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Sample records for establishing cleanup levels

  1. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10 - 4 carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 μg/ft 2 for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated

  2. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  3. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R.; Conner, B.

    1996-01-01

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities

  4. Multimedia approach to estimating target cleanup levels for soils at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1990-04-01

    Contaminated soils at hazardous and nuclear waste sites pose a potential threat to human health via transport through environmental media and subsequent human intake. To minimize health risks, it is necessary to identify those risks and ensure that appropriate actions are taken to protect public health. The regulatory process may typically include identification of target cleanup levels and evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial alternatives and the corresponding reduction in risks at a site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that exposure assessments be combined with toxicity information to quantify the health risk posed by a specific site. This recommendation then forms the basis for establishing target cleanup levels. An exposure assessment must first identify the chemical concentration in a specific medium (soil, water, air, or food), estimate the exposure potential based on human intake from that media, and then combined with health criteria to estimate the upperbound health risks for noncarcinogens and carcinogens. Estimation of target cleanup levels involves the use of these same principles but can occur in reverse order. The procedure starts from establishing a permissible health effect level and ends with an estimated target cleanup level through an exposure assessment process. 17 refs

  5. Development of a matrix approach to estimate soil clean-up levels for BTEX compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbas-White, I.; San Juan, C.

    1993-01-01

    A draft state-of-the-art matrix approach has been developed for the State of Washington to estimate clean-up levels for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in deep soils based on an endangerment approach to groundwater. Derived soil clean-up levels are estimated using a combination of two computer models, MULTIMED and VLEACH. The matrix uses a simple scoring system that is used to assign a score at a given site based on the parameters such as depth to groundwater, mean annual precipitation, type of soil, distance to potential groundwater receptor and the volume of contaminated soil. The total score is then used to obtain a soil clean-up level from a table. The general approach used involves the utilization of computer models to back-calculate soil contaminant levels in the vadose zone that would create that particular contaminant concentration in groundwater at a given receptor. This usually takes a few iterations of trial runs to estimate the clean-up levels since the models use the soil clean-up levels as ''input'' and the groundwater levels as ''output.'' The selected contaminant levels in groundwater are Model Toxic control Act (MTCA) values used in the State of Washington

  6. High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements

  7. Acid fractionation for low level liquid waste cleanup and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D. II; McIntyre, C.V.; Mizia, R.E.; Schindler, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, low level liquid wastes containing small amounts of radionuclides are concentrated via a thermosyphon evaporator for calcination with high level waste, and the evaporator condensates are discharged with other plant wastewater to a percolation pond. Although all existing discharge guidelines are currently met, work has been done to reduce all waste water discharges to an absolute minimum. In this regard, a 15-tray acid fractionation column will be used to distill the mildly acidic evaporator condensates into concentrated nitric acid for recycle in the plant. The innocuous overheads from the fractionator having a pH greater than 2, are superheated and HEPA filtered for atmospheric discharge. Nonvolatile radionuclides are below detection limits. Recycle of the acid not only displaces fresh reagent, but reduces nitrate burden to the environment, and completely eliminates routine discharge of low level liquid wastes to the environment

  8. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  9. Development of cleanup criteria for historic low-level radioactive waste sites in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, R.W.; Chambers, D.B.; Lowe, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe recent work performed to develop cleanup criteria, and their current status, for historic low-level radioactive waste sites in Canada. These historic wastes date back to 1933, when a radium refinery began operation in Port Hope, Ontario. The problem of residual wastes and contaminated buildings and soils in Port Hope, resulting from the practices in the early years of radium and uranium production, was discovered in the mid-1970s, and a large scale cleanup program carried out. This work was concentrated on developed properties. As a result, substantial quantities of contaminated materials remained in a number of large undeveloped areas. A number of additional historic waste sites have subsequently been discovered at other locations in Canada, where buildings and/or soils were contaminated with uranium ores or concentrates spilled during transport, or with processing residues, or as a result of the use of radium containing materials. There has been substantial evolution of the criteria for cleanup of these sites over the almost 20 year period since work started at the first sites

  10. (Review Draft) Radiation Site Cleanup Regulations: Technical Support Document For The Development Of Radionuclide Cleanup Levels For Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes parts of the technical analysis being undertaken in support of standards that ensure certain sites are cleaned up to a level that is protective of human health and the environment before they are released for public use.

  11. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  12. Clean-up levels for recovery of a 137Cs contaminated site in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 19 km long banks of the Bohunice NPP waste water recipient (Manivier canal (0.3 m 3 /s) and Dudvah River (0.8 m 3 /s)) has been identified as contaminated by 137 Cs as a result of two accidents on the CO 2 cooled and heavy water moderated NPP-A1 unit in 1976 and 1977. Until 1992, NPP waste water had been derived through a 5 km-long canal to the Dudvah River (Q a 1.8 m 3 /s) conducting with the Vah River (150 m 3 /s) after 13 km downstream at 90 km from Vah's mouth into the Danube River. Between 1976 and 1978, when both accidents happened, construction of a flood control project on Dudvah River had just been being implemented in the length of 8 km upstream of its mouth. In the next upstream part of the River with about 5 km long river section, affected by NPP, the flood control conditions are insufficient and has, hitherto, caused permanent concern of the public. In this paper authors deals with the radiological characterization of the contaminated banks, re-consideration of the restoration project, criteria dose assessments and cleanup level developments, as well as present conditions for implementation of planned bank restoration

  13. Establishing diagnostic reference levels in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bana, Remy Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Medical application of radiation has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine. The need of the service seems to increase since the invention of digital radiology as a new technology that promises greater accuracy while minimizing patient dose. However, it is not exempted in the harmonization of doses delivered to the patient undergoing same radiologic examination in different institutions either regional or nationwide. The objective of this project was to review the establishment of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in digital radiology at National level with the aim to reduce patient dose while maintaining appropriate image quality. A general discussion on digital radiology has been presented focusing on the optimization of patient dose as well as dosimetric quantities used for the establishment of DRLs. Recommendations have been provided for Rwanda to initiate steps to establish National Diagnostic Reference Levels for common procedures in digital radiology. (au)

  14. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-01-01

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act (open-quotes CERCLAclose quotes) and the Atomic Energy Act (open-quotes AEAclose quotes) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (open-quotes NRCclose quotes) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency (open-quotes EPAclose quotes) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA's liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites

  15. Mold: Cleanup and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Cleanup and Remediation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... CDC and EPA on mold cleanup, removal and remediation. Cleanup information for you and your family Homeowner’s ...

  16. Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Hees, M. van

    2004-01-01

    Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238 U kg -1 ) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238 U kg -1 ). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg -1 ) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha -1 , respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production

  17. Cleanup levels for Am-241, Pu-239, U-234, U-235 and U-238 in soils at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.; Colby, B.; Brooks, L.; Slaten, S.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines a cleanup program at a Rocky Flats site through viewgraphs and an executive summary. Exposure pathway analyses to be performed are identified, and decontamination levels are listed for open space and office worker exposure areas. The executive summary very briefly describes the technical approach, RESRAD computer code to be used for analyses, recommendations for exposure levels, and application of action levels to multiple radionuclide contamination. Determination of action levels for surface and subsurface soils, based on radiation doses, is discussed. 1 tab

  18. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  19. Establishment of local Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is an essential optimization tool in radiography and radiological sciences. The objective of the study is to establish DRL for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria. A Prospective cross- sectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria.

  20. Approaches towards establishing of clearance levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitani, N.; Watanabe, I.; Okoshi, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to establish necessary regulatory systems for decommissioning waste management, especially to establish clearance levels from regulatory control. To establish the regulatory systems, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) has been discussing the unconditional clearance levels for materials from nuclear reactors since May 1997. The NSC tries to derive unconditional clearance levels for the materials such as concrete and ferrous metal, arising from nuclear reactor decommissioning. In the derivation, both disposal and recycle/reuse of the materials are considered. Typical scenarios and parameter values for dose estimation are selected considering the Japanese natural and social conditions. Preliminary clearance levels were derived from 10 μSv/yr of individual dose criterion and deterministic analysis. For most radionuclides, the preliminary results are the same order of magnitude recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. Some radionuclides such as β emitters, however, are different order of magnitude from those recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. It is necessary that international organizations lead the discussions on the clearance levels to conclude final consensus. (author)

  1. Establishing a reference range for triiodothyronine levels in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki Won; Koo, Mi Sung; Park, Hye Won; Chung, Mi Lim; Kim, Min-ho; Lim, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid dysfunction affects clinical complications in preterm infants and older children. However, thyroid hormone replacement in preterm infants has no proven benefits, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate reference range for thyroid hormone levels. We aimed to establish a reference range for triiodothyronine (T3) levels at 1-month postnatal age (PNA) in preterm infants. This retrospective study included preterm infants born at a tertiary referral neonatal center at gestational age (GA)<35 weeks with no apparent thyroid dysfunction, for 6 consecutive years, with follow-up from PNA 2 weeks to 16 weeks. Using thyroid function tests (TFT), the relationships between T3 levels and thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels, birth weight, GA, postmenstrual age (PMA), and PNA were examined. The conversion trend for fT4 to T3 was analyzed using the T3/fT4 ratio. Overall, 464 TFTs from 266 infants were analyzed, after excluding 65 infants with thyroid dysfunction. T3 levels increased with fT4 levels, birth weight, GA, PMA, and PNA but not with TSH levels. The T3/fT4 ratio also increased with GA, PNA, and PMA. The average T3 level at 1 month PNA was 72.56 ± 27.83 ng/dL, with significant stratifications by GA. Relatively low T3 and fT4 levels in preterm infants were considered normal, with T3 levels and conversion trends increasing with GA, PMA, and PNA. Further studies are required to confirm the role of the present reference range in thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishment of dose reference levels for mammography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalathaki, M.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Economides, S.; Tritakis, P.; Manousaridis, G.; Kalyvas, N.; Simantirakis, G.; Kipouros, P.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Diagnostic Reference Levels (D.R.L.) are dose levels established in medical practices for typical x-ray examinations concerning groups of standard size patients or standard phantoms and broadly defined types of equipment. When good and normal practice is performed, these levels are not expected to be exceeded. This work is an attempt to establish for the first time the D.R.L. for mammography in Greece. At present, there are 402 mammographic systems in clinical use all over the country. This study that lasted 3 years (2000-2003), includes 117 of these systems, 85% of which are installed in private and 15% in public sector countrywide. Measurements of entrance surface dose (E.S.D.) were performed as a part of the regular inspections performed by the Licensing and Inspections Department of Greek Atomic Energy Commission on the basis of the laboratories licensing procedure. Moreover, the entire performance of the mammographic units was assessed by quantitative and qualitative measurements of specific parameters. In order to establish the national D.R.L., a standard phantom was used during the quality control of the mammographic units and E.S.D. measurements were performed based on the clinical practice of each laboratory. The D.R.L. for this type of examination was established according to the 75. percentile of the E.S.D. curve and found equal to 7 mGy per single view. The comparison of this value with the one reported by the European Commission (10 mGy per view), indicates that the D.R.L. for mammography is lower in Greece. However, the primary concern of a mammographic examination is to keep breast dose as low as reasonably achievable while providing images with the maximum amount of diagnostic information. The quality of the produced images was therefore assessed for all systems examined, regardless of meeting or exceeding the quality criteria reference surface entrance dose. The results showed that the average total score of the

  3. Sea Level Forecasts Aggregated from Established Operational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Taylor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A system for providing routine seven-day forecasts of sea level observable at tide gauge locations is described and evaluated. Forecast time series are aggregated from well-established operational systems of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; although following some adjustments these systems are only quasi-complimentary. Target applications are routine coastal decision processes under non-extreme conditions. The configuration aims to be relatively robust to operational realities such as version upgrades, data gaps and metadata ambiguities. Forecast skill is evaluated against hourly tide gauge observations. Characteristics of the bias correction term are demonstrated to be primarily static in time, with time varying signals showing regional coherence. This simple approach to exploiting existing complex systems can offer valuable levels of skill at a range of Australian locations. The prospect of interpolation between observation sites and exploitation of lagged-ensemble uncertainty estimates could be meaningfully pursued. Skill characteristics define a benchmark against which new operational sea level forecasting systems can be measured. More generally, an aggregation approach may prove to be optimal for routine sea level forecast services given the physically inhomogeneous processes involved and ability to incorporate ongoing improvements and extensions of source systems.

  4. Establishing the level of exposure to radon gas in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karupa, Jackson Uakaningirua

    2016-04-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia will be estimated using passive or active radon detector. The primary objective of the study is to measure and establish radon levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund of Namibia. Measurements will be carried out for the period of twelve months and after three months period the detectors will be exchanged for laboratory analysis. The results obtained from the study will reveal the concentration of radon in most of the selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia. Once Radon level is measured or identified, the results with data from work done in other environments in Africa and elsewhere will be compared. In case of high radon concentrations in dwelling, the occupants will be advised to ensure good ventilation practices as cost effective means of mitigation of indoor radon gas level in the area. (au)

  5. Effectiveness of cleanup criteria relative to an accidental nuclear release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an accidental nuclear release, the associated long-term radiological risks would result primarily from ground contamination pathways. Cleanup of the contaminated ground surfaces is a necessary step toward reducing the radiological risk to the general population. Ideally, the radiological risk decreases as the level of cleanup effort increases; however, as the cleanup criterion (i.e., the required contaminant concentration after cleanup) becomes more stringent, the cleanup effort may become prohibitively costly. This study examines several factors that are important in determining the effectiveness of the cleanup criteria for selected radionuclides: (a) annual individual dose commitment (mrem/yr), (b) total population environmental dose commitment (person-rem), and (c) total area (km 2 ) requiring cleanup following an accident. To effectively protect the general population, the benefits of cleanup should be weighed against the potentially large increase in cleanup area (and the associated costs) as the cleanup criterion becomes more stringent. The effectiveness of cleanup will vary, depending largely on site-specific parameters such as population density and agricultural productivity as well as on the amount and type of radionuclide released. Determination of an optimum cleanup criterion should account for all factors, including a comprehensive cost/benefit analysis

  6. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  7. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  8. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  9. Sorters for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.; Tomicich, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sorter is a system with conveyor, radiation detectors, and a gate. The system activates the gate based on radiation measurements to sort soil to either clean or contaminated paths. Automatic soil sorters have been perfected for use in the cleanup of plutonium contaminated soil at Johnston Atoll. The cleanup processes soil through a plant which mines plutonium to make soil clean. Sorters at various locations in the plant effectively reduce the volume of soil for mining and they aid in assuring clean soil meets guidelines

  10. Moderator clean-up system in a heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasada, Yasuhiro; Hamamura, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the fluctuation of the poison concentration in heavy water moderator due to a heavy water clean-up system. Constitution: To a calandria tank filled with heavy water as poison-containing moderators, are connected both end of a pipeway through which heavy water flows and to which a clean-up device is provided. Strongly basic resin is filled within the clean-up device and a cooler is disposed to a pipeway at the upstream of the clean-up device. In this structure, the temperature of heavy water at the inlet of the clean-up device at a constant level between the temperature at the exit of the cooler and the lowest temperature for the moderator to thereby decrease the fluctuation in the poison concentration in the heavy water moderator due to the heavy water clean-up device. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Establishment of Guidance Levels in General Radiography and Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    Coordinated project report IAEA ARCAL LXXV-RLA/9/048 Pilot Exercise for Developing and Setting Levels Reference in General Radiography and Mammography as a Tool for Optimizing Radiation Protection and Reduce Patient Exposure in Latin America

  12. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  13. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed

  14. Establishing a national safeguards system at the State level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lizana, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the guide to a workshop designed to enable the participants to gain a better understanding of National Safeguards Systems and their functions. The workshop provides an opportunity to address the requirements for the organization that has to carry out the system functions at the State level in a country having a research reactor and ancillary laboratories

  15. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while limits of detection

  16. US DoE clean-up programme: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established in 1989, when the US DoE's priority changed from nuclear weapons production to environmental clean-up. Both the decreased need for nuclear weapons due to global changes and decreasing threats from the Cold War, and the increased emphasis on environmental stewardship contributed to this change. The Environmental Restoration (ER) programme within EM was tasked to ensure that risks to human health and the environment posed by the DoE's past operations at its nuclear facilities and sites are eliminated or reduced to prescribed, safe levels. This article is a progress report on the programme. (author)

  17. Architecture synthesis basis for the Hanford Cleanup system: First issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes a set of candidate alternatives proposed to accomplish the Hanford Cleanup system functions defined in a previous work. Development of alternatives is part of a sequence of system engineering activities which lead to definition of all the products which, when completed, accomplish the cleanup mission. The alternative set is developed to functional level four or higher depending on need

  18. Diabetes mellitus morbidity in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstaya, E.V.; Ermakova, D.P.; Glinskaya, T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and total diabetes mellitus morbidity in Chernobyl clean-up workers was examined during 1995-2014 period. During all the period of investigations levels of acute and total morbidity were higher in clean-up workers, than in total Belarusian population. (authors)

  19. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  20. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  1. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a food additive, may be established to define a level of contamination at which a food may be... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a food additive, may be established to define a level of contamination at which a food may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Reactor coolant cleanup device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Noboru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to introduce reactor water at high temperature and high pressure as it is, as well as effectively adsorb to eliminate cobalt in reactor water. Constitution: The coolant cleanup device comprises a vessel main body inserted to coolant pipeway circuits in a water cooled reactor power plant and filters contained within the vessel main body. The filters are prepared by coating and baking powder of metal oxides such as manganese ferrite having a function capable of adsorbing cobalt in the coolants onto the surface of supports made of metals or ceramics resistant to strong acids and alkalies in the form of three-dimensional network structure, for example, zircaloy-2, SUS 303 and the zirconia (baking) to form a basic filter elements. The basic filter elements are charged in plurality to the vessel main body. (Kawaiami, Y.)

