WorldWideScience

Sample records for establishing efficiency standards

  1. Impacts of appliance efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, P.; Kesselring, J.

    1992-12-01

    Federal efficiency standards for appliances limit the range of models available on the market. Utility energy efficiency programs often encourage consumers to purchase the most efficient of the remaining options, but more-stringent efficiency standards could have a significant impact on such utility efforts. Using long-run technology scenario forecasting, EPRI-sponsored researchers studied ways in which the interplay of technological change, federal standards, utility efficiency programs, and market forces could affect future energy markets for three major residential end uses: refrigeration, central air conditioning, and water heating. The researchers reached several important conclusions about utility demand-side management efforts. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Facial beauty--establishing a universal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2004-01-01

    There is a universal standard for facial beauty regardless of race, age, sex and other variables. Beautiful faces have ideal facial proportion. Ideal proportion is directly related to divine proportion, and that proportion is 1 to 1.618. All living organisms, including humans, are genetically encoded to develop to this proportion because there are extreme esthetic and physiologic benefits. The vast majority of us are not perfectly proportioned because of environmental factors. Establishment of a universal standard for facial beauty will significantly simplify the diagnosis and treatment of facial disharmonies and abnormalities. More important, treating to this standard will maximize facial esthetics, TMJ health, psychologic and physiologic health, fertility, and quality of life.

  3. Towards establishing compact imaging spectrometer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Allen, David W.; Resmini, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing science is currently undergoing a tremendous expansion in the area of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology. Spurred largely by the explosive growth of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), sometimes called Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), or drones, HSI capabilities that once required access to one of only a handful of very specialized and expensive sensor systems are now miniaturized and widely available commercially. Small compact imaging spectrometers (CIS) now on the market offer a number of hyperspectral imaging capabilities in terms of spectral range and sampling. The potential uses of HSI/CIS on UAVs/UASs seem limitless. However, the rapid expansion of unmanned aircraft and small hyperspectral sensor capabilities has created a number of questions related to technological, legal, and operational capabilities. Lightweight sensor systems suitable for UAV platforms are being advertised in the trade literature at an ever-expanding rate with no standardization of system performance specifications or terms of reference. To address this issue, both the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are eveloping draft standards to meet these issues. This paper presents the outline of a combined USGS/NIST cooperative strategy to develop and test a characterization methodology to meet the needs of a new and expanding UAV/CIS/HSI user community.

  4. Establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd) is a medicinally and economically important plant and also used as vegetable. In this study, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure for M. dioica. Leaf explants were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing a binary ...

  5. Establishing Standards on Colors from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, James E; Decker, Eric A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Giusti, M Monica; Mejia, Carla D; Goldschmidt, Mark; Talcott, Stephen T

    2017-11-01

    Color additives are applied to many food, drug, and cosmetic products. With up to 85% of consumer buying decisions potentially influenced by color, appropriate application of color additives and their safety is critical. Color additives are defined by the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) as any dye, pigment, or substance that can impart color to a food, drug, or cosmetic or to the human body. Under current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, colors fall into 2 categories as those subject to an FDA certification process and those that are exempt from certification often referred to as "natural" colors by consumers because they are sourced from plants, minerals, and animals. Certified colors have been used for decades in food and beverage products, but consumer interest in natural colors is leading market applications. However, the popularity of natural colors has also opened a door for both unintentional and intentional economic adulteration. Whereas FDA certifications for synthetic dyes and lakes involve strict quality control, natural colors are not evaluated by the FDA and often lack clear definitions and industry accepted quality and safety specifications. A significant risk of adulteration of natural colors exists, ranging from simple misbranding or misuse of the term "natural" on a product label to potentially serious cases of physical, chemical, and/or microbial contamination from raw material sources, improper processing methods, or intentional postproduction adulteration. Consistent industry-wide safety standards are needed to address the manufacturing, processing, application, and international trade of colors from natural sources to ensure quality and safety throughout the supply chain. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Method for efficient establishment of technical biodosimetry competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricklin, D. [FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, NBC Defense, SE-90182 UmeA (Sweden)], E-mail: daniela.stricklin@foi.se; Jaworska, Alicja [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, N-1332 Osteras (Norway); Arvidsson, E. [FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, NBC Defense, SE-90182 Umea (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    The current gold standard in biodosimetry, the dicentric assay, requires documented technical competence. Expertise is developed over time by evaluation of thousands of metaphases. Competence is documented through establishment of a dose-response curve, required by any service laboratory performing biodosimetry. Consistent and reliable evaluations must be established for new observers that might contribute to analyses for biological dose assessments. Discrepancies in evaluations jeopardize the reliability of assessments. The Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) together with the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) conducted an inter-calibration exercise for the purpose of establishing comparable scoring criteria for evaluation of aberrations in metaphases. The exercise revealed specific aberrations that were difficult to identify and were consistent sources of uncertainty. Subsequently, a report detailing the FOI's scoring criteria was developed with visual examples and a strategy for establishing technical competence in metaphase scoring in an efficient manner evolved. Key components of the strategy are the review of guidance for biodosimetry, performance of inter-calibration exercises with previously established data sets, review of incongruous evaluations with a well-established observer, follow-up exercises depending on the initial outcome, and inter-comparisons to document agreement. Methods suggested here could be applied in training of new personnel. Documentation of methods in other laboratories could facilitate more consistent scoring criteria among the biodosimetry community, a problem observed in previous international inter-comparisons. Improved consistency among biodosimetry laboratories could facilitate reliably sharing the work load among different members of the biodosimetry community in the event of a mass casualty accident.

  7. 7 CFR 1728.20 - Establishment of standards and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC), to the greatest extent practical. When there are no... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1728.20 Establishment of standards and specifications. (a) National and other standards. RUS...

  8. Systemization of the Establishment of Standards and Future Prospects: Toward the Establishment of Standards in Nonstationary States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2017-01-01

    Although public interest on safety standards is increasing, the evidence and protocols associated with the standards are not known well to the public and even experts. Discussing the evidence of standards is essential for risk communication, and interdisciplinary and systematical understanding on how to establish standards are also beneficial for considering the set-up of new standards. In this article, on the basis of examples in environmental science, industrial health and safety, and radiological protection, I overview and systemize the establishment of the standards from the perspectives of three principles of risk management: 1) "zero-risk-like" standards, 2) "acceptable-risk-based" standards, and 3) "cost-balanced" standards. In this view, I point out the differences in uncertainty factors or acceptable-risk levels among individual standards and demonstrate the role of the "as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)" concept. Then, on the basis of the problem on lack of environmental standards in nonstationary states such as disasters, I summarize elements necessary for establishing the standards. As perspectives for further study, I suggest the needs for risk assessment of chemicals having a threshold, full considerations of risk trade-offs and ethical aspects, and applications of processes to the establishment of standards through stakeholder consensus.

  9. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej eKácha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traveling abroad to receive a non-elective treatment is expanding each year. Such rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently calls for setting international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where such quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for international quality standards in medical travel: minimum standards of health care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility and patient-centeredness. Several cultural challenges are subsequently introduced that may pose a barrier to the development of the guidelines and should be additionally taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances the benefits to patients and providers, which is urgently needed given the rapid growth in this industry.

  10. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  11. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  12. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kácha, Ondřej; Kovács, Beáta E; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A T; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry.

  13. Establishment of an efficient callus induction method from leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    Establishment of an efficient callus induction method from leaf and stem in kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) and citron (Citrus medica L.) Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Arfa Akther, Md. Omar Faruq, Afroza Pervin, Sanat Myti and. Shamsul H. Prodhan*. Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, ...

  14. The Human Variome Project (HVP) 2009 Forum "Towards Establishing Standards".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Heather J; Horaitis, Ourania; Cotton, Richard G H; Vihinen, Mauno; Dalgleish, Raymond; Robinson, Peter; Brookes, Anthony J; Axton, Myles; Hoffmann, Robert; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    The May 2009 Human Variome Project (HVP) Forum "Towards Establishing Standards" was a round table discussion attended by delegates from groups representing international efforts aimed at standardizing several aspects of the HVP: mutation nomenclature, description and annotation, clinical ontology, means to better characterize unclassified variants (UVs), and methods to capture mutations from diagnostic laboratories for broader distribution to the medical genetics research community. Methods for researchers to receive credit for their effort at mutation detection were also discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Establish quality evaluation system for standard Ephedrae Herba decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jia-Yu; Chao, Jung; Dai, Yun-Tao; Fan, Zi-Quan; Wang, Dan-Dan; Qin, Xue-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2017-03-01

    To establish the quality control methods for the standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba, and provide the reference for quality evaluation method of all Chinese herbal medicine decoction.Standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba was prepared, and UPLC-UV fingerprint was established to determine the total contents of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Then UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to confirm the major common peaks in the fingerprint to clarify the main chemical constituents in the decoction. In addition, the stability of the process was evaluated by calculating the parameters such as the extraction ratio, transfer rate of the index components and the pH values.In the decoction of Ephedrae Herba, the total average concentration of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine was (2.11±0.70) g•L⁻¹; the similarities of all the fingerprints were more than 0.85; there were 10 major common peaks in the fingerprint, including alkaloids, flavonoids and organic acids; the extraction ratio was (17±3.2)%, and the overall transfer rate of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine was (32.4±8.1)%.The method for evaluating the quality of standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba was established in this article, providing reference for the quality control of products which were stemmed from the water extract of Ephedrae Herba. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Establishing eutrophication assessment standards for four lake regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shouliang; Ma, Chunzi; Xi, Beidou; Su, Jing; Zan, Fengyu; Ji, Danfeng; He, Zhuoshi

    2013-10-01

    The trophic status assessment of lakes in different lake regions may provide important and fundamental information for lake trophic state classification and eutrophication control. In this study, a region-specific lake eutrophication assessment standard was established through a frequency distribution method based on chlorophyll-a concentration. The assessment standards under the oligotrophic state for lakes in the Eastern plain, Yungui Plateau, Northeast Plain and Mountain Mongolia-Xinjiang regions are total phosphorus of 0.068, 0.005, 0.011, 0.005 mg/L; total nitrogen of 1.00, 0.16, 0.37, 0.60 mg/L; Secchi depth of 0.60, 8.00, 1.55, 3.00 m; and COD(Mn) of 2.24, 1.00, 5.11, 4.00 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, a region-specific comprehensive trophic level index was developed to provide an understandable assessment method for the public. The results indicated that the frequency distribution analysis based on chlorophyll-a combined with trophic level index provided a useful metric for the assessment of the lake trophic status. In addition, the difference of eutrophication assessment standards in different lake regions was analyzed, which suggested that the sensitivities of algae to nutrients and the assessment standard of trophic status possessed significant regional differences for the four lake ecoregions. Lake eutrophication assessment standards would contribute to maximizing the effectiveness of future management strategies, to control and minimize lake eutrophication problems.

  17. Establishing a Media Standard for The University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Uwe; Larsen, Steen Linke; Christensen, Rene Lindekrone

    administrative, technical, organisational and educational efforts within higher education. Various projects like common media standard, podcast portal and establishing the media backbone for this effort will be discussed. Key words: Podcast, Enhanced Podcast, Webcast, Streaming Video, Web 2.0, DVTS/N over IP......Since early 2005 the former Academic Support Center - Media (now ITMEDIA) have produced podcasts for the Faculty of Humanities, University of Copenhagen. With almost 30 years of collective experience of producing media (sound and video/TV) at the Faculty of Humanities the jump into these new media...

  18. Establishing the standard method of cochlear implant in Rongchang pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yi, Haijin; Zhang, Liang; Ji, Fei; Yuan, Shuolong; Zhang, Yue; Ren, Lili; Li, Jianan; Chen, Lei; Guo, Weiwei; Yang, Shiming

    2017-05-01

    In this investigation, a large mammal, Rongchang pigs were used to successfully establish a research platform for cochlear implant study on the routine use of it in clinic. The aim of this study was to establish a standard method of cochlear implant in a large mammal-pig. Rongchang pigs were selected, then divided into two groups: normal-hearing group (Mitf +/+) and mutation group with hearing loss (Mitf -/-). Cochlear implants were used and ABR and EABR were recorded. The implanted electrodes were observed by X-ray and HE stains. The success with cochlear implant and the best electrode position could be defined in all animals, the coiling of the cochlea reached 1.5-1.75 turns. Immediately after the operation of cochlear implants, the ABR threshold of the operated ear (right) could not be derived for each frequency at 120 dB SPL. Moreover, 7 days after surgery, the low-frequency ABR threshold of the operated ear (right) could be derived partly at 100 dB SPL, but the high-frequency ABR threshold could not be derived at 120 dB SPL. Immediately or 1 week after cochlear implants, the EABR threshold was 90 CL in the Mitf +/+ group. This was obviously lower than the 190 CL in the Mitf -/- group.

  19. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  20. Application of the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) for established of energy efficiency standards: refrigerators sold in Brazil; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise do custo do ciclo de vida (ACCV) para o estabelicimento de padroes de eficiencia energetica: refrigeradores comercializados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Guilherme de Castilho [Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagens (CETEA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the work in the thesis developed by Silva Jr. (2005) who discusses the application of the methodologies of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) as a tool to propose energy efficiency standards, additional to the voluntary labels already existing in the one-door Brazilian refrigerators. Another objective is to study the role of these instruments (energy efficiency labels and standards and environmental labels) as means to supply technical subsidies for the establishment of maximum level of electric energy consumption and environmental quality impact for electrical equipment in Brazil. The LCCA methodology allows to evaluate the impacts of the energy efficiency increasing in electrical equipment, resulting in important saving (energy, financial, carbon dioxide emissions avoided etc.) for the country and its citizens. The results reached in this studies offer important data to subsidize deep discussions with manufacturers and the government to stipulate minimum energy efficiency standards for the Brazilian refrigerators. Thus, with increase of 28,1% on the energy efficiency of the one-door Brazilian refrigerators in 2008 to reach a values of savings that can be in order of 54,63 TWh (with respective reduction of demand power of 208 MW), of US$ 6,23 Billions of Dollar (R$ 17,2 Billions of Reais) of reduction in the account of electric energy for the population and of approximately 22 billions of tons of CO{sub 2} not emitted on the environment after 30 years of the implantation of standard. These values, that can not be despised by government, manufacturers and consumers. One other interest of this work is to start the discussion, the possibility of the creation of environmental labelling (e.g., Green Seal - USA, Eco-label - EU etc.) that is an additional program/methodology, which, it may be utilized as support for development of technologies and for the increase of energy and environmental efficiency of the electric equipment. These

  1. Standards establishment within Baja California’s horticultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Belem Avendaño Ruiz; Rogelio Varela Llamas

    2010-01-01

    The Baja California produce industry is notice by its strong export orientation production. Never less, in the past few years some products have been associated to food safety outbreaks in the United States, its main market, affecting its competitiveness and market share, driven produce growers to the adoption of standards as a mean to stay in the international market. The paper focus in the role of adoption of International standards in the firms as part of a competitive strategy that implie...

  2. Standards establishment within Baja California’s horticultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem Avendaño Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baja California produce industry is notice by its strong export orientation production. Never less, in the past few years some products have been associated to food safety outbreaks in the United States, its main market, affecting its competitiveness and market share, driven produce growers to the adoption of standards as a mean to stay in the international market. The paper focus in the role of adoption of International standards in the firms as part of a competitive strategy that implies a technological change in order to comply with the certification requirements. A descriptive statistical analysis is conducted as well as a discriminate analysis in order to explain the factors that are involved in the firms that present technical innovation (adoption of standards to achieve competitiveness and those that don’t improve their productive process.

  3. 78 FR 40945 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Part 433 RIN 1904-AC60 Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family... baseline Federal energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of new Federal commercial and... must establish, by rule, revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards for new...

  4. An approach to establishing international quality standards for medical travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lácha, O.; Kovács, B.E.; McCarthy, C.; Schuurmans, A.T.; Dobyns, C.; Haller, E.; Hinrichs, S.; Ruggeri, K.

    2016-01-01

    Traveling abroad to receive a non-elective treatment is expanding each year. Such rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently calls for setting international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this

  5. Efficient vehicles versus efficient transportation : comprehensive comparison of fuel efficiency standards and Transportation Demand Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2001-11-21

    There are two basic approaches for reducing fuel consumption in vehicles. The first is to increase fuel efficiency, and the other is to increase transportation system efficiency. The three strategies commonly proposed to increase fuel efficiency are: (1) Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) standards, which require vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell more efficient vehicles, (2) Feebates, which impose a surcharge on the purchase of fuel inefficient vehicles. Revenues from Feebates are used to provide a rebate on the purchase of fuel efficient vehicles, and (3) Predictable, long-term fuel tax increases, which involve raising fuel taxes beyond what would otherwise occur to motivate motorists to buy fuel efficient vehicles. There are several transportation management strategies which can help accomplish better efficiency in a transportation system. These include: (1) road pricing which charges motorists for using certain roads, (2) parking pricing, (3) Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance, (4) improved transportation choices such as transit, cycling and walking improvements, rideshare programs, high occupancy vehicle (HOV) priority, telework and delivery services, (5) commute trip reduction programs, and (6) fuel price increases which involve raising fuel taxes to provide incentive to motorists to buy more fuel efficient vehicles. Energy conservation strategies that reduce vehicle mileage result in reduced traffic congestion, savings in parking facility costs, better traffic safety and environmental benefits. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Establishment of Track Quality Index Standard Recommendations for Beijing Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reng-Kui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, Beijing Metro started to use track geometry car to measure quality of its tracks under wheel loading conditions. The track quality measurement data from the track geometry car were only used to assess local track quality by means of scoring 1000 m long track segments based on track exceptions. Track quality management experience of national railroads of China shows that, in addition to local track quality assessment, an overall track quality assessment method should be employed. The paper presented research results funded by Road Administration of Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport. The paper proposed an overall track quality assessment method for Beijing Metro and determined the overall track quality standards by means of a statistical method which was proposed in the paper. The standards are necessary for the proposed method to be applied and have been approved by Road Administration of Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport and put into practice.

  7. Establishing some pharmacognostic standards for Nigerian Musa x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 14.0%), acid insoluble (0.5% - 2.7%) water soluble extractive (3.3% to 7.2%), sulphated ash (4.3% - 8.2%), stomata number and stomata index were 14 ± 0.80 and 16.00 ± 0.76, respectively. This will help to detect adulteration of the powdered sample. Keywords: Adulteration; Standardization; Musa sapientum; Monograph ...

  8. Establishment of a high-efficiency plant regeneration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    further used to establish genetic transformation system, its embryogenic calli, initiated from immature zygotic embryos, were transformed with the plasmid p35SBarNos harboring Bar gene by microprojectile bombardment, after selection and differentiation culture, partial bombarded calli were regenerated into green plantlets ...

  9. Establishment of an efficient transformation system for Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Min; Wu, Xiangli; Zhang, Jinxia; Wang, Hexiang; Huang, Chenyang

    2017-11-21

    Pleurotus ostreatus is widely cultivated worldwide, but the lack of an efficient transformation system regarding its use restricts its genetic research. The present study developed an improved and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method in P. ostreatus. Four parameters were optimized to obtain the most efficient transformation method. The strain LBA4404 was the most suitable for the transformation of P. ostreatus. A bacteria-to-protoplast ratio of 100:1, an acetosyringone (AS) concentration of 0.1 mM, and 18 h of co-culture showed the best transformation efficiency. The hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (HPH) was used as the selective marker, and EGFP was used as the reporter gene in this study. Southern blot analysis combined with EGFP fluorescence assay showed positive results, and mitotic stability assay showed that more than 75% transformants were stable after five generations. These results showed that our transformation method is effective and stable and may facilitate future genetic studies in P. ostreatus.

  10. Establishment of an efficient callus induction and plant regeneration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hala2012

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... seeds, endosperm, leaves, shoot bases and root tips. (Sarker and Biswas, 2002). Among these, the immature embryo was reported as the best for ... using ANOVA table on excel program and presented as average ± standard error. Means were separated according to Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, ...

  11. Establishment of Kawasaki disease database based on metadata standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Kim, Jae-Jung; Yoon, Young Jo; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Koo, Ha Yeong; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jong-Keuk

    2016-07-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare disease that occurs predominantly in infants and young children. To identify KD susceptibility genes and to develop a diagnostic test, a specific therapy, or prevention method, collecting KD patients' clinical and genomic data is one of the major issues. For this purpose, Kawasaki Disease Database (KDD) was developed based on the efforts of Korean Kawasaki Disease Genetics Consortium (KKDGC). KDD is a collection of 1292 clinical data and genomic samples of 1283 patients from 13 KKDGC-participating hospitals. Each sample contains the relevant clinical data, genomic DNA and plasma samples isolated from patients' blood, omics data and KD-associated genotype data. Clinical data was collected and saved using the common data elements based on the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata standard. Two genome-wide association study data of total 482 samples and whole exome sequencing data of 12 samples were also collected. In addition, KDD includes the rare cases of KD (16 cases with family history, 46 cases with recurrence, 119 cases with intravenous immunoglobulin non-responsiveness, and 52 cases with coronary artery aneurysm). As the first public database for KD, KDD can significantly facilitate KD studies. All data in KDD can be searchable and downloadable. KDD was implemented in PHP, MySQL and Apache, with all major browsers supported.Database URL: http://www.kawasakidisease.kr. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Efficient Path Key Establishment for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Key predistribution schemes have been proposed as means to overcome wireless sensor network constraints such as limited communication and processing power. Two sensor nodes can establish a secure link with some probability based on the information stored in their memories, though it is not always possible that two sensor nodes may set up a secure link. In this paper, we propose a new approach that elects trusted common nodes called “Proxies” which reside on an existing secure path linking two sensor nodes. These sensor nodes are used to send the generated key which will be divided into parts (nuggets according to the number of elected proxies. Our approach has been assessed against previously developed algorithms, and the results show that our algorithm discovers proxies more quickly which are closer to both end nodes, thus producing shorter path lengths. We have also assessed the impact of our algorithm on the average time to establish a secure link when the transmitter and receiver of the sensor nodes are “ON.” The results show the superiority of our algorithm in this regard. Overall, the proposed algorithm is well suited for wireless sensor networks.

  13. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...-chair of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Working Group of the Trade Promotion Coordinating... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and...

  14. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power... Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies'') and provide the appropriate docket number...

  15. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J... Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... to Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000...

  16. Pattern and security requirements engineering-based establishment of security standards

    CERN Document Server

    Beckers, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Security threats are a significant problem for information technology companies today. This book focuses on how to mitigate these threats by using security standards and provides ways to address associated problems faced by engineers caused by ambiguities in the standards. The security standards are analysed, fundamental concepts of the security standards presented, and the relations to the elementary concepts of security requirements engineering (SRE) methods explored. Using this knowledge, engineers can build customised methods that support the establishment of security standards. Standard

  17. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  18. 40 CFR 123.36 - Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. 123.36 Section 123.36 Protection of Environment... § 123.36 Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. If the State...

  19. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  20. International Financial Reporting Standards and Market Efficiency: A European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, M.; Hübner, G.; P.-A. Michel; Olivier, H.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate how the voluntary adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) prior to 2005 has contributed to the informational efficiency regarding pan-European stock markets. We find evidence of the potential usefulness of the IFRS for making financial decisions. Taking a sample of IFRS early adopters, our study indicates that the new standards clearly support the semistrong-form of market efficiency for the firms disclosing good accounting news, while a more progress...

  1. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  2. [Establishment of quality standard and discussion on standard decoction containing volatile oil pieces-Cinnamomi Ramulus pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Feng, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Liu, An

    2017-07-01

    To prepare Cinnamomi Ramulus pieces standard decoction and establish its quality standard, provide quality reference for formula granules and other clinic non-traditional forms of medicines, and lay a foundation for standard decoction research for the pieces containing essential oil. 14 batches of Cinnamomi Ramulus pieces with different quality were collected from market and their extraction process was further improved based on the preparation principle of standard decoction to prepare the standard decoction of Cinnamomi Ramulus pieces. Then its transfer rate of Cinnamaldehyde, dry extract rate and pH value were calculated to evaluate its process stability; and a method for chromatographic fingerprint and content determination was also established. Results revealed that the dry extract rate for standard decoction of Cinnamomi Ramulus pieces was from 6.06%-8.95%, with an average value of 7.18%; the transfer rate of cinnamaldehyde was at the range of 29.6%-54.3%, with an average of 43.2%; and the pH value was at the range of 4.33-4.82. The fingerprint similarities between 14 batches of standard decoction of Cinnmomi Rammulus pieces and reference fingerprint were all>0.9. The established method for standard decoction was stable and its quality standard was perfect, suitable for evaluating the quality of standard decoction of Cinnanomi Ramulus pieces. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. The impact of transport processes standardization on supply chain efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Stajniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During continuous market competition, focusing on the customer service level, lead times and supply flexibility is very important to analyze the efficiency of logistics processes. Analysis of supply chain efficiency is one of the fundamental elements of controlling analysis. Transport processes are a key process that provides physical material flow through the supply chain. Therefore, in this article Authors focus attention on the transport processes efficiency. Methods: The research carried out in the second half of 2014 year, in 210 enterprises of the Wielkopolska Region. Observations and business practice studies conducted by the authors, demonstrate a significant impact of standardization processes on supply chain efficiency. Based on the research results, have been developed standard processes that have been assessed as being necessary to standardize in business practice. Results: Based on these research results and observations, authors have developed standards for transport processes by BPMN notation. BPMN allows authors to conduct multivariate simulation of these processes in further stages of research. Conclusions: Developed standards are the initial stage of research conducted by Authors in the assessment of transport processes efficiency. Further research direction is to analyze the use efficiency of transport processes standards in business practice and their impact on the effectiveness of the entire supply chain.

  4. 75 FR 35450 - Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for Member Nominations AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and request member nominations. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A...

  5. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  6. IFDR: An Efficient Iterative Optimization Algorithm for Standard Cell Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Cheng; Junfa Mao

    2004-01-01

    In the automatic placement of integrated circuits, the force directed relaxation (FDR) method [Goto, S. (1981). An efficient algorithm for the two-dimensional placement problem in electrical circuit layout. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, CAS-28(1), 12-18] is a good iterative optimization algorithm. In this article, an improved force directed relaxation (IFDR) method for standard cell placement is presented, which provides a more flexible and efficient cell location adjustment scheme and...

  7. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  8. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use products is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternating current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  9. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use prod-ucts is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternat-ing current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of standard assessment for Category C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the application and efficiency of the Ethiopian standard tax assessment, as enshrined in the Income Tax Regulation No. 78/2002, against the tax liability of Category C Taxpayers, commonly known as small business taxpayers, referring to the practice in Eastern Zone Administration of the Tigray ...

  11. Standardization of P-33 by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the pure beta-emitter phosphorus-33 (P-33) has been directly determined by the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) efficiency calculation technique, thus extending the number of radionuclides that have been standardized...

  12. Report on the Project for Establishment of the Standardized Korean Laboratory Terminology Database, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bo Kyeung; Kim, Jeeyong; Cho, Chi Hyun; Kim, Ju Yeon; Nam, Myung Hyun; Shin, Bong Kyung; Rho, Eun Youn; Kim, Sollip; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Shinyoung; Ki, Chang Seok; Park, Min Jung; Lee, Kap No; Yoon, Soo Young

    2017-04-01

    The National Health Information Standards Committee was established in 2004 in Korea. The practical subcommittee for laboratory test terminology was placed in charge of standardizing laboratory medicine terminology in Korean. We aimed to establish a standardized Korean laboratory terminology database, Korea-Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (K-LOINC) based on former products sponsored by this committee. The primary product was revised based on the opinions of specialists. Next, we mapped the electronic data interchange (EDI) codes that were revised in 2014, to the corresponding K-LOINC. We established a database of synonyms, including the laboratory codes of three reference laboratories and four tertiary hospitals in Korea. Furthermore, we supplemented the clinical microbiology section of K-LOINC using an alternative mapping strategy. We investigated other systems that utilize laboratory codes in order to investigate the compatibility of K-LOINC with statistical standards for a number of tests. A total of 48,990 laboratory codes were adopted (21,539 new and 16,330 revised). All of the LOINC synonyms were translated into Korean, and 39,347 Korean synonyms were added. Moreover, 21,773 synonyms were added from reference laboratories and tertiary hospitals. Alternative strategies were established for mapping within the microbiology domain. When we applied these to a smaller hospital, the mapping rate was successfully increased. Finally, we confirmed K-LOINC compatibility with other statistical standards, including a newly proposed EDI code system. This project successfully established an up-to-date standardized Korean laboratory terminology database, as well as an updated EDI mapping to facilitate the introduction of standard terminology into institutions. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  13. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  14. Augmenting BMI and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjikkaran Seeja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. Are all the existing methods for estimating the obesity and overweight in school going children in India equally efficient? 2. How to derive more efficient obesity percentiles to determine obesity and overweight status in school-going children aged 7-12 years old? Objectives: 1. To investigate and analyze the prevalence rate of obesity and overweight children in India, using the established standards. 2. To compare the efficiency among the tools with the expected levels in the Indian population. 3. To establish and demonstrate the higher efficiency of the proposed percentile chart. Study Design: A cross-sectional study using a completely randomized design. Settings: Government, private-aided, unaided, and central schools in the Thrissur district of Kerala. Participants: A total of 1500 boys and 1500 girls aged 7-12 years old. Results: BMI percentiles, waist circumference percentiles, and waist to height ratio are the ruling methodologies in establishing the obese and overweight relations in school-going children. Each one suffers from the disadvantage of not considering either one or more of the obesity contributing factors in human growth dynamics, the major being waist circumference and weight. A new methodology for mitigating this defect through considering BMI and waist circumference simultaneously for establishing still efficient percentiles to arrive at obesity and overweight status is detailed here. Age-wise centiles for obesity and overweight status separately for boys and girls aged 7-12 years old were established. Comparative efficiency of this methodology over BMI had shown that this could mitigate the inability of BMI to consider waist circumference. Also, this had the advantage of considering body weight in obesity analysis, which is the major handicap in waist to height ratio. An analysis using a population of 1500 boys and 1500 girls has yielded 3.6% obese and 6.2% overweight samples, which is well within

  15. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, 240-402-1639. Hearing- impaired or speech... identity established under section 401 that is not identical to such standard of identity or that is not... speech-impaired individuals may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay...

  16. Use of benefit-cost analysis in establishing Federal radiation protection standards: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This paper complements other work which has evaluated the cost impacts of radiation standards on the nuclear industry. It focuses on the approaches to valuation of the health and safety benefits of radiation standards and the actual and appropriate processes of benefit-cost comparison. A brief historical review of the rationale(s) for the levels of radiation standards prior to 1970 is given. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established numerical design objectives for light water reactors (LWRs). The process of establishing these numerical design criteria below the radiation protection standards set in 10 CFR 20 is reviewed. EPA's 40 CFR 190 environmental standards for the uranium fuel cycle have lower values than NRC's radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 20. The task of allocating EPA's 40 CFR 190 standards to the various portions of the fuel cycle was left to the implementing agency, NRC. So whether or not EPA's standards for the uranium fuel cycle are more stringent for LWRs than NRC's numerical design objectives depends on how EPA's standards are implemented by NRC. In setting the numerical levels in Appendix I to 10 CFR 50 and 40 CFR 190 NRC and EPA, respectively, focused on the costs of compliance with various levels of radiation control. A major portion of the paper is devoted to a review and critique of the available methods for valuing health and safety benefits. All current approaches try to estimate a constant value of life and use this to vaue the expected number of lives saved. This paper argues that it is more appropriate to seek a value of a reduction in risks to health and life that varies with the extent of these risks. Additional research to do this is recommended. (DC)

  17. Emanuel Edward Klein's role in the establishment of food preservation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalić, B

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate Emanuel Edward Klein's role in the establishment of food preservation standards in terms of critiques of his work, taking his experimental investigations into account. Historical revision of Klein's experimental investigations of food preservation. Descriptive, comparative and analytical methods were used to evaluate Klein's achievements in public health. Presentation of Klein's six papers on food preservation. Klein's experimental work was of significant value for the development of food preservation standards for hams, milk and, most importantly, oysters, mussels and other shellfish. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  19. Charge collection efficiency of standard and oxygenated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stavitski, I; Bisello, D; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Kaminski, A; Wyss, J

    2002-01-01

    Two silicon microstrip detectors, one fabricated from a standard and the second from a highly oxygenated substrate, were non-uniformly irradiated by 24 GeV protons to fluences ranging between 2.3 and 6.3 * 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -2/. Charge collection efficiency measurements, performed by pulsing the detectors with a 1060 mu m wavelength laser, show that the beneficial effect of the oxygenation remains, although reduced with respect to that observed by C-V measurements on diodes fabricated with the detectors. (10 refs).

  20. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for uranium conversion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance and recommended practices for establishing a comprehensive quality assurance program for uranium conversion facilities. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate health and safety practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The basic elements of a quality assurance program appear in the following order: FUNCTION SECTION Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Design Control 7 Instructions, Procedures & Drawings 8 Document Control 9 Procurement 10 Identification and Traceability 11 Processes 12 Inspection 13 Control of Measuring and Test Equipment 14 Handling, Storage and Shipping 15 Inspection, Test and Operating Status 16 Control of Nonconforming Items 17 Corrective Actions 18 Quality Assurance Records 19 Audits 20 TABLE 1 NQA-1 Basic Requirements Relat...

  1. Standard guide for establishing calibration for a measurement method used to analyze nuclear fuel cycle materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides the basis for establishing calibration for a measurement method typically used in an analytical chemistry laboratory analyzing nuclear materials. Guidance is included for such activities as preparing a calibration procedure, selecting a calibration standard, controlling calibrated equipment, and documenting calibration. The guide is generic and any required technical information specific for a given method must be obtained from other sources.

  2. Establishing standards for obstructed labour in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Mlava, Grace; van den Broek, Nynke

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally standards for maternity care are developed by a panel of experts (usually obstetricians) and then implemented by a multidisciplinary team. The present study concerns the feasibility of involving health professionals of all grades in the establishment standards for obstructed labour in Malawi. Standards for obstructed labour were developed by a multidisciplinary team involving all cadres of health professionals working in maternity units, as well as hospital managers and policy makers, using evidence from Malawi national guidelines, World Health Organisation manuals and peer-reviewed journals. Each standard consisted of a clear objective with structure, process and outcome criteria. Seven objectives were agreed, and structure, process and outcome criteria were developed for each objective. The standards addressed different aspects of the management of obstructed labour, namely early recognition of prolonged labour by labouring women and traditional birth attendants, early arrival of women to health facilities during labour, proper use of partograph by healthcare providers, proper management of prolonged labour, proper management of obstructed labour, appropriate management of uterine rupture and early delivery of the baby. It is feasible to develop standards of emergency obstetric care in low-income countries using a multidisciplinary team that involves health professionals of all grades. The involvement of all health professionals might promote successful implementation, ownership and sustainability. The involvement of hospital managers and policy makers in the early stages of criteria-based audit might promote support from the hierarchy with regards to the allocation of resources.

  3. Variability of consumer impacts from energy efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin

    2000-06-15

    A typical prospective analysis of the expected impact of energy efficiency standards on consumers is based on average economic conditions (e.g., energy price) and operating characteristics. In fact, different consumers face different economic conditions and exhibit different behaviors when using an appliance. A method has been developed to characterize the variability among individual households and to calculate the life-cycle cost of appliances taking into account those differences. Using survey data, this method is applied to a distribution of consumers representing the U.S. Examples of clothes washer standards are shown for which 70-90% of the population benefit, compared to 10-30% who are expected to bear increased costs due to new standards. In some cases, sufficient data exist to distinguish among demographic subgroups (for example, low income or elderly households) who are impacted differently from the general population. Rank order correlations between the sampled input distributions and the sampled output distributions are calculated to determine which variability inputs are main factors. This ''importance analysis'' identifies the key drivers contributing to the range of results. Conversely, the importance analysis identifies variables that, while uncertain, make so little difference as to be irrelevant in deciding a particular policy. Examples will be given from analysis of water heaters to illustrate the dominance of the policy implications by a few key variables.

  4. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W. [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  5. Establishing the limits of efficiency of perovskite solar cells from first principles modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grånäs, Oscar; Vinichenko, Dmitry; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-11-01

    The recent surge in research on metal-halide-perovskite solar cells has led to a seven-fold increase of efficiency, from ~3% in early devices to over 22% in research prototypes. Oft-cited reasons for this increase are: (i) a carrier diffusion length reaching hundreds of microns; (ii) a low exciton binding energy; and (iii) a high optical absorption coefficient. These hybrid organic-inorganic materials span a large chemical space with the perovskite structure. Here, using first-principles calculations and thermodynamic modelling, we establish that, given the range of band-gaps of the metal-halide-perovskites, the theoretical maximum efficiency limit is in the range of ~25-27%. Our conclusions are based on the effect of level alignment between the perovskite absorber layer and carrier-transporting materials on the performance of the solar cell as a whole. Our results provide a useful framework for experimental searches toward more efficient devices.

  6. [Establish quality evaluation method based on standard decoction of Danshen extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Yu, Hua-Tao; Dai, Yun-Tao; Chao, Jung; Fan, Zi-Quan; Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhu, Chao; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2017-03-01

    The quality of Danshen extract granules on market is largely different from each other mainly due to the heterogeneous quality of raw materials of Salvia miltiorrhiza, various producing procedures and lack of good quality evaluation method. Formula granule and "standard decoction" have the same quality. In this paper, a systematic evaluation method for the quality of Danshen decoction was established from the perspective of "standard decoction", in order to explore the main factors affecting the quality uniformity of Danshen extract granules. Danshen standard decoction was prepared; then the fingerprint method was developed to determine the content of salvianolic acid B; and the main peaks in the fingerprint were identified with UPLC-QTOF/MS to clarify the chemical compositions of Danshen decoction. Three indexes were calculated to evaluate the stability of whole process, including the extraction ratio; transfer rate of index components and pH value. The results showed that the main components of Danshen decoction were phenolic acids, while the extraction rate, the transfer rate of salvianolic acid B and pH value were in a relatively stable level, and the similarity in the fingerprint of standard decoction was high, indicating that the preparation procedure was stable. The level of salvianolic acid B in the standard decoction was in a large range, which was mainly due to the difference in the quality of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  8. Establishment and maintenance of a standardized glioma tissue bank: Huashan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibaidula, Abudumijiti; Lu, Jun-feng; Wu, Jin-song; Zou, He-jian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Yu-qian; Qin, Zhi-yong; Yao, Yu; Gong, Ye; Che, Xiao-ming; Zhong, Ping; Li, Shi-qi; Bao, Wei-min; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2015-06-01

    Cerebral glioma is the most common brain tumor as well as one of the top ten malignant tumors in human beings. In spite of the great progress on chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as the surgery strategies during the past decades, the mortality and morbidity are still high. One of the major challenges is to explore the pathogenesis and invasion of glioma at various "omics" levels (such as proteomics or genomics) and the clinical implications of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or treatment of glioma patients. Establishment of a standardized tissue bank with high quality biospecimens annotated with clinical information is pivotal to the solution of these questions as well as the drug development process and translational research on glioma. Therefore, based on previous experience of tissue banks, standardized protocols for sample collection and storage were developed. We also developed two systems for glioma patient and sample management, a local database for medical records and a local image database for medical images. For future set-up of a regional biobank network in Shanghai, we also founded a centralized database for medical records. Hence we established a standardized glioma tissue bank with sufficient clinical data and medical images in Huashan Hospital. By September, 2013, tissues samples from 1,326 cases were collected. Histological diagnosis revealed that 73 % were astrocytic tumors, 17 % were oligodendroglial tumors, 2 % were oligoastrocytic tumors, 4 % were ependymal tumors and 4 % were other central nervous system neoplasms.

