagnosis (marasmus, kwashiorkor, marasmic-kwashiorkor) was based on the Welcome Classification. LM was estimated from total body water(TBW)in 44 children (group 1), aged 3 to 32 months, during the stabilization period, mid catch-up growth and on achieving at least 90% of reference weight-for-length using deuterium dilution technique. Length-for-age (LAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) Z-scores were determined in another group of 168 malnourished children (group 2) on admission, aged 3 to 33 months, and when they attained adulthood. LAZ was calculated using recent WHO child growth standards. Results: Data are mean ± SD. The participants included moderately and severely malnourished children based on weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ). In group 1, after initial stabilization intake increased to 685 ± 101 kJ/kg/d and 3.7 ± 0.6 g protein/kg/d resulting in rapid weight gain (16.5 ± 5.1 g/kg/d) and catch-up in weight over 20 ± 10 d. Consequently, WLZ at admission (non-oedematous: -3.0 ± 0.2; oedematous: -2.1 ± 0.2) improved to -0.48 ± 0.2. At recovery in weight, LM was consistent with reported values in normal children (71% to 92 % of body weight and 11 to 15 kg/m2) but the children remained stunted (LAZ: -3.3 ± 3.2). Insecurity of TBW measurement and estimating LM in the acute malnourished state and during rapid growth limits the ability to capture changes in lean and fat during rehabilitation. Similar to group 1, WLZ in group 2 was -3.2 ± 1.3 on admission; -0.6 ± 1 at recovery

  10. Dependence of a whole body counting efficiency on body size and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Luzia; Campos, Vicente P.; Berti, Eduardo A.R.

    2001-01-01

    An approach is described to evaluate the counting efficiency dependence, on the geometry measurement and on the material density, for whole body measurement. The counting efficiency is evaluated using Monte Carlo Method to simulate the history of the photons, from its emission to its total absorption or escape from the detector. Theoretical calculations of the counting efficiency are presented for two phantoms of the BOMAB family. The phantoms are considered to be filled with water and with a material constituted as described by Snyder et al. (author)

  11. Dependence of a whole body counting efficiency on body size and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Luzia; Campos, Vicente P.; Berti, Eduardo A.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    An approach is described to evaluate the counting efficiency dependence, on the geometry measurement and on the material density, for whole body measurement. The counting efficiency is evaluated using Monte Carlo Method to simulate the history of the photons, from its emission to its total absorption or escape from the detector. Theoretical calculations of the counting efficiency are presented for two phantoms of the BOMAB family. The phantoms are considered to be filled with water and with a material constituted as described by Snyder et al. (author)

  12. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  13. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  14. In vivo ultrasound and biometric measurements predict the empty body chemical composition in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, A M; Francisco, C L; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Mercadante, M E Z; Meirelles, P R L; Pariz, C M; Jorge, A M

    2018-05-04

    Evaluation of the body chemical composition of beef cattle can only be measured postmortem and those data cannot be used in real production scenarios to adjust nutritional plans. The objective of this study was to develop multiple linear regression equations from in vivo measurements, such as ultrasound parameters [backfat thickness (uBFT, mm), rump fat thickness (uRF, mm), and ribeye area (uLMA, cm2)], shrunk body weight (SBW, kg), age (AG, d), hip height (HH, m), as well as from postmortem measurements (composition of the 9th to 11th rib section) to predict the empty body and carcass chemical composition for Nellore cattle. Thirty-three young bulls were used (339 ± 36.15 kg and 448 ± 17.78 d for initial weight and age, respectively). Empty body chemical composition (protein, fat, water, and ash in kg) was obtained by combining noncarcass and carcass components. Data were analyzed using the PROC REG procedure of SAS software. Mallows' Cp values were close to the ideal value of number of independent variables in the prediction equations plus one. Equations to predict chemical components of both empty body and carcass using in vivo measurements presented higher R2 values than those determined by postmortem measurements. Chemical composition of the empty body using in vivo measurements was predicted with R2 > 0.73. Equations to predict chemical composition of the carcass from in vivo measurements showed R2 lower (R2Chemical compounds from components of the empty body of Nellore cattle can be calculated by the following equations: protein (kg) = 47.92 + 0.18 × SBW - 1.46 × uRF - 30.72 × HH (R2 = 0.94, RMSPE = 1.79); fat (kg) = 11.33 + 0.16 × SBW + 2.09 × uRF - 0.06 × AG (R2 = 0.74, RMSPE = 4.18); water (kg) = - 34.00 + 0.55 × SBW + 0.10 × AG - 2.34 × uRF (R2 = 0.96, RMSPE = 5.47). In conclusion, the coefficients of determination (for determining the chemical composition of the empty body) of the equations derived from in vivo measures were higher than those