  4. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project's multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition

  5. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  6. Accelerating cleanup. Paths to closure Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    1998-01-01

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE's national strategy, the Richland Operations Office's Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established

  7. A computer program for deriving soil cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has issued a new order, DOE Order 5400.5, for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. In this order, the DOE sets forth radiological protection guidelines for the cleanup of residual radioactive materials. Radionuclide concentrations and radioactivity levels have been established that are acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. The guidelines can be categorized as either generic (site independent), that is, taken from existing radiation protection standards, or site specific, that is, derived from the basic dose limit using site-specific data and models. The generic guidelines for soil concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 230 Th, and 232 Th adopted in DOE Order 5400.5 are generally consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency standards in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192. Procedures and data for deriving site-specific guidelines for other radionuclides in soil have been coded in a microcomputer program called RESRAD. The RESRAD code has been used by the DOE and its contractors to calculate postremediation doses and cleanup guidelines. The RESRAD code is a useful, easy to run, and very user-friendly tool

  8. Development of international criteria for the cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Barraclough, I.; Meck, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Stegnar, P.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA TECDOC-987, Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas, provides a coherent framework and consistent guidance needed for approaches to cleanup that encompass the entire range of contamination situations. A major goal of cleanup is usually to re-establish that the environment can acceptably support habitation and use. Difficult situations include chronic exposures due to radioactivity associated with the discovery of contamination from a previously discontinued practice and post-accident situations. and post-accident situations. The concepts of justification, optimization, and limitation can be applied to cleanup from 'trivial' to 'intolerable' situations by taking into account not only radiological risk, but the entire range of social values including the ability of the society to feed and shelter itself and to sustain a productive economy. TECDOC-987 proposes six ranges, or bands, of doses that correspond to trivial, acceptable, tolerable - clean-up unlikely (unless constrained), tolerable - clean-up likely, unacceptable, and intolerable risks. Remedial actions may vary from 'none' to elaborate decontamination or restricted or prohibited use. (author)

  9. Cleanup around an old waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergaast, G.; Moffett, D.; Lawrence, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    42,500 m 3 of contaminated soil were removed from off-site areas around an old, low-level radioactive waste site near Port Hope, Ontario. The cleanup was done by means of conventional excavation equipment to criteria developed by Eldorado specific to the land use around the company's waste management facility. These cleanup criteria were based on exposure analyses carried out for critical receptors in two different scenarios. The excavated soils, involving eight different landowners, were placed on the original burial area of the waste management facility. Measures were also undertaken to stabilize the soils brought on-site and to ensure that there would be no subsequent recontamination of the off-site areas

  10. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management's (EM's) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE's 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM's accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document

  11. Trust-Based Working Time and Organizational Performance: Evidence from German Establishment-Level Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Beckmann; Istvàn Hegedüs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of trust-based working time on firm performance using panel data from German establishments. Trust-based working time is a human resource management practice that involves a high degree of worker autonomy in terms of scheduling individual working time. From the theoretical viewpoint, trust-based working time may affect worker motivation positively as well as negatively. Therefore, at the establishment level the performance effects of trust-based work...

  12. Innovative technologies for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested

  13. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  14. 77 FR 9847 - Safety Zone; Kinnickinnic River Containment and Cleanup; Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Kinnickinnic River due to the petroleum cleanup efforts. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the...-AA00 Safety Zone; Kinnickinnic River Containment and Cleanup; Milwaukee, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the...

  15. The Approach to Cleanup at West Cumbria's Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    2006-01-01

    The cleanup of West Cumbria's nuclear sites is one of the most important and demanding managerial, technical and environmental challenges facing the UK over the next century. Considerable progress has already been made in cleaning up the Sellafield, Calder Hall, and Low-level Waste Repository (LLWR) sites but there remains significant challenge ahead. There are more than 200 nuclear facilities at the sites including redundant fuel storage ponds, redundant chemical plants and silos of solid waste and sludge. These legacy buildings exist alongside commercially operating reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. They are all linked together by a complex network of services including gas supplies, water supplies, waste disposal routes, and chemical supply routes. Many of the buildings requiring cleanup are very old and date back to the early years of the British nuclear industry. They were not designed with decommissioning in mind, and some require substantial improvement to provide a safe foundation from which to retrieve waste and decommission. The cleanup of these legacy facilities must be carefully balanced with the ongoing operations that provide services to commercial customers. Cleanup must be carried out safely and efficiently, without impacting upon commercial operations whose revenue is vital to funding the Cleanup organizations scope of work. This paper will introduce the cleanup approach at West Cumbria's Sellafield nuclear site. It will provide an overview of what is being done in preparation to meet the formidable but rewarding challenge ahead. (authors)

  16. Oil spills and their cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    Oil spills are an unfortunately common occurrence in the world's seas and can have extensive damaging environmental consequences. This article examines various methods of cleaning up oil spills, evaluates their effectiveness in various situations, and identifies areas where, current methods being inadequate, further research is needed. Containment, mechanical removal, shoreline cleanup, chemical treating agents, in situ burning, natural recovery and enhanced bioremediation are all assessed. The cleanup method must be selected to match environmental conditions. Results are good in quiet, sheltered waters, but need extensive development in open waters and high seas. (UK)

  17. USING RESPONSES OF OYSTERS IN ESTABLISHING MINIMUM FLOWS AND LEVELS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volety, Aswani K., S. Gregory Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Using Responses of Oysters in Establishing Minimum Flows and Levels in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida (Abstract). Presented at the 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, 20-24 November 2002, Ch...

  18. Establishing managerial requirements for low-and intermediate-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C. W.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, H. T.; Park, W. J.; Suk, T. W.; Park, S. H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews basic considerations for establishing managerial requirements on the domestic low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository and presents the corresponding draft requirements. The draft emphasizes their close linking with the related regulations, standards and safety assessment for the repository. It also proposes a desirable direction towards harmonizing together with the existing waste acceptance requirements for the repository

  19. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  20. Consolidating federal facility cleanup: Some pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynes, D.B.; Boss, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that Congress establish a permanent, full-time, independent national commission for radioactive waste management activities at DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex. DOE regulates certain aspects of its treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive waste by orders that are not promulgated by ''notice and comment'' or other procedures in the Administration Procedures Act. Because many agencies are not legally and technologically structured to handle their own cleanup problems, these activities might be conducted by one entity that can share information and staff among these agencies. There are rational arguments for both sides of this issue. Some of the advantages of such an organization include: focusing Congress's attention on an integrated federal facility cleanup instead of a fragmented, agency by agency approach, and an ability to prioritize cleanup decisions among agencies. Some significant obstacles include: reluctance by Congress and the executive branch to create any new bureaucracy at a time of budget deficits, and a loss of momentum from the progress already being made by the agencies. Given that more than $9 billion was proposed for FY 93 alone for federal facilities' cleanup programs and that decades will pass before all problems are addressed, it is appropriate to consider new approaches to environmental cleanup. This paper begins the dialogue about new ways to improve decision-making and government spending

  1. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  2. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL's Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed

  3. Development of teleoperated cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kwon, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of a teleoperated cleanup system for use in a highly radioactive environment of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Demonstration Facility) at KAERI where direct human access to the in-cell is strictly limited. The teleoperated cleanup system was designed to remotely remove contaminants placed or fixed on the floor surface of the hot-cell by mopping them with wet cloth. This cleanup system consists of a mopping slave, a mopping master and a control console. The mopping slave located at the in-cell comprises a mopping tool with a mopping cloth and a mobile platform, which were constructed in modules to facilitate maintenance. The mopping master that is an input device to control the mopping slave has kinematic dissimilarity with the mopping slave. The control console provides a means of bilateral control flows and communications between the mopping master and the mopping slave. In operation, the human operator from the out-of-cell performs a series of decontamination tasks remotely by manipulating the mopping slave located in-cell via a mopping master, having a sense of real mopping. The environmental and mechanical design considerations, and control systems of the developed teleoperated cleanup system are also described

  4. The establishment and use of dose reference levels in general paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.J.; Hardwick, J.; Mencik, C.; McLaren, C.; Young, C.; Mashford, P.

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels for general paediatric radiology have been established in terms of delivered exposure parameters rather than skin dose or dose-area product. With supporting measurements from equipment quality assurance and assumptions of standard patient sizes it was possible to derive reference levels in terms of entrance surface dose. This allowed comparison to be made with other published data. The reference levels for common examinations are presented for different age bands. There is a notable variation with patient age for some examinations which is not apparent in other published data. (author)

  5. A decision-making process on cleanup of contaminated surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    This study presents principles for determining derived intervention levels (DILs) for surface soil cleanup. The people concerned were divided into major three groups: residents, responsible parties, and cleanup workers; it was considered that each group has different interests. The DILs for soil cleanup were determined from the viewpoints of these three groups: safety of residence, advantages of the countermeasures, and safety of cleanup activities, respectively. An example process for determination of the DILs in accordance with the principles was also presented for a site contaminated by 137 Cs. This decision-making frame is expected to be applicable to other contaminants. (author)

  6. Negotiating NORM cleanup and land use limits: Practical use of dose assessment and cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Oil companies are presently faced with complex and costly environmental decisions, especially concerning NORM cleanup and disposal. Strict cleanup limits and disposal restrictions are established, in theory, to protect public health and environment. While public health is directly measured in terms of dose (mrem/yr), most NORM regulations adopt soil concentration limits to ensure future public health is maintained. These derived soil limits create the potential for unnecessary burden to operators without additional health benefit to society. Operators may use a dose assessment to show direct compliance with dose limits, negotiating less restrictive cleanup levels and land use limits. This paper discusses why a dose assessment is useful to Oilfield operators, NORM exposure scenarios and pathways, assessment advantages, variables and recommendations and one recent dose assessment application. Finally, a cost benefit analysis tool for regulatory negotiations will be presented allowing comparison of Oilfield NORM health benefit costs to that of other industries. One use for this tool--resulting in the savings of approximately $100,000--will be discussed

  7. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  8. An evaluation of naturally occurring levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in a small city and the impact on clean-up criteria and risk assessment - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, C.A.; Lund, K.D. [Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Novi, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. conducted an investigation of potential manufactured gas plant (MGP) impacts at a site in a small city in the midwestern United States. Published literature pertaining to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface soils in urban environments has focused mainly on large historically urban areas. As a result, it has been difficult to correlate PAH levels encountered in surface soils during evaluations of MGP sites to typical urban background levels. An investigation completed by Geraghty & Miller of an MGP site in a city with a population of approximately 40 000 has shown that background levels of PAHs can range from non-detectable levels to as high as 44 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg). The detailed surface-soil evaluation was necessary because a portion of the former MGP property is currently a residential apartment complex and is used as a playground for an elementary school. The regulatory agency required characterization of surface soils for MGP-indicator parameters such as PAHs, metals, cyanide, and volatile organics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Although the levels of total PAHs ranged as high as 31.5 mg/kg, Geraghty & Miller`s experience with similar sites suggested that the detected levels were likely indicative of urban background conditions. Many of the PAHs in urban soils are from recent activities not old industries. Before soil remediation current pollution sources should be checked.

  9. Establishment of standard low energy x-ray, radioprotection levels, for calibration of instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eliane Carmo

    1995-01-01

    Seven standard low energy X-rays fields were established, radioprotection level, at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Five of the standard calibration qualities used at the National Physical Laboratory, England, with energies between 16 and 38 keV, and two recommended by the International Standard Organization, with energies of 33 and 48 keV, were reproduced. The calibration conditions, radiotherapy level, from 14 to 21 keV, were also verified. Different portable radiation monitors as ionization chambers and Geiger-Mueller detectors were studied in relation to their energy dependence. (author)

  10. Preplanning of early cleanup. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A pre-study 'Pre-planning of early cleanup after fallout of radioactive material' made by Studvik EcoSafe has pointed out the need and request for pre-planning of actions. Based on the pre-study this project was started with the goal to work out guidelines and checklists. Because of the common interest between the Nordic countries NKS is the organization responsible for the project. The results of the project will be a document pointing out what can be planned in advance, including guidelines and checklists, regarding early cleanup actions after a nuclear plant accident in or in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. In this work 'early' means the three first weeks after an accident. The project only deals with questions concerning external radiation. The document shall be usable by persons in charge of planning or decision makers on the appropriate level of organization for each country. The document shall principally be aimed towards persons without professional competence in the field of radiology. The result will be presented for a limited number of generalized environments and fallout situations: urban/suburban/rural (concentrating on urban/suburban); regional differences (in for example house types and constructing material); dry or wet deposition. Five housing environments, ten cleanup actions and wet or dry deposition are treated. For 66 combinations calculations are made and the results are documented as data sheets, each describing the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. This data forms the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. (EG)

  11. Pursing other deep pockets: California's underground storage tank cleanup fund and insurance policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almanza, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    When faced with a potentially very expensive environmental cleanup, most companies and individuals try to do the only sensible thing, which is to find out if anyone else will pay the bill. This presentation will outline two avenues that may provide a substantial financial contribution to environmental cleanups: (a) California's Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund and (b) insurance policies. The Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund was established in 1989 to help eligible owners and operators of petroleum underground storage tanks (USTs) to: (a) get reimbursed for costs of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; (b) get reimbursed for damages awarded to third parties as a result of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; and (c) meet federal and state requirements that the UST owner and/or operator be able to pay for cleanup costs and damages to third parties caused by unauthorized releases of petroleum

  12. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, S.; Hughes, C.; D'Helft, C.I.; McGee, A.; Rainford, L.; Brennan, P.C.; McCrum-Gardner, E.; Winder, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information worldwide on radiation exposure in paediatric interventional cardiology. At present Nationally established Diagnostic Reference Levels exist for adult interventional cardiology procedures in the UK but little data is available for paediatrics. In addition, interventional cardiology has been identified as one the highest contributors to medical exposure to ionising radiation and children are more radiosensitive than adults. Objective: This study sought to determine current radiation dose levels in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) with a view to establishing local diagnostic reference levels (LDRL). Methods: Radiation dose and examination details were recorded for 354 paediatric patients examined by IC in a specialised paediatric centre in Europe. Radiation doses were recorded using a Dose Area Product meter along with examination details. Procedures were categorised as either diagnostic (A) or therapeutic (B). Data was further sub-divided into five age ranges; (1) newborn <1 year (2) 1 <5 years (3) 5 <10 years (4) 10 <15 years (5) 15 years and over. Proposed LDRL were calculated from the mean dose area product readings. Results: The mean patient age was 2.6 years (range 0.0 days–16 years) and weight was 14.9 kg (range 2.4–112 kg). LDRL for the five age groupings were calculated as 190, 421, 582, 1289 and 1776 cGycm² respectively. Conclusion: Local dose reference levels have been proposed for paediatric IC and can be used as a benchmark for other hospitals to compare against their own radiation doses

  13. Patient dose measurements in fluoroscopic examinations, aiming to the establishment of reference levels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevaro, L.; Drexler, G.