  9. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting to discuss the proposed rules to establish standards for the growing, harvesting, packing, and holding of produce for human consumption (the produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls for human food (the preventive controls proposed rule), which are the first of several proposed rules that would establish the foundation of, and central framework for, the modern food safety system envisioned by Congress in the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). The purpose of the public meeting is to solicit oral stakeholder and public comments on the proposed rules and to inform the public about the rulemaking process (including how to submit comments, data, and other information to the rulemaking dockets), and to respond to questions about the proposed rules.

  10. Establishing strategic energy assessment indicators for Zimbabwe: A key to improving electrical energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Felix

    In Zimbabwe, there is still very little realization of the potential of demand side management (DSM) to increase industrial energy efficiency. Without clear guidelines that indicate the most economic energy efficiency strategies to implement, it is difficult for industry to easily evaluate the benefits of energy assessments. This research focused on establishing and evaluating indicators that guide correct implementation of energy assessments into Zimbabwean industry. This quantitative and qualitative study used a theoretic approach to develop indicators that identified industrial subsectors that should be targeted for DSM interventions. This may bring about reduction in energy demand in high power consuming Zimbabwean industrial companies, which were compared with energy utility performances of similar industrial companies in countries located in other parts of the world. This research used pattern-matching, categorical aggregation, and stochastic frontier regression analysis for data analysis. In maximizing electrical efficiency, the implications of this study may be used by individual companies in Zimbabwe to perform energy efficiency self-diagnoses, operational efficiency evaluations, and capital resource justifications. From a societal perspective, this study may benefit Zimbabwe because it provides opportunities for the alleviation of both shortages in power supply and the capital constraints of building new generating capacity. This study will also benefit ordinary Zimbabweans by lowering energy costs and providing reliable power. This promotes sustainable economic growth and lowers the need for foreign currency to import power.

  11. Analytic Tools for Evaluating Variability of Standard Errors in Large-Scale Establishment Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho MoonJung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale establishment surveys often exhibit substantial temporal or cross-sectional variability in their published standard errors. This article uses a framework defined by survey generalized variance functions to develop three sets of analytic tools for the evaluation of these patterns of variability. These tools are for (1 identification of predictor variables that explain some of the observed temporal and cross-sectional variability in published standard errors; (2 evaluation of the proportion of variability attributable to the abovementioned predictors, equation error and estimation error, respectively; and (3 comparison of equation error variances across groups defined by observable predictor variables. The primary ideas are motivated and illustrated by an application to the U.S. Current Employment Statistics program.

  12. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  13. Analysis to Establish Differences in Efficiency Metrics Between Operating Room and Non-Operating Room Anesthesia Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert; Sanford, Joseph A; Tsai, Mitchell H; O'Donnell, Stephen E; Tran, Billy K; Urman, Richard D

    2017-08-01

    While a number of studies have examined efficiency metrics in the operating rooms (ORs), there are few studies addressing non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) metrics. The standards established in the realm of OR studies may not apply to ongoing investigations of NORA efficiency. We hypothesize that there are significant differences in these commonly used metrics. Using retrospective data from a single tertiary care hospital in the 2015 calendar year, we measured turnover times, cancellation rates, first case start delays, and scheduling error (actual time minus scheduled time) for the OR and NORA settings. On average, TOTs for NORA cases were approximately 50% shorter than OR cases (16.21 min vs. 37.18 min), but had a larger variation (11.02 min vs. 8.12 min). NORA cases were 64% as likely to be cancelled compared to OR cases. In contrast, NORA cases had an average first case start delay that was two times greater than that of OR cases (24.45 min vs. 10.58 min), along with over double the standard deviation (11.97 min vs. 5.90 min). Case times for NORA settings tended to be overestimated (-4.07 min versus -2.12 min), but showed less variation (8.61 min vs. 17.92 min). In short, there are significant differences in common efficiency metrics between OR and NORA cases. Future studies should elucidate and validate appropriate efficiency benchmarks for the NORA setting.

  14. Data to establish the optimal standard regimen and predicting the response to docetaxel therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Y. Moawad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains data to establish the optimal standard regimen and predicting the response to docetaxel therapy (Moawad, 2014 [1]. Docetaxel has been in use for over a decade without demonstrating data indicates a predictable response in the treatment of cancer. Data of puzzling response to docetaxel therapy was due to its cell cycle specific effect. Although several administered schedules were investigated, the relative therapeutic advantage of high versus low doses has not been identified yet. Also the antitumor target of docetaxel has not yet been identified to optimize therapy by predicting the response of patients prior to therapy to provide a protection against treatment failure. In the present paper, we demonstrate the data used to optimize docetaxel therapy and investigate the possibility of predicting for the first time the antitumor target of docetaxel.

  15. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities

  16. Establishment of a highly efficient transformation system for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Zhao, K; Xie, B; Zhang, B; Luo, K

    2003-04-01

    Application of modern genetic manipulation has been limited in pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) due to the lack of an efficient transformation system. Following the development of an efficient protocol for in vitro regeneration of pepper cotyledons, we investigated the key factors affecting transformation and established a highly efficient genetic transformation system using the pepper cotyledon as starting material. In this system, cotyledon explants are preconditioned for 2 days on kanamycin (km)-free DM1 medium [Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts/Gamborg B5 vitamins basal medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose, 5,000 mg/l DJ nutrients and a hormone combination of 1.0 mg/l indoleacetic acid (IAA) and 5.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) solidified with 0.7% agar, pH 5.8], followed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on DM1 for 2 days and delay selection on DM1 with 500 mg/l carbenicillin (carb) for 2 days. The explants are then placed on DM1 containing 10 mg/l AgNO(3), 50 mg/l km-sulfate and 500 mg/l carb. After 4-5 weeks, the explants with buds are transferred to EM1 medium (MS salts/Gamborg B5 vitamins basal medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose, 5,000 mg/l DJ nutrients, 10 mg/l AgNO(3) and a hormone combination of 1.0 mg/l IAA, 3.0 mg/l BA and 2.0 mg/l gibberellic acid, solidified with 0.7% agar, pH 5.8) with 50 mg/l kanamycin and 500 mg/l carbenicillin for the elongation of buds. After 3-6 weeks, 1- to 2-cm-long elongated shoots are excised and planted on RM1 medium (MS basal medium supplemented with a hormone combination of 0.2 mg/l NAA and 0.1 mg/l IAA, solidified with 0.8% agar, pH 5.8) with 25 mg/l km and 200 mg/l carb for rooting. We tested four genotypes of pepper, and all presented a high differentiation efficiency (81.3% on average), elongation rate (61.5%) and rooting efficiency (89.5%). Polymerase chain reaction analysis results showed that 40.8% of the regenerated plantlets were transgenic plants.

  17. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  18. Establishing Reliability and Validity of the Criterion Referenced Exam of GeoloGy Standards EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, S. K.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; Schleigh, S.; Burrows, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Discipline-based geoscience education researchers have considerable need for a criterion-referenced, easy-to-administer and -score conceptual diagnostic survey for undergraduates taking introductory science survey courses in order for faculty to better be able to monitor the learning impacts of various interactive teaching approaches. To support ongoing education research across the geosciences, we are continuing to rigorously and systematically work to firmly establish the reliability and validity of the recently released Exam of GeoloGy Standards, EGGS. In educational testing, reliability refers to the consistency or stability of test scores whereas validity refers to the accuracy of the inferences or interpretations one makes from test scores. There are several types of reliability measures being applied to the iterative refinement of the EGGS survey, including test-retest, alternate form, split-half, internal consistency, and interrater reliability measures. EGGS rates strongly on most measures of reliability. For one, Cronbach's alpha provides a quantitative index indicating the extent to which if students are answering items consistently throughout the test and measures inter-item correlations. Traditional item analysis methods further establish the degree to which a particular item is reliably assessing students is actually quantifiable, including item difficulty and item discrimination. Validity, on the other hand, is perhaps best described by the word accuracy. For example, content validity is the to extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of the content, stemming from judgments of people who are either experts in the testing of that particular content area or are content experts. Perhaps more importantly, face validity is a judgement of how representative an instrument is reflective of the science "at face value" and refers to the extent to which a test appears to measure a the targeted scientific domain as viewed by laypersons

  19. Establishment of replacement International Standard 13/132 for human antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpkema, Sjoerd; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Guy, Edward C

    2016-09-01

    Sixteen laboratories carried out a collaborative study to validate 13/132 as a replacement International Standard (IS) for TOXM (3rd IS for anti-Toxoplasma Serum, Human, 1000 IU). 13/132 is a freeze dried preparation of pooled human plasma from six donors who experienced a recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. The potency of 13/132 was compared to TOXM and 01/600 (1st IS for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, Human, 20 IU). Samples were tested for IgA, IgG, IgG avidity and IgM in agglutination assays; enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), enzyme linked fluorescent assays, immunoblots, immunofluorescence assays and the Sabin-Feldman dye test for Ig. 13/132 was strongly positive for Ig, IgA, IgG and IgM and the reproducibility was very good. 13/132 contains high levels of anti-Toxoplasma Ig, IgG and IgM and its potency falls between TOXM and 01/600. The avidity of IgG was found to be low, similar to the avidity of IgG from TOXM. 13/132 was established by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 4th IS for Antibodies, Human, to T. gondii with an assigned unitage of 160 IU per ampoule for Ig by dye test and 263 U per ampoule for IgG by ELISA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Advance notice of... the message. Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program...

  1. A Framework for Establishing Standard Reference Scale of Texture by Multivariate Statistical Analysis Based on Instrumental Measurement and Sensory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Nan; Wang, Houyin; Shi, Bolin; Shi, Jingye

    2016-01-13

    A framework of establishing standard reference scale (texture) is proposed by multivariate statistical analysis according to instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis is conducted to rapidly select typical reference samples with characteristics of universality, representativeness, stability, substitutability, and traceability. The reasonableness of the framework method is verified by establishing standard reference scale of texture attribute (hardness) with Chinese well-known food. More than 100 food products in 16 categories were tested using instrumental measurement (TPA test), and the result was analyzed with clustering analysis, principal component analysis, relative standard deviation, and analysis of variance. As a result, nine kinds of foods were determined to construct the hardness standard reference scale. The results indicate that the regression coefficient between the estimated sensory value and the instrumentally measured value is significant (R(2) = 0.9765), which fits well with Stevens's theory. The research provides reliable a theoretical basis and practical guide for quantitative standard reference scale establishment on food texture characteristics.

  2. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is a...

  3. Establishment of a simple and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for Phytophthora palmivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongliang; Navet, Natasha; Liu, Yingchao; Uchida, Janice; Tian, Miaoying

    2016-09-06

    As an agriculturally important oomycete genus, Phytophthora contains a large number of destructive plant pathogens that severely threaten agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Among them is the broad host range pathogen P. palmivora, which infects many economically important plant species. An essential way to dissect their pathogenesis mechanisms is genetic modification of candidate genes, which requires effective transformation systems. Four methods were developed for transformation of Phytophthora spp., including PEG(polyethylene glycol)/CaCl2 mediated protoplast transformation, electroporation of zoospores, microprojectile bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). Among them, AMT has many advantages over the other methods such as easy handling and mainly generating single-copy integration in the genome. An AMT method previously reported for P. infestans and P. palmivora has barely been used in oomycete research due to low success and low reproducibility. In this study, we report a simple and efficient AMT system for P. palmivora. Using this system, we were able to reproducibly generate over 40 transformants using zoospores collected from culture grown in a single 100 mm-diameter petri dish. The generated GFP transformants constitutively expressed GFP readily detectable using a fluorescence microscope. All of the transformants tested using Southern blot analysis contained a single-copy T-DNA insertion. This system is highly effective and reproducible for transformation of P. palmivora and expected to be adaptable for transformation of additional Phytophthora spp. and other oomycetes. Its establishment will greatly accelerate their functional genomic studies.

  4. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 12 CFR Appendix D-1 to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and operations; 3. Assess the source, volatility, and sustainability of earnings, including the effect... exposure. F. Asset growth. G. Asset quality. H. Earnings. I. Compensation, fees and benefits. III... standards; (2) compensation standards; and (3) such standards relating to asset quality, earnings, and stock...

  6. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  7. Economically efficient standards to protect the Netherlands against flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgenraam, C.; Kind, J.; Bak, C.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; den Hertog, D.; Duits, M.; Roos, C.; Vermeer, P.J.; Kuijken, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, flood protection is a matter of national survival. In 2008, the Second Delta Committee recommended increasing legal flood protection standards at least tenfold to compensate for population and economic growth since 1953; this recommendation would have required dike improvement

  8. Automobile fuel economy standards : Impacts, efficiency, and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Soren T.; Parry, Ian W H; Sallee, James M.; Fischer, Carolyn

    This article discusses automobile fuel economy standards in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including impacts on fuel consumption and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review two different methodologies for

  9. Relative Efficiencies of the Standard and Dvorak Simplified Keyboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Scot

    1993-01-01

    Finger-movement distances for alphabetic keys of standard and Dvorak keyboards were calculated for every digraph in the business vocabulary. Dvorak required 37% less distance and had more right-hand, home-row, same-row, and alternate hand reaches. (SK)

  10. THE STANDARD SINGLE COST METHOD AND THE EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES’ MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu C. CONSTANTINESCU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the premises for the application of the standard direct cost calculation method in industry, the standard single cost calculation method, the stages of standard cost calculation per product and the calculation methods of standards per product. It also briefly underlines the possibilities of cost calculation and monitoring of deviation of the costs of raw materials and other materials as compared to the pre-established standard costs.

  11. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence... Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/product.aspx?productid=82 . DATES...

  12. Thermoluminescence dating apparatus efficiency measurement using a standard light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriveau, G W

    1978-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) apparatus used for the MMA-BNL dating project has been especially designed to improve upon light collection and transmission properties, when compared to most currently used dating systems. Two methods of light collection have been developed: one employing aspheric reflectors and the other using a reflector and lens system. In order to compare the relative effectiveness of these two systems, and to compare their performance against theoretical predictions or future improvements, a standard lamp and housing has been developed and calibrated. Two types of miniature lamps were evaluated for this purpose and their characteristics are shown in tables.

  13. Efficient Lattice-Based Signcryption in Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that can perform digital signature and public encryption simultaneously at a significantly reduced cost. This advantage makes it highly useful in many applications. However, most existing signcryption schemes are seriously challenged by the booming of quantum computations. As an interesting stepping stone in the post-quantum cryptographic community, two lattice-based signcryption schemes were proposed recently. But both of them were merely proved to be secure in the random oracle models. Therefore, the main contribution of this paper is to propose a new lattice-based signcryption scheme that can be proved to be secure in the standard model.

  14. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  15. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Efficiency...

  16. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  17. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... concept of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) that was pioneered by industry in the late 1960s, FDA established HACCP-based regulations for seafood (21 CFR part 123) in 1995 (60 FR 65096... 1996, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service instituted HACCP-based...

  18. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research : Standards for establishing the effects of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present

  19. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Hywel D; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium looks to develop standardized in vitro tests and to generate much-needed performance criteria for lipid-based formulations (LBFs). This article highlights the value of performing a second, more stressful digestion test to identify LBFs near...... a performance threshold and to facilitate lead formulation selection in instances where several LBF prototypes perform adequately under standard digestion conditions (but where further discrimination is necessary). Stressed digestion tests can be designed based on an understanding of the factors that affect LBF......-chain glyceride-rich LBFs, but not more hydrophilic surfactant-rich LBFs, whereas decreasing pH stressed tolfenamic acid LBFs, but not fenofibrate LBFs. Lastly, a new Performance Classification System, that is, LBF composition independent, is proposed to promote standardized LBF comparisons, encourage robust LBF...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 364 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and operations; 3. Assess the source, volatility, and sustainability of earnings, including the effect... documentation. D. Credit underwriting. E. Interest rate exposure. F. Asset growth. G. Asset quality. H. Earnings...) such standards relating to asset quality, earnings, and stock valuation as they determine to be...

  1. The Final Year Project (FYP) in Social Sciences: Establishment of Its Associated Competences and Evaluation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Joan; Escofet, Anna; Martinez, Francesc; Ventura, Javier; Vlachopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the fundamental characteristics of the Final Year Project (FYP), its associated competences and some evaluation standards that derived from a research conducted by the regional government of Catalonia (Spain) and the Catalan University Quality Assurance Agency. More analytically, the paper begins with the definition of the…

  2. The energy efficiency standards in Mexico; Las normas de eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ybo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion (Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization) that is in force since July 16, 1992, establishes that it corresponds to the agencies of the federal public administration, in its scope of competition, to constitute the National Consultative Committees of Standardization (CCNN) to issue Mexican Official Standards (NOM) on products, systems, processes, methods, facilities, services or activities, as well as to certify, verify and inspect its fulfillment. The NOM are of compulsory application because they have as finality the establishing of the characteristics and/or specifications, criteria and procedures that allow to protect and to promote the improvement of the environment and of the ecosystems, as well as the preservation of the natural resources. The Secretariat of Energy issues the NOM on energy efficiency, which are formulated by the National Consultative Committee of Standardization for the Preservation and Rational Use of Energy Resources (CCNNPURRE), which is presided over by the General Director of CONAE. The standardization of Energy Efficiency in Mexico has allowed savings, in the consumption of electrical and thermal energy, estimated for 2001 of 7,700 GWh and an avoided electrical power of 1 270 MW, which locates it as an important measure in the achievement of the objectives of the CONAE-CCNNPURRE, to conceive and to promote strategies and guidelines of action relative to the saving and efficient and rational use of the energy and as a consequence the preservation of the nonrenewable natural resources. [Spanish] La Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion que esta en vigor desde el 16 de julio de 1992, establece que corresponde a las dependencias de la administracion publica federal, en su ambito de competencia, constituir los Comites Consultivos Nacionales de Normalizacion (CCNN) para expedir Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NOM) sobre productos, sistemas, procesos, metodos, instalaciones, servicios o

  3. New Primary Standards for Establishing SI Traceability for Moisture Measurements in Solid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M.; Bell, S.; Choi, B. Il; Cortellessa, G.; Fernicola, V.; Georgin, E.; Hudoklin, D.; Ionescu, G. V.; Ismail, N.; Keawprasert, T.; Krasheninina, M.; Aro, R.; Nielsen, J.; Oğuz Aytekin, S.; Österberg, P.; Skabar, J.; Strnad, R.

    2018-01-01

    A European research project METefnet addresses a fundamental obstacle to improving energy-intensive drying process control: due to ambiguous reference analysis methods and insufficient methods for estimating uncertainty in moisture measurements, the achievable accuracy in the past was limited and measurement uncertainties were largely unknown. This paper reports the developments in METefnet that provide a sound basis for the SI traceability: four new primary standards for realizing the water mass fraction were set up, analyzed and compared to each other. The operation of these standards is based on combining sample weighing with different water vapor detection techniques: cold trap, chilled mirror, electrolytic and coulometric Karl Fischer titration. The results show that an equivalence of 0.2 % has been achieved between the water mass fraction realizations and that the developed methods are applicable to a wide range of materials.

  4. Current status and standards for establishment of hemodialysis units in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ki; Kim, Kiwon

    2013-01-01

    The number of hemodialysis patients and dialysis facilities is increasing each year, but there are no surveillance programs validating that the services and equipment of each hemodialysis unit meet specified safety and quality standards. There is a concern that excessive competition and illegal activities committed by some dialysis facilities may violate patients' right to health. Contrastingly, developed countries often have their own survey program to provide initial certification and monitoring to ensure that these clinics continue to meet basic requirements. Because hemodialysis units provide renal replacement therapy to critical patients suffering from severe chronic renal failure, appropriate legal regulation is important for the provision of initial certification and maintenance of facility, equipment, and human resource quality. Therefore, several standards providing minimum requirements for the area of hemodialysis unit, equipment for emergency care, physician and nurse staffs, water purification and quality management are urgently needed. PMID:23682218

  5. Modernization of Defense Logistics Standard Sys;tems (MODELS). Volume 1. Establishing the Functional Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    TRANSPORTATION BILL CODE 90-060 (SEE PMCL 24A). 1 MILSBILLS STANDARDIZE INTERFUND BILLING NUMBERS 90-061 (SEE PMCL 49). 1 MILSBILLS EXTEND MINIMUM TIME...MANAGEMENT INDICATOR AND MANAGEMENT CODE- INTO ONE NEW DATA ELEMENT. 2 MILSBILLS INITIATE A REPLY TRANSACTION TO CONFIRM 89-158 RECEIPT OF INTERFUND BILL...MODELS is essential to insuring that the logistics systems of the nineties and beyond are based on a coherent DoD-wide strategy emphasizing

  6. Study on the establishment of efficient plan for regulatory activities at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Mun Gyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun; Yun, Jeong Ik; Ko, Hyun Seok; Lee, Young Wook [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In-operation regulatory activities at sites are very important and it should be improved to cope with accidents efficiently and quickly. In case of site survey and safety regulatory inspection regulatory system based on not regulatory headquarter but site regional office should be constructed. In other words, safety assurance and pending problem management considering site situation are needed. In this study, regulatory system at Nuclear Power Plant sites all over the world were reviewed and effective regulatory system of Korea are suggested to maximize the efficiency of license and regulatory manpower and consider the interest of local government and residents.

  7. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... energy efficiency becomes an issue in standardization work using buildings as a case. The paper seeks more specifically to investigate the rise of building related standards generally over time as well as in different technical areas and geographic regions. The hypothesis pursued in this paper...... is that the rise of the green economy can only take place accompanied by considerable institution formation in the form of standards. In this sense, the presence of standards may be seen as an important indicator on the maturity of the greening of the economy. The paper presents early empirical work...

  9. Intelligent future wireless networks for energy efficiency: overall analysis and standardization activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kliks, A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This chapter addresses a number of issues related to standardization and regulatory policies aiming at promoting energy-efficient communications and networking, highlighting the need of synergic approach. It encompasses the analysis of various...

  10. Research on the technical requirements standards of high efficiency precipitator in power industries for assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Jun, Guo; Jianguo, Li; Yongzhong, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Facing the increasingly severe situation of air pollution, China are now positively promoting the evaluation of high efficiency air pollution control equipments and the research of the relative national standards. This paper showed the significance and the effect of formulating the technical requirements of high efficiency precipitator equipments for assessment national standards in power industries as well as the research thoughts and principle of these standards. It introduce the qualitative and quantitative evaluation requirements of high efficiency precipitators using in power industries and the core technical content such as testing, calculating, evaluation methods and so on. The implementation of a series of national standards is in order to lead and promote the production and application of high efficiency precipitator equipments in the field of the prevention of air pollution in national power industries.

  11. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  12. The power conversion efficiency of visible light emitting devices in standard BiCMOS processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, P.; Hoang, T.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Vijayaraghavan, M.N.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, M.; van Noort, W.A.; Vanhoucke, T.; Peters, W.C.M.; Kramer, M.C.J.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical proof for a single and unique relationship between the breakdown voltage and power efficiency of visible light emitting devices fabricated in standard BiCMOS processes.

  13. Study on the Standard Establishment for the Integrity Assessment of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S-S; Kim, S-H; Jung, Y-K; Yang, C-Y; Kim, I-G; Choi, Y-H; Kim, H-J; Kim, M-W; Rho, B-H [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Fuel cladding material plays important role as a primary structure under the high temperature, high pressure and neutron environment of nuclear power plant. According to this environment, cladding material can be experienced several type aging phenomena including the neutron irradiation embrittlement. On the other hand, although the early nuclear power plant was designed to fitting into the 40MWd/KgU burn-up, the currently power plant intends to go to the high burn-up range. In this case, the safety criteria which was established at low burn-up needs to conform the applicability at the high burn-up. In this study, the safety criteria of fuel cladding material was reviewed to assess the cladding material integrity, and the material characteristics of cladding were reviewed. The current LOCA criterial was also reviewed, and the basic study for re-establishment of LOCA criteria was performed. The time concept safety criteria was also discussed to prevent the breakaway oxidation. Through the this study, safety issues will be produced and be helpful for integrity insurance of nuclear fuel cladding material. This report is the final report.

  14. Study on the standard establishment for the integrity assessment of nuclear fuel cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Yang, C. Y.; Kim, I. G.; Choi, Y. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, M. W.; Rho, B. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Fuel cladding material plays important role as a primary structure under the high temperature, high pressure and neutron environment of nuclear power plant. According to this environment, cladding material can be experienced several type aging phenomena including the neutron irradiation embrittlement. On the other hand, although the early nuclear power plant was designed to fitting into the 40MWd/KgU burn-up, the currently power plant intends to go to the high burn-up range. In this case, the safety criteria which was established at low burn-up needs to conform the applicability at the high burn-up. In this study, the safety criteria of fuel cladding material was reviewed to assess the cladding material integrity, and the material characteristics of cladding were reviewed. The current LOCA criterial was also reviewed, and the basic study for re-establishment of LOCA criteria was performed. The time concept safety criteria was also discussed to prevent the breakaway oxidation. Through the this study, safety issues will be produced and be helpful for integrity insurance of nuclear fuel cladding material. This report is 2nd term report.

  15. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry. Reference to key elements of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems, provides guidance to the functional aspects of analytical laboratory operation. When implemented as recommended, the practices presented in this guide will provide a comprehensive QA program for the laboratory. The practices are grouped by functions, which constitute the basic elements of a laboratory QA program. 1.2 The essential, basic elements of a laboratory QA program appear in the following order: Section Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Training and Qualification 7 Procedures 8 Laboratory Records 9 Control of Records 10 Control of Procurement 11 Control of Measuring Equipment and Materials 12 Control of Measurements 13 Deficiencies and Corrective Actions 14

  16. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Standards for establishing the effects of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Ansaldo, Ana; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Cherney, Leora R.; Howard, David; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Meinzer, Marcus; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss experimental design options available for establishing the effects of treatment in studies that aim to examine the neural mechanisms associated with treatment-induced language recovery in aphasia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present both group and single-subject experimental or case-series design options for doing this and address advantages and disadvantages of each. We also discuss general components of and requirements for treatment research studies, including operational definitions of variables, criteria for defining behavioral change and treatment efficacy, and reliability of measurement. Important considerations that are unique to neuroimaging-based treatment research are addressed, pertaining to the relation between the selected treatment approach and anticipated changes in language processes/functions and how such changes are hypothesized to map onto the brain. PMID:23063559

  17. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  18. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AC13 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed...

  19. Assessing ballast treatment standards for effect on rate of establishment using a stochastic model of the green crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cooper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stochastic model used to characterize the probability/risk of NIS establishment from ships' ballast water discharges. Establishment is defined as the existence of a sufficient number of individuals of a species to provide for a sustained population of the organism. The inherent variability in population dynamics of organisms in their native or established environments is generally difficult to quantify. Muchqualitative information is known about organism life cycles and biotic and abiotic environmental pressures on the population, but generally little quantitative data exist to develop a mechanistic model of populations in such complex environments. Moreover, there is little quantitative data to characterize the stochastic fluctuations of population size over time even without accounting for systematic responses to biotic and abiotic pressures. This research applies an approach using life-stage density and fecundity measures reported in research to determine a stochastic model of an organism's population dynamics. The model is illustrated withdata from research studies on the green crab that span a range of habitats of the established organism and were collected over some years to represent a range of time-varying biotic and abiotic conditions that are expected to exist in many receiving environments. This model is applied to introductions of NIS at the IMO D-2 and the U.S. ballast water discharge standard levels designated as Phase Two in the United States Coast Guard'sNotice of Proposed Rulemaking. Under a representative range of ballast volumes discharged at U.S. ports, the average rate of establishment of green crabs for ballast waters treated to the IMO-D2 concentration standard (less than 10 organisms/m3 is predicted to be reduced to about a third the average rate from untreated ballast water discharge. The longevity of populations from the untreated ballast water discharges is expected to be reducedby about 90% by

  20. Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the nutrition labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act or ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requiring disclosure of certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain restaurants and retail food establishments. The ACA, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the ACA, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to these Federal requirements by registering every other year with FDA. Providing accurate, clear, and consistent nutrition information, including the calorie content of foods, in restaurants and similar retail food establishments will make such nutrition information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices.

  1. HSTL IO Standard Based Energy Efficient Multiplier Design using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madhok, Shivani; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2015-01-01

    standards. Frequency scaling is one of the best energy efficient techniques for FPGA based VLSI design and is used in this paper. At the end we can conclude that we can conclude that there is 23-40% saving of total power dissipation by using SSTL IO standard at 25 degree Celsius. The main reason for power...... consumption is leakage power at different IO Standards and at different frequencies. In this research work only FPGA work has been performed not ultra scale FPGA....

  2. Emerging and Established Technologies to Increase Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers are one of the most expensive inputs in agricultural settings. Additionally, the loss of N increases costs, contributes to soil acidification, and causes off-site pollution of the air, groundwater and waterways. This study reviews current knowledge about technologies for N fertilization with potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce its negative effects on the environment. Classic inorganic sources such as urea and ammonium sulfate are the major sources utilized, while controlled N release fertilizers have not been significantly adopted for cereals and oil crops. Microorganisms, with the exception of Rhizobium sp. in soybeans, are also not widely used nowadays (e.g., plant growth-promoting bacteria and cynobacteria. The interest in implementing new N fertilization knowledge is stimulating the development of sensors to diagnose the N status and decision support systems for integrating several variables to optimize sources, rates and methods of application. Among potential new technologies we identified the incipient development of nanofertilizers, nutrient formulations to coat seeds, and recycled nutrients. Furthermore, increasing concern about the environmental consequences of N may facilitate the implementation of innovations outside the farm such as more effective regulations to guide N fertilization and methods to manufacture N fertilizers that are more energy-efficient and less CO2 equivalent emitting.

  3. Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Xiong, J.; Wu, A.; Jing, P.; Smith, D.; Chander, G.; Fox, N.; Ungar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing satellite measurement consistency by using common desert sites has become increasingly more important not only for climate change detection but also for quantitative retrievals of geophysical variables in satellite applications. Using the Antarctic Dome C site (75°06′S, 123°21′E, elevation 3.2 km) for satellite radiometric calibration and validation (Cal/Val) is of great interest owing to its unique location and characteristics. The site surface is covered with uniformly distributed permanent snow, and the atmospheric effect is small and relatively constant. In this study, the long-term stability and spectral characteristics of this site are evaluated using well-calibrated satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Preliminary results show that despite a few limitations, the site in general is stable in the long term, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model works well, and the site is most suitable for the Cal/Val of reflective solar bands in the 0.4–1.0 µm range. It was found that for the past decade, the reflectivity change of the site is within 1.35% at 0.64 µm, and interannual variability is within 2%. The site is able to resolve calibration biases between instruments at a level of ~1%. The usefulness of the site is demonstrated by comparing observations from seven satellite instruments involving four space agencies, including OrbView-2–SeaWiFS, Terra–Aqua MODIS, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) – Hyperion, Meteorological Operational satellite programme (MetOp) – Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Envisat Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) – dvanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Dome C is a promising candidate site for climate quality calibration of satellite radiometers towards more consistent satellite measurements, as part

  4. Evaluation of different recording parameters to establish a standard for flash electroretinography in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, A U; Cook, P; Brodie, S E; Maag, K P; Mittag, T

    2001-08-01

    in mice was largest for the SSE followed by the CLE. However, in rats there was almost no corneal damage after ERG recordings with the CLE. Because of the stability of eye contact, the CLE allows ERGs to be determined over a longer recording session. Recording of scotopic and photopic (light-adapted) ERGs in rodents with monopolar gold-wire contact lens electrodes provides greater amplitudes and higher reproducibility when compared to other commonly used corneal electrodes. These electrodes are significantly better overall than others that were evaluated and should be considered for a standard protocol to monitor retinal function in rodent eyes.

  5. Establishing a standard calibration methodology for MOSFET detectors in computed tomography dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, S L; Kaufman, R A

    2012-06-01

    The use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors for patient dosimetry has increased by ~25% since 2005. Despite this increase, no standard calibration methodology has been identified nor calibration uncertainty quantified for the use of MOSFET dosimetry in CT. This work compares three MOSFET calibration methodologies proposed in the literature, and additionally investigates questions relating to optimal time for signal equilibration and exposure levels for maximum calibration precision. The calibration methodologies tested were (1) free in-air (FIA) with radiographic x-ray tube, (2) FIA with stationary CT x-ray tube, and (3) within scatter phantom with rotational CT x-ray tube. Each calibration was performed at absorbed dose levels of 10, 23, and 35 mGy. Times of 0 min or 5 min were investigated for signal equilibration before or after signal read out. Calibration precision was measured to be better than 5%-7%, 3%-5%, and 2%-4% for the 10, 23, and 35 mGy respective dose levels, and independent of calibration methodology. No correlation was demonstrated for precision and signal equilibration time when allowing 5 min before or after signal read out. Differences in average calibration coefficients were demonstrated between the FIA with CT calibration methodology 26.7 ± 1.1 mV cGy(-1) versus the CT scatter phantom 29.2 ± 1.0 mV cGy(-1) and FIA with x-ray 29.9 ± 1.1 mV cGy(-1) methodologies. A decrease in MOSFET sensitivity was seen at an average change in read out voltage of ~3000 mV. The best measured calibration precision was obtained by exposing the MOSFET detectors to 23 mGy. No signal equilibration time is necessary to improve calibration precision. A significant difference between calibration outcomes was demonstrated for FIA with CT compared to the other two methodologies. If the FIA with a CT calibration methodology was used to create calibration coefficients for the eventual use for phantom dosimetry, a measurement error ~12

  6. Intramyocardial Injection of siRNAs Can Efficiently Establish Myocardial Tissue-Specific Renalase Knockdown Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Ju; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiliang; Li, Huili

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury will cause additional death of cardiomyocytes in ischaemic heart disease. Recent studies revealed that renalase was involved in the I/R injury. So, the myocardial tissue-specific knockdown mouse models were needed for the investigations of renalase. To establish the mouse models, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase was performed in mice. The wild distribution and high transfection efficiency of the siRNAs were approved. And the renalase expression was efficiently suppressed in myocardial tissue. Compared with the high cost, time consumption, and genetic compensation risk of the Cre/loxP technology, RNA interference (RNAi) technology is much cheaper and less time-consuming. Among the RNAi technologies, injection of siRNAs is safer than virus. And considering the properties of the I/R injury mouse models, the efficiency and durability of injection with siRNAs are acceptable for the studies. Altogether, intramyocardial injection of siRNAs targeting renalase is an economical, safe, and efficient method to establish myocardial tissue-specific renalase knockdown mouse models.

  7. Bases for standardization and nutritional assessment of salmorejo cordobés: Research about salmorejo in catering establishments of Cordoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Moreno Ortega, Alicia; Medina Canalejo, Luis M; Vioque Amor, Montserrat; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2016-02-16

    Background: Salmorejo is gaining national reputation and international recognition. However, there are many different forms to prepare it and, therefore, the organoleptic and nutritional properties of the plateful may differ. Material and methods: In order to make standardization of salmorejoand its ways of production, which allow the protection of its identity and, furthermore, its nutritional characterization, around the 83% of catering establishments were surveyed in Cordoba (excluding suburbs and industrial area), to investigate how they produce this dish, as to name, ingredients, preparation, price, etc. They were personally given a survey with 55 questions divided into 6 sections. Results: The result is that only 21% of establishments used the name “salmorejo cordobés”, the ingredients used, consistently statistically adjusted to a previous proposal of systematization and nutritional assessment, based on literature data and broadcast in over 50 languages which corresponds to 1.000 g tomato, 200 g telerabread, 100 g of extra virgin olive oil, 5 g Montalbangarlic and 10g of salt. Then, 100g of this product corresponds to 117.4 kcal, 1.8 g protein, 8.1 g fat, 9.9 g carbohydrate, 1.2 g fiber and 380.7 mg of sodium. A minority of the establishments used vinegar like an extra ingredient (18% of surveys) and the majority used little pieces of ham and boiled egg as garnish. While more than 25% add a trickle of oil on the finished product. It is made mainly through glass mixer or food processor, being the majority recipe used form of family origin. Although salmorejowas traditionally considered a food for summer, 78% of establishments have it all year round. 94% of establishments consider it among the ten most ordered dishes, and in 18% it is the most ordered dish of the establishment. There is no relationship between the amount of salmorejo served with the price of the plateful, the latter being in line with other prices of the rest of establishment. Conclusions

  8. A Semliki forest virus vector engineered to express IFNα induces efficient elimination of established tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetglas, J I; Fioravanti, J; Ardaiz, N; Medina-Echeverz, J; Baraibar, I; Prieto, J; Smerdou, C; Berraondo, P

    2012-03-01

    Semliki Forest virus (SFV) represents a promising gene therapy vector for tumor treatment, because it produces high levels of recombinant therapeutic proteins while inducing apoptosis in infected cells. In this study, we constructed a SFV vector expressing murine interferon alpha (IFNα). IFNα displays antitumor activity mainly by enhancing an antitumor immune response, as well as by a direct antiproliferative effect. In spite of the antiviral activity of IFNα, SFV-IFN could be produced in BHK cells at high titers. This vector was able to infect TC-1 cells, a tumor cell line expressing E6 and E7 proteins of human papillomavirus, leading to high production of IFNα both in vitro and in vivo. When injected into subcutaneous TC-1 tumors implanted in mice, SFV-IFN was able to induce an E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, and to modify tumor infiltrating immune cells, reducing the percentage of T regulatory cells and activating myeloid cells. As a consequence, SFV-IFN was able to eradicate 58% of established tumors treated 21 days after implantation with long-term tumor-free survival and very low toxicity. SFV-IFN was also able to induce significant antitumor responses in a subcutaneous tumor model of murine colon adenocarcimoma. These data suggest that local production of IFNα by intratumoral injection of recombinant SFV-IFN could represent a potent new strategy to treat tumors in patients.