  15. In vivo determination of body composition of rats using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Vasselli, J; Wu, E; Gallagher, D

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential as an instrument to measure body composition because it can discriminate various soft tissues in vivo. These soft tissues include adipose tissue, muscle, organs, and brain. We report on preliminary studies using a 4.2-tesla MRI for measuring body composition in the mouse and rat. We employed image segmentation methods that include an image correction method, a necessary requirement when the images are taken in the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency (RF) coil response. The software for 3-D data segmentation, quantification, correction, image manipulation, and visualization has been developed as a research tool. This method currently is being validated.

  16. Sustained swimming improves fish dietary nutrient assimilation efficiency and body composition of juvenile Brycon amazonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sustained swimming (SS usually promotes beneficial effects in growth and feed conversion of fishes. Although feed efficiency is improves at moderate water velocity, more information is required to determine the contributions of this factor on growth and body composition. Body composition and efficiency responses to the use of nutrients were determined in juvenile matrinxa Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 fed with two dietary amounts of protein, 28 or 38% of crude protein (CP, and subjected to sustained swimming at a constant speed of 1.5 body lengths s−1 (BL s−1 or let to free swimming. The fish body composition under SS and fed with 28% of dietary protein showed 22% of increased in bulk protein and a 26% of decrease in water content in the white muscle. Red muscle depicted 70% less water content and a 10% more lipid. Nutrient retention was enhanced in fish subjected to SS and a higher gain of ethereal extract sustained was observed in the white muscle of exercised fish fed with 38% CP. The interaction between swimming and dietary protein resulted in a larger bulk of lipid in red muscle. Fish fed with 28% CP under SS at 1.5 BL s−1 presented the best utilization of dietary nutrients and body composition. Thus, this fish farming procedure is proposed as a promising management strategy for rearing matrinxa.

  17. Effect of ramadan fasting on body composition and physical performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir-Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Panahi, Nekoo; Nikookar, Laya R; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan. Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests. There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (Peffect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3). This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan.

  18. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Redzal Abu; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age.

  19. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  20. Resting metabolic rate, pulmonary functions, and body composition parameters in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ucok, Kagan; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Genc, Abdurrahman; Karabacak, Hatice; Guzel, Halil Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Several studies of school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have found a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with the general population. However, the scientific literature contains insufficient evidence to establish clear conclusions on pulmonary functions, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and body composition in children with ADHD. This study therefore investigates the pulmonary functions tests (PFTs), RMR, and body composition parameters in children with ADHD and evaluates their quality of life. Forty children with ADHD and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. The children's parents completed Conners' parent rating scale (CPRS) and the pediatric quality of life (PedsQL), and their teachers completed Conners' Teacher rating scale (CTRS). The child participants also completed the PedsQL. RMR, PFTs, and body composition parameters were investigated. No significant differences in age, gender, and socioeconomic level were found. All CPRS subscales, except anxiety and psychosomatic conditions, were significantly different (p ADHD group. The results showed that the ADHD group's quality of life is worse than the control group. Body mass index, body composition parameters, RMR, and PFTs were not statistically different between the children with ADHD and the healthy controls. Further studies with complex designs are needed to confirm the results.

  1. An interrelation of physical working capacity and body component composition indicators of amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.

  2. [Two compartment model of body composition and abdominal fat area in postmenopausal women - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Mioduszewska, Milena; Pańczyk, Mariusz; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Michota-Katulska, Ewa; Zegan, Magdalena; Szabla, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Both menopausal period and aging have influence on body composition, increase of total body fat and visceral fat in particular. We should be aware that changes in body composition, mainly fat translocation to abdominal region, can occur without significant changes in body weight. Therefore quantitative abdominal fat assessment should be our aim. Body composition analysis based on two compartment model and abdominal fat area assessment in cross section. Subjects in postmenopausal period (41 women) were recruited for this study and divided into 2 groups: group 1 - women aged 45-56 years and group 2 - women aged 57-79 years. Body composition analysis and abdominal fat area assessment were conducted by using bioelectrical impedance method with BioScan 920 (Maltron int.) accordingly with standardized procedure. Women in early postmenopausal stage (Group 1) had stat