    2001-01-01

    This work was performed to investigate the actual exposure levels of the patients submitted to fluoroscopic procedures in diagnostic radiology. The data will be useful for a baseline in the establishment of local reference levels for fluoroscopic procedures, as recommended by the European Commission and IAEA. At present time there are no internationally accepted definitions for references levels for fluoroscopic complex procedures. Dose-area product (DAP) meters were employed in a pilot survey expressing the radiation exposures in terms of this quantity. This class of instrumentation has not yet been employed in Brazil. Parameters recorded were radiographic technique, fluoroscopy time, number of images, fluoroscopic and radiographic field sizes and DAPs. For fluoroscopy practice, a reference parameters set is recommended, instead of one diagnostic reference level. High patient exposures were found, calling for joined actions of health authorities, physicians, medical physicists, technicians and manufacturers. Monitoring of patient exposure, optimizing the radiation protection and establishing quantitative assessments of the exposition to the population in Brazil in this kind of procedure is important. (author)

  14. A tritium vessel cleanup experiment in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Owens, D.K.; Voorhees, D.; Mueller, D.; Ramsey, A.T.; La Marche, P.H.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    A simple tritium cleanup experiment was carried out in TFTR following the initial high power deuterium-tritium discharges in December 1993. A series of 34 ohmic and deuterium neutral beam fueled shots was used to study the removal of tritium implanted into the wall and limiters. A very large plasma was created in each discharge to ''scrub'' an area as large as possible. Beam-fueled shots at 2.5 to 7.5 MW of injected power were used to monitor tritium concentration levels in the plasma by detection of DT-neutrons. The neutron signal decreased by a factor of 4 during the experiment, remaining well above the expected T-burnup level. The amount of tritium recovered at the end of the cleanup was about 8% of the amount previously injected with high power DT discharges. The experience gained suggests that measurements of tritium inventory in the torus are very difficult to execute and require dedicated systems with overall accuracy of 1%

  15. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  16. A recommended procedure for establishing the source level relationships between heroin case samples of unknown origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent concern of how to reliably establish the source level relationships of heroin case samples is addressed in this paper. Twenty-two trafficking heroin case samples of unknown origins seized from two major regions (Kuala Lumpur and Penang in Malaysia were studied. A procedure containing six major steps was followed to analyze and classify these samples. Subsequently, with the aid of statistical control samples, reliability of the clustering result was assessed. The final outcome reveals that the samples seized from the two regions in 2013 had highly likely originated from two different sources. Hence, the six-step procedure is sufficient for any chemist who attempts to assess the relative source level relationships of heroin samples.

  17. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio T.; Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Taveira, Gerson L.S.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  18. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taveira, Gerson L.S., E-mail: gersonluizst@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao Civil

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  19. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in

  20. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated

  1. Cleanup of radioactivity contamination in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    1994-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity cleanup is needed under a large scale accident in a reactor or in an RI irradiation facility which associates big disperse of radioactivities. Here, the fundamental concept including a radiation protection target, a period classification, planning, an information data base, etc. Then, the methods and measuring instruments on radioactivity contamination and the cleanup procedure are explained. Finally, the real site examples of accidental cleanup are presented for a future discussion. (author)

  2. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  3. Establishment of standard x-ray qualities to be used in diagnostic level at SSDLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Aziz, R.O.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to modify x-ray machine (used by the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in Sudan) to produce x-ray qualities suitable for the calibration at diagnostic level. It based on experimental evaluations. The importance of this study appears in development of protocols to calibrate the instruments used in diagnostic radiology in by good response of the instruments and low cost. In particular, the half value layer (HVL) values for the following qualities 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 were determined using various attenuation layers. Ionization chamber was used to determine the free air kerma rate at a distance of 100 cm from the x-ray generator. The obtained HVL values were compared with standard values of diagnostic levels. It was observed that the HVL of the present x-ray machine in most qualities are smaller than the standard ones. An approved method (described in the standard IEC 61267) was applied to determine the amount of additional filtration required to meet the standard values. The results show that the available cupper layers were not suitable for this purpose as most of the x-ray was absorbed in the material. Aluminum layers, on the other hand , show good performances to reduce the beams to the desired levels. The amount of additional filtration (from aluminum layers) needed in order to establish standard x-ray qualities to be used in diagnostic level were determined.(Author)

  4. Coolant cleanup system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Usui, Naoshi; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the electric conductivity of reactor water lower and to minimize the heat loss in the cleanup system by providing a low temperature cleanup system and a high temperature cleanup system together. Constitution: A low temperature cleanup system using ion exchange resins as filter aids and a high temperature cleanup system using inorganic ion exchange materials as filter aids are provided in combination. A part of the reactor water in a reactor pressure vessel is passed through a conductivity meter, one portion of which flows into the high temperature cleanup system having no heat exchanger and filled with inorganic ion exchange materials by way of a first flow rate control valve and the other portion of which flows into the low temperature cleanup system having heat exchangers and filled with the ion exchange materials by way of a second control valve. The first control valve is adjusted so as to flow, for example, about more than 15% of the feedwater flow rate to the high temperature cleanup system and the second control valve is adjusted with its valve opening degree depending on the indication of the conductivity meter so as to flow about 2 - 7 % of the feedwater flow rate into the low temperature cleanup system, to thereby control the electric conductivity to between 0.055 - 0.3 μS/cm. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  6. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75 th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75 th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75 th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future

  7. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousaridis, G.; Koukorava, C.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Yakoumakis, E.; Tsiklakis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from K i , air and field size. (authors)

  8. Helping with the clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1990-01-01

    Successes in public involvement efforts for nuclear waste management are so few that they deserve careful documentation and analysis. This paper chronicles the goals, process, problems and outcomes of one such success, the Northwest Defense Waste Citizens Forum (CF), created by the DOE-Richland manager in 1986 to advise DOE on its plans for nuclear waste disposal and cleanup of the Hanford site n eastern Washington state. In the evolving, often-controversial, highly-visible area of agency-public interactions, citizen task forces (TFs) have been shown to be useful in developing public policy at the local level. Making them work at the state level is more problematic. This case shows that a diverse, two-state citizen group can make significant contributions to complex EIS evaluations with heavy technical components. The CFs principal contribution to public policy was communication of its findings to business and professional groups, to area political representatives and state agencies, thereby laying the ground work for refocusing the Northwest upon the need for action on DW cleanup at Hanford. In going well beyond NEPA requirements for public involvement in agency decision making, DOE-Richland demonstrated innovative ways of dealing with the difficult issues of public confidence and public trust by means of agency openness, responsiveness to citizen needs for information, and good faith two-way communication. The success of this pro-active DOE initiative was due to many factors including selecting the right issue (existing wastes), structuring the CF at a broad, regional level, and intensive implementation of trust-building strategies

  9. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  10. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M K A; Hashim, S; Ang, W C; Bahruddin, N A; Bakar, K A; Muhammad, H; Sabarudin, A

    2016-01-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDI w (mGy), CTDI vol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDI vol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors. (paper)

  11. Reliability of reactor plant water cleanup pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick 2 nuclear plant experienced a high reactor water cleanup pump-failure rate until inlet temperature and flow were reduced and mechanical modifications were implemented. Failures have been zero for about one year, and water cleanup efficiency has increased

  12. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Egashira, Yasuo; Shimada, Fumie; Igarashi, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To save a low temperature reactor water clean-up system indispensable so far and significantly simplify the system by carrying out the reactor water clean-up solely in a high temperature reactor water clean-up system. Constitution: The reactor water clean-up device comprises a high temperature clean-up pump and a high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. The high temperature adsorption device is filled with amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents, or amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents and anionic adsorbing inorganic adsorbents. The reactor water clean-up device introduces reactor water by the high temperature clean-up pump through a recycling system to the high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. Since cations such as cobalt ions and anions such as chlorine ions in the reactor water are simultaneously removed in the device, a low temperature reactor water clean-up system which has been indispensable so far can be saved to realize the significant simplification for the entire system. (Seki, T.)

  13. SU-E-I-33: Establishment of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels in Province Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Abdolell, M; Duffy, S [Dalhousie University and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient radiation dose from the most frequently performed CT examinations and to establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a tool for protocol optimization. Methods: The study investigated the following CT examinations: head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP). Dose data, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP), were collected from 15 CT scanners installed during 2004–2014 in 11 hospital sites of Nova Scotia. All scanners had dose modulation options and multislice capability (16–128 detector rows). The sample for each protocol included 15 average size patients (70±20 kg). Provincial DRLs were calculated as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions. The differences in dose between hospitals were evaluated with a single factor ANOVA statistical test. Generalized linear modeling was used to determine the factors associated with higher radiation dose. A sample of 36 abdominal studies performed on three different scanners was blinded and randomized for an assessment by an experienced radiologist who graded the imaging quality of anatomic structures. Results: Data for 900 patients were collected. The DRLs were proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy*cm) values for CT head (67 and 1049, respectively), chest (12 and 393), abdomen/pelvis (16 and 717), and CAP (14 and 1034). These DRLs were lower than the published national data except for the head CTDIvol. The differences between the means of the dose distributions from each scanner were statistically significant (p<0.05) for all examinations. A very weak correlation was found between the dose and the scanner age or the number of slices with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.011–0.315. The blinded analysis of image quality demonstrated no clinically significant difference except for the noise category. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established for typical CT examinations. The variations in dose between the hospitals

  14. Use of the mini C-arm for wrist fractures - Establishing a diagnostic reference level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G. J.; Pillai, A.; Gibson, S.

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations became mandatory following the implementation of the Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulations Act 2000. At present, there are no national dosage guidelines in the UK regarding use of fluoroscopy in orthopaedic trauma. The increasing popularity of the mini C-arm image intensifier amongst surgeons has led to concerns regarding use of ionizing radiation by personnel who have not been trained in radiation protection. It is therefore essential to have formal protocols for use of the mini C-arm to comply with the law and to maintain safe clinical practice. It is attempted to provide dose data for wrist fracture manipulations that may be used as a basis for setting a DRL for this procedure. Screening times were recorded for 80 wrist manipulations in a fracture clinic setting using a mini C-arm image intensifier. A DRL was set using the third quartile value for screening time. The median screening time for wrist fractures was 20 s with a range from 1 to 177 s. The third quartile value for screening time was 34 s. This value can be used as a provisional DRL for wrist fracture manipulations. The DRL is a quantitative guide for the optimisation of radiological protection. IR(ME)R 2000 states that if it is consistently exceeded by an individual operator or a piece of equipment, investigation and remedial action must be taken. We recommend that trauma units establish their own local DRLs for common procedures as made mandatory by legislation. (authors)

  15. Cleanup at Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiger, Susan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hargis, Kenneth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, George J [NNSL/LASO

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  16. Three Mile Island Cleanup: experiences, waste disposal, and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    These papers were presented in a two-session symposium during the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1981 Summer National meeting in Detroit, Michigan, August 16-19, 1981. The cleanup activities described included the venting of the gases, mostly krypton-85, from the reactor containment building and several entries of personnel into the containment building to determine the physical conditions and the levels of radiation and radioactive contamination. Results of the latest process development tests of the flowsheet for the submerged Demineralizer Water Treatment System for decontaminating the water in the containment building were presented. The status of existing knowledge of radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in radioactive waste management were reviewed. A program to demonstrate incorporation of the loaded zeolite into a glass as a final waste form was also described. The generation, classification, treatment, and disposal of solid waste forms resulting from the cleanup were discussed with special consideration of the ion exchange media used for cleanup of liquids with relatively high radionuclide concentrations. The radiological, socioeconomic, and psychological impacts of the cleanup were evaluated. This work formed the basis for the recent issuance by the NRC of a programmatic environmental impact statement relative to decontamination and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from the accidents

  17. Cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - The Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiger, S.G.; Hargis, K.; Graham, M.; Rael, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup - the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: - Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from one of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; - Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; - Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; - Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; - A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and - A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL. (authors)

  18. Cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiger, Susan G.; Hargis, Kenneth M.; Graham, Michael J.; Rael, George J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  19. NIKE: a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Mats; Albrecht, Susanne; Håkansson, Ingemar; Lorefors, Ragnhild; Ohlsson, Sven; Polland, Werner; Schmid, Andrea; Svensson, Göran; Wendel, Eva

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery, and to validate this tool. Teams from nine eye clinics reached an agreement about the need to develop a clinical tool for setting levels of indications for cataract surgery and about the items that should be included in the tool. The tool was to be called 'NIKE' (Nationell Indikationsmodell för Kataraktextraktion). The Canadian Cataract Priority Criteria Tool served as a model for the NIKE tool, which was modified for Swedish conditions. Items included in the tool were visual acuity of both eyes, patients' perceived difficulties in day-to-day life, cataract symptoms, the ability to live independently, and medical/ophthalmic reasons for surgery. The tool was validated and tested in 343 cataract surgery patients. Validity, stability and reliability were tested and the outcome of surgery was studied in relation to the indication setting. Four indication groups (IGs) were suggested. The group with the greatest indications for surgery was named group 1 and that with the lowest, group 4. Validity was proved to be good. Surgery had the greatest impact on the group with the highest indications for surgery. Test-retest reliability test and interexaminer tests of indication settings showed statistically significant intraclass correlations (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] 0.526 and 0.923, respectively). A new clinical tool for indication setting in cataract surgery is presented. This tool, the NIKE, takes into account both visual acuity and the patient's perceived problems in day-to-day life because of cataract. The tool seems to be stable and reliable and neutral towards different examiners.

  20. Enhancing aquifer cleanup with reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, W.F.; Ziagos, J.; Rice, D. Jr.; Krauter, P.; Nichols, E.

    1992-09-01

    Injection of water or steam, with or without chemical surfactants, is a common petroleum industry technique to enhance product recovery. In the geothermal industry, reinjection (reinjection is used to mean the injection of ground water that was previously injected) of heat- depleted subsurface fluids is commonly used to maintain reservoir pressure, thus prolonging field productivity. The use reinjection in ground-water remediation projects allows for the application of both traditional production field management and a variety of additional enhancements to the cleanup process. Development of the ideas in this paper was stimulated by an initial suggestion by Dr. Jacob Bear (personal discussions, 1990--1991) that reinjected water might be heated to aid the desorption process

  1. Establishing the concept of buffer for a high-level radioactive waste repository: An approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The buffer is a key component of the engineered barrier system in a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. The present study reviewed the requirements and functional criteria of the buffer reported in literature, and also based on the results, proposed an approach to establish a buffer concept which is applicable to an HLW repository in Korea. The hydraulic conductivity, radionuclide-retarding capacity (equilibrium distribution coefficient and diffusion coefficient), swelling pressure, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, organic carbon content, and initialization rate were considered as major technical parameters for the functional criteria of the buffer. Domestic bentonite (Ca-bentonite) and, as an alternative, MX-80 (Na-bentonite) were proposed for the buffer of an HLW repository in Korea. The technical specifications for those proposed bentonites were set to parameter values that conservatively satisfy Korea's functional criteria for the Ca-bentonite and Swedish criteria for the Na-bentonite. The thickness of the buffer was determined by evaluating the means of shear behavior, radionuclide release, and heat conduction, which resulted in the proper buffer thickness of 0.25 to 0.5 m. However, the final thickness of the buffer should be determined by considering coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical evaluation and economics and engineering aspects as well.

  2. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency hosted a two day Symposium from 2-3 December 1974 at its Headquarters, organized by the 'International Academy for Environmental Safety and the Forum fur Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik' on the subject 'Scientific Basis for the Establishment of Threshold. Levels and Dose Response Relationships of Carcinogenesis'. Following an introductory paper by the Radiation Biology Section of the Agency on 'Radiation Carcinogenesis - Dose Response Relationship, Threshold and Risk Estimates', a series of papers dealt with this problem in chemical carcinogenesis.It was suggested that more experiments should be done using non-human primates for tests of carcinogens, especially chemicals. Preliminary experiments using monkeys with a potent carcinogen - nitrosoamine - indicate that there could possibly be a dose where no effect can be observed during the 5 year period of study. It was also pointed out that the overall cost/benefit and risk/ benefit relationships should be taken into consideration in determining limits for chemicals which are potentially carcinogenic but are used routinely by the public and industries; these considerations have been weighed in setting exposure limits for radiation

  3. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km 2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  4. Performance, labour flexibility and migrant workers in hotels: An establishment and departmental level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yaduma, N; Williams, A; Lockwood, A; Park, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. This paper analyses flexible working, and the employment of migrants, as determinants of performance in hotels, utilising a highly disaggregated data set of actual hours worked and outputs, on a monthly basis, over an 8 year period for 25 establishments within a single firm. It examines not only inter-establishment, but also intra-establishment (departmental) variations in performance. The analysis also systematically compares the findings based on financial versus physical measures, ...