  9. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  10. SU-B-213-00: Education Council Symposium: Accreditation and Certification: Establishing Educational Standards and Evaluating Candidates Based on these Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The North American medical physics community validates the education received by medical physicists and the clinical qualifications for medical physicists through accreditation of educational programs and certification of medical physicists. Medical physics educational programs (graduate education and residency education) are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP), whereas medical physicists are certified by several organizations, the most familiar of which is the American Board of Radiology (ABR). In order for an educational program to become accredited or a medical physicist to become certified, the applicant must meet certain specified standards set by the appropriate organization. In this Symposium, representatives from both CAMPEP and the ABR will describe the process by which standards are established as well as the process by which qualifications of candidates for accreditation or certification are shown to be compliant with these standards. The Symposium will conclude with a panel discussion. Learning Objectives: Recognize the difference between accreditation of an educational program and certification of an individual Identify the two organizations primarily responsible for these tasks Describe the development of educational standards Describe the process by which examination questions are developed GS is Executive Secretary of CAMPEP.

  11. Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production.

  12. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  13. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  14. Efficient Video Transcoding from H.263 to H.264/AVC Standard with Enhanced Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Viet-Anh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new video coding standard H.264/AVC has been recently developed and standardized. The standard represents a number of advances in video coding technology in terms of both coding efficiency and flexibility and is expected to replace the existing standards such as H.263 and MPEG-1/2/4 in many possible applications. In this paper we investigate and present efficient syntax transcoding and downsizing transcoding methods from H.263 to H.264/AVC standard. Specifically, we propose an efficient motion vector reestimation scheme using vector median filtering and a fast intraprediction mode selection scheme based on coarse edge information obtained from integer-transform coefficients. Furthermore, an enhanced rate control method based on a quadratic model is proposed for selecting quantization parameters at the sequence and frame levels together with a new frame-layer bit allocation scheme based on the side information in the precoded video. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  15. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  16. Establishment of an efficient virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay in Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium-mediated rubbing infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, Ana Marcia E de A; de Oliveira, Marcos V V; Shan, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Several VIGS protocols have been established for high-throughput functional genomic screens as it bypasses the time-consuming and laborious process of generation of transgenic plants. The silencing efficiency in this approach is largely hindered by a technically demanding step in which the first pair of newly emerged true leaves at the 2-week-old stage are infiltrated with a needleless syringe. To further optimize VIGS efficiency and achieve rapid inoculation for a large-scale functional genomic study, here we describe a protocol of an efficient VIGS assay in Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium-mediated rubbing infection. The Agrobacterium inoculation is performed by simply rubbing the leaves with Filter Agent Celite(®) 545. The highly efficient and uniform silencing effect was indicated by the development of a visibly albino phenotype due to silencing of the Cloroplastos alterados 1 (CLA1) gene in the newly emerged leaves. In addition, the albino phenotype could be observed in stems and flowers, indicating its potential application for gene functional studies in the late vegetative development and flowering stages.

  17. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannone, Greg [Novation Analytics; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Reale, Michael [Novation Analytics; Betz, Brian [Novation Analytics

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  18. Draft Regulatory Analysis. Technical support document No. 1: energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A Draft Regulatory Analysis is presented that describes the analyses performed by DOE to arrive at proposed energy efficiency standards for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling only), and furnaces. Standards for dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiders are required to be published in the Federal Register no later than December 1981. Standards for central air conditioners (heat pumps) and home heating equipment are to be published in the Federal Register no later than January 1982. Accordingly, these products are not discussed in this Draft Regulatory Analysis.

  19. Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G; Friese, J; Gernhäuser, R; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    Differently prepared CsI samples have been investigated in the 120-220 nm spectral range for their quantum efficiency, spatial uniformity and the effect of radiation aging. The experiments were performed at the PTB radiometry laboratory at the Berlin synchrotron radiation facility BESSY. A calibrated GaAsP Schottky photodiode was used as transfer detector standard to establish traceability to the primary detector standard, because this type of photodiode - unlike silicon p-on-n photodiodes - proved to be of sufficiently stable response when exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The paper reviews the experimental procedures that were employed to characterize and calibrate the GaAsP photodiode and reports the results that were obtained on the investigated CsI photocathodes.

  20. HIV, Hepatitis C, TB, Harm Reduction, and Persons Deprived of Liberty: What Standards Does International Human Rights Law Establish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Gen; Lines, Rick

    2016-12-01

    HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and TB in prisons and other places of detention are serious public health concerns, with prevalence and incidence considerably higher than in the general community because of the overrepresentation of risky behavior, substandard conditions, overcrowding, people who inject drugs, and the wholly inadequate prevention, care, and treatment of these conditions, including the denial of harm reduction services. This is not only a severe public health crisis but also a serious human rights concern. This article works to clarify the standards established by human rights law with regards to HIV, HCV, TB, and harm reduction in prisons by examining international and regional case law, minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners and public health, as well as the work of UN treaty bodies, Special Rapporteurs, and prison monitoring bodies. It is imperative that urgent steps are taken to close the gap between human rights and public health standards on the one hand, and effective implementation in prison settings on the other.

  1. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  2. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, ] Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000... Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of the Framework....gov/buildings/appliance_standards/rulemaking.aspx/ruleid/65 and http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings...

  3. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  4. 75 FR 29933 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AC13 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal... proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this notice of proposed...

  5. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  6. [Establishment of the mathematic model of total quantum statistical moment standard similarity for application to medical theoretical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fu-yuan; Deng, Kai-wen; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Wen-long; Shi, Ji-lian

    2013-09-01

    The paper aims to elucidate and establish a new mathematic model: the total quantum statistical moment standard similarity (TQSMSS) on the base of the original total quantum statistical moment model and to illustrate the application of the model to medical theoretical research. The model was established combined with the statistical moment principle and the normal distribution probability density function properties, then validated and illustrated by the pharmacokinetics of three ingredients in Buyanghuanwu decoction and of three data analytical method for them, and by analysis of chromatographic fingerprint for various extracts with different solubility parameter solvents dissolving the Buyanghanwu-decoction extract. The established model consists of four mainly parameters: (1) total quantum statistical moment similarity as ST, an overlapped area by two normal distribution probability density curves in conversion of the two TQSM parameters; (2) total variability as DT, a confidence limit of standard normal accumulation probability which is equal to the absolute difference value between the two normal accumulation probabilities within integration of their curve nodical; (3) total variable probability as 1-Ss, standard normal distribution probability within interval of D(T); (4) total variable probability (1-beta)alpha and (5) stable confident probability beta(1-alpha): the correct probability to make positive and negative conclusions under confident coefficient alpha. With the model, we had analyzed the TQSMS similarities of pharmacokinetics of three ingredients in Buyanghuanwu decoction and of three data analytical methods for them were at range of 0.3852-0.9875 that illuminated different pharmacokinetic behaviors of each other; and the TQSMS similarities (ST) of chromatographic fingerprint for various extracts with different solubility parameter solvents dissolving Buyanghuanwu-decoction-extract were at range of 0.6842-0.999 2 that showed different constituents

  7. Status of the Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Fridley, David; Ning, Cao

    2011-09-26

    As part of its commitment to promoting and improving the local enforcement of appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling, the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) launched the National and Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling project on August 14, 2009. The project’s short-term goal is to expand the effort to improve enforcement of standards and labeling requirements to the entire country within three years, with a long-term goal of perfecting overall enforcement. For this project, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Shanghai were selected as pilot locations. This report provides information on the local enforcement project’s recent background, activities and results as well as comparison to previous rounds of check-testing in 2006 and 2007. In addition, the report also offers evaluation on the achievement and weaknesses in the local enforcement scheme and recommendations. The results demonstrate both improvement and some backsliding. Enforcement schemes are in place in all target cities and applicable national standards and regulations were followed as the basis for local check testing. Check testing results show in general high labeling compliance across regions with 100% compliance for five products, including full compliance for all three products tested in Jiangsu province and two out of three products tested in Shandong province. Program results also identified key weaknesses in labeling compliance in Sichuan as well as in the efficiency standards compliance levels for small and medium three-phase asynchronous motors and self-ballasted fluorescent lamps. For example, compliance for the same product ranged from as low as 40% to 100% with mixed results for products that had been tested in previous rounds. For refrigerators, in particular, the efficiency standards compliance rate exhibited a wider range of 50% to 100%, and the average rate across all tested models also dropped from 96% in 2007 to 63%, possibly due to

  8. The application of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) window analysis in the assessment of influence on operational efficiencies after the establishment of branched hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tongying; Yuan, Huiyun

    2017-04-12

    Many large-scaled public hospitals have established branched hospitals in China. This study is to provide evidence for strategy making on the management and development of multi-branched hospitals by evaluating and comparing the operational efficiencies of different hospitals before and after their establishment of branched hospitals. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) window analysis was performed on a 7-year data pool from five public hospitals provided by health authorities and institutional surveys. The operational efficiencies of sample hospitals measured in this study (including technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency) had overall trends towards increase during this 7-year period of time, however, a temporary downturn occurred shortly after the establishment of branched hospitals; pure technical efficiency contributed more to the improvement of technical efficiency compared to scale efficiency. The establishment of branched-hospitals did not lead to a long-term negative effect on hospital operational efficiencies. Our data indicated the importance of improving scale efficiency via the optimization of organizational management, as well as the advantage of a different form of branch-establishment, merging and reorganization. This study brought an insight into the practical application of DEA window analysis on the assessment of hospital operational efficiencies.

  9. 76 FR 49279 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... 1904-AC41 Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and..., revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards for new Federal buildings that require...

  10. The standardization of 177Lu by 4pibeta liquid scintillation spectrometry with 3H-standard efficiency tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, B E; Unterweger, M P; Brodack, J W

    2001-04-01

    Solutions containing the potential radiotherapy radionuclide 177Lu have been standardized at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) by 4pibeta liquid scintillation (LS) counting with 3H-standard efficiency tracing using the CIEMAT/NIST method. Confirmatory measurements were made with 4pi NaI(TI) gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity determinations were made on 4 solutions over the course of 10 months with an expanded (k = 2) uncertainty on the activity of 0.8%. Half-life measurements were carried out using the NIST "4pi" gamma ionization chamber (IC) and LS counting and gave a new value of 6.65+/-0.01 d, which is shorter than the current ENSDF-recommended value by 1.3%. Impurity analyses were performed by high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometry and indicated only the presence of 177mLu at a level of 0.02% that of the 177Lu as of the respective reference times for the four solutions. Calibration factors for the NIST IC and Vinten 671 ionization chambers were developed, as were dial settings for the NIST-maintained Capintec CRC-12.

  11. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis that are frequen......In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis...... solar charge inverter. We also observed maximum total power reduction in LVCMOS18 (Artix-7 FPGA) as compared to other I/O standards at 10 GHz. Also there is maximum total power reduction in POD12 (Ultra Scale Kintex) as compared to other I/O standards at 2 GHz. There is also a significant change...... in device static, I/O power and Clock Power....

  12. Status and Analysis on Effects of Energy Efficiency Standards for Industrial Boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Liu, Meng; Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin

    2017-11-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection is the basic policy of China, and is an important part of ecological civilization construction. The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers.

  13. Electricity savings from implementation of minimum energy efficiency standard for TVs in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)

  14. Analysis on effects of energy efficiency regulations & standards for industrial boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng

    2017-11-01

    The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers. Support by Project 2015424050 of Special Fund for quality control Research in the Public Interest

  15. Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels in North America: Opportunities for Harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanwiemcgrory, Laura; Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harrington, Lloyd

    2002-05-16

    To support the North American Energy Working Group's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document reached the following conclusions: Out of 24 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations, three products -- refrigerators/freezers, split system central air conditioners, and room air conditioners -- have similar or identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in the three countries. These same three products, as well as three-phase motors, have similar or identical test procedures throughout the region. There are 10 products with different MEPS and test procedures, but which have the short-term potential to develop common test procedures, MEPS, and/or labels. Three other noteworthy areas where possible energy efficiency initiatives have potential for harmonization are standby losses, uniform endorsement labels, and a new standard or label on windows. This paper explains these conclusions and presents the underlying comparative data.

  16. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Marta

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  17. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  18. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta F. Simões

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM. Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  19. Collaborative study for establishment of a global standard for the potency assay of human anti-D immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S J; Sands, D; Fox, B; Schäffner, G; Yu, M W; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2004-01-01

    An international collaborative study aimed at establishing a global standard for the potency assay of anti-D immunoglobulin was started in 2002. 25 laboratories participated in this study run under the common aegis of the World Health Organization, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM). The potencies of three candidate materials and the US-FDA standard (lot 3) included for comparison were evaluated using AutoAnalyzer, competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (competitive EIA), flow cytometric methods or own "in-house" methods. Critical reagent, standardised procedures and standardised assay design were provided for either method, where appropriate. Central statistical evaluation of the potency data submitted by the participants was performed using a parallel line model. Agreement between laboratories and assay methods for all samples was observed. Intra-laboratory variability was lowest for laboratories performing flow cytometry and highest for laboratories that performed their in-house methods. Inter-laboratory variability was acceptable for all samples when assayed by AutoAnalyzer, competitive (EIA) and flow cytometric methods. It was concluded that sample A is most suitable to serve as a global standard and that sample C could serve as a reserve European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch provided that suitable stability is demonstrated. Sample A was adopted by the Ph. Eur. Commission at its 115th session (March 2003) as the first Ph. Eur. BRP (available from the EDQM: catalog number Y0000219) with the assigned potency of 285 IU/ampoule.

  20. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  1. Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pleguezuelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.

  2. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  3. Analysis of Standards Efficiency in Digital Television Via Satellite at Ku and Ka Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landeros-Ayala Salvador

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis on the main technical features of digital television standards for satellite transmission is carried out. Based on simulations and link budgets, the standard with the best operational performance is defined, based on simulations and link budget analysis, as well as a comparative efficiency analysis is conducted for the Ku and Ka bands for both transparent and regenerative transponders in terms of power, bandwidth, information rate and link margin, including clear sky, uplink rain, downlink rain and rain in both.

  4. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the underlying mechanisms were examined. With a modified Escherichia coli donor strain, different C. jejuni recipient strains displayed significant variation in conjugation efficiency ranging from 6.2 × 10(-8) to 6.0 × 10(-3) CFU per recipient cell. Despite reduced viability, heat shock of standard C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains (e.g., 48 to 54°C for 30 to 60 min) could dramatically enhance C. jejuni conjugation efficiency up to 1,000-fold. The phenotype of the heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni recipient cells could be sustained for at least 9 h. Filtered supernatant from the heat shock-treated C. jejuni cells could not enhance conjugation efficiency, which suggests that the enhanced conjugation efficiency is independent of secreted substances. Mutagenesis analysis indicated that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats system and the selected restriction-modification systems (Cj0030/Cj0031, Cj0139/Cj0140, Cj0690c, and HsdR) were dispensable for heat shock-enhanced conjugation in C. jejuni. Taking all results together, this study demonstrated a heat shock-enhanced conjugation efficiency in standard C. jejuni strains, leading to an optimized conjugation protocol for molecular manipulation of this organism. The findings from this study also represent a significant step toward elucidation of the molecular mechanism of conjugative gene transfer in C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Enforcement Alert: Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the enforcement alert for Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

  6. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  7. Establishment of the 3rd national standard for lot release testing of the Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmi; Moon, Hyungsil; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Do Keun; Chung, Hye Joo; Park, Yong Keun; Oh, Ho Jung

    2016-07-02

    In Korea, 2 inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines from Nakayama-NIH and Beijing-1 strain have been utilized to date. The 1(st) national standard for lot release testing of the JE vaccine was established in 2002. The 2(nd) national standard, established in 2007, is currently in use for JE vaccine (Nakayama-NIH strain) potency testing. However, the supply of this standard is expected to be exhausted by 2015, necessitating the establishment of a new national standard with quality equivalent to that of the existing standard. Quality control tests were performed to verify that the new standard candidate material was equivalent to that of the 2(nd) national standard, proving its appropriateness for potency testing of JE vaccine. In addition, based on the results of a collaborative study conducted among 4 institutions including Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, the potency of the new national standard material was determined to be 2.69 neutralizing-antibody titer (log10) per vial. Therefore, the newly established national standard material is expected to be used for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine lot release in Korea.

  8. Zimbabwe's Human Resources for health Information System (ZHRIS)-an assessment in the context of establishing a global standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Simbini, Tungamirirai; Bangani, Zwashe; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh S

    2017-04-01

    There have been numerous global calls to action to utilize human resources information systems (HRIS) to improve the availability and quality of data for strengthening the regulation and deployment of health workers. However, with no normative guidance in existence, the development of HRIS has been inconsistent and lacking in standardization, hindering the availability and use of data for health workforce planning and decision making (Riley et al., 2012). CDC and WHO partnered with the Ministry of Health in several countries to conduct HRIS functional requirements analyses and establish a Minimum Data Set (MDS) of elements essential for a global standard HRIS. As a next step, CDC advanced a study to examine the alignment of one of the HRIS it supports (in Zimbabwe) against this MDS. For this study, we created a new data collection and analysis tool to assess the extent to which Zimbabwe's CDC-supported HRIS was aligned with the WHO MDS. We performed systematic "gap analyses" in order to make prioritized recommendations for addressing the gaps, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of data on Zimbabwe's health workforce. The majority of the data elements outlined in the WHO MDS were present in the ZHRIS databases, though they were found to be missing various applicable elements. The lack of certain elements could impede functions such as health worker credential verification or equitable in-service training allocation. While the HRIS MDS treats all elements equally, our assessment revealed that not all the elements have equal significance when it comes to data utilization. Further, some of the HRIS MDS elements exceeded the current needs of regulatory bodies and the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) in Zimbabwe. The preliminary findings of this study helped inspire the development of a more recent HRH Registry MDS subset, which is a shorter list of priority data elements recommended as a global standard for HRIS. The field-tested assessment

  9. Establishing Core Outcome Domains in Hemodialysis: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C; Evangelidis, Nicole; Tugwell, Peter; Crowe, Sally; Van Biesen, Wim; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; O'Donoghue, Donal; Tam-Tham, Helen; Shen, Jenny I; Pinter, Jule; Larkins, Nicholas; Youssouf, Sajeda; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Ju, Angela; Craig, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision making in clinical care and policy in nephrology is undermined by trials that selectively report a large number of heterogeneous outcomes, many of which are not patient centered. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Initiative convened an international consensus workshop on November 7, 2015, to discuss the identification and implementation of a potential core outcome set for all trials in hemodialysis. The purpose of this article is to report qualitative analyses of the workshop discussions, describing the key aspects to consider when establishing core outcomes in trials involving patients on hemodialysis therapy. Key stakeholders including 8 patients/caregivers and 47 health professionals (nephrologists, policymakers, industry, and researchers) attended the workshop. Attendees suggested that identifying core outcomes required equitable stakeholder engagement to ensure relevance across patient populations, flexibility to consider evolving priorities over time, deconstruction of language and meaning for conceptual consistency and clarity, understanding of potential overlap and associations between outcomes, and an assessment of applicability to the range of interventions in hemodialysis. For implementation, they proposed that core outcomes must have simple, inexpensive, and validated outcome measures that could be used in clinical care (quality indicators) and trials (including pragmatic trials) and endorsement by regulatory agencies. Integrating these recommendations may foster acceptance and optimize the uptake and translation of core outcomes in hemodialysis, leading to more informative research, for better treatment and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ATRA + ATO: has a new standard of care been established in low-risk acute promyelocytic leukaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breccia, Massimo; Cicconi, Laura; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to be the most effective single agent in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) and has been approved for the treatment of relapsed patients both in the US and Europe. The role of ATO in front-line therapy of APL is under investigation. Pilot studies using ATO with or without all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have been carried out in newly diagnosed APL patients with the aim to reduce the short and long-term toxic effects of chemotherapy and to improve clinical outcome. Especially in patients with non-high-risk APL, the ATRA + ATO approach allowed significant increase in event-free survival and overall survival rates compared to standard ATRA and chemotherapy. This has been demonstrated by pilot studies and, more recently, by a randomized comparative multi-centre study conducted in Italy and Germany. The ATO + ATRA strategy for APL may provide the first paradigm of acute leukaemia curability by targeted agents and without chemotherapy. However, longer follow-up of available studies and independent confirmation of the Italian-German findings are awaited to firmly establish this paradigm. Finally, extension of this approach to other patient categories such as high-risk, elderly and children will need to be explored in the near future.

  11. Establishment and Efficiency Evaluation of a Simple Mini hatchery for production of Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT strain seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.K.S.K. De Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple technology mini hatchery was established for small scale farmers to meet their own GIFT seed requirements. Different shapes and sizes of jars were trialed for incubation of eggs and yolk-sac larvae. Concaved bottom round plastic bottles (4 L and rectangular (3 L plastic trays gave the best hatchability of eggs and survival of yolk-sac larvae respectively. The best stocking density was 500 eggs/larvae L-1. Optimised flow rate into the incubation bottles and rearing trays were 2.70±0.18 L min-1 and 5.40±0.14 L min-1 respectively. Two gravel filters (15 L and 20 L made with discarded and low cost material purified the water from the incubation containers and directed into a water recirculation system. Production efficiency of this mini hatchery was compared with a hapa breeding method. Two hapas having 10 m3 size and 1.6 mm mesh were positioned in an earthen pond. Each hapa was stocked with 40 GIFT broodfish at 1:1 female to male ratio. In Phase I of the study (60 days, eggs collected from Hapa I were placed in incubation bottles and hatchability and survival rate were determined. In parallel, free-swimming fry were collected and counted from the Hapa II at every 14 days. The study continued in the same way for Phase II (next 60 days by interchanging the brood fish between Hapa I and Hapa II. Yield from the mini hatchery (24,000 fry was significantly different (P≤0.05 from hapa method (4,879 fry indicating that this established mini hatchery could serve as a productive model to support small scale farmers in GIFT seed production.

  12. Thymidine Kinase-Negative Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Can Efficiently Establish Persistent Infection in Neural Tissues of Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yu; Yao, Hui-Wen; Wang, Li-Chiu; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2017-02-15

    patients with persistent infection. However, answers to the questions as to whether TK-negative (TK-) HSV-1 can establish persistent infection in brains of immunocompromised hosts and whether neurons in vivo are permissive for TK- HSV-1 remain elusive. Using three genetically engineered HSV-1 TK- mutants and two strains of nude mice deficient in T cells, we found that all three HSV-1 TK- mutants can efficiently establish persistent infection in the brain stem and trigeminal ganglion and detected glycoprotein C, a true late viral antigen, in brainstem neurons. Our study provides evidence that TK- HSV-1 can persist in neural tissues and replicate in brain neurons of immunocompromised hosts. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Establishment of an Efficient In Vitro Regeneration Protocol for Rapid and Mass Propagation of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Using Seed Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol from seed culture has been established successfully for Dendrobium chrysotoxum, an epiphytic orchid having tremendous ornamental and medicinal values. Seed germination response was encouraging in Mitra (M) medium enriched with different combinations of auxins and cytokinins. Medium supplemented with 0.4% activated charcoal (AC), 2 mg/L 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), and 2 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced best seed germination percentage in 2 weeks of culture. Incorporation of higher concentration of kinetin (KN) or BAP in combination with low auxin in medium induced pronounced shooting and leaf formation. Reduction in leaf development was evident when cytokinins exist singly in medium indicating synergistic effect of auxin and cytokinin in leaf induction. Presence of elevated level of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with low cytokinin content in medium generated more in vitro rooting, though IBA was found to be more effective in rooting induction as compared to NAA. The in vitro protocol for asymbiotic seed germination developed from the present investigation can be used for rapid mass propagation of this highly important Dendrobium orchid species. PMID:25401154

  14. Establishment of an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for rapid and mass propagation of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. using seed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, Potshangbam; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol from seed culture has been established successfully for Dendrobium chrysotoxum, an epiphytic orchid having tremendous ornamental and medicinal values. Seed germination response was encouraging in Mitra (M) medium enriched with different combinations of auxins and cytokinins. Medium supplemented with 0.4% activated charcoal (AC), 2 mg/L 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), and 2 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced best seed germination percentage in 2 weeks of culture. Incorporation of higher concentration of kinetin (KN) or BAP in combination with low auxin in medium induced pronounced shooting and leaf formation. Reduction in leaf development was evident when cytokinins exist singly in medium indicating synergistic effect of auxin and cytokinin in leaf induction. Presence of elevated level of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with low cytokinin content in medium generated more in vitro rooting, though IBA was found to be more effective in rooting induction as compared to NAA. The in vitro protocol for asymbiotic seed germination developed from the present investigation can be used for rapid mass propagation of this highly important Dendrobium orchid species.

  15. Development and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs in China: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Over the last twenty years, with growing policy emphasis on improving energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution and carbon emissions, China has implemented a series of new minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and mandatory and voluntary energy labels to improve appliance energy efficiency. As China begins planning for the next phase of standards and labeling (S&L) program development under the 12th Five Year Plan, an evaluation of recent program developments and future directions is needed to identify gaps that still exist when compared with international best practices. The review of China’s S&L program development and implementation in comparison with major findings from international experiences reveal that there are still areas of improvement, particularly when compared to success factors observed across leading international S&L program. China currently lacks a formalized regulatory process for standard-setting and do not have any legal or regulatory guidance on elements of S&L development such as stakeholder participation or the issue of legal precedence between conflicting national, industrial and local standards. Consequently, China’s laws regarding standard-setting and management of the mandatory energy label program could be updated, as they have not been amended or revised recently and no longer reflects the current situation. While China uses similar principles for choosing target products as the U.S., Australia, EU and Japan, including high energy-consumption, mature industry and testing procedure and stakeholder support, recent MEPS revisions have generally aimed at only eliminating the bottom 20% efficiency of the market. Setting a firm principle based on maximizing energy savings that are technically feasible and economically justified may help improve the stringency of China’s MEPS program and reduce the need for frequent revisions. China also lacks robust survey data and relies primarily on market research data in

  16. The criteria for establishing an acceptable range of chemical, physical and biological indicators for the purpose of ecological standards developing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, Maria; Glazunov, Gennady; Yakovlev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    The basis for development of standards for soil quality is based on the assessment of their resistance to external influences. The main criterion for assessing the environmental sustainability of soils and lands is the ability to perform their ecological functions (Nkonya et al, 2011, 2013; Costanza et al, 2014, Dobrovolsky and Nikitin, 1990; Yakovlev, Evdokimova, 2011). The limiting value of indicators of the state of the environment (physical, chemical, biological and other) corresponds to the value at which stability of environmental components is preserved (the ability to heal itself). Tht threshold for effect of stressor should be identified by the methods of bioindication and biotesting. The analysis obtained by these methods aimed to identify the highest indicator values of physical or chemical (concentration or dose of the stressor) effects, which have not yet fairly established negative changes in the organism, population of organisms or community. Using a theoretical model (Yakovlev et al, 2009, Gendugov., 2013) the problem of finding the threshold concentration is reduced to the finding of the singular points characterizing macroscopic "kinetics" of response in the phase space of dependence of the response rate upon the impact indicator. Singular points are determined by the analysis of derivatives. The theoretical model allows to calculate the singular points of the model (six of them), one of which, the maximum point corresponds to the highest concentration of the stressor at which it had no adverse effects on the test organisms. This point corresponds to the lowest concentration of the stressor at which it has no longer a stimulatory (hormesis) effect. Six singular points divide the whole range of stressors values (concentration) on seven bands with a unique range for each set of values of "macrokinetic" indicators of the living cells response to the impact of the stressor (concentration). Thus, the use of theoretical equations allowed us 1) to

  17. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  18. Comparison of 5 Different Rat Models to Establish a Standard Animal Model for Research Into Interstitial Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Phil Hyun; Chun, So Young; Chung, Jae-Wook; Kim, Yeon Yong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jun Nyung; Ha, Yun-Sok; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Kim, Jeongshik; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Bum Soo

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated 5 different rat models using different agents in order to establish a standard animal model for interstitial cystitis (IC) in terms of the functional and pathologic characteristics of the bladder. Five IC models were generated in 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats via transurethral instillation of 0.1M hydrogen chloride (HCl) or 3% acetic acid (AA), intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or subcutaneous injection of uroplakin II (UPK2). After generating the IC models, conscious cystometry was performed on days 3, 7, and 14. All rats were euthanized on day 14 and their bladders were obtained for histological and pro-inflammatory-related gene expression analysis. In the cystometric analysis, all experimental groups showed significantly decreased intercontraction intervals compared with the control group on day 3, but only the LPS and UPK groups maintained significantly shorter intercontraction intervals than the control group on day 14. The histological analysis revealed that areas with severe urothelial erosion (HCl, AA, and UPK) and hyperplasia (CYP and LPS), particularly in the UPK-treated bladders, showed a markedly increased infiltration of toluidine blue-stained mast cells and increased tissue fibrosis. In addition, significantly elevated expression of interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 was observed in the UPK group compared to the other groups. Among the 5 different agents, the injection of UPK generated the most effective IC animal model, showing consequent urothelial barrier loss, inflammatory reaction, tissue fibrosis stimulation, and persistent hyperactive bladder.

  19. LSC standardization of [sup 45]Ca by the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Los Arcos, J.M. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Grau Malonda, A. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Garcia-Torano, E. (Metrologia de Radiaciones, Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-22

    A commercial solution of [sup 45]CaCl[sub 2] and two organic compounds, [sup 45]Ca-2-ethylhexadecanoate and [sup 45]Ca-HDEHP complex, synthesized in the laboratory, have been used to produce appropriate sources for LSC measurements. A toluene-based scintillator and three commercial cocktails (Hisafe II, Ultima Gold and Instagel) were used for measuring the samples. Their concentration quenching, time stability, and spectral behaviour were studied over a 30-day period. The stable samples were used to standardize the radioactive solutions by the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method. Experimental quench curves for [sup 3]H were measured with each scintillator to cover the range of figure of merit between 1 and 4, corresponding to [sup 3]H equivalent efficiency between 52 and 12%. Experimental and computed efficiencies were in good agreement, with individual discrepancies lower than 0.6% in all cases; high efficiency values, better than 95%, were obtained with unquenched samples. A combined uncertainty of 0.4% was obtained for the activity concentration estimation of each radioactive solution. (orig.)

  20. An efficient architecture to support digital pathology in standard medical imaging repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Godinho, Tiago; Lebre, Rui; Silva, Luís Bastião; Costa, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, digital pathology and whole-slide imaging (WSI) have been gaining momentum with the proliferation of digital scanners from different manufacturers. The literature reports significant advantages associated with the adoption of digital images in pathology, namely, improvements in diagnostic accuracy and better support for telepathology. Moreover, it also offers new clinical and research applications. However, numerous barriers have been slowing the adoption of WSI, among which the most important are performance issues associated with storage and distribution of huge volumes of data, and lack of interoperability with other hospital information systems, most notably Picture Archive and Communications Systems (PACS) based on the DICOM standard. This article proposes an architecture of a Web Pathology PACS fully compliant with DICOM standard communications and data formats. The solution includes a PACS Archive responsible for storing whole-slide imaging data in DICOM WSI format and offers a communication interface based on the most recent DICOM Web services. The second component is a zero-footprint viewer that runs in any web-browser. It consumes data using the PACS archive standard web services. Moreover, it features a tiling engine especially suited to deal with the WSI image pyramids. These components were designed with special focus on efficiency and usability. The performance of our system was assessed through a comparative analysis of the state-of-the-art solutions. The results demonstrate that it is possible to have a very competitive solution based on standard workflows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Coagulation management of trauma patients with unstabile circulation : establishment of a hemoglobin-oriented standard operating procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, P; Hofmann, G O; zur Nieden, K; Teichmann, J; Jakubetz, J; Stuttmann, R

    2012-08-01

    Massive hemorrhage is the leading cause of death in the first few hours following multiple trauma, therefore, early and aggressive treatment of clotting disorders and surgical intervention to stop the bleeding are of utmost importance. However, commonly performed clotting tests have a considerable latency of at least 30-45 min, whereas hemoglobin (Hb) levels can be tested very quickly. If a multiple trauma patient has already received fluid resuscitation, a certain relationship may be observed between the hemoglobin value and the development of clotting disturbances. Hence, hemoglobin may be a useful and rapidly available parameter for guiding the initial treatment of clotting disturbances in multiple trauma patients. A Hb-guided algorithm has been developed to initiate initial clotting therapy. The algorithm contains three stages of different aggressive clotting therapy with fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), factor VIIa, tranexamic acid and desmopressin, depending on the first Hb value measured. For admission Hb levels > 5.5 mmol/l (≈8.8 g/dl) coagulation therapy is managed on the basis of the laboratory tests and if in doubt 2 g fibrinogen is administered. For admission Hb levels between 5.5 mmol/l (≈8.8 g/dl) and 4 mmol/l (≈6.5 g/dl) 2-4 g fibrinogen and 2,500-3,000 IU PCC are administered and tranexamic acid and desmopressin administration should be considered. For admission Hb levels acid and desmopression should be considered. All drugs mentioned should be stored in a special "coagulation box" in the hospital pharmacy and this box is brought immediately to the patient on demand. In addition to the use of clotting factors, infusions should be performed with balanced crystalloids and transfusions with an RBC/FFP ratio of 2:1-1:1. To assess the efficiency of the algorithm the routinely measured clotting parameters at trauma bay admission were compared with intensive care unit (ICU) admission and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was

  2. The urgency of establishing uniform standards and achieving interoperability of peacekeeping contingents in peace and security operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gushchyn Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the standardization of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during international peacekeeping operations. The concept “interoperability” units are part of international peacekeeping forces. Revealed the need for further implementation of standard operating procedures in peacekeeping Ukraine.

  3. Establishing China's national standards of antigen content and neutralizing antibody responses for evaluation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Qiang; Li, Xiuling; Dong, Chenghong; Yu, Xiang; Yao, Xin; Li, Fengxiang; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Wang, Junzhi

    2011-12-06

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious agent that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in humans. Effective vaccination against EV71 infection is critically important, given the recent outbreak of HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region, where it has shown significant mortality and morbidity. There is currently no approved anti-viral therapy available to treat the disease. While several vaccine manufacturers are actively developing EV71 vaccines, there are no international reference standards available to conduct quality control on EV71 vaccines or to assess the effectiveness of EV71 vaccines in immunized populations. In the current report, antigen reference standard based on the C4 subtype of the EV71 vaccine strain was developed. In addition, neutralizing antibody (NTAb) reference panels were analyzed and standards with various neutralizing titers were selected. These reference antigens were used to calibrate vaccine samples from several producers and found that five EV71 antigens and the national reference standards showed good linearity and parallelism. Moreover, mice immunized with various vaccines at doses standardized by these national references showed comparable NTAb responses. Finally, the national NTAb reference panels were found to effectively reduce assay discrepancy between different labs. Taken together, these national reference standards are highly valuable for the standardization and evaluation of EV71 vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SEE Action Guide for States: Guidance on Establishing and Maintaining Technical Reference Manuals for Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this guide is to support the development, maintenance, and use of accurate and reliable Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs). TRMs provide information primarily used for estimating the energy and demand savings of end-use energy efficiency measures associated with utility customer-funded efficiency programs.

  5. Requirements for Defining Utility Drive Cycles: An Exploratory Analysis of Grid Frequency Regulation Data for Establishing Battery Performance Testing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-19

    Battery testing procedures are important for understanding battery performance, including degradation over the life of the battery. Standards are important to provide clear rules and uniformity to an industry. The work described in this report addresses the need for standard battery testing procedures that reflect real-world applications of energy storage systems to provide regulation services to grid operators. This work was motivated by the need to develop Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) testing procedures, or V2G drive cycles. Likewise, the stationary energy storage community is equally interested in standardized testing protocols that reflect real-world grid applications for providing regulation services. As the first of several steps toward standardizing battery testing cycles, this work focused on a statistical analysis of frequency regulation signals from the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnect with the goal to identify patterns in the regulation signal that would be representative of the entire signal as a typical regulation data set. Results from an extensive time-series analysis are discussed, and the results are explained from both the statistical and the battery-testing perspectives. The results then are interpreted in the context of defining a small set of V2G drive cycles for standardization, offering some recommendations for the next steps toward standardizing testing protocols.

  6. SSTL I/O Standard Based Environment Friendly Energy Efficient ROM Design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Neha; Bansal, Meenakshi; Saini, Rishita

    2014-01-01

    are operating ROM with the highest operating frequency of 4th generation i7 processor to test the compatibility of this design with the latest hardware in use. When there is no demand of peak performance, then we can save 74.5% clock power, 75% signal power, and 30.83% I/O power by operating our device with 1......Stub Series Terminated Logic (SSTL) is an Input/output standard. It is used to match the impedance of line, port and device of our design under consideration. Therefore, selection of energy efficient SSTL I/O standard among available different class of SSTL logic family in FPGA, plays a vital role......GHz frequency in place of 4GHz. There is no change in clock power and signal power but SSTL2_II_DCI having 80.24%, 83.38%, 62.92%, and 76.52% and 83.03% more I/O power consumption with respect to SSTL2_I, SST18_I, SSTL2_I_DCI, SSTL2_II, and SSTL15 respectively at 3.3GHz....

  7. Process Evaluation: Standard, Effectiveness, Efficiency and Sustainability of Maternity Nursing Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Rahayuwati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although globally there is a change in the trend of epidemiology from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, the prevalence and incidence of infectious diseases as well as MMR (Maternal Mortality Rate and IMR (infant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high. In year 2000, Faculty of Nursing of the Universitas Padjadjaran in collaboration with Hasan Sadikin Hospital built a model of treatment room, which was affiliated with obstetric gynecology room for improving integrated quality of health care services and education. The model built in this room aimed to : 1 Improve the quality of health care service; 2 to develop the student’s experiences with patients; 3 Provide quality nurse education to support students; 4 encourage students to improve the results of clinical prctice. The objective of process evaluation in this study was to give an insight to an appropriate model for maternity nursing service. This results showed on the one hand , there are some records not yet achieved an ideal standard , lack of effectiveness and efficiency of care delivery, namely: 1 the ratio of midwives and patients are not ideal ; 2 No one consultant obstetrician gynecologist and one doctor for every room . As well as challenges to sustainability care that meets the standards of maternity care. Conclusion: this study recommends to take a comprehensive strategic planning for improving nursing and midwifery services that involve all relevant stakeholders in the government, civil society, service delivery, education, and professional organizations.

  8. Comparing efficiency of American Fisheries Society standard snorkeling techniques to environmental DNA sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Roy M.; Bonar, Scott A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Amberg, Jon J.; Ladell, Bridget; Jackson, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging technique used to detect aquatic species through water sampling and the extraction of biological material for amplification. Our study compared the efficacy of eDNA methodology to American Fisheries Society (AFS) standard snorkeling surveys with regard to detecting the presence of rare fish species. Knowing which method is more efficient at detecting target species will help managers to determine the best way to sample when both traditional sampling methods and eDNA sampling are available. Our study site included three Navajo Nation streams that contained Navajo Nation Genetic Subunit Bluehead Suckers Catostomus discobolus and Zuni Bluehead Suckers C. discobolus yarrowi. We first divided the entire wetted area of streams into consecutive 100-m reaches and then systematically selected 10 reaches/stream for snorkel and eDNA surveys. Surface water samples were taken in 10-m sections within each 100-m reach, while fish presence was noted via snorkeling in each 10-m section. Quantitative PCR was run on each individual water sample in quadruplicate to test for the presence or absence of the target species. With eDNA sampling techniques, we were able to positively detect both species in two out of the three streams. Snorkeling resulted in positive detection of both species in all three streams. In streams where the target species were detected with eDNA sampling, snorkeling detected fish at 11–29 sites/stream, whereas eDNA detected fish at 3–12 sites/stream. Our results suggest that AFS standard snorkeling is more effective than eDNA for detecting target fish species. To improve our eDNA procedures, the amount of water collected and tested should be increased. Additionally, filtering water on-site may improve eDNA techniques for detecting fish. Future research should focus on standardization of eDNA sampling to provide a widely operational sampling tool.

  9. The Effects of Standards on Learning in Automotive Repair Programs. A Third-Party Summative Evaluation of the Standards Established by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Gill, Lawrence

    A study examined the effects of standards on learning in automotive repair programs. This report describes the methods followed to conduct the evaluation and present its main findings. An analysis of covariance design was used to test the hypothesis that graduates of National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE)-certified automotive…

  10. Current status of nuclear cardiology in Japan: Ongoing efforts to improve clinical standards and to establish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear cardiology imaging tests are widely performed in Japan as clinical practice. The Japanese nuclear cardiology community has developed new diagnostic imaging tests using (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for detecting cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis. These tests have become popular worldwide. The Japanese Circulation Society and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Cardiology have published clinical imaging guidelines showing indications and standards for the new imaging tests. JSNC is currently striving to improve the standard of clinical practice and is promoting research activities.

  11. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  12. Establishment of a reference material for standardization of the anti-complementary activity test in intravenous immunoglobulin products used in Japan: A collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kiyoko; Okuma, Kazu; Ochiai, Masaki; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Tezuka, Kenta; Ishii, Mieko; Ueda, Sadao; Miyamoto, Takashi; Kamimura, Koichiro; Kou, Enki; Uchida, Sanae; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2017-03-01

    Aggregates of human plasma-derived intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) carries a risk of severe adverse events after nonspecific complement activation induced in humans administrated. Therefore, the anti-complementary activity (ACA) test is legally required in every batch of IVIGs in Japan. However, due to the intrinsic nature of this bioassay, there might be large differences in the results of ACA tests from laboratories, even when the same batch of IVIGs was measured. Our six laboratories evaluated whether there were such differences and argued for establishment of a reference material (RM) for standardization of the ACA test. Our results revealed inter-laboratory differences in ACA values, indicating a need to establish an RM. Therefore, after ACA values in candidate RMs were measured collaboratively, one RM was selected from two candidates and unit value-assigned. The RM in fact normalized the ACA test values for samples measured in parallel at almost all the laboratories, when the values were calculated relative to the assigned unit value of the RM. Thus, we established a first RM to standardize the ACA test in Japan, which enabled each laboratory to normalize ACA values constantly for IVIGs. This indicates that the establishment of an RM can contribute to quality control of IVIGs. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task II, report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    The research and analysis program at Vitro Labs. in support of the appliance certification and enforcement program provides Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement (C/E). The approach established the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy-efficiency performance for 13 categories of consumer products (furnaces, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, television, clothes washers, freezers, air conditioners, stoves, refrigerators, water heaters). Section 2 summarizes the recommended approach. Section 3 contains detailed evaluations and comparisons for four independent alternative approaches considered (minimal government intevention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, and mixed certification/enforcement). The fifth C/E approach (strong remedy/deterrent) involves the remedies available to the government should non-compliance be discovered and could affect the choice among the approaches, but this approach has not been evaluated. Section 4 summarizes the analysis methodology used to select the recommended approach. Additional information is provided in 6 appendices.

  14. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  15. Energy Efficiency: The Implementation of Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS Application on Home Appliances for Residential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman K.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS has been widespread across the country especially developed country. However, most consumers do not even know about the MEPS. Without sufficient knowledge, much energy have been wasted before this. The aim of this study is to review the implementation of MEPS of Asia country and to compare electricity consumption of home appliances with star rating and without star rating. In order to fulfil the objectives of the study, the equipment must be chosen correctly and must be learned properly. The home appliances that will be used also need to be chosen so that the comparison between the appliances will be matched correctly. To understand the results, the analysis was done using graphs and table. The purpose of using graph and table is to understand the comparison between appliances more clearly. The results show that home appliances with MEPS is more efficient on energy saving rather than without MEPS. This is the evidence as a method to educate a consumer on energy saving.

  16. Establishment of a standardized post-embedding method for immunoelectron microscopy by applying heat-induced antigen retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji; Katsumata, Osamu; Okada, Yasunori

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a new standardized method for the post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy using the same fixation, antigen retrieval and image contrasting procedures. Tissues were fixed with 4% formaldehyde containing 2.5 mM CaCl(2), 1.25 mM MgCl(2) in a 0.1 M 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 7.4) for 2 h and then with the same fixative composition in 0.1 M HEPES buffer (pH 8.5) overnight at room temperature. Vehicle osmolarity of fixatives was adjusted to 300-330 mOsm by adding glucose. The specimens were dehydrated with dimethylformamide on ice and embedded in LR-White resin. Ultrathin sections were heated in a 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0) for 1-2 h at 95 degrees C. After immuno-gold labeling, the sections were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde containing 0.05% tannic acid in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) for 5 min and with a 1% OsO(4)/0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 5 min, and then they were double stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The standardized method yielded strong and reproducible immunoreactions for soluble, membrane-bound and filamentous proteins showing an excellent image contrast without destruction of the fine structures.

  17. The ADI as a basis to establish standards for pesticide residues in food products for infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilter, B; Huggett, A C

    1998-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to control a variety of detrimental organisms. As a consequence, low but measurable amounts of residues may be found in the food supply including food intended for infants and young children. This has been the cause of some alarm since it is difficult for the general public to understand the magnitude of health risk associated with the consumption of food contaminated with low levels of potentially toxic chemicals. In this context safety-based regulations for pesticide residues that ensure the protection of infants and young children are of crucial importance. In this article we discuss the applicability of the ADI to infants and children with regards to pesticides and outline a proposal which has been devised to establish residue limits for finished baby food products.

  18. STANDARDIZED OUTCOMES IN NEPHROLOGY-PERITONEAL DIALYSIS (SONG-PD): STUDY PROTOCOL FOR ESTABLISHING A CORE OUTCOME SET IN PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Karine E; Tong, Allison; Craig, Jonathan C; Brown, Edwina A; Brunier, Gillian; Dong, Jie; Dunning, Tony; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Naicker, Sarala; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Perl, Jeffrey; Wang, Angela Y; Wilkie, Martin; Howell, Martin; Sautenet, Benedicte; Evangelidis, Nicole; Shen, Jenny I; Johnson, David W

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, approximately 11% of patients on dialysis receive peritoneal dialysis (PD). Whilst PD may offer more autonomy to patients compared with hemodialysis, patient and caregiver burnout, technique failure, and peritonitis remain major challenges to the success of PD. Improvements in care and outcomes are likely to be mediated by randomized trials of innovative therapies, but will be limited if the outcomes measured and reported are not important for patients and clinicians. The aim of the Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology-Peritoneal Dialysis (SONG-PD) study is to establish a set of core outcomes for trials in patients on PD based on the shared priorities of all stakeholders, so that outcomes of most relevance for decision-making can be evaluated, and that interventions can be compared reliably. The 5 phases in the SONG-PD project are: a systematic review to identify outcomes and outcome measures that have been reported in randomized trials involving patients on PD; focus groups using nominal group technique with patients and caregivers to identify, rank, and describe reasons for their choice of outcomes; semi-structured key informant interviews with health professionals; a 3-round international Delphi survey involving a multi-stakeholder panel; and a consensus workshop to review and endorse the proposed set of core outcome domains for PD trials. The establishment of 3 to 5 high-priority core outcomes, to be measured and reported consistently in all trials in PD, will enable patients and clinicians to make informed decisions about the relative effectiveness of interventions, based upon outcomes of common importance.

  19. Requerimientos establecidos por las normas ISO para papeles permanentes Established requirements for ISO standards for permanent papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Facundo Araujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El patrimonio documental nacional e internacional se encuentra en su gran mayoría en soporte papel. A partir de la industrialización en la manufactura de dicho material se ha producido papel con niveles de acidez, que sumado a otros factores, ha sido causante del deterioro de este tipo de patrimonio documental. En las últimas décadas, con la incorporación de nuevos procesos dentro de la producción papelera se ha resuelto en parte dicha problemática. El organismo internacional de normalización ISO ha redactado dos normas al respecto: la norma ISO 9706 e ISO 11108. Con la difusión y recomendación de uso del papel permanente para la conservación del patrimonio documental a largo plazo, se hace imprescindible conocer dicha normativa e informarse al respecto. En el presente artículo se describen las variables en la fabricación del papel que influyen en la permanencia de los papeles. También se determinan los conceptos y antecedentes que rodean ambas normas ISO, así como las características principales y partes que componen las mismas. Como anexo se consigna un glosario con los principales términos técnicos utilizados.Most of the national and international documentary heritage are on paper. From industrialization in the manufacture of such material, paper with acidity levels has been produced which, together with other factors, has been causing the deterioration of this type of documentary heritage. In recent decades, with the incorporation of new paper production processes this problem has been partly solved. The international standards organism ISO has drafted two rules in this connection: ISO 9706 and ISO 11108. With the spread and recommendation for the use of permanent paper for preservation of documentary heritage in the long term, it is essential to know the standards and be well informed. This article describes the variables in the manufacture of paper that influence the permanence of the papers. It also identifies the

  20. Establishing psychosocial palliative care standards for children and adolescents with cancer and their families: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Heinze, Katherine E; Bell, Cynthia J; Wiener, Lori; Garee, Amy M; Kelly, Katherine P; Casey, Robert L; Watson, Anne; Hinds, Pamela S

    2016-03-01

    Despite standardization in disease assessments and curative interventions for childhood cancer, palliative assessments and psychosocial interventions remain diverse and disparate. Identify current approaches to palliative care in the pediatric oncology setting to inform development of comprehensive psychosocial palliative care standards for pediatric and adolescent patients with cancer and their families. Analyze barriers to implementation and enabling factors. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines framed the search strategy and reporting. Data analysis followed integrative review methodology. Four databases were searched in May 2014 with date restrictions from 2000 to 2014: PubMed, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and Scopus. A total of 182 studies were included for synthesis. Types of studies included randomized and non-randomized trials with or without comparison groups, qualitative research, prior reviews, expert opinion, and consensus report. Integration of patient, parent, and clinician perspectives on end-of-life needs as gathered from primary manuscripts (using NVivo coding for first-order constructs) revealed mutual themes across stakeholders: holding to hope, communicating honestly, striving for relief from symptom burden, and caring for one another. Integration of themes from primary author palliative care outcome reports (second-order constructs) revealed the following shared priorities in cancer settings: care access; cost analysis; social support to include primary caregiver support, sibling care, bereavement outreach; symptom assessment and interventions to include both physical and psychological symptoms; communication approaches to include decision-making; and overall care quality. The study team coordinated landmark psychosocial palliative care papers into an informed conceptual model (third-order construct) for approaching pediatric palliative care and psychosocial support in oncology settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Efficiency in the execution of environmental standards for hydropower projects; Eficiencia na execucao das normas ambientais para empreendimentos hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, Gabriela Caiuby Ariani; Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the search for greater efficiency in meeting environmental standards related to hydropower projects, this article presents a proposal of indicators that can guide the entrepreneur. From the observation that the mere compliance with legal requirements for obtaining licenses does not minimize the risks of conflicts and their resulting expenses, this methodology of indicators is presented as a tool that allows more efficient compensation measures and consequent social-environmental cost reductions of hydroelectric projects. (author)

  2. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p < 0.05) and higher net economic return of 13% (p < 0.05), accompanied by savings of water by 15% (p < 0.05) and a reduction in cost by 2.4-8.8%. Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  3. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW.... Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...

  4. Establishment and advances in the online Serbian food and recipe data base harmonized with EuroFIR™ standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Debeljak-Martačić, Jasmina; Takić, Marija; Nikolić, Marina; Ranković, Slavica; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    Within the European Food Information Resource Network of Excellence (EuroFIR NoE; FP6) and EuroFIR Nexus (FP7) project paucity in food composition databases (FCDB) in the Central Eastern Europe/Balkan (CEE/B) region was identified. As a member of EuroFIR NoE, the Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Serbia initiated creation of the 1st online Serbian FCDB employing EuroFIR quality framework and CEN Food Data Standard requirements, supporting capacity development and designing the web-based Food Composition Data Management (FCDM) software for FCDB building. The 1st online version of Serbian FCDB was launched in 2007, and then extended with food composition data from other Balkan countries (Balkan Food Platform-Regional FCDB). All foods are indexed using LanguaL Thesaurus and coded with EFSA FoodEx2 coding system. To date, upgraded Serbian FCDB with 1046 foods and 129 traditional/common Serbian composite dishes is a prerequisite for nutritional research in Serbia, CEE/B region and wider Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishment of a cell line with high transfection efficiency from zebrafish Danio rerio embryos and its susceptibility to fish viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y L; Chen, L M; Le, Y; Li, Y L; Hong, Y H; Jia, K T; Yi, M S

    2017-10-01

    A cell line ZBE3 isolated from a continuous cell culture derived from zebrafish Danio rerio blastomeres by clonal growth was characterized. ZBE3 cells had been subcultured for >120 passages since the initial primary culture of the blastomeres. The ZBE3 cells grow stably at temperature from 20 to 32° C with an optimum temperature of 28° C in ESM2 or ESM4 medium with 15% foetal bovine serum (FBS). The optimum FBS concentration for ZBE3 cell growth ranged from 15 to 20%. Cytogenetical analysis indicated that the modal chromosome number of ZBE3 cells was 50, the same as the diploid chromosome number of D. rerio. Significant cytopathic effect was observed in ZBE3 cells after infection with redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, Singapore grouper iridovirus and grass carp reovirus, and the viral replication in the cells was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and transmission electron microscopy, indicating the susceptibility of ZBE3 cells to the three fish viruses. After transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, ZBE3 cells showed a transfection efficiency of about 40% which was indicated by the percentage of cells expressing green fluorescence protein. The stable growth, susceptibility to fish viruses as well as high transfection efficiency make ZBE3 cells be a useful tool in transgenic manipulation, fish virus-host cell interaction and immune response in fish. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Establishment of the first WHO International Standard for etanercept, a TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein: Report of an international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dilger, Paula; Rigsby, Peter; Jia, Haiyan; Gross, Marie Emmanuelle Behr

    2017-08-01

    Etanercept, a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor Fc fusion protein is an effective treatment option in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis or plaque psoriasis and paediatrics with juvenile idiotypic arthritis and plaque psoriasis. Patent expiration in Europe and intense development of various etanercept products worldwide triggered a need for an international reference standard to facilitate determination of biological activity. Therefore, three candidate preparations of etanercept were lyophilized and evaluated in a multi-centre collaborative study comprising twenty eight laboratories from 15 countries for their suitability to serve as an international standard for the bioactivity of TNF receptor II Fc fusion proteins (international nonproprietary name, Etanercept). The preparations were tested for neutralization activity against the third TNF-α international standard (IS) in different in vitro cell-based assays, e.g., cytotoxicity, apoptosis and reporter gene methods. Regardless of the assay and the amount of TNF-α IS used, potency estimates for the different preparations were very similar. An indication of the inhibitory activity of etanercept in terms of the biological activity of the TNF-α IS based on ED50 data derived from a limited number of laboratories using a cytotoxicity assay was also derived. Results indicated that the candidate preparation coded 13/204 was stable and suitable to serve as an international standard for the biological activity of etanercept. Therefore, the preparation coded 13/204 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 as the WHO first International Standard for TNF receptor II Fc fusion protein (INN, etanercept) with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000IU per ampoule. It should be noted that this first-in-class international standard for a Fc fusion protein, available from the National Institute for Biological

  7. Quality assurance procedures during commissioning of a treatment planning system as a tool to establish new standards before migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Błasiak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment planning system commissioning is one of the most important parts of the quality assurance system in a working brachytherapy department. Migration to a more sophisticated system is always a step forward for the planning team but careful verification of the workflow and obtained results is mandatory. The question is not only whether the quality and safety of the previous standards can be preserved, but also about the possibility of reaching a higher level. The general objective of this study was to compare and verify calculation algorithms implemented in thetreatment planning systems Plato Brachytherapy v.14.3.7 and Oncentra Masterplan (Brachy V.3.1 SP 3.Material and methods: In order to revise the optimization algorithms implemented in the compared treatment systems, a series of 20 interstitial breast cancer applications were used. Treatment plans were optimized using geometric optimization with distance option. The parameters V, D90, D100, V100, V150, V200 and DNR were gained for target volume. On the basis of the value of Student’s t-test parameters (α = 0.05 plans prepared using optimization algorithmsimplemented in the two treatment planning systems were compared.Results: For the treatment plans prepared using Oncentra Masterplan a lower value of DNR (p = 0.018 was obtained.Uniformity of the dose distribution does not collide with comparable D90 values for both treatment planning systems (p = 0.109. Dose throughout the target volume (D100 was also proved to be higher in plans prepared using Oncentra Masterplan (p = 0.012.Conclusions: For interstitial applications Oncentra Masterplan planning system enables one to prepare a more homogeneous dose distribution but also a higher dose in the whole treated volume, while the volume covered with the therapeutic dose does not statistically differ.

  8. Synthesis of chromatographic standards and establishment of a method for the quantification of the fatty ester composition of biodiesel from babassu oil; Sintese de padroes cromatograficos e estabelecimento de metodo para dosagem da composicao de esteres de acidos graxos presentes no biodiesel a partir do oleo de babacu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urioste, Daniele; Castro, Matheus B.A.; Biaggio, Francisco C.; Castro, Heizir F. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: heizir@dequi.eel.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Several alkyl esters were synthesized, purified, characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and employed as standards for establishing chromatographic methods to monitor their formation in the synthesis of biodiesel. The efficiency of the chromatographic methods was confirmed with the products of enzymatic transesterification of babassu oil with different alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 4}), using Lipozyme as catalyst. (author)

  9. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra; José L. Ramírez-Echavarría

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use prod-ucts is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternat-ing current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of ...

  10. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design

  11. Establishing the role of honest broker: bridging the gap between protecting personal health data and clinical research efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Joung; Lee, Min Joung; Choi, Chang-Min; Lee, JaeHo; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lyu, Yungman; Park, Yu Rang; Yoo, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study is to propose the four conditions for the roles of honest brokers through a review of literature published by ten institutions that are successfully utilizing honest brokers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine whether the Asan Medical Center's (AMC) honest brokers satisfy the four conditions, and examine the need to enhance their roles. Methods. We analyzed the roles, tasks, and types of honest brokers at 10 organizations by reviewing the literature. We also established a Task Force (TF) in our institution for setting the roles and processes of the honest broker system and the honest brokers. The findings of the literature search were compared with the existing systems at AMC-which introduced the honest broker system for the first time in Korea. Results. Only one organization employed an honest broker for validating anonymized clinical data and monitoring the anonymity verifications of the honest broker system. Six organizations complied with HIPAA privacy regulations, while four organizations did not disclose compliance. By comparing functions with those of the AMC, the following four main characteristics of honest brokers were determined: (1) de-identification of clinical data; (2) independence; (3) checking that the data are used only for purposes approved by the IRB; and (4) provision of de-identified data to researchers. These roles were then compared with those of honest brokers at the AMC. Discussion. First, guidelines that regulate the definitions, purposes, roles, and requirements for honest brokers are needed, since there are no currently existing regulations. Second, Korean clinical research institutions and national regulatory departments need to reach a consensus on a Korean version of Limited Data Sets (LDS), since there are no lists that describe the use of personal identification information. Lastly, satisfaction surveys on honest brokers by researchers are necessary to improve the quality of honest

  12. Establishing the role of honest broker: bridging the gap between protecting personal health data and clinical research efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Joung Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study is to propose the four conditions for the roles of honest brokers through a review of literature published by ten institutions that are successfully utilizing honest brokers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine whether the Asan Medical Center’s (AMC honest brokers satisfy the four conditions, and examine the need to enhance their roles.Methods. We analyzed the roles, tasks, and types of honest brokers at 10 organizations by reviewing the literature. We also established a Task Force (TF in our institution for setting the roles and processes of the honest broker system and the honest brokers. The findings of the literature search were compared with the existing systems at AMC—which introduced the honest broker system for the first time in Korea.Results. Only one organization employed an honest broker for validating anonymized clinical data and monitoring the anonymity verifications of the honest broker system. Six organizations complied with HIPAA privacy regulations, while four organizations did not disclose compliance. By comparing functions with those of the AMC, the following four main characteristics of honest brokers were determined: (1 de-identification of clinical data; (2 independence; (3 checking that the data are used only for purposes approved by the IRB; and (4 provision of de-identified data to researchers. These roles were then compared with those of honest brokers at the AMC.Discussion. First, guidelines that regulate the definitions, purposes, roles, and requirements for honest brokers are needed, since there are no currently existing regulations. Second, Korean clinical research institutions and national regulatory departments need to reach a consensus on a Korean version of Limited Data Sets (LDS, since there are no lists that describe the use of personal identification information. Lastly, satisfaction surveys on honest brokers by researchers are necessary to improve the quality of

  13. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of...

  14. 76 FR 43287 - Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... energy consumption of buildings built to Standard 90.1-2007, as compared with buildings built to Standard... building energy consumption. Additionally, DOE has determined site energy savings are estimated to be... of site energy analytics, which can be measured and verified with real world data that has much lower...

  15. Establishment and validation of analytical reference panels for the standardization of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements on the international scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helen E; Hedges, John; Bendit, Israel; Branford, Susan; Colomer, Dolors; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Kim, Dong-Wook; Modur, Vijay; Müller, Martin C; Pagnano, Katia B; Pane, Fabrizio; Radich, Jerry; Cross, Nicholas C P; Labourier, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    Current guidelines for managing Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia include monitoring the expression of the BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region/c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) fusion gene by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Our goal was to establish and validate reference panels to mitigate the interlaboratory imprecision of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements and to facilitate global standardization on the international scale (IS). Four-level secondary reference panels were manufactured under controlled and validated processes with synthetic Armored RNA Quant molecules (Asuragen) calibrated to reference standards from the WHO and the NIST. Performance was evaluated in IS reference laboratories and with non-IS-standardized RT-qPCR methods. For most methods, percent ratios for BCR-ABL1 e13a2 and e14a2 relative to ABL1 or BCR were robust at 4 different levels and linear over 3 logarithms, from 10% to 0.01% on the IS. The intraassay and interassay imprecision was standardized methods. The synthetic calibrator panels are robust, reproducibly manufactured, analytically calibrated to the WHO primary standards, and compatible with most BCR-ABL1 RT-qPCR assay designs. The broad availability of secondary reference reagents will further facilitate interlaboratory comparative studies and independent quality assessment programs, which are of paramount importance for worldwide standardization of BCR-ABL1 monitoring results and the optimization of current and new therapeutic approaches for chronic myeloid leukemia. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Comparison of a commercial blood cross-matching kit to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Leo Roa; Streeter, Elizabeth; Malandra, Allison

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood transfusion cross-match kit when compared to the standard laboratory method for establishing blood transfusion compatibility. A prospective observational in intro study performed from July 2009 to July 2013. Private referral veterinary center. Ten healthy dogs, 11 anemic dogs, and 24 previously transfused dogs. None. Forty-five dogs were enrolled in a prospective study in order to compare the standard blood transfusion cross-match technique to a commercial blood transfusion cross-matching kit. These dogs were divided into 3 different groups that included 10 healthy dogs (control group), 11 anemic dogs in need of a blood transfusion, and 24 sick dogs that were previously transfused. Thirty-five dogs diagnosed with anemia secondary to multiple disease processes were cross-matched using both techniques. All dogs cross-matched via the kit had a compatible major and minor result, whereas 16 dogs out of 45 (35%) had an incompatible cross-match result when the standard laboratory technique was performed. The average time to perform the commercial kit was 15 minutes and this was 3 times shorter than the manual cross-match laboratory technique that averaged 45-50 minutes to complete. While the gel-based cross-match kit is quicker and less technically demanding than standard laboratory cross-match procedures, microagglutination and low-grade hemolysis are difficult to identify by using the gel-based kits. This could result in transfusion reactions if the gel-based kits are used as the sole determinant of blood compatibility prior to transfusion. Based on our results, the standard manual cross-match technique remains the gold standard test to determine blood transfusion compatibility. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  17. Keyboard Efficiencies Revisited: Direct Measures of Speed on the Dvorak and Standard Keyboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leonard J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight experienced keyboard operators typed digraphs at high speed on both standard and Dvorak keyboards in 10-second timings. The Dvorak was found to be 4% faster, a margin too small to justify a nationwide switch to this keyboard. (SK)

  18. High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system that...

  19. Recommendations for enforcing and administering lighting-efficiency standards in existing public buildings in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-30

    To determine the most efficient, cost-effective means of enforcing lighting standards in existing public buildings, various enforcement procedures were investigated. A summary of conclusions and recommendations are presented. In Chapter 1, the adoption of a modified version of the sections of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards that relate to lighting is recommended. The basic features of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards are described and compared with those of other types of standards, and the modifications recommended to facilitate implementation are then presented. In Chapter 2, the structure is outlined and the details are provided of the enforcement strategy devised based on self-certification and penalties for noncompliance. Chapter 3 is intended to guide the state in implementing that strategy; it is suggested that the State Energy Office begin to conduct inspections of buildings selected first randomly and then according to a specific discriminant-analysis scheme. The timetable that should be followed and the management responsibilities that should be assigned if the state is to meet its 1980 goals related to saving energy through the implementation of lighting-efficiency standards are delineated in Chapter 4. The appendixes provide additional information and data supporting the specific conclusions and recommendations presented throughout the text. (MCW)

  20. Standardization of human IL-29 (IFN-λ1): establishment of a World Health Organization international reference reagent for IL-29 (IFN-λ1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Anthony; Heath, Alan; Dilger, Paula; Zoon, Kathryn; Wadhwa, Meenu

    2014-11-01

    Human interleukin-29 (IL-29), a helical cytokine with interferon-like activities, is currently being developed as a clinical biotherapeutic to treat chronic hepatitis C infection and some cancers. As such, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized a need for biological standardization of IL-29 and the establishment of an internationally available reference reagent of IL-29. In order to accomplish this, an international collaborative study that evaluates WHO candidate reference reagents of IL-29 was instigated by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in 2010 and was carried out in the succeeding year. Two preparations of human sequence recombinant IL-29, one expressed in murine NS0 cells and the other in Escherichia coli, were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC before evaluation in the collaborative study for their suitability to serve as a reference reagent. The preparations were tested by 6 laboratories from 4 countries using in vitro bioassays and also evaluated for thermal stability within the NIBSC laboratory. On the basis of the results of the collaborative study, both preparations, 07/212 (NS0-derived) and 10/176 (E. coli-derived) were judged sufficiently active and stable to serve as a reference reagent. However, since IL-29 produced in E. coli is in development for clinical applications, it was recommended that the preparation coded 10/176 be established as the WHO international reference reagent for human IL-29. This recommendation was accepted, and the IL-29 preparation coded 10/176 was formally established by the WHO ECBS at its meeting in October 2012 as the WHO international reference reagent for IL-29 with an assigned unitage of 5,000 reference units per ampoule.

  1. 76 FR 45471 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... parties when drafting the regulation, rather than obtaining input during a public comment period after... matters such as economic issues). Workgroups also might assist in estimating costs or drafting regulatory... should be established to bring information from the support organization to the member at the table, and...

  2. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sissine, Fred

    2006-01-01

    .... It also establishes several new commercial and consumer product efficiency standards, sets new goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy in federal facilities and fleets, broadens the Energy...

  3. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Specific Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Dupre, Olivier

    2018-01-05

    Multijunction cells may offer a cost-effective route to boost the efficiency of industrial photovoltaics. For any technology to be deployed in the field, its performance under actual operating conditions is extremely important. In this perspective, we evaluate the impact of spectrum, light intensity, and module temperature variations on the efficiency of tandem devices with crystalline silicon bottom cells with a particular focus on perovskite top cells. We consider devices with different efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional loss for the two-terminal tandem configuration caused by current mismatch reduces its performance ratio by only 1.7% when an optimal top cell bandgap is used. Additionally, the unusual bandgap temperature dependence of perovskites is shown to have a positive, compensating effect on current mismatch.

  4. Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Singular Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Olivier; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2018-01-18

    Multijunction cells may offer a cost-effective route to boost the efficiency of industrial photovoltaics. For any technology to be deployed in the field, its performance under actual operating conditions is extremely important. In this perspective, we evaluate the impact of spectrum, light intensity, and module temperature variations on the efficiency of tandem devices with crystalline silicon bottom cells with a particular focus on perovskite top cells. We consider devices with different efficiencies and calculate their energy yields using field data from Denver. We find that annual losses due to differences between operating conditions and standard test conditions are similar for single-junction and four-terminal tandem devices. The additional loss for the two-terminal tandem configuration caused by current mismatch reduces its performance ratio by only 1.7% when an optimal top cell bandgap is used. Additionally, the unusual bandgap temperature dependence of perovskites is shown to have a positive, compensating effect on current mismatch.

  5. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  6. [Establishment of MDCK-pHaMDR cell model and standard operation procedure for assessing blood-brain barrier permeability of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Wu, Ni; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-07-01

    To establish MDCK-pHaMDR cell model and standard operation procedure for assessing the blood-brain barrier permeability of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine. MDCK-pHaMDR cell model was evaluated by determining the morphology features, transepithelial electrical resistance, bidirectional transport and intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine 123 and the apparent permeability of positive control drugs caffeine and atenolol. The MDCK-pHaMDR cell model had satisfactory integrity and tightness, and stable expression of P-gp. In addition, the transport results of the positive control drugs were consistent with the reported values in literature. All the parameters tested of the MDCK-pHaMDR cell model were consistent with the requirements, so the model can be used to study the blood-brain barrier permeability of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Establishment of a Standard Analytical Model of Distribution Network with Distributed Generators and Development of Multi Evaluation Method for Network Configuration Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Shoji; Matsuki, Junya; Matsuda, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shigekazu; Miyazaki, Teru; Kobayashi, Naoki

    Since a distribution network has many sectionalizing switches, there are huge radial network configuration candidates by states (opened or closed) of sectionalizing switches. Recently, the total number of distributed generation such as photovoltaic generation system and wind turbine generation system connected to the distribution network is drastically increased. The distribution network with the distributed generators must be operated keeping reliability of power supply and power quality. Therefore, the many configurations of the distribution network with the distributed generators must be evaluated multiply from various viewpoints such as distribution loss, total harmonic distortion, voltage imbalance and so on. In this paper, the authors propose a multi evaluation method to evaluate the distribution network configuration candidates satisfied with constraints of voltage and line current limit from three viewpoints ((1) distribution loss, (2) total harmonic distortion and (3) voltage imbalance). After establishing a standard analytical model of three sectionalized and three connected distribution network configuration with distributed generators based on the practical data, the multi evaluation for the established model is carried out by using the proposed method based on EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Programs).

  8. Indicators for the Sea-floor Integrity of the Hellenic Seas under the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: establishing the thresholds and standards for Good Environmental Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A data set of 625 samples of benthic macroinvertebrates collected from the Hellenic Seas (Ionian and Aegean was used to establish thresholds and reference standards for two of the indicators addressing the descriptors of Sea-floor Integrity under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD: species diversity and richness and the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species. The dataset was categorised according to the baseline ecological status assessment of the respective water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Species diversity and richness were characterised using the Shannon diversity and species richness indices, respectively, and were analysed for three pre-defined substrate types, three depth zones and three sample-size categories, and the significant categories were statistically validated. Good Environmental Status (GEnS threshold and reference values were established for the valid combinations of categories denoted as ‘ecotypes’ through the use of a boxplot and an analysis of variance. The limitations and specifications for an overall GEnS assessment using the above indices are highlighted based on the WFD experience. For the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species, the BENTIX index classification scale is proposed for GEnS assessment, and an integrated approach to the assessment of diversity and species richness is suggested. Finally, the regionality of the tested indices in relation to the two Mediterranean sub-regions, including the Hellenic area, was tested.

  9. A study on the establishment of a standard nuclear cooperation agreement and the revision of existing nuclear cooperation agreements in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, K. S.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, B. Y.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1997-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to suggest a standard nuclear cooperation agreement (SNCA) as a model for new nuclear cooperation agreements (NCA`s) which are expected to be concluded in the near future and to suggest a proposal text and strategy for the revision of existing NCA`s with advanced countries such as the United States. To accomplish the objectives, this study: First, establishes a framework for a NCA through clarifying the basic concept of NCA and identifying key elements of NCA. Second, draws implications for a standard NCA and revision of existing NCA`s through analyzing by comparison those NCA`s between other countries. Third, clarifies the purpose and underlying philosophy for the SNCA, determines the elements to be included in the SNCA, and suggests a final draft of the SNCA. And fourth, clarifies general concepts of the revision of NCA`s, analyzes the needs of the revision of the Korea-U.S. NCA, and assesses the position of the United States on the matter. (author). 28 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Efficiency – an Explicit and General Guarantee for a Fair Criminal Trial in Romania. National Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea DAMASCHIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as the criminal trial is concerned, celerity generally implies both a swift solution of criminal causes, and, if the case may be, a simplified criminal processual activity. At the same time, celerity implies the pursuance of specific activities by the criminal investigation body which has at its disposal the most efficient means for administering evidence. The efficient performance of a criminal investigation (which is a characteristic of the entire criminal trial, though it cannot be regarded as a rule for this trial, is provided by many regulations comprised in the Criminal Procedure Code. As far as criminal trials are concerned, the principle of reasonable time is indissolubly linked with the principle of celerity. From this point of view, the slow judgment of a criminal case infringes upon the right of a person to have his case solved within a reasonable time, which is an essential characteristic of a fair trial. The topic of this paper is not necessarily a particular issue for our national legal system; in fact, it represents a real problem for most national processual systems and this aspect is revealed by the large number of national and international programmes dedicated to the study of the causes which lead to the non-observance of the reasonable time within which a criminal trial should be judged.

  11. Differences in Basic Non-Standard Situational Efficiency Indicators between Winning and Defeated European Senior Basketball Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, Marko; Perica, Ante; Jeličić, Mario

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the conducted research was to identify and explain the differences in basic non-standard situational efficiency indicators between winning and defeated European senior basketball teams. Discriminant analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test were used with the purpose of investigating the differences between winning and defeated teams in the domain of basic non-standard situational variables. The grouping variable distinguished 24 defeated teams from 24 winning teams participating in 2009/2010 season of Euroleague Top 16. The research clearly reveals the differences between the winning and defeated European senior basketball teams in the domain of non-standard situational variables of position and transition offense and defense. Eight situational efficiency indicators were used which include the overall number of successful and unsuccessful position and transition defenses and offenses. Based on the results obtained by parametric and non-parametric methods, it has been noticed that successful position defense is crucial for winning, and unsuccessful position offense is an indicator of defeat prediction. Therefore, practical aims in situational training must involve balanced development of relevant abilities and skills which determine successful simultaneous performance of multiple tasks in all the phases of game flow. Such process of sport preparation improves the overall actual quality of players and whole team performance. In conclusion, it is important to emphasize that the process of improving position and transition defense stimulates the development of position and transition offense, and vice versa.

  12. Preliminary analysis of the efficiency of non-standard divertor configurations in DEMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Subba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard Single Null (SN divertor is currently expected to be installed in DEMO. However, a number of alternative configurations are being evaluated in parallel as backup solutions, in case the standard divertor does not extrapolate successfully from ITER to a fusion power plant. We used the SOLPS code to produce a preliminary analysis of two such configurations, the X-Divertor (XD and the Super X-Divertor (SX, and compare them to the SN solution. Considering the nominal power flowing into the SOL (PSOL = 150 MW, we estimated the amplitude of the acceptable DEMO operational space. The acceptability criterion was chosen as plasma temperature at the target lower than 5eV, providing low sputtering and at least partial detachment, while the operational space was defined in terms of the electron density at the outboard mid-plane separatrix and of the seeded impurity (Ar only in the present study concentration. It was found that both the XD and the SXD extend the DEMO operational space, although the advantages detected so far are not dramatic. The most promising configuration seems to be the XD, which can produce acceptable target temperatures at moderate outboard mid-plane electron density (nomp=4.5×1019 m−3 and Zeff= 1.3.

  13. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds.

  14. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds. PMID:26247056

  15. Improving the Efficiency of Psychotherapy for Depression: Computer-Assisted Versus Standard CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E; Wright, Jesse H; Eells, Tracy D; Barrett, Marna S; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Balasubramani, G K; McCrone, Paul; Brown, Gregory K

    2017-10-03

    The authors evaluated the efficacy and durability of a therapist-supported method for computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CCBT) in comparison to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). A total of 154 medication-free patients with major depressive disorder seeking treatment at two university clinics were randomly assigned to either 16 weeks of standard CBT (up to 20 sessions of 50 minutes each) or CCBT using the "Good Days Ahead" program. The amount of therapist time in CCBT was planned to be about one-third that in CBT. Outcomes were assessed by independent raters and self-report at baseline, at weeks 8 and 16, and at posttreatment months 3 and 6. The primary test of efficacy was noninferiority on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at week 16. Approximately 80% of the participants completed the 16-week protocol (79% in the CBT group and 82% in the CCBT group). CCBT met a priori criteria for noninferiority to conventional CBT at week 16. The groups did not differ significantly on any measure of psychopathology. Remission rates were similar for the two groups (intent-to-treat rates, 41.6% for the CBT group and 42.9% for the CCBT group). Both groups maintained improvements throughout the follow-up. The study findings indicate that a method of CCBT that blends Internet-delivered skill-building modules with about 5 hours of therapeutic contact was noninferior to a conventional course of CBT that provided over 8 additional hours of therapist contact. Future studies should focus on dissemination and optimizing therapist support methods to maximize the public health significance of CCBT.