  5. Validating a Methodology for Establishing a Criteria and Proficiency Levels in Surgical Skills Simulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinrichs, LeRoy; Lukoff, Brian; Youngblood, Patricia; Dev, Parvati; Shavelson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... To establish training criteria, we have assessed the performance of 18 experienced laparoscopic surgeons basic technical surgical skills of recorded electronically in 26 basic skills modules selected...

  6. Establishment of institutional diagnostic reference level for computed tomography with automated dose-tracking software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chong R; Chen, Priscilla X H; Kapur, Jeevesh; Ong, Michael K L; Quek, Swee T; Kapur, Subhash C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by summarising doses collected across the five computed tomography (CT) system in our institution. CT dose data of 15940 patients were collected retrospectively from May 2015 to October 2015 in five institutional scanners. The mean, 75th percentile and 90th percentile of the dose spread were calculated according to anatomic region. The common CT examinations such as head, chest, combined abdomen/pelvis (A/P), and combined chest/abdomen/pelvis (C/A/P) were reviewed. Distribution of CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (ED) were extracted from the data for single-phasic and multiphasic examinations. The institutional DRL for our CT units were established as mean (50th percentile) of CTDIvol (mGy), DLP (mGy.cm) and ED (mSv) for single and multiphasic studies using the dose-tracking software. In single phasic examination, Head: (49.0 mGy), (978.0 mGy.cm), (2.4 mSv) respectively; Chest: (6.0 mGy), (254.0 mGy.cm), (4.9 mSv) respectively; CT A/P (10.0 mGy), (514.0 mGy.cm), (8.9 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P (10.0 mGy), (674.0 mGy.cm), (11.8 mSv) respectively. In multiphasic studies: Head (45.0 mGy), (1822.0 mGy.cm), (5.0 mSv) respectively; Chest (8.0 mGy), (577.0 mGy.cm), (10.0 mSv) respectively; CT A/P: (10.0 mGy), (1153.0 mGy.cm), (20.2 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P: (11.0 mGy), (1090.0 mGy.cm), (19.2 mSv) respectively. The reported metrics offer a variety of information that institutions can use for quality improvement activities. The variations in dose between scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of radiation dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  7. Epidemiology of Late Health Effects in Ukrainian Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, Dimitry; Prysyazhnyuk, Anatoly; Gudzenko, Natalya; Dyagil, Iryna; Belyi, David; Chumak, Vadim; Buzunov, Volodymyr

    2018-07-01

    This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986-1991 to 105 in 2011-2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period. Increased radiation risks of leukemia in the Ukrainian cohort of 110,645 cleanup workers exposed to low doses are comparable to those among survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Japan in 1945. Additionally, an excess of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was demonstrated in the cleanup workers cohort for 26 y after the exposure. A significant excess of multiple myeloma incidence [standardized incidence rate (SIR) 1.61 %, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.21], thyroid cancer (SIR 4.18, 95% CI 3.76-4.59), female breast cancer (SIR 1.57 CI 1.40-1.73), and all cancers combined (SIR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05-1.09) was registered. High prevalence was demonstrated for cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases and mental health changes. However, the reasons for the increases require further investigation. To monitor other possible late effects of radiation exposure in Chornobyl cleanup workers, analytical cohort and case-control studies need to include cardiovascular pathology, specifically types of potentially radiogenic cancers using a molecular epidemiology approach. Possible effects for further study include increased rates of thyroid, breast, and lung cancers and multiple myeloma; reduction of radiation risks of leukemia to population levels; and increased morbidity and mortality of cleanup workers from cardio- and cerebrovascular pathology.

  8. Next steps in the development of ecological soil clean-up values for metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentsel, Randall; Fairbrother, Anne

    2014-07-01

    This special series in Integrated Environmental Assessment Management presents the results from 6 workgroups that were formed at the workshop on Ecological Soil Levels-Next Steps in the Development of Metal Clean-Up Values (17-21 September 2012, Sundance, Utah). This introductory article presents an overview of the issues assessors face when conducting risk assessments for metals in soils, key US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) documents on metals risk assessment, and discusses the importance of leveraging from recent major terrestrial research projects, primarily to address Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) requirements in Europe, that have significantly advanced our understanding of the behavior and toxicity of metals in soils. These projects developed large data sets that are useful for the risk assessment of metals in soil environments. The workshop attendees met to work toward developing a process for establishing ecological soil clean-up values (Eco-SCVs). The goal of the workshop was to progress from ecological soil screening values (Eco-SSLs) to final clean-up values by providing regulators with the methods and processes to incorporate bioavailability, normalize toxicity thresholds, address food-web issues, and incorporate background concentrations. The REACH data sets were used by workshop participants as case studies in the development of the ecological standards for soils. The workshop attendees discussed scientific advancements in bioavailability, soil biota and wildlife case studies, soil processes, and food-chain modeling. In addition, one of the workgroups discussed the processes needed to frame the topics to gain regulatory acceptance as a directive or guidance by Canada, the USEPA, or the United States. © 2013 SETAC.

  9. The Role Of Land Use In Environmental Decision Making At Three DOE Mega-Cleanup Sites, Fernald, Rocky Flats, and Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  10. Establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for quality control in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Maki; Harata, Yasuo; Shiba, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Nobuhide; Ozawa, Tomonori; Takahashi, Nobutoshi; Okumura, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dosage and imaging conditions for patients undergoing intraoral radiography at Meikai University Hospital and establish assurance and quality control data. Tube voltage, exposure time, and air kinetic energy released per unit mass (air kerma) of three intraoral radiography units were measured. To calculate the patient entrance dose (PED) for each radiograph using Insight film, we extracted data for 1063 patients from their exposure records. The PED was compared with the diagnostic reference level (DRL) from the European Commission and the UK. The tube voltage of the three units was maintained at 60 ± 2 kV. Differences in exposure time were less than 1.7 % for all units. The air kerma rates were well maintained within a 4.2 % error. Based on the patient data, there were no significant differences in the mean exposure times for males and females for all anatomical sites. The mean PED ranged from 1.09 ± 0.31 mGy for the mandibular incisors to 2.42 ± 0.33 mGy for the maxillary molars. The mean PED at the mandibular molars using InSight film was 1.59 ± 0.20 mGy, being less than the recommended value based on the DRL for intraoral radiography in the UK. We concluded that radiographic conditions at the hospital have been properly maintained. This basic quality control data may assist other dental radiation facilities to reduce patient dosage.

  11. Job Satisfaction Levels of Employees in Hotel Establisments: A Research on Employees in Resort and City Hotel Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbeyi Pelit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter in which sector they function, the job satisfaction of the employees at desired level has the utmost importance for the employees’ performance and organizational efficiency. In this respect, applications and studies related to defining job satisfaction and the factors affecting job satisfaction also have importance for establishments to provide data sources to perfrom their functions in the long term. For this reason, establishments should revise their employees’ job satisfaction levels at times. Especially the issue is much more significant for labour-intensive hotel establishments. In this context, to determine the job satisfaction levels of the city and resort employees in hotel establishments ,this research is carried on 1854 employees employed at 114 five-star hotels in city and resort areas of Turkey using “Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale” to collect data. It is concluded that the employees whose job satisfaction is measured by questionnaires are not satisfied with such issues as the wage, making their own decisions, company policies and promotion opportunities. In the further analyses performed (independent-samples t test and ANOVA, it is found out that the job satisfaction level of the employees working in resort hotel establishments is higher than the employees working in the ciy hotel establishments. In addition this, it is found out that there are some differences between the job satisfaction level and education level of the employees.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-02-09

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste

  14. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  15. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  16. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Characterization of plutonium contamination at Maralinga: Dosimetry and cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; Williams, G.A.; Harries, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British atomic tests at Maralinga during 1955-1963. Of importance is the long lived 239 Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of cleanup criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, with scraping of surface soil and burial on site completed. Vehicular-mounted radiation detector systems for wide area and particle monitoring have been developed, and procedures established for determining cleanup boundaries and for the verification monitoring to ensure that the cleanup process has met the specified criteria. Data are being obtained for a final dose and health risk assessment of the cleaned up site. (author)

  18. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  20. Credibility and trust in federal facility cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynes, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The most important indicator of a well-managed site cleanup effort may no longer be funding or scientific expertise. While support for federal facility cleanup has included appropriations of more than $10 billion annually, these expenditures alone are unlikely to assure progress toward environmental remediation. open-quotes Trustclose quotes is now overwhelmingly mentioned as a prerequisite for progress with site cleanup in DOE's weapons complex. In part, federal budget deficits are forcing participants to focus on factors that build consensus and lead to cost-effective cleanup actions. In some cases, the stakeholders at cleanup sites are making efforts to work cooperatively with federal agencies. A report by 40 representatives of federal agencies, tribal and state governments, associations, and others developed recommendations to create a open-quotes new era of trust and consensus-building that allows all parties to get on with the job of cleaning up federal facilities in a manner that reflects the priorities and concerns of all stakeholders.close quotes Changes are underway affecting how federal agencies work with federal and state regulators reflecting this concept of shared responsibility for conducting cleanup. This paper addresses these changes and provides examples of the successes and failures underway

  1. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist

  2. Combining innovative technology demonstrations with dense nonaqueous phase liquids cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Koegler, K.J.; Rohay, V.J.; Trent, S.J.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.; Tomich, S.

    1993-05-01

    Radioactively contaminated acidic aqueous wastes and organic liquids were discharged to the soil column at three disposal sites within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. As a result, a portion of the underlying groundwater is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride several orders of magnitude above the maximum contaminant level accepted for a drinking water supply. Treatability testing and cleanup actions have been initiated to remove the contamination from both the unsaturated soils to minimize further groundwater contamination and the groundwater itself. To expedite cleanup, innovative technologies for (1) drilling, (2) site characterization, (3) monitoring, (4) well field development, and (5) contaminant treatment are being demonstrated and subsequently used where possible to improve the rates and cost savings associated with the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the soils and groundwater

  3. Summary of Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Potential Impacts Related to Hanford Cleanup and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IWATATE, D.F.

    2000-07-14

    This white paper provides an initial assessment of the potential impacts of the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) regulations (and proposed revisions) on the Hanford site cleanup and addresses concerns that MTCA might impose inappropriate or unachievable clean-up levels and drive clean-up costs higher. The white paper and supporting documentation (Appendices A and B) provide DOE with a concise and up-to-date review of potential MTCA impacts to cost and schedule for the Hanford site activities. MTCA, Chapter 70.105D RCW, is the State of Washington's risk based law governing clean-up of contaminated sites and is implemented by The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the MTCA Clean-up Regulations, Chapter 173-340 WAC. Hanford cleanup is subject to the MTCA requirements as Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for those areas of Hanford being managed under the authority of the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the state Dangerous Waste Regulations. MTCA provides Ecology with authority to implement site clean-up actions under both the federal RCRA and CERCLA regulations as well as the state regulations. Most of the Hanford clean-up actions are being implemented under the CERCLA program, however, there is a trend is toward increased use of MTCA procedures and standards. The application of MTCA to the Hanford clean-up has been an evolving process with some of the Hanford clean-up actions considering MTCA standards as an ARAR and using MTCA procedures for remedy selection. The increased use and application of MTCA standards and procedures could potentially impact both cost and schedule for the Hanford cleanup.

  4. [Rocky Mountain regional low-level waste compact development and establishment of disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Compact Issue Study was intended to determine if state institutions in the Rocky Mountain region could reduce low-level radioactive waste shipping and disposal costs through jointly shipping their low-level radioactive wastes. Public institutions in the state of Colorado were used as a test case for this study

  5. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  6. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  7. The TMI-2 clean-up project collection and databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osif, B.A.; Conkling, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    A publicly accessible collection containing several thousand of the videotapes, photographs, slides and technical reports generated during the clean-up of the TMI-2 reactor has been established by the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The collection is intended to serve as a technical resource for the nuclear industry as well as the interested public. Two Internet-searchable databases describing the videotapes and technical reports have been created. The development and use of these materials and databases are described in this paper. (orig.)

  8. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resource countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. (authors)

  9. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  10. Thyroid disorders in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Orlikovs, G.; Ritenberga, R.; Skudra, M.; Lemane, R.; Lemanis, A.; Curbakova, E.; Groma, V.; Socnevs, A.

    1999-01-01

    The condition of thyroid was examined in 2188 Chernobyl clean-up workers residing in Latvia and a control group consisting of 1041 employees of the Ministry of International Affairs. Thyroid examinations included palpation, ultrasonography, selective scintigraphy and detection of the level of thyroid hormones in blood serum:L STH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), total T3 (triiodothyronine), and T4 (thyroxine). Thyroid was registered in 394 Chernobyl clean-up workers. Of these cases, 28 patients with suspected thyroid cancer were operated, and morphological examinations revealed papillary adenocarcinoma (in 5 patients), follicular adenocarcinoma (2), nodular colloid goiter (16); toxic diffuse goiter (1), papillary-follicular adenoma (3), and chronic thyroiditis (1). It was determined that the thyroid pathology in the Chernobyl clean-up workers had a tendency to progress (27 cases in 1987 versus 394 cases in 1998 in total; and absence of thyroid cancer in 1987, compared with 7 cases in 1998); thyroid nodules increased twice (64 cases in 1997, compare with 126 cases in 1998). (author)

  11. Establishment of Infrastructure for Domestic-Specific Level 3 PSA based on MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung-Cheol; Han, Seok-Jung; Choi, Sun-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wan-Seob [Korea Reliability Technology and System, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Research activities related to the Level 3 PSA have naturally disappeared since the use of risk surrogates. Recently, Level 3 PSA was only performed to the extent of the purpose of operating license for the plant under construction. Since the Fukushima accident, concern about a comprehensive site-specific Level 3 PSA has been raised for some compelling reasons, especially the evaluation of the domestic multi-unit site risk effect including other site radiological sources (e.g., spent fuel pool, multi-units). Unfortunately, there are no domestic-specific consequence analysis code and input database required to perform a site-specific Level 3 PSA. The paper focuses on the development of the input data management system for domestic-specific Level 3 PSA based MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System). The authors call it KOSCA-MACCS2 (Korea Off-Site Consequence Analysis based in MACCS2). It serves as an integrated platform for a domestic-specific Level 3 PSA. Also, it provides the pre-processing modules to automatically generate MACCS2 input from diverse types of the domestic-specific data including numerical map data, e.g., meteorological data, numerical population map, digital land use map, economic statistics and so on. Note that some functions should be still developed and added on it, e.g., post-processing module to convert MACCS2 outputs to graphic report forms, and so on. Henceforth, it is necessary to develop a Korean-specific Level 3 PSA code as a substitution for the foreign software, MACCS2.

  12. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders

  13. The development and use of decision aiding techniques for establishing intervention levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident there has been considerable international discussion on the principles underlying the choice of intervention levels and their practical application. While there is broad agreement on the underlying principles - that is to put potentially exposed individuals into a better position in the sense that lower overall risks are achieved at reasonable cost in financial and social terms - the determination of what constitutes the most appropriate type and level of intervention in any particular circumstances is more complex. Within the CEC Radiation Protection Research Programme techniques are being developed to aid well founded and more transparent decisions on the choice of intervention levels. The techniques are described and areas identified where they might usefully be applied

  14. Norwegian work on establishing a combined storage and disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency WATRP Review Team.

    1995-12-01

    The IAEA has, through its Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP), evaluated policies and facilities related to management of radioactive waste in Norway. It is concluded that the Himdalen site, in combination with the chosen engineering concept, can be suitable for the storage and disposal of the relatively small amounts of Norwegian low and intermediate level waste

  15. Establishing a system of nuclear materials accountancy and control at the facility level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lizana, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the guide to a workshop designed to enable the participants to gain a better understanding of National Safeguards Systems and their functions. The workshop provides the opportunity to address the principal elements of the accounting system to be implemented at the facility level (research reactor and laboratory facilities) as a part of the national safeguards system

  16. Using Project Complexity Determinations to Establish Required Levels of Project Rigor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    This presentation discusses the project complexity determination process that was developed by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for implementation at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The complexity determination process was developed to address the diversity of NNSS project types, size, and complexity; to fill the need for one procedure but with provision for tailoring the level of rigor to the project type, size, and complexity; and to provide consistent, repeatable, effective application of project management processes across the enterprise; and to achieve higher levels of efficiency in project delivery. These needs are illustrated by the wide diversity of NNSS projects: Defense Experimentation, Global Security, weapons tests, military training areas, sensor development and testing, training in realistic environments, intelligence community support, sensor development, environmental restoration/waste management, and disposal of radioactive waste, among others.