  16. To The Question Of Efficiency Of Standard And Legal Regulation Of Relations Between Employers And Workers In Germany Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey I. Sosov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article topical issues of an assessment of efficiency of standard and legal regulation of the relations between employers and workers in Germany are considered. In the conclusion the conclusion that the German labor legislation differs in the high level of efficiency regarding protection as the rights of the worker, and the rights of the employer that is confirmed by the following is drawn: a work of labor unions, is capable to resolve fully the contradictions arising between the worker (workers and the employer practically at any level that helps to avoid the address for protection of the rights to court; b the social guarantees provided to the worker fully guarantee his worthy life, etc.

  17. LSC standardization of sup 54 Mn in inorganic and organic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A. (Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-02-01

    The standardization of {sup 54}Mn by the CIEMAT/NIST LSC efficiency tracing method using a commercial solution of {sup 54}MnCl{sub 2} and three specially synthetized organic salts of the dimethyl-butyric, decanoic and palmitic acids, in six different scintillators, is described. Samples over a wide range, 1-5, of figures of merit, were used and an overall uncertainty between 0.71% and 1.3%, depending on the scintillator used, was estimated for the activity concentration of the radioactive solutions. (orig.).

  18. Efficient and sequence-independent replication of DNA containing a third base pair establishes a functional six-letter genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Dhami, Kirandeep; Quach, Henry T; Lavergne, Thomas; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Torkamani, Ali; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2012-07-24

    The natural four-letter genetic alphabet, comprised of just two base pairs (dA-dT and dG-dC), is conserved throughout all life, and its expansion by the development of a third, unnatural base pair has emerged as a central goal of chemical and synthetic biology. We recently developed a class of candidate unnatural base pairs, exemplified by the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM. Here, we examine the PCR amplification of DNA containing one or more d5SICS-dNaM pairs in a wide variety of sequence contexts. Under standard conditions, we show that this DNA may be amplified with high efficiency and greater than 99.9% fidelity. To more rigorously explore potential sequence effects, we used deep sequencing to characterize a library of templates containing the unnatural base pair as a function of amplification. We found that the unnatural base pair is efficiently replicated with high fidelity in virtually all sequence contexts. The results show that, for PCR and PCR-based applications, d5SICS-dNaM is functionally equivalent to a natural base pair, and when combined with dA-dT and dG-dC, it provides a fully functional six-letter genetic alphabet.

  19. A Power-Efficient LC Quadrature VCO for RFID, Zigbee and Bluetooth Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TORKZADEH, P.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-band CMOS LC Quadrature Voltage Control Oscillator (QVCO with minimum power consumption is developed to meet the phase noise and frequency band requirements of RFID, Zigbee and Bluetooth standards. To accomplish the multi-band receiving architecture at low power consumption, current switching technique with optimized cross-coupled transistor sizes has been used. A comprehensive analysis of small signal model for complementary architecture including transistor noise sources and their effects on output phase noise amount has been discussed. Using extracted small signal model, coupled and coupling transistor sizes for minimum power consumption and the least achievable phase noise have been optimized. Designed QVCO has been implemented using TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology operating at 1.8V supply voltage. Proposed QVCO generates two separated frequency bands of 1.65-1.85GHz and 2.4-2.5GHz with phase noise of -125dBc/Hz at frequency offset of 3MHz. The total current drawn by QVCO is 7.5mA which makes the power consumption as low as 13.5mW.

  20. The use of the standard exercise test to establish the clinical significance of mild echocardiographic changes in a Thoroughbred poor performer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meyer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding racehorse was referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH with a history of post-race distress and collapse. In the absence of any obvious abnormalities in the preceding diagnostic work-up, a standard exercise test was performed to determine an underlying cause for the post-race distress reported. In this particular case oxygen desaturation became evident at speeds as slow as 6 m/s, where PO2 was measured at 82.3 mm Hg. Similarly at a blood pH of 7.28, PCO2 had dropped to 30.0mm Hg indicating a combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the distress was attributed to a severe hypoxia, with an associated hypocapnoea, confirmed on blood gas analyses, where PO2 levels obtained were as low as 56.6 mm Hg with a mean PCO2 level of 25.4 mm Hg during strenuous exercise. Arterial oxygenation returned to normal immediately after cessation of exercise to 106.44 mm Hg, while the hypocapnoeic alkalosis, PCO2 25.67 mm Hg, persisted until the animal's breathing normalized. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise. The combination of an aortic stenosis and a mitral valve insufficiency may have resulted in a condition similar to that described as high-altitude pulmonary oedema, with respiratory changes and compensation as for acute altitude disease. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise and substantiate the fact that an extensive diagnostic regime may be required to establish a cause for poor performance and that the standard exercise test remains an integral part of this work-up.

  1. Standardized metrics for accessibility : establishing a federal policy-relevant knowledge base : USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report seeks opportunities for standardization of these data and explains findings on three principal tasks. First, it assesses the current state of standardized transportation data. By studying documentation of other programs of standardized da...

  2. Impacts of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  3. Impact of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  4. Does Adoption of Management Standards Deliver Efficiency Gain in Firms’ Pursuit of Sustainability Performance? An Empirical Investigation of Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on longitudinal data from 73 Chinese manufacturing firms during 2009–2012, we assess whether and how firms gain higher efficiency in achieving their sustainability goals by adopting management practice standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and/or OHSAS 18001. We propose four pathways for firms to gain sustainability efficiency in their certification journey: participation, qualitative integration, quantitative expansion, and temporal accumulation. Our results confirm that firms certifying management standards gain higher efficiency in pursuing their sustainability goals than firms without these standards. We also find some support for increased efficiency effect in firms with diverse management systems over firms with only a single certificate in 2011. Finally, our results highlight the experiential and temporal accumulation effect of such efficiency gains, that is, firms with prior certification experience or having a longer certification history demonstrate higher efficiency gains in pursuing their sustainability goals.

  5. Single-unit-cell layer established Bi 2 WO 6 3D hierarchical architectures: Efficient adsorption, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei; Cao, Ranran; Yu, Shixin; Xu, Kang; Hao, Weichang; Wang, Yonggang; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe

    2017-12-01

    Single-layer catalysis sparks huge interests and gains widespread attention owing to its high activity. Simultaneously, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure can afford large surface area and abundant reactive sites, contributing to high efficiency. Herein, we report an absorbing single-unit-cell layer established Bi2WO6 3D hierarchical architecture fabricated by a sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-assisted assembled strategy. The DBS- long chains can adsorb on the (Bi2O2)2+ layers and hence impede stacking of the layers, resulting in the single-unit-cell layer. We also uncovered that SDS with a shorter chain is less effective than SDBS. Due to the sufficient exposure of surface O atoms, single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 shows strong selectivity for adsorption on multiform organic dyes with different charges. Remarkably, the single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 casts profoundly enhanced photodegradation activity and especially a superior photocatalytic H2 evolution rate, which is 14-fold increase in contrast to the bulk Bi2WO6. Systematic photoelectrochemical characterizations disclose that the substantially elevated carrier density and charge separation efficiency take responsibility for the strengthened photocatalytic performance. Additionally, the possibility of single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has also been attempted and it was manifested to be a promising dye-sensitized photoanode for oxygen evolution reaction (ORR). Our work not only furnish an insight into designing single-layer assembled 3D hierarchical architecture, but also offer a multi-functional material for environmental and energy applications.

  6. Establishment of practice standards in nomenclature and prescription to enable construction of software and databases for knowledge-based practice review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Pisansky, Thomas M; Petersen, Ivy A; Yan, Elizabeth S; Davis, Brian J; Stafford, Scott L; Garces, Yolanda I; Miller, Robert C; Martenson, James A; Mutter, Robert W; Choo, Richard; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Laack, Nadia N; Park, Sean S; Ma, Daniel J; Olivier, Kenneth R; Keole, Sameer R; Fatyga, Mirek; Foote, Robert L; Haddock, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of standards within a practice and across disease site groups for nomenclatures, prescription formatting, and measured dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics is a key enabling step for creating software and database solutions to make routine aggregation of dosimetric data for all patients treated in a practice, practical. A process of physician-driven, iterative dialogs coupled with development of technical tools is required to implement the cultural and procedural changes. The cumulative reward for this effort is a database that can be used for defining practice norms, benchmarking against national standards, and tracking dosimetric effects of longitudinal practice pattern changes. A 4-year project was carried out to develop and introduce standardizations, modify processes, and develop computer-based tools for reporting, aggregation, and analysis of prescription and DVH metrics. Physician disease site groups developed 42 target and 81 normal tissue templates. From the database of 32,002 DVH metrics, benchmarking was illustrated for a subgroup of breast (281) and prostate (324) patients treated with conventional fractionation over a 16-month period. Breast patients were segregated according to prescription template used: simple (S, tangents only) vs complex (C, tangents + supraclavicular ± intramammary nodes) and left (S-L or C-L) versus right (S-R or C-R). Prostate patients' median and 50% confidence intervals (CIs) for bladder, stated according to the nomenclature: the percentage of bladder volume receiving doses of ≥40 Gy (V40[%]), V65Gy[%], V70Gy[%], V75Gy[%], and V80Gy[%] were 45.5 (24.9-57.0), 15.6 (9.0-23.8), 7.6 (3.3-13.6), 2.0 (0.0-7.9), and 0.0 (0.0-1.4), respectively. Values for rectum: V50Gy[%], V60 Gy[%], V65Gy[%], V70Gy[%], and V75Gy[%] were 37.1 (27.8-43.5), 21.8 (15.6-25.5), 14.6 (9.6-18.0), 7.7 (1.9-12.3), and 1.0 (0-7.0), respectively. For breast patients, heart:mean Gray values were 1.5 (1.0-2.0), 3.1 (2.2-4.8), 0.4 (0.3-0.7), and 1

  7. Establishment of hairy root cultures by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation of Isatis tinctoria L. For the efficient production of flavonoids and evaluation of antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qing-Yan; Jiao, Jiao; Luo, Meng; Wei, Zuo-Fu; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Ma, Wei; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs) were established as an alternative source for flavonoids (FL) production. I. tinctoria hairy root line V was found to be the most efficient line and was further confirmed by the PCR amplification of rolB, rolC and aux1 genes. Culture parameters of ITHRCs were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD), and eight bioactive FL constituents (rutin, neohesperidin, buddleoside, liquiritigenin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol and isoliquiritigenin) were quali-quantitatively determined by LC-MS/MS. Under optimal conditions, the total FL accumulation of ITHRCs (24 day-old) achieved was 438.10 μg/g dry weight (DW), which exhibited significant superiority as against that of 2 year-old field grown roots (341.73 μg/g DW). Additionally, in vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated that ITHRCs extracts exhibited better antioxidant activities with lower IC₅₀ values (0.41 and 0.39, mg/mL) as compared to those of field grown roots (0.56 and 0.48, mg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing FL production and antioxidant activities from ITHRCs.

  8. Establishment of hairy root cultures by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation of Isatis tinctoria L. For the efficient production of flavonoids and evaluation of antioxidant activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yan Gai

    Full Text Available In this work, Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs were established as an alternative source for flavonoids (FL production. I. tinctoria hairy root line V was found to be the most efficient line and was further confirmed by the PCR amplification of rolB, rolC and aux1 genes. Culture parameters of ITHRCs were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD, and eight bioactive FL constituents (rutin, neohesperidin, buddleoside, liquiritigenin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol and isoliquiritigenin were quali-quantitatively determined by LC-MS/MS. Under optimal conditions, the total FL accumulation of ITHRCs (24 day-old achieved was 438.10 μg/g dry weight (DW, which exhibited significant superiority as against that of 2 year-old field grown roots (341.73 μg/g DW. Additionally, in vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated that ITHRCs extracts exhibited better antioxidant activities with lower IC₅₀ values (0.41 and 0.39, mg/mL as compared to those of field grown roots (0.56 and 0.48, mg/mL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing FL production and antioxidant activities from ITHRCs.

  9. Highly efficient in vitro regeneration, establishment of callus and cell suspension cultures and RAPD analysis of regenerants of Swertia lawii Burkill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthraj R. Kshirsagar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia lawii Burkill, an important herb used as substitute for Swertia chirayita. Shoot tips explants were cultured on MS medium with various phytohormones for multiple shoot production. The best shoot production frequency (100% and maximum shoots (10.4 ± 0.8 were obtained on MS media containing TDZ (3.0 mg l−1 in combination with IBA (0.3 mg l−1. Maximum callus induction (95 ± 4.8% and callus growth (1.7 ± 0.4 gm was achieved on MS medium with 2, 4-D (3.0 mg l−1. Cell suspension cultures were established and studied for their growth kinetics. Shoots were rooted best (22.1 ± 2.5 in 1/2 MS medium with IAA (3.0 mg l−1. The genetic uniformity of the micropropagated clones was assessed using RAPD markers. Out of 405 bands, 400 (98.76% were monomorphic and rest 5 (1.24% were polymorphic. High multiplication frequency and low risk of genetic instability ensures the efficacy of this protocol.

  10. MtDNA COI-COII marker and drone congregation area: an efficient method to establish and monitor honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) conservation centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Bénédicte; Alburaki, Mohamed; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Mougel, Florence; Garnery, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Honeybee subspecies have been affected by human activities in Europe over the past few decades. One such example is the importation of nonlocal subspecies of bees which has had an adverse impact on the geographical repartition and subsequently on the genetic diversity of the black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. To restore the original diversity of this local honeybee subspecies, different conservation centres were set up in Europe. In this study, we established a black honeybee conservation centre Conservatoire de l'Abeille Noire d'Ile de France (CANIF) in the region of Ile-de-France, France. CANIF's honeybee colonies were intensively studied over a 3-year period. This study included a drone congregation area (DCA) located in the conservation centre. MtDNA COI-COII marker was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of CANIF's honeybee populations and the drones found and collected from the DCA. The same marker (mtDNA) was used to estimate the interactions and the haplotype frequency between CANIF's honeybee populations and 10 surrounding honeybee apiaries located outside of the CANIF. Our results indicate that the colonies of the conservation centre and the drones of the DCA show similar stable profiles compared to the surrounding populations with lower level of introgression. The mtDNA marker used on both DCA and colonies of the conservation centre seems to be an efficient approach to monitor and maintain the genetic diversity of the protected honeybee populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Feasibility of establishing a biosafety level 3 tuberculosis culture laboratory of acceptable quality standards in a resource-limited setting: an experience from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Gelderbloem, Sebastian J; Mboowa, Gerald; Wajja, Anne; Namaganda, Carolyn; Musoke, Philippa; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2015-01-15

    Despite the recent innovations in tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosis, culture remains vital for difficult-to-diagnose patients, baseline and end-point determination for novel vaccines and drug trials. Herein, we share our experience of establishing a BSL-3 culture facility in Uganda as well as 3-years performance indicators and post-TB vaccine trials (pioneer) and funding experience of sustaining such a facility. Between September 2008 and April 2009, the laboratory was set-up with financial support from external partners. After an initial procedure validation phase in parallel with the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and legal approvals, the laboratory registered for external quality assessment (EQA) from the NTRL, WHO, National Health Laboratories Services (NHLS), and the College of American Pathologists (CAP). The laboratory also instituted a functional quality management system (QMS). Pioneer funding ended in 2012 and the laboratory remained in self-sustainability mode. The laboratory achieved internationally acceptable standards in both structural and biosafety requirements. Of the 14 patient samples analyzed in the procedural validation phase, agreement for all tests with NTRL was 90% (P drug susceptibility testing (DST). The annual culture workload was 7,636, 10,242, and 2,712 inoculations for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Other performance indicators of TB culture laboratories were also monitored. Scores from EQA panels included smear microscopy >80% in all years from NTRL, CAP, and NHLS, and culture was 100% for CAP panels and above regional average scores for all years with NHLS. Quarterly DST scores from WHO-EQA ranged from 78% to 100% in 2010, 80% to 100% in 2011, and 90 to 100% in 2012. From our experience, it is feasible to set-up a BSL-3 TB culture laboratory with acceptable quality performance standards in resource-limited countries. With the demonstrated quality of work, the laboratory attracted

  12. Toward Establishing Core Outcome Domains For Trials in Kidney Transplantation: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Kidney Transplantation Consensus Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Gill, John; Budde, Klemens; Marson, Lorna; Reese, Peter P; Rosenbloom, David; Rostaing, Lionel; Wong, Germaine; Josephson, Michelle A; Pruett, Timothy L; Warrens, Anthony N; Craig, Jonathan C; Sautenet, Benedicte; Evangelidis, Nicole; Ralph, Angelique F; Hanson, Camilla S; Shen, Jenny I; Howard, Kirsten; Meyer, Klemens; Perrone, Ronald D; Weiner, Daniel E; Fung, Samuel; Ma, Maggie K M; Rose, Caren; Ryan, Jessica; Chen, Ling-Xin; Howell, Martin; Larkins, Nicholas; Kim, Siah; Thangaraju, Sobhana; Ju, Angela; Chapman, Jeremy R

    2017-08-01

    Treatment decisions in kidney transplantation requires patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits and harms of a broad range of medical and surgical interventions, but the heterogeneity and lack of patient-relevant outcomes across trials in transplantation makes these trade-offs uncertain, thus, the need for a core outcome set that reflects stakeholder priorities. We convened 2 international Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Kidney Transplantation stakeholder consensus workshops in Boston (17 patients/caregivers; 52 health professionals) and Hong Kong (10 patients/caregivers; 45 health professionals). In facilitated breakout groups, participants discussed the development and implementation of core outcome domains for trials in kidney transplantation. Seven themes were identified. Reinforcing the paramount importance of graft outcomes encompassed the prevailing dread of dialysis, distilling the meaning of graft function, and acknowledging the terrifying and ambiguous terminology of rejection. Reflecting critical trade-offs between graft health and medical comorbidities was fundamental. Contextualizing mortality explained discrepancies in the prioritization of death among stakeholders-inevitability of death (patients), preventing premature death (clinicians), and ensuring safety (regulators). Imperative to capture patient-reported outcomes was driven by making explicit patient priorities, fulfilling regulatory requirements, and addressing life participation. Specificity to transplant; feasibility and pragmatism (long-term impacts and responsiveness to interventions); and recognizing gradients of severity within outcome domains were raised as considerations. Stakeholders support the inclusion of graft health, mortality, cardiovascular disease, infection, cancer, and patient-reported outcomes (ie, life participation) in a core outcomes set. Addressing ambiguous terminology and feasibility is needed in establishing these core outcome domains for trials in kidney

  13. Robust and Scalable DTLS Session Establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Tiloca, Marco; Gehrmann, Christian; Seitz, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol is highly vulnerable to a form of denial-of-service attack (DoS), aimed at establishing a high number of invalid, half-open, secure sessions. Moreover, even when the efficient pre-shared key provisioning mode is considered, the key storage on the server side scales poorly with the number of clients. SICS Swedish ICT has designed a security architecture that efficiently addresses both issues without breaking the current standard.

  14. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  15. Vibrating membrane devices deliver aerosols more efficient than standard devices: a study in a neonatal upper airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemersma, Sybrich; Minocchieri, Stefan; van Lingen, Richard A; Nelle, Mathias; Devadason, Sunalene G

    2013-10-01

    Aerosol therapy in preterm infants is challenging, as a very small proportion of the drug deposits in the lungs. Our aim was to compare efficiency of standard devices with newer, more efficient aerosol delivery devices. Using salbutamol as a drug marker, we studied two prototypes of the investigational eFlow(®) nebulizer for babies (PARI Pharma GmbH), a jet nebulizer (Intersurgical(®) Cirrus(®)), and a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI; GSK) with a detergent-coated holding chamber (AeroChamber(®) MV) in the premature infant nose throat-model (PrINT-model) of a 32-week preterm infant (1,750 g). A filter or an impactor was placed below the infant model's "trachea" to capture the drug dose or particle size, respectively, that would have been deposited in the lung. Lung dose (percentage of nominal dose) was 1.5%, 6.8%, and 18.0-20.6% for the jet nebulizer, pMDI-holding chamber, and investigational eFlow nebulizers, respectively (pmodel significantly lowered lung dose (pmodel and device residue (pmodel for infant aerosol inhalation, we confirmed low lung dose using jet nebulizers and pMDI-holding chambers, whereas newer, more specialized vibrating membrane devices, designed specifically for use in preterm infants, deliver up to 20 times more drug to the infant's lung.

  16. INFLUENCE OF BASIC IN SHOOTING TRAINING REALIZED ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF A GUN USED BY POLICEWOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vučković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 25 female students of the second year of VSUP –Advanced School of Internal Affairs from Belgrade, without any previous knowledge in handling the firearms, went the shooting training according to the international standards.During the programme the candidates were tested three times: at the beginning of the training (TEST 1, after the 50% of the realized training (TEST 2 and at the end of the training (TEST 3.The testing included a precise shooting with 10 bullets from the CZ99 gun at the distance of 10 meters. The results showed that the initial level of knowledge (TEST 1 was 29.32 ± 16.76 of the achieved sum of the hit circles.At the transitive testing (TEST 2 the efficiency was at the level of 63.04 ±16.34 of the achieved sum of the hit circles, while at the end of the testing (TEST 3 the efficiency was at the level of 69.32 ± 10.82 of the achieved sum of the hit circles. The variance analyses (ANOVA showed that there was a general statistics difference between the results of testing at the level F=52.19648, p=0.000.A student t test showed that between the TEST 1 and TEST 2, as well as between the TEST 1 and TEST 3 there was a significant difference in shooting efficiency, at the level t = 8.547, p<0.000 and t=11.105, p<0.000, respectively, while between the TEST 2 and TEST 3 the difference was at the very edge of the statistics importance, t=1.708, p= 0.050.The mathematics model was received, described with the equation of following form: y = 24.5894x0.2315 and the model has a prediction strength at the level of reliability of 99.50%.

  17. Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGodman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilisation. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. Objective: Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance prescribing efficiency before a decision to prescribe a particular medicine. Subsequently utilise the findings to suggest potential future initiatives that countries could consider. Method: Analysis of different methodologies involving cross national and single country retrospective observational studies on reimbursed use and expenditure of PPIs, statins and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs among European countries. Results: Nature and intensity of the various initiatives appreciably influenced prescribing behaviour and expenditure, e.g. multiple measures resulted in reimbursed expenditure for PPIs in Scotland in 2010 56% below 2001 levels despite a 3 fold increase in utilisation and in the Netherlands, PPI expenditure fell by 58% in 2010 vs. 2000 despite a 3-fold increase in utilisation. A similarly picture was seen with prescribing restrictions, i.e. (i more aggressive follow-up of prescribing restrictions for patented statins and ARBs resulted in a greater reduction in the utilisation of patented statins in Austria vs. Norway and lower utilisation of patented ARBs vs. generic ACEIs in Croatia than Austria. However, limited impact of restrictions on esomeprazole in Norway with the first prescription or recommendation in hospital where restrictions do not apply. Similar findings when generic losartan became available in Western Europe. Conclusions: Multiple demand-side measures are needed to influence prescribing patterns. When combined with supply-side measures, activities can realise appreciable savings. Health authorities cannot rely on a ‘spill over’ effect between classes to affect

  18. Revision of the standards in the application of high efficiency induction motors; Revision de la normatividad en la aplicacionon de motores, de induccion, de eficiencia alta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acoltzi Acoltzi, Higinio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work the elements contained in the national and international standards to obtain the benefits in the application of high efficiency electrical motors are presented. A table of associated normal and minimum efficiency is presented, and one with values of nominal efficiency at full load for totally enclosed motors of standard efficiency, for opened motors of standard efficiency and high efficiency. Graphs are given where the comparison of nominal efficiencies is shown for AC induction motors to closed and opened poles. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los elementos contenidos en las normas nacionales e internacionales para conseguir los beneficios en la aplicacion de motores electricos de eficiencia alta. Se muestra una tabla de eficiencia normal y minima asociados, y una con valores de eficiencia nominal a plena carga para motores cerrados de eficiencia estandar, para motores abiertos de eficiencia estandar y de eficiencia alta. Se da graficas donde se muestra la comparacion de eficiencias nominales, para motores de CA de induccion, a polos cerrados y a polos abiertos.

  19. 13 CFR 121.903 - How may an agency use size standards for its programs that are different than those established...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... size of a manufacturing concern by its average number of employees based on the preceding twelve... developing a size standard for the sole purpose of performing a Regulatory Flexibility Analysis pursuant to... for such analysis. ...

  20. EnergyPlus Analysis Capabilities for Use in California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Development and Compliance Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-03-28

    California has been using DOE-2 as the main building energy analysis tool in the development of building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) and the code compliance calculations. However, DOE-2.1E is a mature program that is no longer supported by LBNL on contract to the USDOE, or by any other public or private entity. With no more significant updates in the modeling capabilities of DOE-2.1E during recent years, DOE-2.1E lacks the ability to model, with the necessary accuracy, a number of building technologies that have the potential to reduce significantly the energy consumption of buildings in California. DOE-2's legacy software code makes it difficult and time consuming to add new or enhance existing modeling features in DOE-2. Therefore the USDOE proposed to develop a new tool, EnergyPlus, which is intended to replace DOE-2 as the next generation building simulation tool. EnergyPlus inherited most of the useful features from DOE-2 and BLAST, and more significantly added new modeling capabilities far beyond DOE-2, BLAST, and other simulations tools currently available. With California's net zero energy goals for new residential buildings in 2020 and for new commercial buildings in 2030, California needs to evaluate and promote currently available best practice and emerging technologies to significantly reduce energy use of buildings for space cooling and heating, ventilating, refrigerating, lighting, and water heating. The California Energy Commission (CEC) needs to adopt a new building energy simulation program for developing and maintaining future versions of Title 24. Therefore, EnergyPlus became a good candidate to CEC for its use in developing and complying with future Title 24 upgrades. In 2004, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company contracted with ArchitecturalEnergy Corporation (AEC), Taylor Engineering, and GARD Analytics to evaluate EnergyPlus in its ability to model those energy efficiency measures specified in both the residential and

  1. Teacher Autonomy in the United States: Establishing a Standard Definition, Validation of a Nationally Representative Construct and an Investigation of Policy Affected Teacher Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, Kevin Dale

    2012-01-01

    This effort: 1) establishes an autonomy definition uniquely tailored for teaching, 2) validates a nationally generalizable teacher autonomy construct, 3) demonstrates that the model describes and explains the autonomy levels of particular teacher groups, and 4) verifies the construct can represent teacher autonomy in other empirical models. The…

  2. Electricity and heat supply of a settlement at different standards of energy efficiency; Strom- und Waermeversorgung einer Siedlung bei unterschiedlichen Energieeffizienz-Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Tschetschorke, Katja

    2013-07-15

    The underlying study analyses the ecologic impact and the economic efficiency of several conventional and innovative heat supply systems to provide a quarter heat for space and water heating and electricity for residential and commercial application and for street lighting. Retrofits of buildings change the ratio of demands for electricity and heat. The demand for heat decreases more than the demand for electricity, and the share of distribution losses in heat grids rises. The question is if it is still economically efficient to build or extend local and long-distance district heating networks. Demands for final and primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs (for operation, energy consumption and investments) of the different systems are compared and rated both in charts and tables. A sensitivity analysis includes increasing energy purchasing costs and assesses the possible economic efficiency of the supply systems in future. Another sensitivity analysis estimates how the climate impact of the supply systems for heat and electricity changes if electricity generation becomes less harmful for climate. Additionally, costs for environmental damage - so-called external costs - are internalised in the analysis of economic efficiency. In an overall rating ecologic and economically efficient systems are recommended.

  3. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  4. Prospective Evaluation of the Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of China’s 2010 – 2013 Efficiency Standards for Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group

    2016-07-01

    Since China introduced its first mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for eight major household products in 1989, its MEPS program has expanded significantly to cover nearly 60 residential, industrial and commercial products. In June of 2012, the pace of standards development for new and revised standards was further accelerated with the launch of the national “100 Energy Efficiency Standards.” Initiatives. An unprecedented 21 MEPS were adopted by China from 2012 to 2013, compared to only 7 MEPS adopted from 2010 to 2011. The Chinese MEPS program now covers 15 products in the residential sector, 15 types of commercial and office equipment, 14 types of industrial equipment and 13 lighting products, making it one of the most comprehensive MEPS program in the world. This study provides an updated prospective evaluation of the potential energy and CO2 impact of 23 of the 28 MEPS adopted by China from 2010 to 2013. This study updates a previous analysis (Zhou et al. 2011) by quantifying the additional potential energy and CO2 reductions from the newest standards that have been adopted since 2010. The most recent actual and projected sales, usage, and efficiency data were collected for 14 product categories covered under 23 MEPS adopted between 2010 and 2013. Three scenarios are then used to quantify the energy and CO2 reduction potential of the one-time implementation of these 23 MEPS, including a baseline counterfactual scenario, the actual MEPS scenario and a best available technologies efficiency scenario. The setting of the baseline efficiency is crucial to determining the savings potential of the new and revised MEPS and international best available technology efficiency levels, as it reflects the market average in the absence of MEPS. For this study, the average baseline is based on either the reported 2010 market-average efficiency if sales-weighted efficiency data is available for new product MEPS and

  5. Toward Establishing a Standard Symptom Set for Assessing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children: Evidence From Teacher Ratings in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard; Schmitt, Aidan P; Epstein, Jeffery N; Tamm, Leanne

    2017-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in children, the field is stymied by the lack of a standard symptom set that can be used across studies. Without a standard symptom set, it is difficult to determine if differences across studies are due to methodological or sample differences, or simply the way SCT was measured. To move the field toward a standard symptom set, this study evaluates a teacher-report rating scale of SCT revised based on recent meta-analytic findings that identified optimal items for distinguishing SCT from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN). Participants were 1,349 students (50.7% male) from grades 2 to 5. Teachers provided ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, academic impairment, and social impairment. Exploratory structural equation modeling found 15 of the 16 SCT items to demonstrate excellent convergent validity and discriminant validity with ADHD-IN. The measurement properties of the SCT construct were also invariant across sex. SCT was uniquely associated with both academic and social impairment above and beyond ADHD-IN and sex. Although replication and extension is needed, the current study provides the strongest evidence to date of a possible standard symptom set that can be used across studies examining SCT in children.

  6. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.4 Q-4: What actions are...

  7. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-8: What actions are necessary for a... âclawbackâ provision requirement)? 30.8 Section 30.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions are...

  8. 31 CFR 30.9 - Q-9: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-9: What actions are necessary for a... prohibition on golden parachute payments)? 30.9 Section 30.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.9 Q-9: What actions...

  9. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  10. Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.

  11. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  12. Establishing a culture of care, conscience, and responsibility: addressing the improvement of scientific discovery and animal welfare through science-based performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H J; Bayne, K A

    2007-01-01

    Science-based performance standards offer a viable means of reducing regulatory burden while ensuring that research animal welfare and high-quality research data are realized. Unlike rigid regulations, science-based performance standards evolve as new information becomes available, thereby allowing new discoveries to be implemented in a timely manner and in a way that more effectively benefits the animals and the science. The implementation of performance standards requires a well-coordinated institutional team composed of the administration, research staff, the institutional animal care and use committee, professional and technical animal care personnel, occupational health and safety staff, and physical plant staff. This animal program team is best supported in an institutional environment that reflects a culture of care, compliance, and responsibility. In such a culture, the professional judgment exercised by the team is well grounded in meeting the diverse needs of the program's customers, who include the animals, the researchers, and research stakeholders such as the public. The institutional culture of care, compliance, and responsibility fosters workplace integrity, an ethics-based decision-making paradigm, sound understanding of institutional expectations through good communication and clear lines of authority, the hiring and retention of trained and well-qualified individuals, and a system for continuous development and improvement of the program.

  13. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, H. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-01-21

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  14. Toward the Establishment of Standardized In Vitro Tests for Lipid-Based Formulations. 5. Lipolysis of Representative Formulations by Gastric Lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakala-N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Williams, Hywel D.; Sassene, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    or Cremophor EL respectively. The maximum activity on LC formulations was recorded at pH 5 for the type IIIA-LC formulation. Direct measurement of LBF lipolysis using the pHstat, however, was limited by poor LC fatty acid ionization at low pH. Conclusions Since gastric lipase initiates lipid digestion...... in the stomach, remains active in the intestine and acts on all representative LBFs, its implementation in future standardized in vitro assays may be beneficial. At this stage, however, routine use remains technically challenging....

  15. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K

    2015-12-01

    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  16. Energy efficiency for establishment and management of cover crops; Eficiencia energetica na implantacao e manejo de plantas de cobertura do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, R.; Gamero, C.A.; Boller, W.

    2000-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the energy balance involved in the establishment and management of cover crops and also to determine specific heating seeds and biomass of different species of cover crops. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb), forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg) and lupinus (Lupinus angustifolius L.) were grown in a randomized block design, in twelve replicates. Oat showed higher energy production as compared to lupinus, while higher specific heat were determined for forage radish seeds and also for lupinus and oat biomass. While fuel and fertilizers were the most important energy inputs for the establishment and management of oat and forage radish, seeds and fuel were the most used energy input for lupinus. (author)

  17. Partners 2000, a network of marketers establishing highly efficient structures for high performance; Das Netzwerk Partner 2000. Mit neuer Struktur noch leistungsfaehiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasture, M.R. [RWE Plus AG, Essen (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    The network called 'Partners 2000' establishes the strongest cooperation link-ups ever agreed upon in Germany, between the partners RWE plus as one of the biggest national electricity companies, various municipality-owned multi-utilities, and regional distribution utilities. (orig./CB) [German] Das Netzwerk Partner 2000 ist die intensivste Form der Zusammenarbeit zwischen RWE Plus und Stadtwerken bzw. Regionalunternehmen. (orig./CB)

  18. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber; Estabelecimento de um sistema padrao primario para raios-X de energias baixas com uma camara de ionizacao de ar livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-08-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  19. Researching the potential of establishing a theory to Improve the efficiency and productivity of a company’s Business Process Management Lifecycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Nasif

    2017-01-01

    The thesis topic was created in order research whether there are inefficiencies with the current methods of measuring a company’s business process. The results are aimed to benefit a start-up networking and consulting company that will be based in Tampere. The company is seeking innovative methods that will allow them to efficiently analyse a company’s business process and collaborate the results with its networking database in order to that uncover potential business opportunities. In or...

  20. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 6, Infectious organisms of military concern associated with nonconsumptive exposure: Assessment of health risks and recommendations for establishing related standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.C.; Olivieri, A.W.; Danielson, R.E.; Badger, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the risk of illness due to exposure to water-related (i.e., water-based, water-washed) infectious organisms. The organisms under consideration are Aeromonas spp., Leptospira spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-cholerae Vibrio spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Balantidium coli, Naegleria spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Dracunculus medinesis, Schistosoma spp., and the agents responsible for cercarial dermatitis (i.e., Trichobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia). Evaluation of the risk to disease associated with the above pathogens requires information in specific areas such as dose response, concentration of agents in the environment, and environmental persistence. The existing body of knowledge concerning these agents ranges from speculation to established fact. Unfortunately, areas of information critical to risk assessment are frequently unavailable. Because of this lack of data, the risk assessment presented is semiquantitative and limited to the presentation of an environmental classification scheme. 14 refs., 2 figs., 57 tabs.

  1. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Improve Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with Thumb Poke through a Standard Trackball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities who could not easily use a computer through a standard input device (i.e., mouse or trackball) would be able to improve their pointing performance using thumb poke with a standard trackball through a Dynamic Trackball-Pointing Assistive Program (DTPAP) and a newly developed…

  2. Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop on Establishing a Core Outcome Measure for Hemodialysis Vascular Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Tong, Allison; O'Lone, Emma; Ju, Angela; Hanson, Camilla S; Sautenet, Benedicte; Craig, Jonathan C; Manns, Braden; Howell, Martin; Chemla, Eric; Hooi, Lai-Seong; Johnson, David W; Lee, Timmy; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Quinn, Robert R; Vachharajani, Tushar; Vanholder, Raymond; Zuo, Li; Hawley, Carmel M

    2018-02-22

    Vascular access outcomes in hemodialysis are critically important for patients and clinicians, but frequently are neither patient relevant nor measured consistently in randomized trials. A Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) consensus workshop was convened to discuss the development of a core outcome measure for vascular access. 13 patients/caregivers and 46 professionals (clinicians, policy makers, industry representatives, and researchers) attended. Participants advocated for vascular access function to be a core outcome based on the broad applicability of function regardless of access type, involvement of a multidisciplinary team in achieving a functioning access, and the impact of access function on quality of life, survival, and other access-related outcomes. A core outcome measure for vascular access required demonstrable feasibility for implementation across different clinical and trial settings. Participants advocated for a practical and flexible outcome measure with a simple actionable definition. Integrating patients' values and preferences was warranted to enhance the relevance of the measure. Proposed outcome measures for function included "uninterrupted use of the access without the need for interventions" and "ability to receive prescribed dialysis," but not "access blood flow," which was deemed too expensive and unreliable. These recommendations will inform the definition and implementation of a core outcome measure for vascular access function in hemodialysis trials. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming - profitability, productivity and energy efficiency of German, Danish and Turkish rainbow trout grow-out systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasner, Tobias; Brinker, Alexander; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    of freshwater trout farms in Germany, Denmark and Turkey, using a combination of existing data, group discussions and interviews with trout farmers, consultants and researchers. Nine 'typical' trout farming models are described, focusing on profitability, productivity and energy efficiency and allowing in......-depth comparative economic analyses of different production systems at farm level, across regions. Our results show that the majority of the farms investigated have been profitable. Turkish farms benefit from competitive advantages due to low wages, low capital investment and favourable climate conditions. Large....... Organic farms in both countries face challenges of high feed costs and comparatively low productivity with mixed success. Using edible protein energy return on investment (epEROI) as an indicator of ecological sustainability, all surveyed farms compared very favourably with the terrestrial systems...

  4. Analysis of global variability in 15 established and 5 new European Standard Set (ESS) STRs using the CEPH human genome diversity panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C; Fernandez-Formoso, L; Garcia-Magariños, M; Porras, L; Tvedebrink, T; Amigo, J; Fondevila, M; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Freire-Aradas, A; Gomez-Carballa, A; Mosquera-Miguel, A; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2011-06-01

    The CEPH human genome diversity cell line panel (CEPH-HGDP) of 51 globally distributed populations was used to analyze patterns of variability in 20 core human identification STRs. The markers typed comprised the 15 STRs of Identifiler, one of the most widely used forensic STR multiplexes, plus five recently introduced European Standard Set (ESS) STRs: D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D12S391 and D22S1045. From the genotypes obtained for the ESS STRs we identified rare, intermediate or off-ladder alleles that had not been previously reported for these loci. Examples of novel ESS STR alleles found were characterized by sequence analysis. This revealed extensive repeat structure variation in three ESS STRs, with D12S391 showing particularly high variability for tandem runs of AGAT and AGAC repeat units. The global geographic distribution of the CEPH panel samples gave an opportunity to study in detail the extent of substructure shown by the 20 STRs amongst populations and between their parent population groups. An assessment was made of the forensic informativeness of the new ESS STRs compared to the loci they will replace: CSF1PO, D5S818, D7S820, D13S317 and TPOX, with results showing a clear enhancement of discrimination power using multiplexes that genotype the new ESS loci. We also measured the ability of Identifiler and ESS STRs to infer the ancestry of the CEPH-HGDP samples and demonstrate that forensic STRs in large multiplexes have the potential to differentiate the major population groups but only with sufficient reliability when used with other ancestry-informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. Finally we checked for possible association by linkage between the two ESS multiplex STRs closely positioned on chromosome-12: vWA and D12S391 by examining paired genotypes from the complete CEPH data set. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards: Where do we stand, how far can we go and how do we get there? An analysis across several economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Kalavase, Puneeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Fan, Allison Hua [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Dreyfus, Gabrielle [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.

    2013-05-01

    This paper analyses several potential savings scenarios for minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) and comparable programs for governments participating i n the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, of the Clean Energy Ministerial, which represent over 60% of primary energy consumption in the world. We compare projected energy savings from the main end uses in the residential sector using three energy efficiency scenarios: (1) recent achievements, (2) cost-effective saving potential, and (3) energy efficiency technical potential. The recent achievement scenario (1) evaluates the future impact of MEPS enacted or under development between 2010 and 2012. The cost-effective potential scenario (2) identifies the maximum potential for energy efficiency that results in net benefits to the consumer. The best available technology scenario (3) re presents the full potential of energy efficiency considering best available technologies as candidates for MEPS and incentive programs. We use the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with the Collaborative Labelling and Appliances Standards Program (CLASP), to provide a consistent methodology to com pare the different scenarios. This paper focuses on the main end uses in the residential sector. The comparison of the three scenarios for each economy provides possible opportunities for scaling up current policies or implementing additional policies. This comparison across economies reveals country best practices as well as end uses that present the greatest additional potential savings. The paper describes areas where methodologies and additional policy instruments can increase penetration of energy efficient technologies. First , we summarize the barriers and provide remedial policy tools/best practices, such as techno-economic analysis, in response to each barriers that prevent economies from capturing the full cost

  6. 18 F-FDG PET standard uptake values of the normal pons in children: establishing a reference value for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marc H A; Kloet, Reina W; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie Em; Witte, Birgit I; Goldman, Serge; Vandertop, W Peter; Comans, Emile Fi; Hoekstra, Otto S; Boellaard, Ronald; Kaspers, Gert-Jan Jl

    2014-01-28

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) is a useful diagnostic and prediction tool in brain tumors, but its value in childhood diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is still unclear. For interpretation of 18 F-FDG PET results in DIPG, uptake values of the normal pons of children of increasing ages are mandatory. The aim of this study was to determine 18 F-FDG standard uptake value ratios (SUVr) of the normal pons and to compare these to those of DIPG. We studied 36 subjects with a normal, non-affected pons (aged 5 to 23 years) and 6 patients with DIPG (aged 4 to 17 years) who underwent 18 F-FDG PET scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was co-registered to define the regions of interest. SUVr and SUVrmax for the pons/cerebellum (SUVrp/c) and the pons/occipital lobe (SUVrp/o) were calculated. Independent-samples t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the mean SUVr and Pearson's test for correlations. For the normal pons, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.65 (±0.054) and 0.51 (±0.056), respectively. No significant correlations were found between the SUVr of the normal pons and sex, age, nor pontine volume. A modest but statistically significant correlation was found between SUVr and post-injection time acquisition timing. For DIPG, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.74 (±0.20) and 0.65 (±0.30), respectively, while mean SUVrp(max)/c and SUVrp(max)/o were 1.95 (±0.48) and 1.81 (±0.20), respectively. The SUVr of the unaffected pons are strikingly constant between children, irrespective of sex and age, and can therefore be well used as a reference value for 18 F-FDG PET studies in DIPG.

  7. A highly efficient tumor-infiltrating MDSC differentiation system for discovery of anti-neoplastic targets, which circumvents the need for tumor establishment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechtenstein, Therese; Perez-Janices, Noemi; Gato, Maria; Caliendo, Fabio; Kochan, Grazyna; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Van der Jeught, Kevin; Arce, Frederick; Guerrero-Setas, David; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquin; Santamaria, Enrique; Breckpot, Karine; Escors, David

    2014-09-15

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) exhibit potent immunosuppressive activities in cancer. MDSCs infiltrate tumors and strongly inhibit cancer-specific cytotoxic T cells. Their mechanism of differentiation and identification of MDSC-specific therapeutic targets are major areas of interest. We have devised a highly efficient and rapid method to produce very large numbers of melanoma-infiltrating MDSCs ex vivo without inducing tumors in mice. These MDSCs were used to study their differentiation, immunosuppressive activities and were compared to non-neoplastic counterparts and conventional dendritic cells using unbiased systems biology approaches. Differentially activated/deactivated pathways caused by cell type differences and by the melanoma tumor environment were identified. MDSCs increased the expression of trafficking receptors to sites of inflammation, endocytosis, changed lipid metabolism, and up-regulated detoxification pathways such as the expression of P450 reductase. These studies uncovered more than 60 potential novel therapeutic targets. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that P450 reductase is the target of pro-drugs such as Paclitaxel, which depletes MDSCs following chemotherapy in animal models of melanoma and in human patients. Conversely, P450 reductase protects MDSCs against the cytotoxic actions of other chemotherapy drugs such as Irinotecan, which is ineffective for the treatment of melanoma.

  8. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  9. Efficiency of an inexpensive liquid-based cytology performed by cytocentrifugations: a comparative study using the histology as reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbar Christian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although liquid-based cytology (LBC is now recommended for cervical cancer screening, it requires expensive automated devices and materials. To evaluate the efficiency of inexpensive LBC methods relying on an inexpensive fixative liquid, Easyfix®, we compared the results obtained by the liquid-based cytology (LBC diagnoses performed by cytocentrifugations (Papspin® and Turbitec® with those obtained by histology. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficiency of the fixative liquid, Easyfix®, to preserve HPV DNA in the collected samples. Method 266 LBC were compared with 174 colposcopies and 91 Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP. Among the LBC, 51 were performed using the Papspin® system and 215 were performed using the Turbitec® system. To control the quality of the preservation liquid, Easyfix®, we correlated the results of HCII assays with those of HPV PCR. Results For Papspin® and Turbitec® systems, the sensitivities were respectively 82.6% (95% CI: 61.2–95.0%, p Conclusion LBC performed by cytocentrifugations are inexpensive, reduce inadequate smears, show excellent efficiency and allow HPV detection by molecular biology.

  10. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E

    1994-06-01

    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  11. Studies for the elaboration of standards of energy efficiency in constructions; Estudios para la elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Heard, Christopher [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez Pensado, Fernando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The obtaining of the first drafts of standard of energy efficiency implicate diverse research work previous to its elaboration, which include the justification and the analysis of the reason of the variables to consider, the corresponding cost-benefit study that gives viability to the standard and a procedure of calculation for its fulfillment. The present paper relates the diverse aspects that were analyzed for the justification, the revision and the obtaining of the first drafts of the first standards of energy efficiency in nonresidential constructions that are hoped to be implemented in Mexico. [Spanish] La obtencion de los anteproyectos de norma de eficiencia energetica implica diversos trabajos de investigacion previos a su elaboracion, los cuales incluyen la justificacion y el analisis del porque de las variables a considerar, el estudio costo- beneficio correspondiente, que da viabilidad a la norma y un procedimiento de calculo para su cumplimiento. El presente trabajo relata los diversos aspectos que se analizaron para la justificacion, la revision y la obtencion de los anteproyectos de las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones no residenciales que se esperan implantar en Mexico.

  12. Efficiency and safety of coronary CT angiography compared to standard care in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain: a Canadian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Elena; Rubens, Fraser; Stiell, Ian; Peterson, Rebecca; Inacio, Joao; Dennie, Carole

    2016-08-01

    The optimal assessment of patients with chest pain and possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a diagnostic dilemma for emergency physicians. Cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) may identify patients who can be safely discharged home from the emergency department (ED). The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency and safety of CCTA to standard care in patients presenting to the ED with low- to intermediate-risk chest pain. This was a single-center before-after study enrolling ED patients with chest pain and low to intermediate risk of ACS, before and after implementing a cardiac CT-based management protocol. The primary outcome was efficiency (time to diagnosis). Secondary outcomes included safety (30-day incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE)) and length of stay in the ED. We enrolled 258 patients: 130 in the standard care group and 128 in the cardiac CT-based management group. The cardiac CT group had a shorter time to diagnosis of 7.1 h (IQR 5.8-14.0) compared to 532.9 h (IQR 312.8-960.5) for the standard care group (p patients with low- to intermediate-risk chest pain was safe and led to a shorter time to diagnosis but increased length of stay in the ED.

  13. Standardization method for measurement of hydroxyurea by Ultra High Efficiency Liquid Chromatography in plasma of patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a recessively inherited disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, chronic inflammation, and acute episodes of hemolysis. Hydroxyurea (HU is widely used to increase the levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. The objective of this study was to standardize and validate a method for the quantification of HU in human plasma by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC in order to determine the plasma HU levels in adult patients with SCA who had been treated with HU. We used an analytical reverse phase column (Nucleosil C18 with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water (16.7/83.3. The retention times of HU, urea, and methylurea were 6.7, 7.7, and 11.4 min, respectively. All parameters of the validation process were defined. To determine the precision and accuracy of quality controls, HU in plasma was used at concentrations of 100, 740, and 1600 µM, with methylurea as the internal standard. Linearity was assessed in the range of 50-1600 µM HU in plasma, obtaining a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The method was accurate and precise and can be used for the quantitative determination of HU for therapeutic monitoring of patients with SCA treated with HU.

  14. Development of the standard system for integrated radiation management and an efficient safety manual for the complex radiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Eun Je; Kim, Jong Soo; Ju, Young Jin

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop the effective radiation safety management system from a diversified and complex radiation sources and facilities. In this study, radiation safety management organization, safety risk factors, protection object and protection requirements of medical, industrial, research, and other radiation facilities were analyzed. After analyzing, the flow of individual radiation working process was ordered. In this study, after we analyzed radiation protection organization using complex radiation source and safety risk factors of radiation facilities and protection object and protection requirements, each individual task analysis was illustrated, i.e, process-mapping. The basic type and characteristics of hardware to facilitate the radiation protection was introduced and software between devices was designed in the form of flow-chart. The standardized process mapping will be utilized as a basic flow chart of individual working process such as access control of radiation control area. These flow charts based on the detail analysis of the work will reduce an error and failure in development of radiation protection control program in each institute. In addition, a standardized management procedures of radiation management will be provided.

  15. Intensity modulated radiation therapy class solutions in Philips Pinnacle treatment planning for central nervous system malignancies: Standardized, efficient, and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhacheva, Anna; Palmer, Matthew; Du, Weiliang; Brown, Paul D; Mahajan, Anita

    2012-01-01

    The use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is becoming more commonplace in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. However, the determination of beam arrangements is still an empirical process, and optimization of any given plan may take hours on the part of the dosimetrist and the physician to achieve optimal conformity and normal tissue doses. Regional CNS class solutions (CS) for IMRT planning with the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (version 8.0; ADAC Laboratories, Milpitas, CA) have been in partial implementation at our institution since 2009. The purpose of this present work was to investigate their validity in clinical practice. The plans of 55 patients treated for high-grade gliomas since 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty plans were categorized as having been planned with class solutions and 25 plans with user-defined optimization. Each plan was evaluated based on the following: (1) mean dose to the brain; (2) brain V30; and (3) Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) conformity index (CIRTOG). These data were then compared with 140 historical benchmark plans that were generated using user-defined optimization prior to 2009. The CS plans for gliomas in frontal, parietal-occipital, and temporal regions typically resulted in superior mean brain dose, brain V30, and conformity index when compared with user-defined plans. The CS plans for brainstem gliomas exhibited improved CIRTOG, but not brain V30 and brain mean dose. In trials of planning efficiency, the CS technique reduced treatment planning time by more than 2 times, independent of prior planning experience. We have developed a CS protocol for IMRT planning of gliomas that has dramatically simplified this complex planning process, allowing dosimetrists of all levels of experience to produce highly conformal plans in a time efficient manner. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility

  17. I/O Standard Based Thermal/Energy Efficient Green Communication For Wi-Fi Protected Access on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Tanesh; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Teerath

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed how does life and reliability of an integrated circuit is affected when it is operated in different regions under different temperatures. We have taken Fibonacci generator as our target circuit and LVCMOS as I/O standards. WPA and WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access) key can...... 24%, 17.3% and 95.53% less junction temperature than LVCMOS25 at operating frequencies of 1 GHz, 10 GHz, and 100 GHz respectively, while at 1 THz, the junction temperature becomes 125 degrees C, which causes unreliability for circuit and device may not operate at that frequency. For world’s highest...... temperature (56.7 degrees C), we achieve 0.97% and 8.29% reduction in junction temperature at 1 GHz and 10 GHz operating frequencies respectively. This design is implemented in verilog on virtex-6 FGPA. Usually for functioning of a device, the junction temperature is below 125 degrees C....

  18. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus: Standard Protoparvovirus H-1PV Efficiently Induces Osteosarcoma Cell Lysis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Geiss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells. H-1PV was found to enter osteosarcoma cells and to induce viral DNA replication, transcription of viral genes, and translation to viral proteins. After H-1PV infection, release of infectious viral particles from osteosarcoma cells into the supernatant indicated successful viral assembly and egress. Crystal violet staining revealed progressive cytomorphological changes in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infection of osteosarcoma cell lines with the standard H-1PV caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and these lines had a limited capacity for standard H-1PV virus replication. The cytotoxicity of wild-type H-1PV virus towards osteosarcoma cells was compared in vitro with that of two variants, Del H-1PV and DM H-1PV, previously described as fitness variants displaying higher infectivity and spreading in human transformed cell lines of different origins. Surprisingly, wild-type H-1PV displayed the strongest cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in this analysis and thus seems the most promising for the next preclinical validation steps in vivo.

  19. Different I/O Standard and Technology Based Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Vedic Multiplier Design for Green Wireless Communication on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kumar, Tanesh

    2017-01-01

    with high speed as compared with traditional array and booth multipliers. Vedic Multiplier contains a total of sixteen algorithms/sutras for predominantly logical operations. This research focuses on thermal aspects and energy efficiency of wireless communications systems with the thermal aware low power......This paper deals with low power multiplier design that plays a significant role in green wireless communications systems. Over the period of time, researchers have proposed various multiplier designs in order to get high speed. Vedic multiplier is considered as one of the low power multiplier along...... design of Vedic Multiplier. Temperature plays an important role on the performance of any device. The primary purpose of this research is to enhance the thermal stability of the wireless communications. Energy efficient IO standards are used to decrease the power dissipation of Vedic Multiplier...

  20. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanis Pavlidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration pump systems. A prospective single-centre clinical study evaluated duration of core vitrectomy in 80 patients with macular pucker undergoing 25-gauge or 27-gauge vitrectomy using either a TDC vitrectome at 16,000 cuts per minute (cpm or standard single-cut vitrectome, combined with a Valve Timing intelligence (VTi pump system (EVA, DORC International. Results. Aspiration flow rates remained constant independent of TDC vitrectome cut rate, while flow rates decreased linearly at higher cutter speeds using a classic single-blade vitrectome. Mean duration of core vitrectomy surgeries using a TDC vitreous cutter system was significantly (p<0.001 shorter than the mean duration of core vitrectomy procedures using a single-cut vitrectome of the same diameter (reduction range, 34%–50%. Conclusion. Vitrectomy surgery performed using a TDC vitrectome was faster than core vitrectomy utilizing a standard single-action vitrectome at similar cut speeds.

  1. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) for Standards-Compliant, Convenient, and Efficient Access to Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Weigel, R. S.; Wilson, A.; Ware Dewolfe, A.

    2009-12-01

    Data analysis in the physical sciences is often plagued by the difficulty in acquiring the desired data. A great deal of work has been done in the area of metadata and data discovery, however, many such discoveries simply provide links that lead directly to a data file. Often these files are impractically large, containing more time samples or variables than desired, and are slow to access. Once these files are downloaded, format issues further complicate using the data. Some data servers have begun to address these problems by improving data virtualization and ease of use. However, these services often don't scale to large datasets. Also, the generic nature of the data models used by these servers, while providing greater flexibility, may complicate setting up such a service for data providers and limit sufficient semantics that would otherwise simplify use for clients, machine or human. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) aims to address these problems within the limited, yet common, domain of time series data. With the simplifying assumption that all data products served are a function of time, the server can optimize for data access based on time subsets, a common use case. The server also supports requests for specific variables, which can be of type scalar, structure, or sequence. It also supports data types with higher level semantics, such as "spectrum." The TSDS is implemented using Java Servlet technology and can be dropped into any servlet container and customized for a data provider's needs. The interface is based on OPeNDAP (http://opendap.org) and conforms to the Data Acces Protocol (DAP) 2.0, a NASA standard (ESDS-RFC-004), which defines a simple HTTP request and response paradigm. Thus a TSDS server instance is a compliant OPeNDAP server that can be accessed by any OPeNDAP client or directly via RESTful web service requests. The TSDS reads the data that it serves into a common data model via the NetCDF Markup Language (NcML, http

  2. The effect of efficiency standards on water use and water heating energy use in the US: A detailed end-use treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    Water heating is an important end-use, accounting for roughly 16% of total primary energy consumption in the US residential sector. Recently enacted efficiency standards on water heaters and hot water-using equipment (e.g., dishwashers, clothes washers, showerheads, and faucets) will substantially affect the energy use of water heaters in the future. Assessment of current and future utility programs and government policies requires that regulators, resource planners, and forecasters understand the effects of these regulations. In order to quantify these impacts, this paper presents a detailed end-use breakdown of household hot and cold water use developed for the US Department of Energy. This breakdown is based on both previous studies and new data and analysis. It is implemented in a spreadsheet forecasting framework, which allows significant flexibility in specifying end-use demands and linkages between water heaters and hot water-using appliances. We disaggregate total hot and cold water use (gallons per day) into their component parts: showers, baths, faucets (flow dominated and volume dominated), toilets, landscaping/other, dishwashers, and clotheswashers. We then use the end-use breakdown and data on equipment characteristics to assess the impacts of current efficiency standards on hot water use and water heater energy consumption.

  3. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested

  4. Present conditions and perspectives of the standardization of the energy efficiency in Mexico; Actualidad y perspectivas del programa de normalizacion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Pulido, Henry Anli; Sanchez Ramos, Itha [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The first energy efficiency standards of compulsory type were implemented in some states of the U.S. and in 1990 this country`s Federal government adopted them, since then, they have spread all over the world. This paper describes that under the frame of the National Program for Energy Modernization (1900-1994) and the National Development Program (1995-2000) of Mexico were considered as a priority the rational use of the energy, the conservation of the energy resources and the environmental protection. It is particularly mentioned, the standardization program of energy efficiency that has been developed that includes the limiting specification of the energy consumption or equipment efficiency, an essay method to determine the energy performance and the description of the label that will inform the users of the equipment energy performance [Espanol] Las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica de tipo obligatorio se implantaron en algunos estados de Estados Unidos y en 1990 las adopto el gobierno federal de ese pais, a partir de entonces se han difundido por todo el mundo. En el presente trabajo se describe que en el marco del Programa Nacional de Modernizacion Energetica (1900-1994) y del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (1995-2000) de Mexico, se consideran como prioridad el uso racional de energia, la conservacion de recursos energeticos y la proteccion al medio ambiente. Se menciona particularmente, el programa de normalizacion de eficiencia energetica que se ha desarrollado incluye la especificacion del limite de consumo energetico o eficiencia del equipo, un metodo de ensayo para determinar el rendimiento energetico y la descripcion de la etiqueta que informara a los usuarios sobre el comportamiento energetico del equipo

  5. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  6. Uncertainty of efficiency of a fuel cell with the establishing of suitable instrumentation for his measurement; Incerteza da eficiencia de uma celula a combustivel com o estabelecimento da instrumentacao adequada para a sua medicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Pinheiro de; Trota Filho, Jorge; Couto, Paulo Roberto Guimaraes; Rocha, Adriana da Cunha [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: spoliveira@inmetro.gov.br

    2008-07-01

    This work presents and compares the results obtained from the assessment of the uncertainty of measurement of the energetic efficiency calculations of a PEM unit fuel cell and from the total electrical power of a PEM fuel cell stack. This assessment makes use of three different methods of calculation: the Classical method and the Kragten method, both described in the ISO GUM 95 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' and the Monte Carlo method, described in the Supplement 1 to the ISO GUM 95. Concerning the energetic efficiency, both the Classical and Kragten methods presented the same uncertainty values, 0.00029 whereas the Monte Carlo method presented a value of 0.00021. The difference between these two values (0.8 x 10{sup -5}) was greater than the {delta} criteria tolerance established in the Supplement 1 (0.5 x 10{sup -5}). This fact though, has not invalidated the results of the ISO GUM 95, as this work focused on the conservative value of the uncertainty. With respect to the uncertainty of the total electrical power of the fuel cell stack it has been observed that the main contribution for the uncertainty calculation, i.e., the higher uncertainty source (92.8%), was given by the accuracy class of the multimeter employed in the measurements. Additionally to the comparative study of the methods for the uncertainty calculations, this work establishes the correct accuracy class of a multimeter used for the measurement of the given/consumed electric potential by a fuel cell stack, aiming the cost/benefit relation of the process. (author)

  7. Establishment of conditions for ovum pick up and IVM of jennies oocytes toward the setting up of efficient IVF and in vitro embryos culture procedures in donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Ghylène; Douet, Cécile; Kaabouba-Escurier, Aurore; Couty, Isabelle; Moros-Nicolás, Carla; Barrière, Philippe; Blard, Thierry; Reigner, Fabrice; Deleuze, Stefan; Magistrini, Michèle

    2016-07-15

    Most wild and domestic donkey breeds are currently endangered or threatened. Their preservation includes the creation of a Genome Resource Bank. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from both male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. Because embryo production in vivo is limited in equids, our objective was to establish conditions for in vitro production of embryos in donkey using ovum pick up (OPU), IVM, IVF, and in vitro culture of zygotes. Donkey cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspirations OPU in adult cyclic jennies and in vitro matured in tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with fetal calf serum and epidermal growth factor for 24, 30, 34, or 38 hours. They were preincubated with oviductal fluid for 30 minutes, coincubated with frozen-thawed donkey semen treated with procaine for 18 hours, and cultured for 30 hours in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium-F12 supplemented with NaHCO3, fetal calf serum, and gentamycin. From the five OPU sessions, we collected 92 COCs in 193 follicles (48%) with an average of 4.2 COCs per jenny. All COCs were expanded after more than 24-hour IVM. At collection, jennies oocytes contained a germinal vesicle. Metaphase 1 oocytes were observed after 30-hour IVM and 44% were in metaphase 2 after 34-hour IVM. In our conditions, IVM of donkey oocytes was slower than IVM of equine oocytes and optimal duration for donkey oocytes IVM may be 34 hours. Only 15% of jennies oocytes contained two pronuclei after coincubation with donkey spermatozoa and none of them developed further after 48 hours post-IVF. Moreover, some parthenogenetic activation occurred. Thus, the treatment of donkey sperm with procaine may not be efficient for IVF. In conclusion, we established for the first time conditions for OPU in jennies with high recovery rates. We reported that IVM of jennies oocytes can produce 44% of metaphase 2 oocytes after 34 hours in culture

  8. The Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA: Establishing a Database of Synthetic Stellar Flux Standards I. NLTE Spectral Analysis of the DA-Type White Dwarf G191-B2B *,**,***,****

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims. We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at Teff =60 000 +/- 2000K and log g=7.60 +/- 0.05.We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions. The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare.

  9. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-15

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed.

  10. Formalising multidisciplinary peer review: developing a haematological malignancy-specific electronic proforma and standard operating procedure to facilitate procedural efficiency and evidence-based clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Judith; Trinh, Jimmy; Kwan, Yiu Lam; Estell, Jane A; Fletcher, Julie; Archer, Kate; Lee, Kenneth; Foo, Kerwin; Curnow, Jennifer; Bianchi, Alessandra; Wignall, Lynda; Verner, Emma; Gasiorowski, Robin; Siedlecka, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Ilona

    2017-05-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings aimed at facilitating peer review have become standard practice in oncology. However, there is scant literature on the optimal structure and conduct of such meetings. To develop a process for formal peer review of patients with haematological malignancies and to audit any resulting changes made to the management recommendations of the treating physician. A standard operating procedure (SOP) for MDT meetings was developed essentially to integrate clinical peer review with weekly pathology and radiology meetings. The centrepiece is the electronic submission of a patient-specific proforma (Microsoft InfoPath) prior to the meeting. It serves as the template for presentation, discussion and recording of recommendations and conclusions. The final verified document is stored in the electronic patient record, and a copy is sent to the general practitioner. The proposed management plans were compared to the consensus recommendations of the meeting for the first 4 years since inception. Both SOP and proforma underwent continual improvements. These provided the framework for the conduct of a robust weekly MDT meeting for peer review of the management of patients with haematological malignancies. On 20% of occasions, patient management plans were altered to optimise patient care as a direct consequence on peer review at the MDT. Our streamlined process, in its ultimate format, has provided a mature and efficient forum for formal peer review in a genuine multidisciplinary environment. Both initial data and informal feedback support its ongoing activity as an integral component of delivering quality patient care. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Improved Insulin Absorption by Means of Standardized Injection Site Modulation Results in a Safer and More Efficient Prandial Insulin TreatmentA Review of the Existing Clinical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Itamar; Bitton, Gabriel; Klonoff, David; Nagar, Ron; Hermanns, Norbert; Haak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Temperature changes on the surface of the skin lead to modifications of subcutaneous microcirculation. This phenomenon is employed in a standardized way by the InsuPad device to stabilize skin conditions before injections, which is associated with enhanced prandial insulin absorption. Three programmed warming cycles to 40°C within 50 minutes are resulting in faster insulin appearance in the plasma. Early standardized meal tolerance studies indicated a substantial improvement in postprandial glucose control when the same short-acting insulin analog dose was applied using InsuPad, and a dose reduction by 20% resulted in comparable glucose excursions. Similar results were obtained when patients applied the device under real-world conditions for 1 month. The InsuPad device was also tested in a prospective, controlled, parallel 3-month real-world study with 145 well-controlled but insulin-resistant patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Patients were treated to target in both treatment arms (6.2 ± 0.5% in each group), with or without the device. However, patients with InsuPad needed 28% less prandial insulin, needed 12.5% less total insulin, and had 46% less confirmed hypoglycemic events (blood glucose insulin doses may result in a safer and more efficient treatment of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352633

  12. Power Efficient Design of DisplayPort (7.0) Using Low-voltage differential signaling IO Standard Via UltraScale Field Programming Gate Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L.; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    The DisplayPort (7.0) provides transection of serial-digital video displays, it has TX and RX Controllers along with pixel video interface, with streaming line rate of maximum 5.4 Gb/s. However, the limitation of DisplayPort (7.0) are detected in terms of power consumption. It has been reported...... that DisplayPort (7.0) consumes a massive power as it works on high frequency 1.62 GHz for high resolution video processing using HDMI Port. It is also stated that at full brightness the DisplayPort (7.0) consumes 49.0 W Therefore for power efficient DisplayPort (7.0) the full brightness power of Display...... Standard offers no power consumption for DisplayPort (7.0) in standby mode. The vhdl based design of DisplayPort (7.0) using LVDS IO Standard will be helpful to process the high resolution video at low power consumption....

  13. Post–breast surgery pain syndrome: establishing a consensus for the definition of post-mastectomy pain syndrome to provide a standardized clinical and research approach — a review of the literature and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltho, Daniel; Rockwell, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a frequent complication of breast surgery. There is currently no standard definition for this chronic pain syndrome. The purpose of this review was to establish a consensus for defining PMPS by identifying the various elements included in the definitions and how they vary across the literature, determining how these definitions affect the methodological components therein, and proposing a definition that appropriately encompasses all of the appropriate elements. Methods We searched PubMed to retrieve all studies and case reports on PMPS, and we analyzed definitions of PMPS, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and methods of measuring PMPS. Results Twenty-three studies were included in this review. We identified 7 independent domains for defining PMPS: surgical breast procedure, neuropathic nature, pain of at least moderate intensity, protracted duration, frequent symptoms, appropriate location of the symptoms and exacerbation with movement. These domains were used with varying frequency. Inclusion/exclusion criteria and methods for assessing PMPS also varied markedly. Conclusion To prevent future discrepancies in both the clinical and research settings, we propose a new and complete definition based on the results of our review: PMPS is pain that occurs after any breast surgery; is of at least moderate severity; possesses neuropathic qualities; is located in the ipsilateral breast/chest wall, axilla, and/or arm; lasts at least 6 months; occurs at least 50% of the time; and may be exacerbated by movements of the shoulder girdle. PMID:27668333

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  15. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims: We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods: In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results: TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at and log g = 7.60 ± 0.05. We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions: The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope

  16. Comparison of standards to determine the efficiency of three-phase induction motors; Comparacion de normas para determinar la eficiencia de motores de induccion trifasicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, B and others [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Mexican industry often acquires from different countries, complete systems of production or auxiliaries, most of them impelled by squirrel cage electric motors, whose efficiency stated by the manufacturer is calculated by applying regional or local standards. For this reason, for the accomplishment of an energy balance -one of the first steps to follow is to determine the saving potential of a plant- it is important to know how the mentioned motor saving potentials were evaluated. It is worthwhile to indicate that an incorrect estimation could get to modify the economics of the applied measures. [Spanish] La industria mexicana a menudo adquiere de distintos paises, sistemas completos de produccion o auxiliares, la mayor parte de los cuales estan impulsados por motores electricos tipo aula de ardilla cuya eficiencia declarada por el fabricante se calcula aplicando normas regionales o locales. Por tal motivo, para la realizacion de un balance de energia -uno de los primeros pasos a seguir para determinar los potenciales de ahorro de una planta- resulta importante conocer como fueron evaluadas los mencionados motores. Cabe senalar que una estimacion incorrecta pudiera llegar a modificar la rentabilidad de la medida aplicada.

  17. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations. 2. The effect of bile salt concentration and drug loading on the performance of type I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV formulations during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel D; Anby, Mette U; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Bakala-N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Calderone, Marilyn; Jannin, Vincent; Igonin, Annabel; Partheil, Anette; Marchaud, Delphine; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Maio, Mario; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Carrière, Frédéric; Müllertz, Anette; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2012-11-05

    The LFCS Consortium was established to develop standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations (LBFs) and to examine the utility of these tests to probe the fundamental mechanisms that underlie LBF performance. In this publication, the impact of bile salt (sodium taurodeoxycholate, NaTDC) concentration and drug loading on the ability of a range of representative LBFs to generate and sustain drug solubilization and supersaturation during in vitro digestion testing has been explored and a common driver of the potential for drug precipitation identified. Danazol was used as a model poorly water-soluble drug throughout. In general, increasing NaTDC concentrations increased the digestion of the most lipophilic LBFs and promoted lipid (and drug) trafficking from poorly dispersed oil phases to the aqueous colloidal phase (AP(DIGEST)). High NaTDC concentrations showed some capacity to reduce drug precipitation, although, at NaTDC concentrations ≥3 mM, NaTDC effects on either digestion or drug solubilization were modest. In contrast, increasing drug load had a marked impact on drug solubilization. For LBFs containing long-chain lipids, drug precipitation was limited even at drug loads approaching saturation in the formulation and concentrations of solubilized drug in AP(DIGEST) increased with increased drug load. For LBFs containing medium-chain lipids, however, significant precipitation was evident, especially at higher drug loads. Across all formulations a remarkably consistent trend emerged such that the likelihood of precipitation was almost entirely dependent on the maximum supersaturation ratio (SR(M)) attained on initiation of digestion. SR(M) defines the supersaturation "pressure" in the system and is calculated from the maximum attainable concentration in the AP(DIGEST) (assuming zero precipitation), divided by the solubility of the drug in the colloidal phases formed post digestion. For LBFs where phase separation of oil phases did not occur, a

  18. catering establishments of Awassa Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of catering business establishments in Awassa Town, Southern Ethiopia, February to. April 1996. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires, free listings, parasitological and bacteriological laboratory analyses. A total of 164 catering ..... identified include: a) Good coverage of safe water (defined as ...

  19. The 2017 International Joint Working Group white paper by INDUSEM, The Emergency Medicine Association and The Academic College of Emergency Experts on establishing standardized regulations, operational mechanisms, and accreditation pathways for education and care provided by the prehospital emergency medical service systems in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sikka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government of India has done remarkable work on commissioning a government funded prehospital emergency ambulance service in India. This has both public health implications and an economic impact on the nation. With the establishment of these services, there is an acute need for standardization of education and quality assurance regarding prehospital care provided. The International Joint Working Group has been actively involved in designing guidelines and establishing a comprehensive framework for ensuring high-quality education and clinical standards of care for prehospital services in India. This paper provides an independent expert opinion and a proposed framework for general operations and administration of a standardized, national prehospital emergency medical systems program. Program implementation, operational details, and regulations will require close collaboration between key stakeholders, including local, regional, and national governmental agencies of India.

  20. Standards for measures used for public reporting of efficiency in health care: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Harlan M; Keenan, Patricia S; Brush, John E; Bufalino, Vincent J; Chernew, Michael E; Epstein, Andrew J; Heidenreich, Paul A; Ho, Vivian; Masoudi, Frederick A; Matchar, David B; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Rumsfeld, John S; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Smith, Sidney C; Spertus, John A; Walsh, Mary Norine

    2008-10-28

    The assessment of medical practice is evolving rapidly in the United States. An initial focus on structure and process performance measures assessing the quality of medical care is now being supplemented with efficiency measures to quantify the "value" of healthcare delivery. This statement, building on prior work that articulated standards for publicly reported outcomes measures, identifies preferred attributes for measures used to assess efficiency in the allocation of healthcare resources. The attributes identified in this document combined with the previously published standards are intended to serve as criteria for assessing the suitability of efficiency measures for public reporting. This statement identifies the following attributes to be considered for publicly reported efficiency measures: integration of the quality and cost; valid cost measurement and analysis; minimal incentive to provide poor quality care; and proper attribution of the measure. The attributes described in this statement are relevant to a wide range of efforts to profile the efficiency of various healthcare providers, including hospitals, healthcare systems, managed-care organizations, physicians, group practices, and others that deliver coordinated care.

  1. [Criteria of usefulness for the standardized x-ray diffractometric urinary calculus analysis. Improvement in the quality of urinary calculus analysis by the establishment of uniform methodological assumptions in urinary calculus analysis laboratories. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentisch, G; Berg, W

    1983-11-01

    Urolith analysis by X-ray diffraction is centralized and standardized in the GDR. By setting up uniform methodological conditions the quality of analytical results can be markedly improved. The resulting analytical criteria of usefulness - precision, detection limits and correctness - meet the requirements of diagnostic reliability and guarantee therapeutic relevance.

  2. Evaluation by data mining techniques of fluconazole breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and comparison with those of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Larrañaga, Pedro; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L

    2010-04-01

    The EUCAST and the CLSI have established different breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida spp. However, the reference methodologies employed to obtain the MICs provide similar results. The aim of this work was to apply supervised classification algorithms to analyze the clinical data used by the CLSI to establish fluconazole breakpoints for Candida infections and to compare these data with the results obtained with the data set used to set up EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints, where the MIC for detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, with a sensitivity of 87%, a false-positive rate of 8%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.89. Five supervised classifiers (J48 and CART decision trees, the OneR decision rule, the naïve Bayes classifier, and simple logistic regression) were used to analyze the original cohort of patients (Rex's data set), which was used to establish CLSI breakpoints, and a later cohort of candidemia (Clancy's data set), with which CLSI breakpoints were validated. The target variable was the outcome of the infections, and the predictor variable was the MIC or dose/MIC ratio. For Rex's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >8 mg/liter, and for Clancy's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, in close agreement with the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC > 4 mg/liter). The sensitivities, false-positive rates, and areas under the ROC curve obtained by means of CART, the algorithm with the best statistical results, were 52%, 18%, and 0.7, respectively, for Rex's data set and 65%, 6%, and 0.72, respectively, for Clancy's data set. In addition, the correlation between outcome and dose/MIC ratio was analyzed for Clancy's data set, where a dose/MIC ratio of >75 was associated with successes, with a sensitivity of 93%, a false-positive rate of 29%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.83. This dose/MIC ratio of >75 was identical to that found for the cohorts used by EUCAST to establish their breakpoints (a dose/MIC ratio of

  3. Procedure for the standardized measure of the detective quantum efficiency in digital mammography; Procedimiento para la medida estandarizada de la Eficiencia Cuantica de Deteccion en un mamografo digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Castano, P.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Espana Lopez, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a simple guide for determining the DQE, according to the CEI, in those having mammography flat panel detectors, and highlight the main difficulties that may be in the process of the standardized measurement.