  17. DOE pursuing accelerated cleanup at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, T.

    1996-01-01

    The timing is right, and officials at Fernald are ready to initiate final cleanup actions-at an accelerated pace. open-quotes We have a viable, aggressive plan in place that will reduce the risks associated with the site by accelerating the cleanup schedule, and save a lot of time and money in the process,close quotes said Don Ofte, president of the Fernald Environmental Restoration management Corporation (FERMCO). Ofte is referring to the accelerated cleanup plan that the U.S. Department of Energy has approved to complete the remediation of Fernald in approximately 10 years-instead of 25-30 years-at a cost savings to taxpayers of almost $3 billion. This article describes the scenario at Fernald and politically which has lead to this decision

  18. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  19. Dose evaluation and establishment of reference levels in activity for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Julio Cesar de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has emphasized the importance of accurately determining the mean dose levels, or administered activity, received by the patients for each medical procedure that uses ionizing radiation. However, the number of bibliographic references addressing the need to know and optimize these levels is insufficient, or rather limited, which may lead to non-standardizes techniques, a lack of exposures control, and also the increase of associated radiological risks of these procedures. In this context, a software in Visual Basic® of Microsoft© language was developed whose function is to elaborate a method of obtaining the Reference Levels in Activity (RLA) for nuclear medicine patients by determining the third quartile of the examinations carried out. The program also allows obtaining absorbed dose values in critical organs based on patient specificities as age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) in order to evaluate the risk involved in each procedure. The main nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures were evaluated through the database of two public hospitals and a private clinic, obtaining the NRAs of each facility, where the software was validated by comparison with the traditionally accepted calculation methods. Due to the results obtained in each installation, in addition to NRA determination, gaps in treatment capacities and unjustified dose variations for the same procedure were identified, indicating the need for optimization. Thus, the developed program is able to provide the estimated values of effective and absorbed doses involved in each procedure, for each patient, providing reference values for nuclear medicine field, not available in the national scenario so far. (author)

  20. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose

  1. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  2. Retroactive insurance may fund TMI-2 cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A Pennsylvania task force recommended that nuclear utilities insure their plants with a mandatory national property insurance program. The proposed Nuclear Powerplant Property Damage Insurance Act of 1981 will cover the cleanup costs of onsite damage in excess of $350 million for a single accident ($50 million when private insurance is added on) and a ceiling of two billion dollars. Participation in the insurance pool would be in conjunction with licensing and would permit no grandfathering. Total payout for Three Mile Island-2 would cover 75% of the cleanup costs, the remainder to be apportioned among other parties. The insurance pool will have a $750 million goal supported by utility premiums

  3. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... gave higher willow biomass production in willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Type of model weed had no effect on willow performance. Weed biomass and maximum shoot height were higher in weeds planted without willows compared to the willow-weed mixtures. A high nitrogen level gave more weed...... biomass when planted without willows and in the willow-weed mixture with weeds sown after 15 days. We conclude that for the given high density of willow, competition from weeds emerging soon after willow planting had strong effect on early production. Furthermore, if there is a risk of weed infestation...

  4. Approaches for establishing human health no effect levels for engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschberger, K.; Christensen, F. M.

    2011-07-01

    Current Technical Guidance Documents for preparing risk assessments, like the guidance for the implementation of REACH, have limited focus on chemical substances in the particulate form and generally do not focus on substances in the nanoform. Within the ENRHES project a comprehensive and critical scientific review of publicly available health and safety information on four types of nanoparticles was performed. Based on the identified exposure and hazard data, basic human health risk assessment appraisals were carried out for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nano-silver and nano-titanium dioxide. These risk assessment appraisals followed the structure of a regulatory risk assessment and if possible and relevant, it was attempted to derive indicative human no-effect levels from key studies by applying assessment factors as suggested in the technical guidance document for REACH. These assessment factors address differences and uncertainty related to exposure features between test animals and humans (time, respiratory volume), other interspecies and intraspecies differences and factors for extrapolation to chronic duration. If required, the severity of effects and the quality of the database can be addressed by additional factors. Recently other procedures for deriving human no-effect levels have been published and these are compared to the ENRHES basic risk assessment appraisals. The main differences were observed in relation to evaluating the differences in animal and human exposure situations and interspecies differences, and in applying assessment factors for intraspecies differences for local effects. The applicability of the REACH guidance for nanomaterials is currently being investigated for possible adaptations, considering the specific behaviour and mode of action of nanomaterials.

  5. Approaches for establishing human health no effect levels for engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschberger, K; Christensen, F M

    2011-01-01

    Current Technical Guidance Documents for preparing risk assessments, like the guidance for the implementation of REACH, have limited focus on chemical substances in the particulate form and generally do not focus on substances in the nanoform. Within the ENRHES project a comprehensive and critical scientific review of publicly available health and safety information on four types of nanoparticles was performed. Based on the identified exposure and hazard data, basic human health risk assessment appraisals were carried out for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nano-silver and nano-titanium dioxide. These risk assessment appraisals followed the structure of a regulatory risk assessment and if possible and relevant, it was attempted to derive indicative human no-effect levels from key studies by applying assessment factors as suggested in the technical guidance document for REACH. These assessment factors address differences and uncertainty related to exposure features between test animals and humans (time, respiratory volume), other interspecies and intraspecies differences and factors for extrapolation to chronic duration. If required, the severity of effects and the quality of the database can be addressed by additional factors. Recently other procedures for deriving human no-effect levels have been published and these are compared to the ENRHES basic risk assessment appraisals. The main differences were observed in relation to evaluating the differences in animal and human exposure situations and interspecies differences, and in applying assessment factors for intraspecies differences for local effects. The applicability of the REACH guidance for nanomaterials is currently being investigated for possible adaptations, considering the specific behaviour and mode of action of nanomaterials.

  6. Establishment of computed tomography reference dose levels in Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Kyrozi, E.; Syrigou, T.; Mastorakou, I.; Kottou, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply European Commission (EC) Reference Dose Levels (RDL) in Computed Tomography (CT) examinations at Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center (OCSC). These are weighted CT Dose Index (CTDI w ) for a single slice and Dose-Length Product (DLP) for a complete examination. During the period 1998-1999, the total number of CT examinations, every type of CT examination, patient related data and technical parameters of the examinations were recorded. The most frequent examinations were chosen for investigation which were the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. CTDI measurements were performed and CTDI w and DLP were calculated. Third Quartile values of CTDI w were chosen to be 43mGy for head, 8mGy for chest, and 22mGy for abdomen and pelvis examinations. Third quartile values of DLP were chosen to be 740mGycm for head, 370mGycm for chest, 490mGycm for abdomen and 420mGycm for pelvis examination. Results confirm that OCSC follows successfully the proposed RDL for the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations in terms of radiation dose. (author)

  7. Approaching Environmental Cleanup Costs Liability Through Insurance Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corbin, Michael A

    1994-01-01

    .... Applying insurance industry principles to environmental cleanup costs liability will provide a firm foundation to reduce the risk of loss to the taxpayer, reduce cleanup costs, and stimulate private...

  8. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites

  9. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  10. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. US nuclear cleanup shows signs of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, R.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's program for dealing with the radioactive and hazardous wastes at its former nuclear weapons production sites and at the national laboratories has been criticized for its expense and slow pace of cleanup. The largest environmental restoration and waste management program in the world faces formidable technical and scientific problems and these, according to numerous investigative committees and commissions, have been compounded by poor management, misuse of technology, and failure to appreciate the need for new basic scientific knowledge to solve many of the cleanup problems. In the past three years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM), often spurred by congressional action, has begun to trim costs and accomplish more. New measures have been introduced to improve contract efficiency, better utilize existing remediation technologies, renegotiate compliance agreements, and begin basic research. Environmental Management Assistant Undersecretary Alvin Alm, appointed in May 1996, is seeking to solidify these changes into an ambitious plan to clean up most of DOE's 130 sites by 2006. But there are widespread doubts that EM has the money, skill, and will to turn itself around. There are also concerns that, in the name of efficiency and economy, EM may be negotiating lower cleanup standards and postponing some difficult cleanup tasks. This article discusses these issues. 7 refs

  12. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    and Biological Tissues was held in Bombay, India, in December 1974, to summarize and critically review all the current information and experiences on the practices including the regulatory aspects of the processes involved as well as the safety assurance of the final products. The topics of discussion during the symposium were carried out under the following sessions: (i) Microbiological control aspects of radiation sterilization (ii) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization (iii) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products (iv) Application of radiation sterilization on medical products of biological origin (v) Application on Pharmaceuticals (vi) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities (vii) Review of the current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in the developing and developed Member States. mportant considerations on the microbiological control aspects of radiation sterilization focussed on the role of pre-sterilization contamination levels, radio-resistance of the contaminants, choice of sterilizing radiation dose, the use of standardized microbiological indicators, and the feasibility of combination radiation treatments with heat and hydrostatic pressure. The data were presented in support of the model for application of sub-sterilizing radiation dose in the routine control and safety assurance determination for medical products. The practical dosimetry systems for the process calibration and control were evaluated as supported by the data from the various national experiences. Suitability of application of radiation sterilization method for the Pharmaceuticals and biological tissue preparations were reviewed. esigning and operations of radiation sterilization facilities in keeping with the conditions (market size, nature of products and volume, available technical expertise) of the developing countries were discussed and appropriate steps recommended. ince its inception the radiation

  13. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Recovery Act Funded Cleanups, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Recovery Act Funded Cleanup sites as part of the CIMC web service. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law...

  14. Fast-Track Cleanup at Closing DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fast-Track Cleanup program strives to make parcels available for reuse as quickly as possible by the transfer of uncontaminated or remediated parcels, the lease of contaminated parcels where cleanup is underway, or the 'early transfer' of contaminated property undergoing cleanup.

  15. The role of risk assessment in remedial action cleanup programs (RACP): A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessler, R.G.; Bergmann, W.R.; Greenberg, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A RACP (Remedial Action Cleanup Program) selects site cleanup criteria that protect human health and the environment and are cost effective. They generally use existing environmental standards and/or guidelines which include safe drinking water, RCRA groundwater protection, threshold limit values and air quality standards, and recommended soil cleanup level guidelines. If these are the only criteria used, the RACP may be more stringent and expensive than necessary. Another step, a risk assessment program, should then be considered in the cleanup decision process. A risk assessment uses chemical concentrations observed in soils, groundwater, and air to project their impact on human health and the environment. Toxicological data on human exposure to these concentrations (LD 50s and carcinogenic action levels) are used to assess risks to human health and the environment. The risk assessment also considers the probability of exposure. E.g., remedial programs at Superfund sites consider three criteria in order to assess risks to human health and the environment: (1) pathways of exposure, (2) population at risk, and (3) chemicals of concern. By eliminating or severely limiting the significance of any criteria, the site may no longer represent a significant risk. This paper presents a RACP case history where a risk assessment was needed to select a cost effective and environmentally acceptable cleanup program

  16. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  17. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-01-01

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations. PMID:29558379

  18. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (<400 m or urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations.

  19. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesenhahn, M.J.; McKeown, W.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  20. Acute Health Effects Among Military Personnel Participating in the Cleanup of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, 2007, in Taean County, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwack, Jin; Lee, Ju Hyung; Kang, Young Ah; Chang, Kyu-jin; Lee, Moo Sik; Hong, Jee Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate acute health effects and its related factors among military personnel participating in the cleanup of the 2007 Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in Taean county, Korea. Methods We collected data on acute symptoms during the cleanup and their predictors using a self-administered questionnaire to 2624 military personnel. Selfreported symptoms included six neurologic symptoms, five respiratory symptoms, two dermatologic symptoms, three ophthalmic symptoms, and three general symptoms. Independent variables were demographic factors (gender, age, education level, and rank), health behavioral factors (smoking history and usage of the personal protective equipment such as masks and gloves), and occupational history such as where and for how long individuals participated in cleanup. Results The duration of work days was significantly associated with 17 acute symptoms except for itchiness and red skin.Working in Taean county also increased the risk of most acute symptoms except headache and back pain. In regard to personal protective equipment, wearing masks was mainly related to the development of respiratory symptoms such as sore throat and wearing other protective equipment was related to the development of sore throat, back pain, headache, and cough. Military personnel younger than 25 years reported 4.66 times more hot flushing and 5.39 times more itchiness than those older than 25 years. Conclusion It should be emphasized that for early-stage cleanup the number of workers should be minimized, sufficient personal protective equipment with approved quality for blocking noxious gas should be supplied, and systematic health care for the workers should be provided. Health effects could be diminished by providing adequate education regarding the appropriate use of protective equipment, especially to nonprofessionals such as residents and volunteers. To make disaster response expeditious, a national and regional preparedness

  1. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, J.P.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E.; Souto-Alonso, A.; Espinosa, A.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Gómez, F.P.; Fuster, C.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Antó, J.M.; Barberà, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6years after clean-up

  2. GPU seeks new funding for TMI cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1982-01-01

    General Public Utilities (GPU) wants approval for annual transfer of money from base rate increases in other accounts to pay for the cleanup at Three Mile Island (TMI) until TMI-1 returns to service or the public utility commission takes further action. This proposal confirms fears of a delay in TMI-1 startup and demonstrates that the January negotiated settlement will produce little funding for TMI-2 cleanup. A review of the settlement terms outlines the three-step process for base rate increases and revenue adjustments after the startup of TMI-1, and points out where controversy and delays due to psychological stress make a new source of money essential. GPU thinks customer funding will motivate other parties to a broad-based cost-sharing agreement

  3. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-03: Establishment of Provincial Diagnostic Reference Levels in Pediatric Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkopi, E; O’Brien, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in pediatric general radiography and computed tomography (CT) as a tool for the optimization of exposure parameters. Methods: Patient dose survey was conducted in the only pediatric hospital in the province of Nova Scotia. The DRLs were established as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions in different age groups. For routine radiography projections the DRLs were determined in terms of entrance surface dose (ESD) calculated from the radiation output measurements and the tube current-exposure time product (mAs) recorded for each examination. Patient thickness was measured by the technologist during the examination. The CR and DR systems, employing respectively a fixed technique and phototiming, were evaluated separately; a two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the means of dose distributions. The CT studies included routine head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) values were extracted retrospectively from PACS. The correction factors based on the effective diameter of the patient were applied to the CT dosimetry metrics based on the standard phantoms. Results: The provincial DRLs were established in the following age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 year olds. In general radiography the DR systems demonstrated slightly lower dose than the CR for all views, however the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) for all examinations. In CT the provincial DRLs were lower than the published data, except for head DLPs in all age categories. This might be due to the small patient sample size in the survey. Future work will include additional CT data collection over an extended period of time. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established in the dedicated children’s hospital to provide guidance for the other facilities in examinations of pediatric

  4. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-03: Establishment of Provincial Diagnostic Reference Levels in Pediatric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E [Dalhousie University (Canada); Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Ctr (Canada); O’Brien, K [Dalhousie University (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in pediatric general radiography and computed tomography (CT) as a tool for the optimization of exposure parameters. Methods: Patient dose survey was conducted in the only pediatric hospital in the province of Nova Scotia. The DRLs were established as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions in different age groups. For routine radiography projections the DRLs were determined in terms of entrance surface dose (ESD) calculated from the radiation output measurements and the tube current-exposure time product (mAs) recorded for each examination. Patient thickness was measured by the technologist during the examination. The CR and DR systems, employing respectively a fixed technique and phototiming, were evaluated separately; a two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the means of dose distributions. The CT studies included routine head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) values were extracted retrospectively from PACS. The correction factors based on the effective diameter of the patient were applied to the CT dosimetry metrics based on the standard phantoms. Results: The provincial DRLs were established in the following age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 year olds. In general radiography the DR systems demonstrated slightly lower dose than the CR for all views, however the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) for all examinations. In CT the provincial DRLs were lower than the published data, except for head DLPs in all age categories. This might be due to the small patient sample size in the survey. Future work will include additional CT data collection over an extended period of time. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established in the dedicated children’s hospital to provide guidance for the other facilities in examinations of pediatric