  4. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  5. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  6. CORRECTION OF ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION OF MICROCIRCULATION DISTURBANCE, BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS, STANDARDS OF EFFICIENCY, AUTONOMIC AND PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATUS IN YOUNG ATHLETES WITH APIFITOPRODUKTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of endothelium of microcirculation vessels, vegetative and psychoemotional status, lipid spectrum and physical efficiency in 43 young sportsmen are corrected with the aid of Tentorium api-phyto products (APP.The following tests were conducted: samples of reactive hyperemia and hyperventilation, ultrasound investigation of brachial artery, determination of performance efficiency, total cholesterin, triglycerides, cortisol, red cells, vegetative and psychoemotional status by the Spielberger’s test and SAN test, as well as biomicroscopy of sclera. To relief the psychophysical stress, improve the endothelium function and performance efficiency, the sportsmen received APP as a food additive.After the reception of APP, the lipid and cortisol levels decreased markedly, and the level of red cells increased. The aerobic capacity increased. The recovery time after exercise shortened. The vegetative stress level decreased significantly, and the psychoemotional status improved. The endothelium dysfunction removed.It is shown that APP is a new method of prophylaxis of sudden death in sport, in people with blood circulation pathology, creative professionals, and businessmen.

  7. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  8. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... limiting the greenhouse gas emissions of new cars and light trucks through 2025 and heavy duty trucks..., which, at the same time, established fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks as part of a... Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units,'' 77 Fed. Reg. 22392. In light of the information conveyed in...

  9. Standards not that standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  10. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  11. High-resolution 3D coronary vessel wall imaging with near 100% respiratory efficiency using epicardial fat tracking: reproducibility and comparison with standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David N

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the performance and reproducibility of 3D spiral coronary artery wall imaging with beat-to-beat respiratory-motion-correction (B2B-RMC) compared to navigator gated 2D spiral and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisitions. High-resolution (0.7 × 0.7 mm) cross-sectional right coronary wall acquisitions were performed in 10 subjects using four techniques (B2B-RMC 3D spiral with alternate (2RR) and single (1RR) R-wave gating, navigator-gated 2D spiral (2RR) and navigator-gated 2D TSE (2RR)) on two occasions. Wall thickness measurements were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In all, 91% (73/80) of acquisitions were successful (failures: four TSE, two 3D spiral (1RR) and one 3D spiral (2RR)). Respiratory efficiency of the B2B-RMC was less variable and substantially higher than for navigator gating (99.6 ± 1.2% vs. 39.0 ± 7.5%, P B2B-RMC permits coronary vessel wall assessment over multiple thin contiguous slices in a clinically feasible duration. Excellent reproducibility of the technique potentially enables studies of disease progression/regression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Profiling of recovery efficiencies for three standard protocols (FDA-BAM, ISO-11290, and modified USDA) on temperature-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hai Yen; Chai, Lay Ching; Pui, Chai Fung; Wong, Woan Chwen; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Mat Issa, Zuraini; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2011-09-01

    There have been a number of studies conducted in order to compare the efficiencies of recovery rates, utilizing different protocols, for the isolation of L. monocytogenes. However, the severity of multiple cell injury has not been included in these studies. In the current study, L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was injured by exposure to extreme temperatures (60°C and -20°C) for a one-step injury, and for a two-step injury the cells were transferred directly from a heat treatment to frozen state to induce a severe cell injury (up to 100% injury). The injured cells were then subjected to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the ISO-11290, and the modified United States Department of Agriculture (mUSDA) protocols, and plated on TSAyeast (0.6% yeast), PALCAM agar, and CHROMAgar Listeria for 24 h or 48 h. The evaluation of the total recovery of injured cells was also calculated based on the costs involved in the preparation of media for each protocol. Results indicate that the mUSDA method is best able to aid the recovery of heat-injured, freeze-injured, and heat-freeze-injured cells and was shown to be the most cost effective for heat-freeze-injured cells.

  13. 77 FR 18309 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards... Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services..., 2011 rule titled Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans (``Exchange establishment...

  14. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  15. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Falco-Walter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT. Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus, elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE.

  16. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  17. AGU Establishes Development Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James A., Jr.; Killeen, Timothy L.; Spilhaus, Fred

    2005-03-01

    The 21st century has already brought rapid change. Your scientific society, AGU, and society-at-large face new challenges. These challenges range from opening up access to scientific publications to the potential impact of international terrorism on attendance at scientific meetings around the world. Such challenges and their implications for AGU's mission require strengthening the Union's financial resources. The establishment of a Development Board is the first step on this path.

  18. Establishing a mangrove nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinohin, Veronica; Baconguis, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    Mangroves play an important role in creating habitats for a diverse community of organisms ranging from bacteria and fungi to fishes and mammals. They grow in intertidal flats, estuaries and offshore islands. In the Philippines, mangrove forests have dramatically decreased in area since the start of the century, and therefore there is a need to reforest. However, first mangrove nurseries must be established since they serve as sources of planting materials for different mangrove species. Furt...

  19. Productivity studies in fish processing: methods of establishing work performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amaria, P.J

    1974-01-01

    Relative merits of "Performance Rating", "Westinghouse Leveling Plan", "Methods-Time Measurement" and "Work Sampling" techniques used for establishing standard work performance in th fishing industry...

  20. Establishment of efficient in vitro culture protocol for wheat land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADNAN

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... Plate 3. Immature embryo culture of LLR 13. A, Emasculated spikes;. B, immature embryos; C, four weeks old callus induced at MS + 6 mg/L 2,4-D; D, initiation of regeneration in callus three weeks after transfer to regeneration medium; E, regenerated shoots two weeks after transfer to rooting medium; F, ...

  1. Establishment of an efficient protocol for micropropagation of stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microshoots thus formed, were cultured on indole 3-butyric acid (IBA) and half strength basal MS media for induction of roots. Regenerated plantlets with healthy shoots and roots were acclimatized in moist cotton followed by their hardening in soil : vermicompost potting mixture with 90% survival rate. Key words: Tylophora ...

  2. Establishment of an efficient protocol for micropropagation of stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... cotton followed by their hardening in soil : vermicompost potting mixture with 90% survival rate. Key words: Tylophora indica, organogenesis, 6-benzylaminopurine, α-naphthalene acetic acid, indole 3- butyric acid. INTRODUCTION. Tylophora indica (Asclepiadaceae) is an important medicinal plant found in ...

  3. Establishment of an efficient callus induction method from leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) is a highly adaptable variety among citrus cultivars in the climate of the region of Panjab, Pakistan and citron (Citrus medica L.) was the first of the citrus fruits known to become visible in the Mediterranean Basin. In Sylhet region of Bangladesh, it is commonly known as Zara lemon ...

  4. Establishment of efficient in vitro culture protocol for wheat land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reliability of the production and presence of disease resistance especially rust has sparked a renewed interest in improving landraces and exploiting these in wheat variety development programs. In vitro culture is a pre-requisite for most of the tools of biotechnology. In this context, three Pakistani wheat (Triticum ...

  5. Establishment of a high-efficiency plant regeneration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... differentiated into plants, in spite of high CIP. Maize inbred line 18-599(red) as a ... bombardment, after selection and differentiation culture, partial bombarded calli were regenerated into green plantlets and further .... described in the manufacturer's instructions, with 1100 psi helium pressure and a target ...

  6. 89 ESTABLISHING THE NEXUS BETWEEN LITERARY CRITICISM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    ESTABLISHING THE NEXUS BETWEEN LITERARY. CRITICISM AND LITERARY THEORY. Nonyelum M. Obi. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Abstract. The study examines ways in which literary criticisms draws from literary theories. The literary critics in order to carry out efficient critical work will not work in ...

  7. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...... key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum....

  8. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    In western countries, the older population is increasing and with age follows a risk of un-health. Every fifth hospital patient is above 65 years of age. As a consequence, nursing care to older patients is a significant but tacit nursing issue. The aim of this study was to explore Danish clinical...... nurses’ experiences of caring for older hospital patients. The study was based on Benner and Wrubel’s phenomenological notion that caring as a special kind of involvement, a grasp of a situation in terms of its meaning, is primary in nursing. A qualitative secondary analysis of data from an interview...... study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...

  9. Environmental policy based on economic efficiency - The case of policy instrument choice for air quality standards for nitro dioxide and particles; Miljoepolitik paa samhaellsekonomisk grund - En fallstudie om styrmedlet miljoekvalitetsnormer foer partiklar och kvaevedioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyddoke, Roger; Nerhagen, Lena

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards. Such assessments are regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision-making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. In the beginning of the report we provide a theoretical discussion about the value of doing socioeconomic analysis. It is argued that structured and quantified assessments such as cost-benefit or cost-efficiency analysis can help to clarify the extent of the environmental problem and the efficiency of a policy instruments and their impact on the community. Economic reasoning also provides a basis for a discussion about possible reasons for why this type of information may not have been used on a regular basis. The main conclusion from this report is that neither the current design of these environmental quality standards nor the policy instruments chosen have been based on quantified economic assessments. This is so even though Sweden for the emissions considered in this report has adopted limit values that are more far reaching than those stated in EC directives. Moreover, although new evidence regarding the harmfulness of these pollutants has emerged, no adaptations to the original limit values have been undertaken. Nor are the action programmes, which have been implemented in cities where the environmental quality standard

  10. Establishing an academic biobank in a resourcechallenged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the development of a quality-management system, including standard operating procedures and a quality-control regimen. Here, we provide a summary of 10 important considerations for initiating and establishing an academic research biobank in a low-resource setting. These include addressing ethical, legal, technical, ...

  11. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  12. 14 CFR 1221.103 - Establishment of the NASA Insignia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in § 1221.110, the NASA Graphics Standards Manual, NASA Insignia Standards Supplement, and any... Establishment of the NASA Insignia. The NASA Insignia was designed by the Army Institute of Heraldry and... aeronautics and space and is established by the NASA Administrator as the signature and design element for...

  13. Establishing Good Laboratory Practice at Small Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Meryl Bornstein-Forst

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Good Laboratory Practice (GLP and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs provide guidelines for proper operation of equipment, maintenance and sanitation, reporting structures, and related activities. These practices are routinely employed at large academic and research-based institutions. However, they are often overlooked or omitted at smaller colleges and universities where staff and resources are limited. Incorrect assumptions and presumed responsibilities can lead to safety hazards, damage to equipment, loss of infrastructure, and confusion regarding operations and oversight. This report addresses the development of the “who, what, when, how, and where” policies and SOPs that constitute GLP. Once established and utilized by all departmental members, these structures ensure that academic and research-related activities are conducted safely and efficiently.

  14. The Standard Model course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Suggested Readings: Aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0001118. - The Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions/A Pich, arXiv:hep-ph/0502010. - The Standard Model of Particle Physics/A Pich The Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics will be described. A detailed discussion of the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory will be given, together with an overview of the most important experimental facts which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of particle interactions.

  15. FY 2000 Research and development project for creation of the standards. Standardization of information-providing technologies for establishing human/machine interfaces; 2000 nendo kijun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Hito to kikai no interface kochiku no tame no joho teikyo gijutsu ni kansuru hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This survey/test/research project is aimed at standardization of providing information smoothly while securing safety for various types of drivers by introducing advanced technologies into vehicles.The methods of evaluating priorities of 105 items of information for drivers, which are taken up by ISO, are followed to find that 5.90, 2.05 and 0.11 items are selected for the alarm, route guiding and general information systems, respectively. These results are in agreement with the related literature survey results. The test results of the visual/auditory displays corresponding to the priority information types indicate that the adequate alarm displays are 'red/50nt/0.2 seconds, 30% frequency/6.0 degrees' for the visual sensation, and '80dB/2.0KHz+1.5 harmonics/0.2 seconds, 70% frequency' for the auditory sensation. The study on information volume and information recognizing time indicates that the symbol pattern is better than the letter pattern for the simultaneous display of up to 2 items learned beforehand. The others studied include alarm designs and management of two or more alarms. (NEDO)

  16. SU-E-T-545: A MLC-Equipped Robotic Radiosurgery-Radiotherapy Combined System in Treating Hepatic Lesions: Delivery Efficiency as Compared to a Standard Linac for Treating Hepatic Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L; Price, R; Wang, L; Meyer, J; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadephia, PA (United States); Fan, J [Virtua Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The CyberKnife (CK) M6 Series introduced a mulitleaf collimator (MLC) beam for extending its capability to the conventional radiotherapy. This work is to investigate delivery efficiency of this system as compared to a standard Varian linac when treating hepatic lesions. Methods: Nine previously treated patients were divided into three groups with three patients in each. Group one: fractionated radiotherapy; Group two: SBRT-like treatments and Group three: fractionated radiotherapy targeting two PTVs. The clinically used plans were generated with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). We re-planned these cases using a Mulitplan (MP) TPS for the CK M6 and normalized to the same PTV dose coverage. CK factors (CF) (defined as modulation scaling factor in this work), number of nodes (NN), number of MLC segments (NS) and beam delivery time (BT) with an estimated image interval of 60 seconds, were used for evaluation of delivery efficiency. Results: Generated plans from the MP and Eclipse TPS demonstrated the similar quality in terms of PTV confomality index, minimum and maximum PTV doses, and doses received by critical structures. Group one: CF ranged from 8.1 to 8.7, NN from 30 to 40, NS from 120 to 155 and BT from 20 to 23 minutes; group two: CF from 4.7 to 8.5, NN from 15 to 19, NS from 82 to 141 and BT from 18 to 24 minutes; and group three: CF from 7.9 to 10, NN from 47 to 49, NS from 110 to 113 and BT from 20 to 22 minutes. Conclusions: Delivery time is longer for the CK M6 than for the Varian linac (7.8 to 13.7 minutes). Further investigation will be necessary to determine if a PTV reduction from the tracking feature will shorten the delivery time without decreasing plan quality.

  17. Establishing an Integration-Energy-Practice Model for Improving Energy Performance Indicators in ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Yung Chiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global energy sources are gradually becoming scarce and prices are continually rising. Governments and businesses in various countries are actively developing technologies for energy management and developing new sources of energy. On 15 June 2011, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO announced the ISO 50001 standard for energy management systems. Organizations and enterprises are confronted with challenges associated with enhancing energy performance indicators, continuing to improve energy consumption efficiency, and managing third-party international certifications. This study conducted cases studies of businesses that have introduced an ISO 50001 energy management system by using an integration-energy-practice model to improve energy performance indicators and to complete the international auditing and certification procedures for ISO 50001 energy management systems. Based on case study results, the achievement rates for annual energy performance indicators increased, thereby enhancing the energy intensity efficiency. Establishing an integration-energy-practice model for introducing an ISO 50001 energy management system can efficiently meet demands for energy performance indicators and pass the international certification for ISO 50001 energy management systems. The proposed model efficiently provides enterprises with methods for developing sustainable energy management. It integrates internal and external technical resources to establish energy technology think tanks, for promoting successful technology and experiences to various sectors, thereby allowing enterprises to integrate energy management, increase energy efficiency, and meet the ISO 50001 international standard for energy management systems.

  18. A Study on the Development of Building Energy Analysis Program and the Establishment of BEPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, S.R.; Kwon, K.J.; Yoo, Y.H.; Cho, Y.K.; Kijm, Y.D.; Han, S.W. [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, M.H.; Kim, K.W.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, H.W.; Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.J.; Song, K.S.; Heon, C.T.; Choi, J.M.; Kim, Y.I.; Suk, H.T.; Kang, J.S.; Kim, Y.D.; Kang, K.T.; Lee, J.E.; Kwark, H.S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The amount of energy consumption in building covers the 30% of the total energy consumption and that of electricity is much the same. Because of the improvement of the living quality, energy consumption in building part is increasing and the rate is much higher than that of other parts. So, KEPCO, one of the major domestic energy suppliers and consumers, needs to develop reliable computerized building energy analysis program and to establish building energy performance standards for the reasonable energy management and the efficient execution of energy budget and the improvement of working condition of the corp`s buildings. So the study aims to the development of computerized building energy analysis program, and the establishment energy budget level and building energy performance standards for the corp`s buildings.

  19. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least as...

  20. Sharing Data for Production Scheduling Using the ISA-95 Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Iiro eHarjunkoski; Reinhard eBauer

    2014-01-01

    In the development and deployment of production scheduling solutions, one major challenge is to establish efficient information sharing with industrial production management systems. Information comprising production orders to be scheduled, processing plant structure, product recipes, available equipment, and other resources are necessary for producing a realistic short-term production plan. Currently, a widely accepted standard for information sharing is missing. This often leads to the impl...

  1. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  2. PV standards overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1997-02-01

    A brief historical perspective and current status of the on going evolution of photovoltaic standards development and the use of these standards in promulgating accepted practices used in producing, measuring, and deploying Photovoltaic (PV) components and systems in the field. After nearly 20 years of experience in developing and writing domestic and international consensus PV standards the need and importance of standard methods and practices continues, as in the past, to be essential for a maturing PV industry. Part of this maturity has been in establishing and maintaining a common ground through the development of consensus standards and furthering the use of standards for PV commercialization in support of test facility accreditation, product certification, systems deployment, and safety code development to assure PV quality, performance, reliability, and safety.

  3. Heterogeneous information network model for equipment-standard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Shi, Li-Chen; Zhao, Jun-Yan; Du, Song-Yang; Xie, Wen-Bo; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Duan-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Entity information network is used to describe structural relationships between entities. Taking advantage of its extension and heterogeneity, entity information network is more and more widely applied to relationship modeling. Recent years, lots of researches about entity information network modeling have been proposed, while seldom of them concentrate on equipment-standard system with properties of multi-layer, multi-dimension and multi-scale. In order to efficiently deal with some complex issues in equipment-standard system such as standard revising, standard controlling, and production designing, a heterogeneous information network model for equipment-standard system is proposed in this paper. Three types of entities and six types of relationships are considered in the proposed model. Correspondingly, several different similarity-measuring methods are used in the modeling process. The experiments show that the heterogeneous information network model established in this paper can reflect relationships between entities accurately. Meanwhile, the modeling process has a good performance on time consumption.

  4. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  5. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  6. The proposal of software development and acquisition metrics based on ISO/IEC 27001 standard

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Beránek; Radim Remeš

    2009-01-01

    The implementation and operation of efficient information security management systems (ISMS) according to the ISO/IEC 27001 standard involves a number of steps, among others implementation and operation of appropriate processes, policies and objectives. The crucial issue is the correct definition of the metrics for measurement of the effectiveness of established processes and established controls. The paper describes some practical metrics for ISMS processes review but primarily deals with th...

  7. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  8. Design and research on non-standard trapezoidal internal threading insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengzhou, Hu; Wang, Jinge; An, Lingzhi

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve the machining efficiency of non-standard trapezoidal internal thread of high-temperature alloy Monel K50 material, designed a kind of trapezoidal internal threading insert with strong targeting, used UG software establish 3D model of the insert, Vericut simulation checked the correctness of the threading size and shape, AdvantEdge simulation checked the cutting performance of different cutting tool materials, and finally obtained a non-standard trapezoidal internal threading insert with various excellent performance.

  9. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  10. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  11. Establishing Reusable Requirements Derived from Laws and Regulations for Medical Device Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ritsing, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For many industries a key activity in product development is to demonstrate legislative compliance by showing, explicitly, that all relevant requirements from regulatory documents have been identified and addressed. The analysis and interpretation of standards and regulations requires considerabl...... study, where reusable requirements covering secondary packaging for medical injection devices were established, using a spreadsheet layout to capture and document the information presented in the metamodel.......For many industries a key activity in product development is to demonstrate legislative compliance by showing, explicitly, that all relevant requirements from regulatory documents have been identified and addressed. The analysis and interpretation of standards and regulations requires considerable...... skills and consumes significant effort in product development. Therefore initiating reuse from the analysis and elicitation of requirements from standards and regulations may provide promising potential for gaining efficiency in development and also for assuring sufficient quality of the work...

  12. Efficiency in Shared Services

    OpenAIRE

    Prachýl, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes and analyzes shared services organizations as a management tool to achieve efficiency in the organizations' processes. Paper builds on established theoretical principles, enhance them with up-to-date insights on the current situation and development and create a valuable knowledge base on shared services organizations. Strong emphasis is put on concrete means on how exactly efficiency could be achieved. Major relevant topics such as reasons for shared services, people man...

  13. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  14. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  15. Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects under Treatment-Based Sampling, Second Version

    OpenAIRE

    Kyungchul Song

    2009-01-01

    Nonrandom sampling schemes are often used in program evaluation settings to improve the quality of inference. This paper considers what we call treatment-based sampling, a type of standard stratified sampling where part of the strata are based on treatment status. This paper establishes semiparametric efficiency bounds for estimators of weighted average treatment effects and average treatment effects on the treated. This paper finds that adapting the efficient estimators of Hirano, Imbens, an...

  16. Continuous CD34+ cell collection by a new device is safe and more efficient than by a standard collection procedure: results of a two-center, crossover, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelas, Jose A; Scott, Edward P; Bill, Jerome R

    2016-11-01

    Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) collected from granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized donors are routinely used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Most PBSC collections worldwide have used the COBE Spectra (COBE) platform that is being replaced by the Spectra Optia (OPTIA). This study compared the PBSC collection performance and safety of the OPTIA using a single-step, continuous mononuclear cell (CMNC) collection procedure and the standard COBE MNC procedure. A prospective, noninferiority, randomized, open-label, crossover, multicenter study was conducted in G-CSF-mobilized donors randomized to undergo MNC collection on Days 5 and 6. The primary endpoint was CD34+ cell collection efficiency (CE1%) with a noninferiority margin of 10%. The secondary endpoint was CD34+ cell CE2%. Product purity and safety were also assessed. Twenty-three healthy donors (87% male) participated in the study. Mean (±SD) CD34+ CE1% was 84.4% (±16.4%) and 66.2% (±15.3%) for the OPTIA and COBE, respectively (p superiority). Mean (±SD) CD34+ CE2% was 62.4 (±11.6) and 48.4 (±11.2) for the OPTIA and COBE, respectively (p superiority). Granulocyte and platelet (PLT) contamination were lower in OPTIA-collected products. There were no unexpected adverse events (AEs) and no significant differences in the incidence of AEs between study arms. PLT loss was less with the OPTIA than with the COBE. The OPTIA CMNC collection procedure is safe and effective for the collection of CD34+ cells in G-CSF-mobilized donors and was superior to the COBE for CE1% and CE2%, collecting approximately 19 and 16% higher, respectively. © 2016 AABB.

  17. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishing traceability of scatterometry to the SI meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an uncertainty estimate for numerical reconstruction of grating profiles using scatterometry and show how traceability to the SI meter may be obtained using measurement standards. By describing the propagation of light through non-ideal optical components and the light interaction with a nonideal sample under test, we establish a model function for the detected power that contains all the significant error sources in the setup. After having assigned typical uncertainties to the parameters of the optical elements, the model function is used to investigate the effect of sample misalignment for varying angle of incidents. This study shows that normal incident is preferable with respect to uncertainties. We continue by considering measurements performed with non-ideal settings and investigate how these erroneously settings affect the scatterometry parameters of the sample, such as height, fill factor and wall angles found from a least squares match between measured and calculated diffraction efficiencies. The input to this least squares method is 1 best estimates and the associated covariance matrix of all measured quantities, including influence quantities, and 2 a measurement model describing all known physical relations between the measured quantities and the scatterometry parameters. The output includes best estimates and the associated covariance matrix of the scatterometry parameters. Having the model function for the measurement, the uncertainties of all relevant quantities and a robust least squares algorithm, we can establish a traceability chain to the SI meter.

  19. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  20. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  1. 5 CFR 319.203 - Establishment of positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 319.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment..., consistent with published position classification standards and guides and accepted classification principles...

  2. [Standardization of hospital feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuel García, Ángel Manuel

    2015-05-07

    Normalization can be understood as the establishing measures against repetitive situations through the development, dissemination, and application of technical design documents called standards. In Andalusia there are 45 public hospitals with 14,606 beds, and in which 11,700 full pensions / day are served. The Working Group on Hospital Food Standardization of the Andalusian Society for Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, started in 2010, working on the certification of suppliers, product specifications, and meals technical card. - Develop a specific tool to help improving food safety through the certification of their suppliers. - Develop a standardized technical specifications of foodstuffs necessary for the development of menus established codes diets Andalusian hospitals document. - Develop a catalog of data sheets plates of hospital meals, to homogenize menus, respecting local and unifying criteria for qualitative and quantitative ingredients. - Providing documentation and studying of several public hospitals in Andalusia: • Product specifications and certification of suppliers. • International standards certification and distribution companies. • Legislation. • Data sheets for the menu items. • Specifications of different product procurement procedures. - Development of the draft standard HOSPIFOOD®, and approval of the version “0.0”. - Training course for auditors to this standard. - Development of a raw materials catalog as technical cards. - Meals Technical cards review and election of the ones which will be part of the document. After nearly three years of work, we have achieved the following products: - Standardized database of technical specifications for the production of food dietary codes for: fish, seafood, meat and meat products, meats and pates, ready meals, bread and pastries, preserves, milk and dairy products, oils, cereals, legumes , vegetables, fruits, fresh and frozen vegetables, condiments and spices. - Standardized database of

  3. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishment of a plant regeneration system from callus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Establishment of a plant regeneration system from callus of Dendrobium cv. Serdang Beauty. Khosravi, A. R.1, Kadir, M. A.1, Kazemin, S. B.2, Zaman F.Q3 and De Silva, A. E.3 ... An in vitro propagation protocol was established for the Dendrobium Serdang Beauty orchid. ..... (Bar=Standard deviation, n=10).

  5. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC AGENCY: Federal... at Star, NC, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR 54413...

  6. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  7. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Robbins Field. This action enhances... accommodate the new RNAV GPS Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Robbins Field. This action... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at Robbins Field, Oneonta, AL...

  8. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  9. Large sample neutron activation analysis: establishment at CDTN/CNEN, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences. Group for Radiochemistry and Radioecology

    2011-07-01

    In order to improve the application of the neutron activation technique at CDTN/CNEN, the large sample instrumental neutron activation analysis is being established, IAEA BRA 14798 and FAPEMIG APQ-01259-09 projects. This procedure, LS-INAA, usually requires special facilities for the activation as well as for the detection. However, the TRIGA Mark I IPR R1, CDTN/CNEN has not been adapted for the irradiation and the usual gamma spectrometry has being carried out. To start the establishment of the LS-INAA, a 5g sample - IAEA/Soil 7 reference material was analyzed by k{sub 0}-standardized method. This paper is about the detector efficiency over the volume source using KayWin v2.23 and ANGLE V3.0 software. (author)

  10. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  11. Developing Criteria to Establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Faundeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO, U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization.

  12. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  13. Universal energy ratings for Germany - (Part 1): Differentiated rating distributions according to energy source and energy efficiency standard; Universelle Energiekennzahlen fuer Deutschland - Teil 1: Differenzierte Kennzahlverteilungen nach Energietraeger und waermetechnischem Sanierungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Franz; Papert, Olaf [METRONA Waermemesser Union GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Greller, Martin [BRUNATA Waermemesser GmbH and Co. KG, Muenchen (Germany); Hundt, Volker [BRUNATA Waermemesser Hagen GmbH and Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Mundry, Bernhard [BRUNATA Waermemesser-Gesellschaft Schultheiss GmbH and Co., Huerth (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Universal energy ratings for Germany represent an innovative database in which a quarter of a million energy consumption ratings for buildings recorded in past years by the BRUNATA METRONA Group are currently summarised in a standardised form. Data preparation includes (1) a retrospective review of all the meteorological corrections with the aid of new, localised climate factors from the German Weather Service, (2) a subset of 18 rating comparison groups according to three main energy sources and six levels of energy efficiency standard and (3) a continuous illustration of the rating distributions as a function of building size. The medians of the energy rating distributions range between about 80 and 175 kWh.m{sup -2}.a{sup -1}across all building sizes and comparison groups. Generally, the absolute differences between the medians of the energy rating distributions of new buildings and unrenovated, existing buildings are between 40 and 60 kWh.m{sup -2}.a{sup -1}. The relative differences for all sizes and energy sources are generally less than 30 %. If one compares renovated and unrenovated buildings directly, the relative figure drops to below 20 % for gas-heated and oil-heated and to about 25 % for buildings with district heating. On the other hand, the statistical distribution ranges of the rating distributions themselves are as wide as {+-}{sigma} = {+-}25 to {+-}55 kWh.m{sup -2}.a{sup -1} respectively. The energy rating medians for new buildings built after 1995 and using gas and oil as energy sources are above 100 kWh.m{sup -2}.a{sup -1}. They are above 80 kWh.m{sup -2}.a{sup -1}for buildings with district heating. An approach for gauging the possible renovation potential in terms of absolute energy and an extrapolation of the mean value of specific energy consumption for the country's existing rented apartments, weighted in terms of living area and based on the current climate, to approx. 120 kWh.m{sup -2}.a{sup -1} are presented. [German] Universelle

  14. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  15. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency can be powerful tool for achieving sustainable economic development and most important for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution on national level. Unfortunately, energy efficiency is difficult to conceptualize and there is no single commonly accepted definition. Because of that, measurement of achieved energy efficiency and its impact on national or regional economy is very complicated. Gross Domestic Product (GDP is often used to assess financial effects of applied energy efficiency measures at the national and regional levels. The growth in energy consumption per capita leads to a similar growth in GDP, but it is desirable to provide for the fall of these values. The paper analyzes some standard indicators and the analysis has been applied to a very large sample ensuring reliability for conclusion purposes. National parameters for 128 countries in the world in 2007 were analyzed. In addition to that, parameters were analyzed in the last years for global regions and Serbia.

  17. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  18. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  19. 75 FR 1595 - Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and Solicitation of Nominations for Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and... Standards and Technology (NIST) announces the establishment of the NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and solicitation of nominations...

  20. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  1. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  2. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...

  3. PKI standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Chris J

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the current state of the art in standards for Public Key Infrastructures. The main focus of the paper is the recent work by the Internet Engineering Task Force, ITU-T, and ISO/IEC.

  4. Juggling Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    on institutional logics, we illustrate how a logic of efficiency organise and give shape to healthcare seeking practices as they manifest in local clinical settings. Overall, patient concerns are reconfigured to fit the local clinical setting and healthcare professionals and patients are required to juggle...... efficiency in order to deal with uncertainties and meet more complex or unpredictable needs. Lastly, building on the empirical case of cancer diagnostics, we discuss the implications of the pervasiveness of the logic of efficiency in the clinical setting and argue that provision of medical care in today......'s primary care settings requires careful balancing of increasing demands of efficiency, greater complexity of biomedical knowledge and consideration for individual patient needs....

  5. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  6. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  7. [Overview of global clinical data management regulations and standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Quality and integrity of clinical trials and associated data management is a basis on the scientific and rightly assessments of drug safety and efficacy. While both normalization and standardization of clinical trial procedures assure quality of clinical trials and the relevant data processes, they will drive and improve the efficiency and reliability of real-world deliverables in clinical trials in turn. Currently, the comprehensive standards and practices of clinical trials and associated data management are globally established better, and US and EMA have enacted and implemented adequate guidances and regulations well. China is in the initial stage of development of relevant regulations regarding clinical trials and associated data management. This review will focus on the above-mentioned global regulations and standards of clinical data management in the views of good clinical data management standpoints, making references to improve the Chinese regulative system of clinical data management.

  8. Establishing an academic biobank in a resource-challenged environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Claire Soo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Past practices of informal sample collections and spreadsheets for data and sample management fall short of best-practice models for biobanking, and are neither cost effective nor efficient to adequately serve the needs of large research studies. The biobank of the Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience serves as a bioresource for institutional, national and international research collaborations. It provides high-quality human biospecimens from African populations, secure data and sample curation and storage, as well as monitored sample handling and management processes, to promote both non-communicable and infectious-disease research. Best-practice guidelines have been adapted to align with a low-resource setting and have been instrumental in the development of a quality-management system, including standard operating procedures and a quality-control regimen. Here, we provide a summary of 10 important considerations for initiating and establishing an academic research biobank in a low-resource setting. These include addressing ethical, legal, technical, accreditation and/or certification concerns and financial sustainability.

  9. Establishing an academic biobank in a resource-challenged environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Cassandra Claire; Mukomana, Freedom; Hazelhurst, Scott; Ramsay, Michele

    2017-05-24

    Past practices of informal sample collections and spreadsheets for data and sample management fall short of best-practice models for biobanking, and are neither cost effective nor efficient to adequately serve the needs of large research studies. The biobank of the Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience serves as a bioresource for institutional, national and international research collaborations. It provides high-quality human biospecimens from African populations, secure data and sample curation and storage, as well as monitored sample handling and management processes, to promote both non-communicable and infectious-disease research. Best-practice guidelines have been adapted to align with a low-resource setting and have been instrumental in the development of a quality-management system, including standard operating procedures and a quality-control regimen. Here, we provide a summary of 10 important considerations for initiating and establishing an academic research biobank in a low-resource setting. These include addressing ethical, legal, technical, accreditation and/or certification concerns and financial sustainability.

  10. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Telemetry Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    sharing data and providing support for test operations between ranges. The RF spectrum is a limited natural resource; therefore, efficient use of...radiolocation services are allocated on a primary basis until a broadcasting-satellite ( sound ) service has been brought into use in such a manner as...two FQPSK-JR modulator/demodulator combinations including nonlinear amplification and differential encoding/decoding in an additive white Gaussian

  12. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  13. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  14. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  15. Criteria Considerations for Establishment of Hems Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the "golden hour"; for optimal efficiencyof helicopter operations in emergency medical service (HEMSto meet the "golden hour" requirement the unconditional requirementis to establish a net of operational units to cover theentire area of the Republic of Croatia, capable to operate withinwide integrated area (international services. It is additionalback-up, not a competition to road and sea EMS vehicles. Therequired standards; HEMS operation, following complementarytraffic policy, i. e. complementary policy in line of trafficsystem integration within wider region, with reference to standards,must entirely comply with globally accepted standards.Republic of Croatia 's obvious objectives are traffic integrationinto EU (European Union traffic system. Cost analyses; It isstressed that coherent traffic policy can by certain instrumentsreduce traffic assigned external cost in national budget. Significanttraffic external cost includes cost of traffic accidents, environmentimpacts and traffic jams, and could be reduced byestablishmentof multi-purpose helicopter operations. SWOTanalyses should be made as for any other strategy or project.Technical-technological criteria and other considerations;Considering technical-technological criteria for relief of criticalsituations in traffic, it is obvious that one helicopter type cannotcomply to all multi-purpose requirements that traffic sets beforeus - EMS on open roads, sea, mountains and urban trafficcongested area, and search and rescue operations. However,common factor for all types is compliance to global standardsand regulations. In the paper, some examples of HEMS operationsin the EU States are mentioned.

  16. 29 CFR 779.382 - May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Hotels and Motels § 779.382 May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments. A hotel or motel establishment may qualify as an exempt retail or service establishment under section 13(a)(2) of the Act...

  17. 48 CFR 30.603 - Changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... established cost accounting practices. 30.603 Section 30.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.603 Changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices. ...

  18. Batch efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Schwickerath, U; Uria, C; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  19. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  20. Project Completion Report on China's Room AC Reach Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    2005-03-10

    After much anticipation and hard work, China's reach standard for room air-conditioners was announced in September 2004, with the first tier going into effect on March 1, 2005 and the reach standard taking effect on January 1, 2009. This is a major milestone in the development of minimum energy efficiency standards in China: finally China has set a minimum standard that is meaningful and stringent. According to our preliminary analysis, the majority of room ACs products on the Chinese market in 2004 would not meet the 2009 reach standard requirement. In addition to setting the minimum requirement, China's new AC standard also include classification requirement for the newly established Energy Information Label, as well as the certification requirement for CECP's Energy Conservation Label. Highlights of the 2009 reach standard include: (1) The Chinese Reach Standard for Room AC in 2009 is tighter than American counterpart, and almost matches the efficiency of American Central Air-Conditioners; and (2) Summer peak demand reduction in 2020 due to the reach standard exceeds the capacity of the Three Gorges Project.

  1. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel; Hebelstrup, Kim; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphospho...

  2. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  3. Energy saving in the house of social interest by means of the application of the power efficiency standard:NOM-020; Ahorro de energia en la vivienda de interes social mediante la aplicacion de la norma de eficiencia energetica: NOM-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Jimenez, Rodolfo; Morillon Galvez, David [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In face of the urgent necessity of saving and of using in an efficient way the energy, the Secretariat of Energy (Sener) through the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) has promoted the design and application of different measures and programs of energy efficiency. The elaboration of standards of energy efficiency has been a subject of great importance to foment the adequate use of the energy resources. For the residential sector the standard first draft exists: NOM-020-ENER-1998 energy efficiency in constructions: Standard for the covering of buildings for housing up to three floors. In this study the thermal analysis of the cover of one of the house models more used in the construction of houses of social interest in Mexico. By applying the methodology proposed by the first draft of the Standard the thermal gains by conduction in roof and walls, and by radiation in windows were determined. The analysis was performed for several cities of the country with different climates, the results were compared with the values proposed in the Standard, the viability of application of this Standard in the sector of the house of social interest was analyzed and finally the energy saving in ceasing using air conditioning systems for interiors. [Spanish] Ante la imperiosa necesidad de ahorrar y usar de forma eficiente la energia, la Secretaria de Energia (Sener) a traves de la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, (CONAE) ha promovido el diseno y aplicacion de diferentes medidas y programas de eficiencia energetica. La elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica ha sido un rubro de gran importancia para fomentar el uso adecuado de los recursos energeticos. Para el sector residencial existe el anteproyecto de norma: NOM-020-ENER-1998 ficiencia energetica en edificaciones: Norma para la envolvente de los edificios para uso habitacional hasta de tres pisos. En este estudio se presenta el analisis termico de la

  4. Move two: establishing a niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasima Shehzad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant purpose of the author in the Introduction of a research article is to convince the reader about the importance of the work to be presented. To achieve this end, a convincing “niche” needs to be built by evaluating, rejecting or indicating gaps in previous related work. The purpose of “establishing a niche” is to emphasize the current research project presented by the author. The present paper investigates how Computer scientists use this obligatory step of “Create a Research Space” (CARS model (Swales & Feak, 1994 & 2004 to highlight their own research work. This paper not only compares the results with other similar studies but also presents an in-depth analysis of various types of gap statements used in Computer Science research article Introductions. The issue of cyclicity of this step and the linguistic indicators used for the establishment of “niche” (the gap statements are both discussed.

  5. Symbiosis of aesthetics and efficiency. Klimahaus {sup registered} Bremerhaven 8 Ost sets new standards for architecture and technology; Symbiose aus Inhalt und Verpackung. Klimahaus {sup registered} Bremerhaven 8 Ost setzt neue Massstaebe fuer Architektur und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumer, Wolfgang [Klimahaus Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany); Kessling, Wolfgang; Oberdorf, Christian [Transsolar Energietechnik GmbH (Germany); Matzel, Martin [ACD Communication GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    From outside, the Klimahaus {sup registered} Bremerhaven 8 Ost looks like a cloud or a ship. The building houses an information centre with a floor space of nearly 12,000 square meters in the new Bremerhaven district of ''Havenwelten'', between the old harbour and the dyke of the outer Weser river. Facts and phenomena on climate and climate protection are presented inside the building. With its unique concept, the Klimahaus {sup registered} sets new architectural standards. (orig.)

  6. [Establishment of routines for elective laparoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondsen, E; Stordahl, A; Fröberg, L G; Kylebäck, A; Rzadkowski, H; Nazir, M; Løes, Ø

    2001-04-30

    During the autumn of 1999, elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced as a new surgical procedure in the Central Hospital Østfold, Askim. A prospective evaluation of perioperative patient logistics and patient satisfaction was performed. 214 patients were evaluated in the ambulatory; 116 of them were scheduled for operation. The operations were performed in general anaesthesia with continuous infusion of propofol and short acting opioides. Analgetics and anti-emetics were given pre- and perioperatively as prophylaxis against postoperative pain and nausea. There were three unexpected cancellations. Two patients had serious postoperative bleedings and two had symptoms indicating residual bile duct stones. Twenty-eight patients (24%) were discharged on the same day. 114 patients (98%) were satisfied with their stay in hospital. The established patient logistics proved efficient and rational.

  7. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products... Efficiency Standard for Residential Non- Weatherized Gas Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Commonwealth of Massachusetts seeking an exemption from Federal preemption of certain energy efficiency...

  8. Alternative approach for establishing the Nacelle Transfer Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishna, Vinay B.; Ormel, Frank; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2016-01-01

    will be strongly affected by the wind turbine’s rotor and the nacelle. Suitable correction against such flow distortion is applied through a nacelle transfer function (NTF). The -12-2standard requires a self-consistency check performed on such established NTF using the nacelle power curve. Most of these self......-consistency checks have failed to meet the criteria listed in the standard. The root cause analysis against such failure showed that the methodology followed by the standard is less accurate in estimating the free stream wind speed. Suitable changes were made in the process of establishing the nacelle transfer...... function and the subsequent self-consistency checks were found to be clearing the criteria set by the standard....

  9. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  10. Standardization work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    For several years now, the main civil aircraft manufacturers (Airbus and its partners, Boeing, Fokker, McDonnell Douglas) have been working jointly on the writing of technical recommendations and the drawing up of an international standard. This work concerns the evaluation of the processes and products used to strip aeronautical paint systems. This procedure was initiated on request from the main airlines. In effect, the airlines are faced with situations in which the financial and operational objectives are becoming increasingly important. The need was felt to rationalize and, if possible, harmonize the criteria and technical requirements of the various civil aircraft manufacturers in order to facilitate in-service maintenance of the fleets of airlines operating Airbus, Boeing, Douglas aircraft, etc.

  11. Future Direction of IMIA Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M.; Ogishima, S.; Shabo, A.; Kim, I. K.; Parisot, C.; de Faria Leao, B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Standardization in the field of health informatics has increased its importance and global alliance for establishing interoperability and compatibility internationally. Standardization has been organized by standard development organizations (SDOs) such as ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization), IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise), and HL7 (Health Level 7), etc. This paper reports the status of these SDOs’ activities. Methods In this workshop, we reviewed the past activities and the current situation of standardization in health care informatics with the standard development organizations such as ISO, CEN, IHE, and HL7. Then we discussed the future direction of standardization in health informatics toward “future medicine” based on standardized technologies. Results We could share the status of each SDO through exchange of opinions in the workshop. Some WHO members joined our discussion to support this constructive activity. Conclusion At this meeting, the workshop speakers have been appointed as new members of the IMIA working groups of Standards in Health Care Informatics (WG16). We could reach to the conclusion that we collaborate for the international standardization in health informatics toward “future medicine”. PMID:25123729

  12. Establishing of Agave Americana industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boguslavsky, A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ', 25% of Agave’s wet weight is inulin, a Establishing of Agave Americana Industry in South Africa 2 valuable component widely used in the food industry as an additive, sugar substitute and prebiotic agent (NUTRA, 2005, website). Inulin is a... of sugar content: The standard phenol sulphuric assay (Harris et al., 1995) was used for the analysis of the sugars for yield estimation and for monitoring during the extraction processes. Standard curves, using both fructose and inulin, were prepared...

  13. Religion in Military Society: Reconciling Establishment and Free Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    pastoral care and counseling to a staff of 400 and a student population of 24,000 while advising Expeditionary Center leaders on matters of religious... pastoral care , counseling, worship, rites, and sacraments to joint base personnel and their families. He is a credentialed pastoral counselor with over...established from the bottom up. For example, a Christian community will tend toward Christian standards; a Jewish commu- nity, Jewish standards; a

  14. A Mathematical Approach to Supply Complexity Management Efficiency Evaluation for Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the factors of complexity due to the globalization of supply chain and to measure the management efficiency of the factors which cause the supply complexity within supply chain. This study conducts an analysis to utilize linear programming and bootstrapping, targeting 12 Korean companies among the selected companies in Fortune Global 500. According to the results from the analysis, 4 companies with relatively high management efficiency of the factors which cause the supply complexity and 8 companies with relatively low management efficiency are found. The research findings reveal that public companies with the small number of products, factories, and providers relatively manage the supply complexity compared to private companies. Moreover, this study suggests projection point as a direction for relatively less efficient companies and excess quantity of input which should reduce for its achievement. This study also has an implication to establish a further standard of efficiency to manage the supply complexity for companies.

  15. Harmonization of the Ukrainian civil service with international and EU standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue on harmonization of the civil service with the international and EU standards as one of the key direction of implementation of the Reform Strategy of civil service and service in local self­government bodies for the period up to 2017 was researched. It was established that examples of the most effective management practice can be considered as a standard on which could be oriented states that seek to move to a more efficient and effective public administration. It was approached the issue «European standards of the public administration» as the complex of principles and standards of the establishing and implementation of politics, requirements to the management system. These concepts create will­free and subsequent application to harmonize with the model on building and realization of the modern people oriented public power; «European standards of the civil service» as the requirements to the organization, functionality, structure and management of the civil service system of the EU countries, which established by the legislation and informal cooperation for the ensuring the mission, aim and tasks of the EU and were established by founding treaties. It was summarized that good governance became in the EU as the paradigm for ensuring of the real effect to the democracy values and standards, human rights protection, rule of law, obligatory public administration in all levels. It was implemented according to 12 principles: 1 fair elections, representation and participation; 2 sensitivity to the citizens needs and expectations; 3 efficiency and effectiveness; 4 openness and transparency; 5 the rule of law; 6 ethical behavior; 7 the ability and competence; 8 innovation and openness to change; 9 sustainability and focus on long­term results; 10 sound financial management; 11 human rights, cultural diversity and social cohesion; 12 accountability. It was proven that civil service harmonization with the international and

  16. An International Centre for Standards Documentation: Proposals for Standardization of UDC Usage and the Mechanized Documentation of Information on Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Hans

    At present, there are several obstacles to efficient information retrieval regarding the world's standards. There is no uniformity in subject classification, although most standards are classified by the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC); there are no international indexes to the subjects covered; foreign standards and superseded standards…

  17. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 50......th anniversary of landscape architecture teaching, at the Faculty of Life Science – the University of Copenhagen(KU-Life). It’s origins can be traced further back but, then as now, the essence of the education is that of creating a dynamic synergy of the sciences and the arts....

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  19. Efficient ICT for efficient smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this extended abstract the need for efficient and reliable ICT is discussed. Efficiency of ICT not only deals with energy-efficient ICT hardware, but also deals with efficient algorithms, efficient design methods, efficient networking infrastructures, etc. Efficient and reliable ICT is a

  20. Efficiencies of MUSLE-S, MUSLT, USLE-M and AOF Models for Storm-wise Sediment Yield Estimation in Standard Plats (Case Study: Sefiddasht Research Site of Semnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kargar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sediment production are among most important problems in developing countries including Iran. In this study it has been endeavored that applicability of four (AOF, MUSLE-S, MUSLT and USLE-M models is investigated in Srfiddasht Research Site, Semnan province, at event scale to estimate the sediment. For this, all required variables and inputs of the model have been calculated in the watershed and the estimations from considering statistical models with measured sediments of 15 cloudbursts have been compared. The results for t-student correlation test showed that there is no significant difference (at 1% between MUSLT, MUSLE-S models and measured sediment. Based on these, it can be said that in this study, the results from these two models have higher accuracies to estimate the sediment from cloudbursts than other methods. Also, the results of evaluation and efficiency of the model using Nash-Suttcliffe criterion and root relative mean squared error (RRMSE statistic showed that MUSLE-S and MUSLT models have higher efficiencies than other models and inefficiencies of USLE-M and AOF models to estimate sediments from cloudburst have been confirmed in the studied research station in this study.

  1. Sharing data for production scheduling using the ISA-95 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iiro eHarjunkoski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development and deployment of production scheduling solutions one major challenge is to establish efficient information sharing with industrial production management systems. Information comprising production orders to be scheduled, processing plant structure, product recipes, available equipment and other resources are necessary for producing a realistic short-term production plan. Currently, a widely-accepted standard for information sharing is missing. This often leads to the implementation of costly custom-tailored interfaces, or in the worst case the scheduling solution will be abandoned. Additionally, it becomes difficult to easily compare different methods on various problem instances, which complicates the re-use of existing scheduling solutions. In order to overcome these hurdles, a platform-independent and holistic approach is needed. Nevertheless, it is difficult for any new solution to gain wide acceptance within industry as new standards are often refused by companies already using a different established interface. From an acceptance point of view, the ISA-95 standard could act as a neutral data-exchange platform. In this paper, we assess if this already widespread standard is simple, yet powerful enough to act as the desired holistic data-exchange for scheduling solutions.

  2. Span efficiency in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2013-07-06

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects.

  3. [Analysis of historical origin and standardization system construction of Citri Grandis Exocarpium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Zhao-Juan; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Ning-Ning; Dai, Ying; Yu, Pin-Hao

    2017-06-01

    To understand the history development and changes of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and initially establish its standard system after exploring the historical origins and modern development of Citri Grandis Exocarpium. In CNKI, Wanfang database and other academic search platforms were searched for literature on Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Chinese medicine standard system; the books related to its modern cultivation techniques and processing technology were also accessed, and after combining with the actual situation analysis, the prospective design of the standard system of Citri Grandis Exocarpium was finally established with research conclusion. The earliest records of the Citri Grandis Exocarpium were documented in the Northern and Southern Dynasties, but its medicinal value was discovered in the Song Dynasty. Its drug use was developed on the basis of Jupi(orange peel) and Citri Exocarpium Rubrum. In 21st century, a number of large-scale, intensive Citri Grandis Exocarpium bases have been formed due to high price, good planting efficiency, and rapid growth of cultivation areas. The standard system includes the technical specifications of seed selection and seedling cultivation of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, technical norms of cultivation, technical specifications of fertilizing and weeding, technical specifications of irrigation and drainage, technical standard of pest and disease control, standard of medicinal materials grade, standard of processing technology of sliced pieces and the quality standard of slices, etc. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  5. Establishment of Health Technology Assessment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Doaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment  such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing  the  Master's degree of  health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.

  6. Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects under Treatment-Based Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Kyungchul Song

    2009-01-01

    Nonrandom sampling schemes are often used in program evaluation settings to improve the quality of inference. This paper considers what we call treatment-based sampling, a type of standard stratified sampling where part of the strata are based on treatments. This paper first establishes semiparametric efficiency bounds for estimators of weighted average treatment effects and average treatment effects on the treated. In doing so, this paper illuminates the role of information about the aggrega...

  7. Towards product design automation based on parameterized standard model with diversiform knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-04-01

    Product standardization based on CAD software is an effective way to improve design efficiency. In the past, research and development on standardization mainly focused on the level of component, and the standardization of the entire product as a whole is rarely taken into consideration. In this paper, the size and structure of 3D product models are both driven by the Excel datasheets, based on which a parameterized model library is therefore established. Diversiform knowledge including associated parameters and default properties are embedded into the templates in advance to simplify their reuse. Through the simple operation, we can obtain the correct product with the finished 3D models including single parts or complex assemblies. Two examples are illustrated later to invalid the idea, which will greatly improve the design efficiency.

  8. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  9. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  10. Perspectives on development of IEEE 1073: the Medical Information Bus (MIB) standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, R J; Gardner, R M

    1997-08-01

    Automated data capture from bedside patient medical devices is now possible using a new Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Medical Information Bus (MIB) data communications standard (IEEE 1073). The first two standard documents, IEEE 1073.3.1 (Transportation Profile) and IEEE 1073.4.1 (Physical Layer), define the hardware protocol for bedside device communications. With the above noted IEEE MIB standards in place, hospitals can now start designing customized applications for acquiring data from bedside devices such as bedside monitors, i.v. pumps, ventilators, etc. for multiple purposes. The hardware 'plug and play' features of the MIB will enable nurses and physicians to establish communications with these devices simply and conveniently by plugging them into a bedside data connector. No other action will be necessary to establish identification of the device or communications with the device. Presently to connect bedside devices, technical help from hardware and software experts are required to establish such communications links. As a result of standardization of communications, it will be easy to establish a highly mobile network of bedside devices and more promptly and efficiently collect patient related data. Collection of data automatically should lead to the design of new medical computing applications that will tie in directly with the emerging mission and operations of hospitals. The MIB will permit acquisition of patient data more efficiently with greater accuracy, more completeness and more promptly. The above noted features are all essential to the development of computerized treatment protocols and should lead to improved quality of patient care. This manuscript provides the rational and historical overview of the development of the MIB standard.

  11. Efficiency in Social Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ballester-Miquel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to offer a review of the impact the different methodologies of analysis have on social enterprises, focusing the study on processes that establish a greater universality based on the degree of success achieved in their social objectives, the social reinvestment of their benefits and their democratic organisation, parameters that should favour the creation of a clear and simple method, as well as adaptable to change. The systematics will allow to establish systems for the measurement of the efficiency of social enterprises, in order to both organise objective procedures of comparison and offer support when applying for public aid derived from European and national funds set up for this purpose. The quantification of the social impact of the companies that constitute the social economy is vital to assess and follow up on their social mission.

  12. Harmonization of the Ukrainian civil service with international and EU standards

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-01-01

    In the article the issue on harmonization of the civil service with the international and EU standards as one of the key direction of implementation of the Reform Strategy of civil service and service in local self­government bodies for the period up to 2017 was researched. It was established that examples of the most effective management practice can be considered as a standard on which could be oriented states that seek to move to a more efficient and effective public administration. ...

  13. Energy efficient quantum machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the performance of a quantum thermal machine operating in finite time based on shortcut-to-adiabaticity techniques. We compute efficiency and power for a paradigmatic harmonic quantum Otto engine by taking the energetic cost of the shortcut driving explicitly into account. We demonstrate that shortcut-to-adiabaticity machines outperform conventional ones for fast cycles. We further derive generic upper bounds on both quantities, valid for any heat engine cycle, using the notion of quantum speed limit for driven systems. We establish that these quantum bounds are tighter than those stemming from the second law of thermodynamics.

  14. Zion Brand Cherubim and Seraphim Churches in the Establishment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    They establish their internal political administration with the founder of the individual ... wider political administration since they come from various families .... teachers. Football fields. Play grounds, library, staff offices, science laboratory, standard classrooms, first aid boxes, storage facilities, writing desks were not available.

  15. suitability of two established and three newly released kenyan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ooko

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Production of Potatoes for processing. Three newly released potato varieties namely: Golden Purple, Kenya Mpya and. Sherekea and two established varieties Tigoni and Dutch Robjin were grown under the standard conditions at the National Potato Research Center, Tigoni, ...

  16. 77 FR 29874 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Freer, TX AGENCY... airspace at Freer, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Freer, TX, area...

  17. Structural Approaches to Organising for Radical Innovation in Established Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    . Therefore, the usual recommendation to established firms with the goal of producing radical innovations is to develop them outside the firm itself. This paper questions this 'standard solution' and discusses alternative organizational approaches to producing radical innovation that avoid extreme forms...

  18. Standards for vision science libraries

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The minimum levels of staffing, services, budget, and technology that should be provided by a library specializing in vision science are presented. The scope and coverage of the collection is described as well. These standards may be used by institutions establishing libraries or by accrediting bodies reviewing existing libraries.

  19. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical

  20. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghani, Kishu

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  1. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013......In this thesis I address how experimental standards are used in the new governance paradigm to further sustainability transitions. Focusing on the case of the Active House standard in the building sector, I investigate experimental standards in three research papers examining the following dynamics......: (1) the relationship between commensuration and legitimacy in the formulation and diffusion of a standard’s specifications; (2) the role of awareness in standardizing green default rules to establish sustainable consumption in buildings; and (3) the significance of focus on humans in the development...

  2. A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD – choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bring Annika

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of Whiplash Associated Disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy at acute phase aimed to reduce the number of patients who have persistent problems after the whiplash injury. The goal is also to identify which of three different interventions that is most cost-effective for patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders. In this study we are controlling for two factors. First, the effect of behavioural medicine approach is compared with standard care. Second, the manner in which the behavioural medicine treatment is administered, Internet or face-to-face, is evaluated in it's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, prospective, experimental three-group study with analyses of cost-effectiveness up to two-years follow-up. Internet – based programme and face-to-face group treatment programme are compared to standard-treatment only. Patient follow-ups take place three, six, twelve and 24 months, that is, short-term as well as long-term effects are evaluated. Patients will be enrolled via the emergency ward during the first week after the accident. Discussion This new self-help management will concentrate to those psychosocial factors that are shown to be predictive in long-term problems in Whiplash Associated Disorders, i.e. the importance of self-efficacy, fear of movement, and the significance of catastrophizing as a coping strategy for restoring and sustaining activities of daily life. Within the framework of this project, we will develop, broaden and evaluate current physical therapy treatment methods for acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The project will

  3. Human Factors Standards and implementation plan for waste management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is dedicated to assuring safety and public confidence by conducting a thorough assessment and upgrade of its nuclear policies and procedures. To ensure that DOE field operations protect the health and safety of employees, the general public and the environment, new operational procedures, standards, and implementation plans are both required and forthcoming from DOE Headquarters, NE-74. Part of this effort requires the establishment and integration of human factors engineering design standards and implementation methods to reduce the probability of human error, human injury and radiological exposure. Human Factors professionals work to assure that technology is designed and utilized safely and efficiently to serve the needs and capabilities of the people who must use this technology. The primary goal of human factors engineering is to ensure compatibility and congruence between the people, equipment, tasks, procedures and training so as to minimize human error and assure that ``total systems performance and reliability`` are achieved.

  4. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  5. A strategy to establish Food Safety Model Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Thoens, C; Falenski, A; Weiser, A A; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2015-07-02

    Transferring the knowledge of predictive microbiology into real world food manufacturing applications is still a major challenge for the whole food safety modelling community. To facilitate this process, a strategy for creating open, community driven and web-based predictive microbial model repositories is proposed. These collaborative model resources could significantly improve the transfer of knowledge from research into commercial and governmental applications and also increase efficiency, transparency and usability of predictive models. To demonstrate the feasibility, predictive models of Salmonella in beef previously published in the scientific literature were re-implemented using an open source software tool called PMM-Lab. The models were made publicly available in a Food Safety Model Repository within the OpenML for Predictive Modelling in Food community project. Three different approaches were used to create new models in the model repositories: (1) all information relevant for model re-implementation is available in a scientific publication, (2) model parameters can be imported from tabular parameter collections and (3) models have to be generated from experimental data or primary model parameters. All three approaches were demonstrated in the paper. The sample Food Safety Model Repository is available via: http://sourceforge.net/projects/microbialmodelingexchange/files/models and the PMM-Lab software can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pmmlab/. This work also illustrates that a standardized information exchange format for predictive microbial models, as the key component of this strategy, could be established by adoption of resources from the Systems Biology domain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  7. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, Donald W. [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  8. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  9. Efficiency stud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brundaban Patro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of combination tube boilers, as applicable to commercial use, along with the significant features, limitations, and applicability. A heat balance sheet is prepared to know the various heat losses in two different two-pass combination tube boilers, using low grade coal and rice husk as a fuel. Also, the efficiency of the combination tube boilers is studied by the direct and heat loss methods. It is observed that the dry flue gas loss is a major loss in the combination tube boilers. The loss due to the unburnt in the fly ash is very less in the combination tube boilers, due to the surrounded membrane wall. It is also observed that the loss due to the unburnt in the bottom ash has a considerable amount for the heat loss, and cannot be ignored.

  10. Progress on GPS standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.

    1993-01-01

    It has been clear for some time that a desirable and necessary step for improvement of the accuracy of GPS time comparisons is to establish GPS standards which may be adopted by receiver designers and users. For this reason, a formal body, the CCDS Group on GPS Time Transfer Standards (CGGTTS), was created in 1991. It operates under the auspices of the permanent CCDS Working Group on TAI, with the objective of recommending procedures and models for operational time transfer by the GPS common-view method. It works in close cooperation with the Subcommittee on Time of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee. The members of the CGGTTS have met in December 1991 and in June 1992. Following these two formal meetings, a number of decisions were taken for unifying the treatment of GPS short-term data and for standardizing the format of GPS data files. A formal CGGTTS Recommendation is now being written concerning these points. This paper relates on the work carried out by the CGGTTS.

  11. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  12. Establishment of a panel of reference Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum strains for drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingwater, K; Büscher, P; Brun, R

    2007-09-01

    The animal pathogenic protozoan, Trypanosoma evansi, leads to a wasting disease in equines, cattle and camels, commonly known as Surra. It is extensively distributed geographically with a wide range of mammalian hosts and causes great economical loss. Trypanosoma equiperdum causes a venereal disease called Dourine in horses and donkeys. Chemotherapy appears to be the most effective form of control for T. evansi, whereas infections caused by T. equiperdum are considered incurable. Due to emerging drug resistance, efficient control of T. evansi is severely threatened, emphasising the urgent need to find new alternative drugs. A drug profile for a panel of T. evansi and T. equiperdum strains has been established for the four standard drugs currently used in treatment. The (3)H-hypoxanthine incorporation assay was used to obtain 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values for each standard drug against the various strains. The results indicate the presence (and in some cases, the emergence) of drug resistance in several strains. This panel of characterised strains with known drug sensitivities and resistances will be of great value for the screening of new active compounds, in comparison with the four standard drugs currently available.

  13. [Work organisation improvement methods applied to activities of Blood Transfusion Establishments (BTE): Lean Manufacturing, VSM, 5S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholey, F; Bourniquel, P; Rivery, E; Coudurier, N; Follea, G

    2009-05-01

    Continuous improvement of efficiency as well as new expectations from customers (quality and safety of blood products) and employees (working conditions) imply constant efforts in Blood Transfusion Establishments (BTE) to improve work organisations. The Lean method (from "Lean" meaning "thin") aims at identifying wastages in the process (overproduction, waiting, over-processing, inventory, transport, motion) and then reducing them in establishing a mapping of value chain (Value Stream Mapping). It consists in determining the added value of each step of the process from a customer perspective. Lean also consists in standardizing operations while implicating and responsabilizing all collaborators. The name 5S comes from the first letter of five operations of a Japanese management technique: to clear, rank, keep clean, standardize, make durable. The 5S method leads to develop the team working inducing an evolution of the way in the management is performed. The Lean VSM method has been applied to blood processing (component laboratory) in the Pays de la Loire BTE. The Lean 5S method has been applied to blood processing, quality control, purchasing, warehouse, human resources and quality assurance in the Rhône-Alpes BTE. The experience returns from both BTE shows that these methods allowed improving: (1) the processes and working conditions from a quality perspective, (2) the staff satisfaction, (3) the efficiency. These experiences, implemented in two BTE for different processes, confirm the applicability and usefulness of these methods to improve working organisations in BTE.

  14. 78 FR 33233 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ...; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Small Business Health Options Program AGENCY: Centers for... Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers... proposed in the Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Small Business Health Options...

  15. Comparison of energy efficiency determination methods for the induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsybikov Bator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the effects on the induction motor efficiency determination due to the introduction of the EU, USA, Canada, Japan and Russian Standards have been analyzed and discussed. Industrial induction motor has been tested and a comparison between the efficiencies determined by various National Standards has been presented. In addition, the motor efficiencies have been compared with the efficiency classes defined by the EU Standardization.

  16. Whose Standard Is It, Anyway? How the Tobacco Industry Determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standards for Tobacco and Tobacco Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stella A. Bialous; Derek Yach

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Methods...

  17. Efficient temporal and interlayer parameter prediction for weighted prediction in scalable high efficiency video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sik-Ho; Chan, Yui-Lam; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Weighted prediction (WP) is an efficient video coding tool that was introduced since the establishment of the H.264/AVC video coding standard, for compensating the temporal illumination change in motion estimation and compensation. WP parameters, including a multiplicative weight and an additive offset for each reference frame, are required to be estimated and transmitted to the decoder by slice header. These parameters cause extra bits in the coded video bitstream. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) provides WP parameter prediction to reduce the overhead. Therefore, WP parameter prediction is crucial to research works or applications, which are related to WP. Prior art has been suggested to further improve the WP parameter prediction by implicit prediction of image characteristics and derivation of parameters. By exploiting both temporal and interlayer redundancies, we propose three WP parameter prediction algorithms, enhanced implicit WP parameter, enhanced direct WP parameter derivation, and interlayer WP parameter, to further improve the coding efficiency of HEVC. Results show that our proposed algorithms can achieve up to 5.83% and 5.23% bitrate reduction compared to the conventional scalable HEVC in the base layer for SNR scalability and 2× spatial scalability, respectively.

  18. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA and Department of Defense used a batch rulemaking process for establishing the discharge standards for vessels of the Armed Forces. They identified and evaluated the discharges and determined which require marine pollution control devices.

  19. [Establishing the regeneration system of sunflower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Caifeng; Zhang, Yifei; Chen, Yeting; Zhao, Liying; Yue, Peng; Teng, Xiangyong; Wang, Nanbo

    2011-09-01

    In order to establish a high efficient regeneration system of sunflower, we optimized the process of callus induction, differentiation and rooting by screening the optimum genotype, explant materials, hormone and cytokine concentration and additives. The results indicated that hybrid sunflowers were easier to regenerate than selfing ones; The best explant was four days cotyledon. The optimum induction medium was Murashige and Skoog (MS) + 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg/L kinetin (KT). The maximum rate of callus induction was 100%. The optimum differentiation medium was MS +0.2 mg/L 6-BA + 0.5 mg/L NAA + 0.3 mg/L KT + 0.3 mg/L silver nitrate (AgNO3) + 0.2 g/L active carbon (AC), and the buds differentiation rate was up to 71%. The best rooting culture medium was 1/2 MS + 0.6 mg/L indolebutyric acid (IBA). The highest rooting rate was 77%. The analysis of variance showed that genotype, explants growth time, different kinds and concentration of hormone, AC concentration had a significant effect on sunflower regeneration.

  20. 3D video coding: an overview of present and upcoming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Philipp; Müller, Karsten; Wiegand, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An overview of existing and upcoming 3D video coding standards is given. Various different 3D video formats are available, each with individual pros and cons. The 3D video formats can be separated into two classes: video-only formats (such as stereo and multiview video) and depth-enhanced formats (such as video plus depth and multiview video plus depth). Since all these formats exist of at least two video sequences and possibly additional depth data, efficient compression is essential for the success of 3D video applications and technologies. For the video-only formats the H.264 family of coding standards already provides efficient and widely established compression algorithms: H.264/AVC simulcast, H.264/AVC stereo SEI message, and H.264/MVC. For the depth-enhanced formats standardized coding algorithms are currently being developed. New and specially adapted coding approaches are necessary, as the depth or disparity information included in these formats has significantly different characteristics than video and is not displayed directly, but used for rendering. Motivated by evolving market needs, MPEG has started an activity to develop a generic 3D video standard within the 3DVC ad-hoc group. Key features of the standard are efficient and flexible compression of depth-enhanced 3D video representations and decoupling of content creation and display requirements.

  1. Experiencias de la instauración de normas relativas al contenido de plomo en aire y el agua, en los Estados Unidos de América Establishing lead in air and water standards in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Michael Davis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En los Estados Unidos de América se ha logrado una disminución de la exposición a plomo de la población en general, gracias al establecimiento de diversas normas. En este artículo se destaca parte de los conocimientos adquiridos a través de la experiencia obtenida en este país en materia de plomo, en particular respecto al aire y al agua. Uno de los aspectos fundamentales es la posibilidad de contar con una base científica sólidamente establecida y claramente entendida, a partir de la cual se tomarán las medidas correspondientes. Los efectos secundarios de ciertas normas concernientes al aire ponen de manifiesto de qué manera los esfuerzos orientados a solucionar un problema pueden aportar beneficios en otras áreas, si bien pueden surgir consecuencias no deseadas, debido a la falta de previsión y de evaluación. Asimismo, en este documento se discuten las diferencias entre los enfoques centralizados y los descentralizados para el manejo de la exposición a plomo.Lead regulations and standards have resulted in a lower exposure to lead in the general population of the United States of America. This paper highlights some of the know-how developed through lead-containing experiences, particularly regarding lead content in air and water. The availability of a solid and clear scientific knowledge is central to the success of these policies. Collateral effects of some air-related standards show the extent to which problem-oriented efforts may be beneficial in other areas, inasmuch as they may have untoward consequences if careful planning and evaluation are not considered. Finally, this paper presents a discussion of the differences between centralized and decentralized approaches to lead exposure control.

  2. New predictors of sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da Woon; Lee, Yu Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-01-01

    Sleep efficiency is a commonly and widely used measure to objectively evaluate sleep quality. Monitoring sleep efficiency can provide significant information about health conditions. As an attempt to facilitate less cumbersome monitoring of sleep efficiency, our study aimed to suggest new predictors of sleep efficiency that enable reliable and unconstrained estimation of sleep efficiency during awake resting period. We hypothesized that the autonomic nervous system activity observed before falling asleep might be associated with sleep efficiency. To assess autonomic activity, heart rate variability and breathing parameters were analyzed for 5 min. Using the extracted parameters as explanatory variables, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses and k-fold cross-validation tests were performed with 240 electrocardiographic and thoracic volume change signal recordings to develop the sleep efficiency prediction model. The developed model's sleep efficiency predictability was evaluated using 60 piezoelectric sensor signal recordings. The regression model, established using the ratio of the power of the low- and high-frequency bands of the heart rate variability signal and the average peak inspiratory flow value, provided an absolute error (mean ± SD) of 2.18% ± 1.61% and a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.94 (p efficiency predictive values and the reference values. Our study is the first to achieve reliable and unconstrained prediction of sleep efficiency without overnight recording. This method has the potential to be utilized for home-based, long-term monitoring of sleep efficiency and to support reasonable decision-making regarding the execution of sleep efficiency improvement strategies.

  3. Mathematical efficiency calibration in gamma spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, S; Wilhelm, C

    2003-01-01

    Mathematical efficiency calibration with the LabSOCS software was introduced for two detectors in the measurement laboratory of the Central Safety Department of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In the present contribution, conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems and mathematical efficiency calibration with LabSOCS are compared with respect to their performance, uncertainties, expenses, and results. It is reported about the experience gained, and the advantages and disadvantages of both methods of efficiency calibration are listed. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that mathematical efficiency calibration is a real alternative to conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems as obtained by measurements of mixed gamma ray standard sources.

  4. Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2009-01-01

    The Standard Model is in good shape, apart possibly from g_\\mu - 2 and some niggling doubts about the electroweak data. Something like a Higgs boson is required to provide particle masses, but theorists are actively considering alternatives. The problems of flavour, unification and quantum gravity will require physics beyond the Standard Model, and astrophysics and cosmology also provide reasons to expect physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular to provide the dark matter and explain the origin of the matter in the Universe. Personally, I find supersymmetry to be the most attractive option for new physics at the TeV scale. The LHC should establish the origin of particle masses has good prospects for discovering dark matter, and might also cast light on unification and even quantum gravity. Important roles may also be played by lower-energy experiments, astrophysics and cosmology in the searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  5. Building an efficient supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  6. The Future of Geospatial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Simonis, I.

    2016-12-01

    The OGC is an international not-for-profit standards development organization (SDO) committed to making quality standards for the geospatial community. A community of more than 500 member organizations with more than 6,000 people registered at the OGC communication platform drives the development of standards that are freely available for anyone to use and to improve sharing of the world's geospatial data. OGC standards are applied in a variety of application domains including Environment, Defense and Intelligence, Smart Cities, Aviation, Disaster Management, Agriculture, Business Development and Decision Support, and Meteorology. Profiles help to apply information models to different communities, thus adapting to particular needs of that community while ensuring interoperability by using common base models and appropriate support services. Other standards address orthogonal aspects such as handling of Big Data, Crowd-sourced information, Geosemantics, or container for offline data usage. Like most SDOs, the OGC develops and maintains standards through a formal consensus process under the OGC Standards Program (OGC-SP) wherein requirements and use cases are discussed in forums generally open to the public (Domain Working Groups, or DWGs), and Standards Working Groups (SWGs) are established to create standards. However, OGC is unique among SDOs in that it also operates the OGC Interoperability Program (OGC-IP) to provide real-world testing of existing and proposed standards. The OGC-IP is considered the experimental playground, where new technologies are researched and developed in a user-driven process. Its goal is to prototype, test, demonstrate, and promote OGC Standards in a structured environment. Results from the OGC-IP often become requirements for new OGC standards or identify deficiencies in existing OGC standards that can be addressed. This presentation will provide an analysis of the work advanced in the OGC consortium including standards and testbeds

  7. Enterprise Standard Industrial Classification Manual. 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

    This classification is presented to provide a standard for use with statistics about enterprises (i.e., companies, rather than their individual establishments) by kind of economic activity. The enterprise unit consists of all establishments under common direct or indirect ownership. It is defined to include all entities, including subsidiaries,…

  8. Establishment and Evaluation of a One-Step Microplate Chemiluminescence Immunoassay to Detect IgG Antibody Against Treponema Pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijuan; Xie, Yuling; Dai, Zhenxian; Zhuo, Chuanshang; Wu, Yushui

    2015-11-01

    The serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum is of particular importance in the diagnosis of syphilis. The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) has been widely used for clinical diagnosis because they remit no radical waste products, cause no enzyme precipitation, and exhibit an excellent sensitivity. A one-step CLIA was established to detect T. pallidum IgG antibody based on microplate coated with a mixture of recombinant T. pallidum antigens TpN15, TpN17, and TpN47. The Chinese national reference substances standard panel for T. pallidum diagnosis was applied to test the accuracy, stability, interference, and cross-reactivity of the established CLIA. The validation of efficacy for clinical application was performed by comparing the established method with the marketed T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) kit and the Abbott ARCHITEC Auto System. The established method met the requirement of the Chinese national reference substances standard for T. pallidum diagnosis. When compared with TPPA (n = 1,052), the specificity, sensitivity, and overall concordance were 99.7%, 99.0%, and 98.8% respectively, showing a great agreement with a kappa value of 0.81. When compared with the Abbott ARCHITEC Auto System (n = 352), the results showed that the specificity, sensitivity, and overall concordance were 98.6.0%, 96.6% and 98.6% respectively, and a high-degree agreement was observed (kappa value = 0.95). The established rapid, specific, sensitive, and stable microplate CLIA method to detect IgG antibody against T pallidum will provide an efficient alternative to the treponemal tests and wide application in clinical laboratory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  10. Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction: Challenges in Establishing the Diagnosis in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, Raymond; van Tilburg, Mark; Kingma, Herman

    2015-09-15

    Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) probably represents a heterogeneous disorder with different types of clinical pictures, with and without vertigo. In spite of increasingly sophisticated electrophysiological testing, still many challenges are met when establishing a diagnosis of BVH. Here, we review the main challenges, which are a reflection of its often difficult clinical presentation and the lack of diagnostic standards regarding the implementation and interpretation of vestibular tests. These challenges show that there is an urgent need for standardization. The resulting decisions should be used for the development of uniform diagnostic criteria for BVH, which are, at present, not yet available. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Advanced bit establishes superior performance in Ceuta field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensa-Wilmot, G.

    1999-11-01

    A new-generation polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit is redefining operational efficiency and reducing drilling costs in the Ceuta field, in the Lago de Maracaibo area of Venezuela. Its unique cutting structure and advancements in PDC cutter technology have established superior performance in this challenging application. The paper describes the new-generation PDC bit, advanced technology PDC cutters, and performance. A table gives cost per foot evaluation.

  12. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  13. A new pathway to product standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, J

    2000-06-01

    As the benefits of product standardization become more evident in improved financial, managerial, and clinical outcomes, tools to make the process easier will be in demand. Once a standardization program is established, e-commerce offers tools to keep it on track.

  14. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Welding Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the welding cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education, business,…

  15. Commercial Pilot Practical Test Standards for Rotorcraft, Helicopter, Gyroplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Commercial Pilot Rotorcraft (Helicopter and Gyroplane) Practical Test : Standards (PTS) book has been published by the Federal Aviation : Administration (FAA) to establish the standards for commercial pilot certification : practical tests for the...

  16. The Standards of Proof in Student Disciplinary Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nicholas Trott

    1985-01-01

    An institution should have a written procedural policy, including a statement of the standard of proof to be employed. The establishment of "clear and convincing" as the evidentiary standard best suited for the institutional setting is argued. (Author/MLW)

  17. 40 CFR 160.81 - Standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.81 Standard operating procedures... procedures shall be established for, but not limited to, the following: (1) Test system area preparation. (2...

  18. Weaning and establishment of pineapple (Ananas Comosus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vitro propagation). The paper reports on establishment after treatment with two different auxins in-vitro. About ninety-nine (99) percent of the transported plantlets successfully established in compost. Spiny individuals increased with higher ...

  19. innovation platforms for establishment and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    This study was, therefore, designed to document important processes, lessons and challenges encountered from the participatory nursery establishment and management in Borodo and Mekentuta watersheds of central Ethiopia. The processes of establishing nurseries were started by forming Innovation Platforms (IPs).

  20. Overall assessment of the energy efficiency in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Світлана Вікторівна Шастун

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to investigation of the energy efficiency in Ukraine. The author aims to establish the current state of Ukraine energy efficiency and identify the potential of energy efficiency development. The object of research are following areas of energy efficiency in Ukraine: energy efficiency of the regions (including analysis of energy efficiency of the fields of activity, which is within the territorial units, namely agriculture, industry, services, housing sector and determin...