  5. Prioritization of environmental cleanup problems at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    New technologies and scientific research are needed to clean up the Hanford Site. However, there is insufficient funding to develop every technology that is identified or to undertake every scientific research project that is proposed. Thus, the Department of Energy (DOE) must focus its resources on science and technology (S ampersand T) that will have the most significant impacts on the overall cleanup effort. Hanford has recognized the importance of identifying and prioritizing its most critical problems and the most promising solutions to them. Hanford cleanup will require numerous decisions about technology development and implementation, which will be complicated because there are substantial uncertainties about the risks and the costs of new technologies. Further, the choice of a specific technology for a specific application must be evaluated with respect to multiple (and often conflicting) objectives (e.g., risk reduction, increasing effectiveness, cost reduction, increasing public acceptability, regulatory compliance). This paper provides an overview of the decision analysis methodology that was used to prioritize S ampersand T needs for Hanford cleanup

  6. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  7. Cuban typical doses for 99mTc-DMSA renal gammagraphy studies: a methodology for the establishment of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Perea Diaz, M.; Paz Viera, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since a handful of years ago, international rules on Radiological Protection include the principle of optimization of given dose to patients, if this procedure doesn't lessen diagnosis quality, and the establishment of reference levels of activity. For these reasons, the Radiological Protection staff of Cuban Institute of Nephrology's Nuclear Medicine Service, where morpho functional renal studies are carried out, 70% on infants and young children, started a research on that way. Thus, because their biggest incidence, 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies were chosen, using a General Electric 400 AT Planar Gamma Camera. Studied sample was randomly selected, including adults (12 peoples) and children (23); divided into 4 groups, lessen given dose step by step. Other items were kept in mind in the research, such age, weight, time delayed between administrations and image getting, getting time of each view and total time of the study, as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and Gamma Camera performance. Image quality was evaluated for each case, using both, objective and subjective criteria. Objective evaluation was done by using contrast/noise ratios and variance of the random noise. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups with differentiated image quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. Subjective evaluation was performed using the criteria of two expert observers who had no information about the activity levels used. They evaluated image quality separately, giving a good, regular or bad evaluation for each image. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50% and thus, indirectly, to reduce doses for workers and for the public. Additionally, we propose a methodology for the establishment of reference levels for 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies in Cuba, both, for adults and paediatric patients. (author)

  8. Specification of matrix cleanup goals in fractured porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David J; Kueper, Bernard H

    2013-01-01

    Semianalytical transient solutions have been developed to evaluate what level of fractured porous media (e.g., bedrock or clay) matrix cleanup must be achieved in order to achieve compliance of fracture pore water concentrations within a specified time at specified locations of interest. The developed mathematical solutions account for forward and backward diffusion in a fractured porous medium where the initial condition comprises a spatially uniform, nonzero matrix concentration throughout the domain. Illustrative simulations incorporating the properties of mudstone fractured bedrock demonstrate that the time required to reach a desired fracture pore water concentration is a function of the distance between the point of compliance and the upgradient face of the domain where clean groundwater is inflowing. Shorter distances correspond to reduced times required to reach compliance, implying that shorter treatment zones will respond more favorably to remediation than longer treatment zones in which back-diffusion dominates the fracture pore water response. For a specified matrix cleanup goal, compliance of fracture pore water concentrations will be reached sooner for decreased fracture spacing, increased fracture aperture, higher matrix fraction organic carbon, lower matrix porosity, shorter aqueous phase decay half-life, and a higher hydraulic gradient. The parameters dominating the response of the system can be measured using standard field and laboratory techniques. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Distribution of physical therapists working on public and private establishments in different levels of complexity of health care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa R; Costa, José L R; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Health System is organized on a regional and hierarchical form with three levels of complexity of health care. The Primary Care represents the first element of a continuing health care process, complemented by specialized actions. However, the centrality of the specialized care is still a problem in Brazil, especially in the private sector. Studies on the distribution of professionals in the health system allowing the formulation of appropriate policies are needed. To investigate the distribution of physical therapists in the levels of complexity of health care and between public and private establishments, according to data from the National Register of Health Service Providers (NRHSP). A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed considering NRHSP-national bank data collected in March 2010 and demographic census 2010 data. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics techniques. We identified 53,181 registries of physical therapists, 60% linked to the private sector. Only 13% of all entries were linked to primary care. The predominance in specialized care occurred in the public sector (65%) and private sector (100%). The specialized establishments of private sector linked to the southeast region (16,043) were the main sites of physical therapists. Only the public sector in the south had a majority in the Primary Care. When considering the sizes of the cities, there is focus on specialist care in bigger cities. This study identified the concentration of physical therapists in the specialized care, mostly in metropolis and big cities and in the private sector, with restricted to participation in the primary care.

  10. Variation in genome-wide levels of meiotic recombination is established at the onset of prophase in mammalian males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Baier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation of chromosomes during the first meiotic division relies on crossovers established during prophase. Although crossovers are strictly regulated so that at least one occurs per chromosome, individual variation in crossover levels is not uncommon. In an analysis of different inbred strains of male mice, we identified among-strain variation in the number of foci for the crossover-associated protein MLH1. We report studies of strains with "low" (CAST/EiJ, "medium" (C3H/HeJ, and "high" (C57BL/6J genome-wide MLH1 values to define factors responsible for this variation. We utilized immunofluorescence to analyze the number and distribution of proteins that function at different stages in the recombination pathway: RAD51 and DMC1, strand invasion proteins acting shortly after double-strand break (DSB formation, MSH4, part of the complex stabilizing double Holliday junctions, and the Bloom helicase BLM, thought to have anti-crossover activity. For each protein, we identified strain-specific differences that mirrored the results for MLH1; i.e., CAST/EiJ mice had the lowest values, C3H/HeJ mice intermediate values, and C57BL/6J mice the highest values. This indicates that differences in the numbers of DSBs (as identified by RAD51 and DMC1 are translated into differences in the number of crossovers, suggesting that variation in crossover levels is established by the time of DSB formation. However, DSBs per se are unlikely to be the primary determinant, since allelic variation for the DSB-inducing locus Spo11 resulted in differences in the numbers of DSBs but not the number of MLH1 foci. Instead, chromatin conformation appears to be a more important contributor, since analysis of synaptonemal complex length and DNA loop size also identified consistent strain-specific differences; i.e., crossover frequency increased with synaptonemal complex length and was inversely related to chromatin loop size. This indicates a relationship between recombination

  11. Statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, J.J.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Desert Research Institute participated in the Enewetak Atoll Radiological Cleanup by providing data-base management and statistical analysis support for the Department of Energy team. The data-base management responsibilities included both design and implementation of a system for recording (in machine-retrievable form) all radiological measurements made during the cleanup, excluding personnel dosimetry. Statistical analyses were performed throughout the cleanup and were used to guide excavation activities

  12. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was analyzed for metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. To compare the urinary levels of exposure biomarkers, the urine of 39 inland residents who were not directly exposed to the oil spill were analyzed. Results Residents exposed to oil remnants through clean-up work showed associations between physical symptoms and the exposure levels defined in various ways, including days of work, degree of skin contamination, and levels of some urinary exposure biomarkers of VOCs, metabolites and metals, although no major abnormalities in urinary exposure biomarkers were observed. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a relationship between crude oil exposure and acute human health effects and suggests the need for follow-up to evaluate the exposure status and long-term health effects of clean-up participants. PMID:22125768

  13. Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R.; Sato, Chikashi

    1997-01-01

    'How clean is clean?' is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects

  14. Cleanup criteria for the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is prescribing decontamination and decommissioning (cleanup) criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project and the West Valley, New York, site. The site is contaminated with various forms of residual radioactive contamination and contains a wide variety of radioactive waste. The NRC is planning to issue cleanup criteria for public comment in Fall 1999. Due to the complexity of the site, and the newness of NRC's cleanup criteria policy, applying NRC's cleanup criteria to this site will be an original regulatory undertaking. (author)

  15. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  16. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-01-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  18. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula [Cogentus Consulting (United States); Mathieson, John [NDA United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Judd, Laurie [NuVision Engineering, Inc. (United States); Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana [US DOE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  19. Establishment of national diagnostic reference level for renal doses in nuclear medicine departments at Khartoum-Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameen, Suhaib; Hamid, Alhadi; Rushdi, M. A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we established a diagnostic reference level (DRL) for patient dose focusing on the investigation of activity to the kidneys during(99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan, selected two department nuclear medicine in main hospitals in Khartoum state. The DRLs is an investigational level used to identify unusually high radiation doses for common diagnostic medical in Nuclear Medicine procedures and suggested action levels above which a facility should review its methods and determine if acceptable image quality can be achieved at lower doses. The high specific activity of 99mTc makes it suitable as a first pass agent, for multiple or sequential studies, 99mTc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is preferred to 99mTc-pertechnetate. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan 99mTc- DTPA were divided to three groups. The first group received dose less than 5 mCi, are represent (27.03%) from all patients, second group received dose 5 to 5.5 mCi are represent(66.67%) and the third group received dose from 5.6 to 6.2 mCi are represent (6.31%) from all patients 99mTc-DTPA. And according to the IAEA recommendation for adult doses(5-10mCi) this study show that about 93.1% of the sample examines by dose less than 5.5 mCi. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving reference doses for renal examinations for nuclear medicine departments in Sudan.(Author)

  20. Coolant cleanup system for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Araki, Hidefumi.

    1993-01-01

    The cleanup system of the present invention removes impurity ions and floating materials accumulated in a reactor during evaporation of coolants in the nuclear reactor. That is, coolants pass pipelines from a pressure vessel using pressure difference between a high pressure in the pressure vessel and a low pressure at the upstream of a condensate filtration/desalting device of a condensate/feed water system as a driving source, during which cations and floating materials are removed in a high temperature filtration/desalting device and coolants flow into the condensate/feedwater system. Impurities containing anions are removed here by the condensates filtration/desalting device. Then, they return to the pressure vessel while pressurized and heated by a condensate pump, a feed water pump and a feed water heater. At least pumps, a heat exchanger for heating, a filtration/desalting device for removing anions and pipelines connecting them used exclusively for the coolant cleanup system are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 107-D5 Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpuz, F.M.; Fancher, J.D.; Blumenkranz, D.B.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents the results of remedial action objectives performed at the 107-D5 Sludge Trench, located at the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The 107-D5 Sludge Trench is also identified in the Hanford Waste Information Data System as Waste Site 100-D-4 (site code). The selected remedial action was (1) excavation of the site to the extent required to meet specified soil cleanup levels, (2) disposal of contaminated excavation materials at the Environmental Restoration and Disposal Facility at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site, and (3) backfilling the site with clean soil to adjacent grade elevations

  2. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  3. A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture-Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale: Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seales, Maxian B.; Dilmore, Robert; Ertekin, Turgay; Wang, John Yilin

    2017-04-01

    Horizontal wells combined with successful multi-stage hydraulic fracture treatments are currently the most established method for effectively stimulating and enabling economic development of gas bearing organic-rich shale formations. Fracture cleanup in the Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) is critical to stimulation effectiveness and long-term well performance. However, fluid cleanup is often hampered by formation damage, and post-fracture well performance frequently falls below expectations. A systematic study of the factors that hinder fracture fluid cleanup in shale formations can help optimize fracture treatments and better quantify long term volumes of produced water and gas. Fracture fluid cleanup is a complex process influenced by multi-phase flow through porous media (relative permeability hysteresis, capillary pressure etc.), reservoir rock and fluid properties, fracture fluid properties, proppant placement, fracture treatment parameters, and subsequent flowback and field operations. Changing SRV and fracture conductivity as production progresses further adds to the complexity of this problem. Numerical simulation is the best, and most practical approach to investigate such a complicated blend of mechanisms, parameters, their interactions, and subsequent impact on fracture fluid cleanup and well deliverability. In this paper, a 3-dimensional, 2-phase, dual-porosity model was used to investigate the impact of multiphase flow, proppant crushing, proppant diagenesis, shut-in time, reservoir rock compaction, gas slippage, and gas desorption on fracture fluid cleanup, and well performance in Marcellus shale. The research findings have shed light on the factors that substantially constrains efficient fracture fluid cleanup in gas shales, and provided guidelines for improved fracture treatment designs and water management.

  4. Characteristic of the immunological state of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers in a late period after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Zvagule, T.; Curbakova, E.; Bruvere, R.; Romanova, T.; Sitova, O; Hagina, E.; Socnevs, A.

    2001-01-01

    No differences in the number of immunologically competent cells and other immunological variables were found among the clean-up workers, depending on the time they were in Chernobyl. However, a statistically significant reduction in the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD16+ and CD19+, decrease in the levels of IgG and suppression of APH and the phagocytic activity of neutrophils with a simultaneous increase in the levels of IgA and C3d was found in all clean-up workers when compared to controls. In a small group of clean-up workers, the levels of some plasma cytokines were detected. A statistically significant increase in IL-6 levels was found in the clean-up workers when compared to controls. The irradiation received by the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers was large enough to cause disturbances in the function of cells and organ systems through immune system disorders with a resultant weakening of the body response and adaptation mechanisms. (authors)

  5. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards R n for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: R n = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of R n are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  6. [Establishment of oxygen and glucose deprive model of in vitro cultured hippocampal neuron and effect of ligustrazine on intracellular Ca+ level in model neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hai-tong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jie-hong

    2007-03-01

    To establish the oxygen and glucose deprive (OGD) model in cultured hippocampal neuron and study the effect of ligustrazine on intracellular Ca2+ level in the model neurons. The OGD model was established in cultured hippocampal neuron, and the intracellular Ca2+ level in it was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The OGD model was successfully established in cultured hippocampal neurons; the intracellular Ca2+ level in the OGD model group was significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P neuron, which could be antagonized by ligustrazine, indicating that ligustrazine has a protective effect on hippocampal neuron from hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  7. Post-accident cleanup and decommissioning of a reference pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.S.; Holter, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a conceptual study to evaluate the technical requirements, costs, and safety impacts of the cleanup and decommissioning of a large pressurized water reactor (PWR) involved in an accident. The costs and occupational doses for post-accident cleanup and decommissioning are estimated to be substantially higher than those for decommissioning following the orderly shutdown of a reactor. A major factor in these cost and occupational dose increases is the high radiation environment that exists in the containment building following an accident which restricts worker access and increases the difficulty of performing certain tasks. Other factors which influence accident cleanup and decommissioning costs are requirements for the design and construction of special tools and equipment, increased requirements for regulatory approvals, and special waste management needs. Radiation doses to the public from routine accident cleanup and decommissioning operations are estimated to be below permissible radiation dose levels in unrestricted areas and within the range of annual doses from normal background. 6 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  8. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2017-08-01

    To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Post-accident cleanup and decommissioning of a reference pressurized-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.S.; Holter, G.M.

    1982-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a conceptual study to evaluate the technical requirements, costs, and safety impacts of the cleanup and decommissioning of a large pressurized water reactor (PWR) involved in an accident. The costs and occupational doses for post-accident cleanup and dcommissioning are estimated to be substantially higher than those for decommissioning following the orderly shutdown of a reactor. A major factor in these cost and occupational dose increases is the high radiation environment that exists in the containment building following an accident which restricts worker access and increases the difficulty of performing certain tasks. Other factors which influence accident cleanup and decommissioning costs are requirements for the design and construction of special tools and equipment, increased requirements for regulatory approvals, and special waste management needs. Radiation doses to the public from routine accident cleanup and decommissioning operations are estimated to be below permissible radiation dose levels in unrestricted areas and within the range of annual doses from normal background

  10. Restoration principles and criteria: superfund program policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) is responsible for implementing the long-term (non-emergency) portion of a key U.S. law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed 'Superfund'. The purpose of the Superfund program is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund program. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in a consistent manner as with chemical contamination, except to account for the technical differences between radionuclides and chemicals. This consistency is important since at every radioactively contaminated site being addressed under Superfund's primary program for long-term cleanup, the National Priorities List (NPL), chemical contamination is also present. (author)

  11. Design and operational experience with a portable tritium cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Wilson, S.W.; Garcia, F.

    1991-06-01

    We built a portable tritium cleanup system to scavenge tritium from contaminated gases in any tritium-containing system in the LLNL Tritium Facility. The cleanup system uses standard catalytic oxidation of tritium to water followed by water removal with a molecular sieve dryer. The cleanup unit, complete with instrumentation, is contained in a portable cart that is rolled into place and connected to the apparatus to be cleaned. The cleanup systems is effective, low-tech, simple, and reliable. The nominal flow rate of the system is 30 liters/minute, and the decontamination factor is > 1000. In this paper we will show design information on our portable cleanup system, and will discuss our operational experience with it over the past several years

  12. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary mission of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division is to propose, to develop and to evaluate solutions for a safe, acceptable and sustainable management of radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division programme consists in research, studies, development and demonstration aiming to realise the objective of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation on radioactively contaminated sites. Indeed, it participates in the realisation of an objective which is to ensure that radioactive wastes are safely managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a view to protecting human health and the environment, within a wider framework of an interactive and integrated approach to radioactive waste management and safety. We believe that nuclear energy will be necessary for the sustainable development of mankind in the 21st century, but we well understand that it would not be maintained if it is not proven that within benefits of nuclear energy a better protection of the environment is included. Although the current waste management practices are both technically and from the environmental point of view adequate, efforts in relation of future power production and waste management technologies should be put on waste minimisation. Therefore, the new and innovative reactors, fuel cycle and waste management processes and installations should be designed so that the waste generation can be kept in minimum. In addition to the design, the installations should be operated so as to create less waste; consideration should be given e.g. to keeping water chemistry clean and other quality factors. SCK-CEN in general and the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division in particular are present in international groups preparing the development of innovative nuclear reactors, as Generation 4 and INPRO. Because performance assessments are often black boxes for the public, demonstration is needed for the acceptation of

  13. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Sankichi; Takashima, Yoshie.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently eliminate radioactive materials such as iron oxide and cobalt ions with less heat loss by the use of an electrode assembly applied with a direct current. Constitution: In a reactor water clean-up device adapted to pass reactor water through an electrode assembly comprising at least a pair of anode and cathode applied with a direct current to eliminate various types of ions contained in the reactor water by way of the electrolysis or charge neutralization at the anode, the cathode is constituted with a corrosion resistant grid-like or porous metal plate and a layer to the upper portion of the metal plate filled with a plurality of metal spheres of about 1 - 5 mm diameter, and the anode is made of insoluble porous or spirally wound metal material. (Seki, T.)

  14. Fernald incident underscores DOE cleanup woes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Miscalculations and poor safety planning led to a large release of deadly gas during an error-plagued effort to plug a leaking uranium hexafluoride canister discovered lying in a scrap heap at the Energy Department's Fernald plant last year, according to a DOE investigative report. Investigators with DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health said serious injury was avoided only because the wind happened to blow the toxic cloud of hydrogen fluoride gas away from inadequately protected Fernald workers watching the July 1993 canister-plugging operation at the Ohio plant. The investigators said the 25-minute canister repair effort - captured on videotape - was marked by poor planning by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp. (FERMCO), a Fluor Daniel subsidiary hired by DOE for its cleanup expertise

  15. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  16. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site

  17. Cleanup protocols when encountering thorium-230 at U.S. DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.; Hylko, J.M.; Cornish, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The passage of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, established the regulatory framework, under which the US EPA charged with developing standards for the cleanup and disposal of tailings at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites located in 10 states. 40 CFR 192.12 requires that the concentration of Ra-226 in land averaged over any area of 100 square meters shall not exceed the background level by more than 5 pCi/g, averaged over the first 15 cm of soil below the surface, 15 pCi/g, averaged over 15-cm-thick layers of soils more than 15 cm below the surface. However, Th-230 is not specifically addressed by the EPA in 40 CFR 192.12, which naturally decays with a half-life of 77,000 years to form Ra-226. Consequently, the cleanup of the initial Ra-226 contamination according to the standards will not necessarily mitigate against the eventual ingrowth of residual Ra-226 with time, due to the radioactive decay of residual Th-230. Therefore, to direct the excavation of residual Th-230, four generic protocols are being used at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, as follows: Determining the allowable remaining concentration of Th-230 in surface and subsurface soils; Encountering Th-230 contamination in the unsaturated subsurface soil; Encountering Th-230 contamination in the saturated zone; and Verification sampling. The four generic protocols, developed in conjunction with the supplemental standards provision, ensure protection of the general public by reducing exposures to levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable, while considering practical measures necessary to excavate Th-230 under conditions encountered at the UMTRA Project site

  18. Implementing the shoreline cleanup assessment team process in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Ramsey, K.E.; Lindstedt, D.; Westphal, K.A.; Seal, R.; McBride, R.A.; Byrnes, M.R.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    Louisiana State University (LSU) and Woodward-Clyde Consultants are working with state and federal agencies and industry through the LSU Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Research and Response Program to establish a shoreline cleanup assessment team program (SCAT) in the Gulf of Mexico. Each SCAT team consists of a coastal geomorphologist and ecologist (and archaeologist when appropriate), as well as representatives from the responsible federal, state, and private agencies. This cooperative effort is aimed at identifying oil spill impact and interagency coastal resource concerns and recommendations, and developing a cleanup strategy based on interagency cooperation and concurrence within a systematic and standardized framework. The SCAT program provides interagency coordination, SCAT preparedness, spill drill participation, interagency training, geographic information systems services, monitoring, and routine aerial videotape surveys. It also offers technical support to the decision-making process within spill response operations

  19. Taking interim actions: Integrating CERCLA and NEPA to move ahead with site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Valett, G.L.; McCracken, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The cleanup of contaminated sites can be expedited by using interim response actions in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). In fact, a major portion of some Superfund sites can be cleaned up using interim actions. For CERCLA sites being remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), such actions must also comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) because the DOE has established a policy for integrating CERCLA and NEPA requirements. A strategy for the integrated documentation with implementation of interim actions has been applied successfully at the Weldon Spring site, and major cleanup projects are currently underway. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with integrating CERCLA and NEPA for interim actions and summarizes those actions that have been identified for the Weldon Spring site

  20. Taking interim actions: Integrating CERCLA and NEPA to move ahead with site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Valett, G.L.; McCracken, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The cleanup of contaminated sites can be expedited by using interim response actions in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). In fact, a major portion of some Superfund sites can be cleaned up using interim actions. For CERCLA sites being remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), such actions must also comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) because the DOE has established a policy for integrating CERCLA and NEPA requirements. A strategy for the integrated documentation and implementation of interim actions has been applied successfully at the Weldon Spring site, and major cleanup projects are currently underway. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with integrating CERCLA and NEPA for interim actions and summarizes those actions that have been identified for the Weldon Spring site

  1. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within currently expected annual funding profiles. These strategies were developed because (1) the U.S. Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and risk-reduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars, or less, annually. This analysis produced a framework and a set of tools that are available for dealing with changes to anticipated funding levels, changes in risk cleanup standards, and Congressional initiatives and inquiries. The tools include land-supply curves, cost profiles, risk profiles, mortgage reduction curves, and minimum operations costs. This paper describes the methodology used to develop mortgage-based, risk-based, and land-based cleanup strategies and how those strategies differ in terms of the work to be performed, its sequence, and the resulting end states

  2. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Processing Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The supplemental standards provisions of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192 (40 CFR Part 192) require the cleanup of radionuclides other than radium-226 (Ra-226) to levels ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), taking into account site-specific conditions, if sufficient quantities and concentrations are present to constitute a significant radiation hazard. In this context, thorium-230 (Th-230) at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site will require remediation. However, a seasonally fluctuating groundwater table at the site significantly complicates conventional remedial action with respect to cleanup. Characterization data indicate that in the offpile areas, the removal of residual in situ bulk Ra-226 and Th-230 such that the 1000-year projected Ra-226 concentration (Ra-226 concentration in 1000 years due to the decay of in situ Ra-226 and the in-growth of Ra-226 from in situ Th-230) complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cleanup standard for in situ Ra-226 and the cleanup protocol for in situ Th-230 can be readily achieved using conventional excavation techniques for bulk contamination without encountering significant impacts due to groundwater. The EPA cleanup standard and criterion for Ra-226 and the 1000-year projected Ra-226 are 5 and 15 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) above background, respectively, averaged over 15-centimeter (cm) deep surface and subsurface intervals and 100-square-meter (m 2 ) grid areas. Significant differential migration of Th-230 relative to Ra-226 has occurred over 40 percent of the subpile area. To effectively remediate the site with respect to Ra-226 and Th-230, supplemental standard is proposed and discussed in this report

  3. Survey of image quality and patient dose in simple radiographic examinations: establishing guidance levels and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatrakul, N.; Bunsoong, T.; Krisanachinda, A.; Suwanpradit, P.; Rungruengthanakit, P.; Kanchart, S.; Chaiwong, Rajikorn; Tsapakig, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate image quality and patient dose for commonly radiographic examinations in Thailand, to establish national reference or guidance levels (GL) and compare with international standards, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project on Radiation Protection of Patients and Medical Exposure Control (RAS/9/034 and RAS/9/047). Materials and Methods: Film reject rate analysis, image quality and patient dose assessment before and after Quality Control (QC) implementation were investigated in 8 X-ray machines in 4 hospitals. Air kerma (in mGy) at 1 meter focus-detector-distance for different kVp settings for each X-ray machines were measured using an ionization chamber under standardized condition. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) for Chest PA, Lumbar spine AP, Lumbar spine LAT, Pelvis AP, Abdomen AP, Skull AP and Skull LAT were calculated for at least 10 adult patients of average body mass (60 to 80 kg) for each projection. The obtained values were compared with international standards. Results: The highest film rejection rate reduction recorded after corrective actions from 9.15% to 6.8%. Mean ESAK values were less than international standards both before and after QC implementation in all projections but Chest PA projection. Maximum ESAK in Chest PA projection before corrective action was 0.55 mGy which was higher than the IAEA GL of 0.2 mGy. However, it was reduced to 0.25 mGy after QC tests on X- ray machine and using high kilovoltage (kV) technique. Conclusion: Proposed national GL of Thailand were obtained by estimating the 3rd quartile of the whole sample: Chest PA: 0.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine AP: 2.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine LAT: 6.3 mGy, Pelvis AP: 1.8 mGy, Abdomen: 1.5 mGy, Skull PA: 1.3 mGy and Skull LAT: 0.9 mGy. (author)

  4. Coolant clean-up system in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuburaya, Hirobumi; Akita, Minoru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Okura, Minoru; Tsuji, Akio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure a sufficient urging pressure at the inlet of a coolant clean-up system pump in a nuclear reactor and eliminate radioactive contaminations to the pump. Constitution: Coolant clean-up system (CUW) pump in a nuclear reactor is disposed to the downstream of a filtration desalter and, for compensating the insufficiency of the urging pressure at the pump inlet, the reactor water intake port to the clean-up system is disposed to the downstream of the after-heat removing pump and the heat exchanger. By compensating the net positive suction head (NPSH) of the clean-up system from the residual heat removing system, the problems of insufficient NPSH for the CUW pump upon reactor shut-down can be dissolved and, accordingly, the reactor clean-up system can be arranged in the order of the heat exchanger, clean-up device and pump. Thus, the CUW pump acts on reactor water after cleaned-up in the clean-up device to reduce the radioactivity contamination to the pump. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, Kevin T.; Wirjanto, Tony S.

    1998-01-01

    of the gap in log wages between men and women. Due to an inadequacy of the traditional method of decomposing wages when examining an affirmative action program, a new method of decomposition is developed: the characteristic wage decomposition. The results suggest that an employment equity program will reduce......This paper examines the effect of the proportionof females in the establishment on the male/female wage gap and the effectiveness of an affirmaive action program in reducing this gap. A unique data set makes this paper possible since it has information on both individuals and the establishments...... the male/female log wage gap by 20 percent....

  6. Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglite, A.; Ozola, G.; Curbakova, E.

    1998-01-01

    Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

  7. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  8. Development of tritium cleanup system for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Kawano, Takao; Shibuya, Mamoru; Kabutomori, Toshiki

    2000-01-01

    Energy is vital for humans and we have been consuming a large amount of fossil fuel especially from the beginning of the industrial revolution. Nowadays its huge consumption has however come to threaten our life and we have to prepare nonfossil fuels, for instance solar energy, biomass energy, nuclear energy and so on. Fusion energy is an unlimited resource and one of the strongest candidates of the future energy source. At the National Institute for Fusion Science (referred to as 'NIFS' hereafter), we have constructed a new fusion experimental device called large helical device (referred to as 'LHD' hereafter) in 1998. The device will generate a small amount of tritium, as a fusion product. In order to remove it from the exhaust gas, we have designed a tritium cleanup system based on a new concept. This system is mainly composed of a palladium permeater, a decomposer and hydrogen absorbing alloys. It may perfectly recover the tritium from exhaust gas without oxidizing it. This system is applicable for the future needs at fusion power plants. In order to remove tritium discharged from fusion experimental facilities, it is usual to employ a system by which tritiated constituents, in various chemical forms, are entirely converted to a form of water vapor by catalytic oxidation. The water vapor containing tritiated form is then absorbed by molecular sieve (referred to as 'wet system' hereafter). However, in the case of LHD, it is not rational to deliberately convert the discharged tritium into the water vapor, because the tritium discharged from LHD is almost in a form of hydrogen molecules. Moreover, the tritium in the form of water vapor affects the human body 18000 times stronger than that of hydrogen molecules. In accordance with these view points, we have developed another type of tritium cleanup system based on a new concept, in which hydrogen molecules including tritiated ones (HT, DT and T 2 ) found in the exhaust gas of LHD are directly fixed to hydrogen

  9. The NRC weighs public input on plant cleanup standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1993-01-01

    In the wake of seven public open-quotes work-shopsclose quotes held around the country over the past several months, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing to develop radiological criteria for decommissioning nuclear power plants. The criteria will apply to plants that operate for their normal lifespan, those that shut down prematurely, as well as a range of other NRC-licensed facilities, including materials licensees, fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants, and independent spent fuel storage installations. The criteria have been years in the making, and their progress is being monitored closely by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which shares with the NRC the authority to regulate radiological hazards. Both agencies have made abortive attempts to promulgate standards in the past. The EPA's most recent proposal, dating from 1986, has yet to reach the final rule stage. The NCRC's 1990 policy statement, open-quotes Below Regulatory Concern,close quotes was overturned by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, a setback that prompted the Commission's call for open-quotes enhanced participatory rulemakingclose quotes-a.k.a., public meetings-last December. In its Rulemaking Issues Paper, the NRC outlined for discussion four open-quotes fundamentalclose quotes objectives as a basis for developing decommissioning criteria: (1) establishing limits above which the risks to the public are deemed open-quotes unacceptableclose quotes; (2) establishing open-quotes goalsclose quotes below which the risks to the public are deemed open-quotes trivialclose quotes; (3) establishing criteria for what is achievable using the open-quotes best availableclose quotes cleanup technology; and (4) removing all radioactivity attributable to plant activity. The NRC expects to publish a proposed rule and a draft generic environmental impact statement in April 1994; the final rule is scheduled for May 1995

  10. A new direction for prioritizing federal agency cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrillis, L.

    1995-01-01

    Departments and agencies of the federal government manage a vast array of activities at 27,000 facilities. Due to the nature of such activities, federal facilities could be contaminated with hazardous substances. It is estimated that the federal government ultimately will be responsible for or have a significant role in the cleanup of up to 500,000 sites. Although federal facilities comprise only a small percentage of the community regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), federal facilities owned or operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD) are usually larger and more complex than their private industrial counterparts. Federal facilities routinely have a larger number of sites on their facilities with varying degrees of risk. At present, the approaches for allocating resources for environmental restoration of federal facilities, for incorporating stakeholder concerns in the allocation, and for obtaining funding from Congress vary greatly from one agency to another. In light of these concerns, the federal government recognizes the need to evaluate the current resource allocation system for funding remediation projects and to establish a broader-based publicly supported priority-setting method. This paper outlines a possible new direction and summarizes the conclusions reached in a handful of forums created to address the issue of priority setting

  11. Some statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.G.; Giacomini, J.J.; Friesen, H.N.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning up the radionuclide contamination at Enewetak Atoll has involved a number of statistical design problems. Theoretical considerations led to choosing a grid sampling pattern; practical problems sometimes lead to resampling on a finer grid. Other problems associated with using grids have been both physical and statistical. The standard sampling system is an in situ intrinsic gamma detector which measures americium concentration. The cleanup guidelines include plutonium concentration, so additional sampling of soil is required to establish Pu/Am ratios. The soil sampling design included both guidelines for location of the samples and also a special pattern of subsamples making up composite samples. The large variance of the soil, sample results makes comparison between the two types difficult anyway, but this is compounded by vegetation attenuation of the in situ readings, soil disturbance influences, and differences in devegetation methods. The constraints inherent in doing what amounts to a research and development project, on a limited budget of time and money, in a field engineering environment are also considered

  12. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Gou, Zhonghua; Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-03-20

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking-e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network-often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800-1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (transit stations.

  13. Radiation Dose to Post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation dose calculation for post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine - both external radiation exposure due to fallout and internal doses due to inhalation (I131 intake) or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs.

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete

  15. Oil spill cleanup for soft sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Tookey, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experimental trials are in progress to investigate the effectiveness and consequences of oil spill cleanup methods for areas of mud flats and salt marsh. Trials have shown that wheeled and tracked vehicles have limited utility. Field measurements of the load bearing capacity of the mud can show where such vehicles may be used. Lightweight hover craft provide a useful means of transport. Shallow-draft boats can have a useful transport role: whether such craft can be used depends on the local topography and tidal regime. The trials showed that practical problems associated with implementing low-pressure flushing operations (lack of water for flushing, recovery of the flushed oil) can be overcome - although the environmental effects have yet to be assessed. The use of straw matting as a sorbent material was also demonstrated. The objective of the first two phases of the project, reported here, was to select workable methods with a view to subsequently employing them in larger-scale trials. The environmental consequences of using the selected methods will be examined in the later trials

  16. Coolant cleanup method in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Shigeoki; Takahashi, Sankichi; Izumi, Kenkichi; Motojima, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To effectively adsorb to remove low molecular weight organic substances from iron exchange resins for use in the removal of various radioactive nucleides contained in reactor coolants. Method : Reactor coolants are recycled by a main recyling pump in a nuclear reactor and a portion of the coolants is cooled and, thereafter, purified in a coolant desalter. While on the other hand, high pressure steams generated from the reactor are passed through a turbine, cooled in a condensator, eliminated with claddings or the likes by the passage through a filtration desalter using powderous ion exchange resins and then further passed through a desalter (filled with granular ion exchange resins). For instance, an adsorption and removing device for organic substances (resulted through the decomposition of ion exchange resins) precoated with activated carbon powder or filled with granular activated carbon is disposed at the downstream for each of the desalters. In this way, the organic substances in the coolants are eliminated to prevent the reduction in the desalting performance of the ion exchange resins caused by the formation of complexes between organic substances and cobalt in the coolants, etc. In this way, the coolant cleanup performance is increased and the amount of wasted ion exchange resins can be decreased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Challenges encountered in hydrocarbon contaminated soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarettro, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the author's experience relating to the cleanup of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has been garnered from serving the city of Santa Fe Springs, California as a redevelopment consultant and project manager. In this paper, the author's comments will be centered on that community. To set the stage the author believes it might be helpful to relate some of the history and background of Santa Fe Springs (SFS). The community was first founded as an agricultural settlement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, with virtually all of the farms and ranches either planted in orchards or engaged in raising cattle and livestock. The Southern Pacific Railroad had a line running through the area primarily to serve the needs of the ranchers and farmers. The community at the time was known as Fulton Wells in honor of a large hotel complex which had been erected around a well-known mineral spring touted for its curative value. The local population had been aware for some time of the presence of brackish water in shallow wells and of the peculiar odor which permeated much of the surrounding area

  18. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH 2 BO 3 -H 3 BO 3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  19. Solvent degradation and cleanup: a survey and recent ORNL studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper surveys the mechanisms for degradation of the tributyl phosphate and diluent components of Purex solvent by acid and radiation, reviews the problems encountered in plant operations resulting from the presence of these degradation products, and discusses methods for minimizing the formation of degradation products and accomplishing their removal. Scrubbing solutions containing sodium carbonate or hydroxylamine salts and secondary cleanup of solvents using solid sorbents are evaluated. Finally, recommendations for improved solvent cleanup are presented. 50 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  1. Report on DOE labs takes aim at cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a review of the Galvin report on the environmental restoration activities at DOE nuclear facilities. The report is highly critical of DOE efforts, calling for a management overhaul and partial privitization of some facilities. Urging that the facilities be more integrated into the environmental management program, the report asserts that the low quality of science and technology in field cleanup work is the most important reason for the limited pace of cleanup activities. Excessive administrative costs were also cited

  2. Content Analysis of Vomit and Diarrhea Cleanup Procedures To Prevent Norovirus Infections in Retail and Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Morgan G; Dubé, Anne-Julie; Leone, Cortney M; Moore, Christina M; Fraser, Angela M

    2016-11-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, sickening 19 to 21 million Americans each year. Vomit and diarrhea are both highly concentrated sources of norovirus particles. For this reason, establishing appropriate cleanup procedures for these two substances is critical. Food service establishments in states that have adopted the 2009 or 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code are required to have a program detailing specific cleanup procedures. The aim of our study was to determine the alignment of existing vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures with the 11 elements recommended in Annex 3 of the 2011 Supplement to the 2009 Food Code and to determine their readability and clarity of presentation. In July 2015, we located vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures by asking Norovirus Collaborative for Outreach, Research, and Education stakeholders for procedures used by their constituency groups and by conducting a Google Advanced Search of the World Wide Web. We performed content analysis to determine alignment with the recommendations in Annex 3. Readability and clarity of presentation were also assessed. A total of 38 artifacts were analyzed. The mean alignment score was 7.0 ± 1.7 of 11 points; the mean clarity score was 6.7 ± 2.5 of 17 points. Only nine artifacts were classified as high clarity, high alignment. Vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures should align with Annex 3 in the Food Code and should, as well, be clearly presented; yet, none of the artifacts completely met both conditions. To reduce the spread of norovirus infections in food service establishments, editable guidelines are needed that are aligned with Annex 3 and are clearly written, into which authors could insert their facility-specific information.

  3. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (Wide Beach section of Brant, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Wide-spread contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) threatened the Wide Beach section of Brant, New York, a popular vacation resort. EPA's Superfund program effectively completed a permanent cleanup of Wide Beach in the span of one year. Other highlights included: a new and innovative technology to remove PCB contamination; reduction of PCBs to one-fifth of acceptable levels; temporary relocation of residents who were concerned for their health while cleanup activities took place; newly paved roads and driveways, re-landscaped yards, and a new storm sewer system; and restoration of ecologically sensitive wetlands. EPA's achievements significantly reduced PCB risks at Wide Beach, and left a satisfied community in Brant

  4. US Department of Energy Environmental Cleanup Technology Development program: Business and research opportunities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is charged with overseeing a multi-billion dollar environmental cleanup effort. EM leads an aggressive national research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program to provide environmental restoration and waste management technologies to DOE sites, and to manage DOE-generated waste. DOE is firmly committed to working with industry to effectuate this cleanup effort. We recognize that private industry, university, and other research and development programs are valuable sources of technology innovation. The primary purpose of this document is to provide you with information on potential business opportunities in the following technical program areas: Remediation of High-Level Waste Tanks; Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal of Mixed Waste; Migration of Contaminants; Containment of Existing Landfills; Decommissioning and Final Disposition, and Robotics.

  5. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.Q.; Layton, D.W.; Rutz, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils

  6. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  7. Assessment and cleanup of the Taxi Strip waste storage area at LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerer, A.

    1983-01-01

    In September 1982 the Hazards Control Department of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a final radiological survey of a former low-level radioactive waste storage area called the Taxi Strip so that the area could be released for construction of an office building. Collection of soil samples at the location of a proposed sewer line led to the discovery of an old disposal pit containing soil contaminated with low-level radioactive waste and organic solvents. The Taxi Strip area was excavated leading to the discovery of three additional small pits. The clean-up of Pit No. 1 is considered to be complete for radioactive contamination. The results from the chlorinated solvent analysis of the borehole samples and the limited number of samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicate that solvent clean-up at this pit is complete. This is being verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of a few additional soil samples from the bottom sides and ends of the pit. As a precaution, samples are also being analyzed for metals to determine if further excavation is necessary. Clean-up of Pits No. 2 and No. 3 is considered to be complete for radioactive and solvent contamination. Results of analysis for metals will determine if excavation is complete. Excavation of Pit No. 4 which resulted from surface leakage of radioactive contamination from an evaporation tray is complete

  8. Premise to implement a grading system to evaluate the sanitary level in food service establishments in Milan, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Razzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory framework of the official controls on food safety, the criteria and methods from the planning of interventions in the field of official control to the management of information flows, and the standards described in the operation manual of the local competent authorities drafted by the Lombardy Region (2011 were evaluated. A questionnaire consisting of n. 10 questions with multiple answers draft in partnership with EPAM (the Association of Provincial Public Retail and catering businesses in Milan to n. 107 Food service establishments of Milan shows that 92% of managers approve the introduction of a grading system. The regulatory framework is planned to support the implementation of risk assignment, unfortunately the attribution of risk category of retail and catering businesses is still different among regions.

  9. A rapid cleanup method for the isolation and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dean E; Porter, Andrew; O'Neill, Terry; Harris, Roger K; Rottinghaus, George E

    2004-01-01

    Preparations from comfrey (Symphytum officinale and S. x uplandicum) root and leaf contain varying levels of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Reference compounds for comfrey are not commercially available, and there is currently no rapid extraction or analytical method capable of determining low levels in raw materials or as adulterants in commercially available extracts. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using an Ergosil cleanup column that specifically binds the PAs. With this method, powdered comfrey root was extracted by sonication and shaking with basic chloroform. The extract was applied to the cleanup column under vacuum, washed with 2 mL acetone-chloroform (8 + 2, v/v) followed by 2 mL petroleum ether to remove excess chloroform. The column was dried under vacuum, and the PAs were eluted with 2 successive 1 mL aliquots methanol. Percent recoveries of the PAs following Ergosil SPE had an overall average of 96.8%, with RSD of 3.8% over a range of 1.0 to 25.0 g extracted in 100 mL. Average precision of the method (n = 3 over 4 extraction concentrations) gave an overall RSD of 6.0% for the 5 alkaloids, with a range of 0.8% (5 g in 100 mL) to 11.2% (25 g in 100 mL). Recovery optimization testing showed that 1.0 g comfrey root extracted in 100 mL yielded the greatest recovery (% dry weight) of the PAs, with an extraction efficiency and accuracy of 94.2%, and RSD of 1.7% (n = 9). The unique properties of the Ergosil cleanup column provide rapid sample cleanup, volume reduction, and concentration of PAs from comfrey extracts, and allow the eluant to be analyzed directly by traditional chromatographic methods.

  10. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  11. Re-establishment of the air kerma and ambient dose equivalent standards for the BIPM protection-level 60Co beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, C.; Roger, P.

    2005-07-01

    The air kerma and ambient dose equivalent standards for the protection-level 60 Co beam have been re-established following the repositioning of the irradiator and modifications to the beam. Details concerning the standards and the new uncertainty budgets are described in this report with their implications for dosimetry comparisons and calibrations. (authors)

  12. A simplified model of natural and mechanical removal to estimate cleanup equipment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, W.

    2001-01-01

    Oil spill response organizations rely on modelling to make decisions in offshore response operations. Models are used to test different cleanup strategies and to measure the expected cost of cleanup and the reduction in environmental impact. The oil spill response community has traditionally used the concept of worst case scenario in developing contingency plans for spill response. However, there are many drawbacks to this approach. The Hazardous Materials Response Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Cooperation with the U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage and Diving has developed a Trajectory Analysis Planner (TAP) which will give planners the tool to try out different cleanup strategies and equipment configurations based upon historical wind and current conditions instead of worst-case scenarios. The spill trajectory model is a classic example in oil spill modelling that uses advanced non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamical sub-models to estimate surface currents under conditions where oceanographic initial conditions are not accurately known and forecasts of wind stress are unreliable. In order to get better answers, it is often necessary to refine input values rather than increasing the sophistication of the hydrodynamics. This paper described another spill example where the level of complexity of the algorithms needs to be evaluated with regard to the reliability of the input, the sensitivity of the answers to input and model parameters, and the comparative reliability of other algorithms in the model. 9 refs., 1 fig

  13. Restoration principles and criteria: Superfund programme policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response is responsible for implementing two key US laws regulating waste management and cleanup: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed ''Superfund''. The purpose of the Superfund programme is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund programme. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in the identical way as chemical contamination. (author)

  14. Cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of the report are to provide an overview of the methodology and technology available to clean up contaminated areas and to give preliminary guidance on matters related to the planning, implementation and management of such cleanups. This report provides an integrated overview of important aspects related to the cleanup of very large areas contaminated as a result of a serious nuclear accident, including information on methods and equipment available to: characterize the affected area and the radioactive fallout; stabilize or isolate the contamination; and clean up contaminated urban, rural and forested areas. The report also includes brief sections on planning and management considerations and the transport and disposal of the large volumes of wastes arising from such cleanups. For the purposes of this report, nuclear accidents which could result in the deposition of decontamination over large areas if the outer containment fails badly include: 1) An accident with a nuclear weapon involving detonation of the chemical high explosive but little, if any, nuclear fission. 2) A major loss of medium/high level liquid waste (HLLW) due to an explosion/fire at a storage site for such waste. 3) An accident at a nuclear power plant (NPP), for example a loss of coolant accident, which results in some core disruption and fuel melting. 4) An accident at an NPP involving an uncontrolled reactivity excursion resulting in the violent ejection of a reactor core material and rupture of the containment building. 117 refs, 32 figs, 12 tabs

  15. Radioactive waste spill and cleanup on storage tank at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boore, W.G.; McNatt, F.G.; Ryland, R.K.; Scaggs, R.A.; Strother, E.D.; Wilson, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    This report was prepared for historical purpose to document events associated with a radioactive spill and subsequent cleanup efforts at the Savannah River Plant. On December 29, 1983, approximately 100 gallons of liquid radioactive waste, containing an estimated 200-600 curies of cesium-137, leaked from a flushwater line onto the top of the Savannah River Plant's Tank 13 in H-area. The highest measured radiation rate was 100 R/hr at 12 inches from the evaporator feed pump riser. The leak was caused by a series of events involving inadequate heat tracing on a flushwater line, failure of a gasket in 7 0 F weather, failure of personnel to follow a procedure, and leakage across a gate valve seat. Some of the leaked solution migrated into storm water ditches during rain, and a total of 237 millicuries migrated to a nearby stream over several months. However, no significant increase in the cesium-137 concentration occurred in the Savannah River or in the groundwater under the impacted area. Cleanup, costing 3.7 million dollars, took place over the following eighteen months. Cleanup involved water flushing, chemical flushing and mechanical removal of a portion of the concrete tank-top surface, followed by excavation of 1383 cubic yards of soil surrounding the tank. Stringent and effective radiological controls, including development of remote decontamination methods, allowed the cleanup to be accomplished with a total radiation dose to personnel of 58 rems. New safeguards were built into the system to protect against spills and to provide greater assurance of spill containment. Lead sheeting and a 4- to 6-inch-thick concrete overpour were bonded over the remaining contaminated concrete to reduce the radiation levels to less than 20 mR/hr at 3 feet. The Tank 13 evaporator feed system resumed operation in June 1985. 3 refs., 42 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  17. Worldwide analysis of marine oil spill cleanup cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    The many factors that influence oil spill response costs were discussed with particular emphasis on how spill responses differ around the world because of differing cultural values, socio-economic factors and labor costs. This paper presented an analysis of marine oil spill cleanup costs based on the country, proximity to shoreline, spill size, oil type, degree of shoreline oiling and cleanup methodology. The objective was to determine how each factor impacts per-unit cleanup costs. Near-shore spills and in-port spills were found to be 4-5 times more expensive to clean than offshore spills. Responses to spills of heavy fuels also cost 10 times more than for lighter crudes and diesel. Spill responses for spills under 30 tonnes are 10 times more costly than on a per-unit basis, for spills of 300 tonnes. A newly developed modelling technique that can be used on different types of marine spills was described. It is based on updated cost data acquired from case studies of more than 300 spills in 40 countries. The model determines a per-unit cleanup cost estimation by taking into consideration oil type, location, spill size, cleanup methodology, and shoreline oiling. It was concluded that the actual spill costs are totally dependent on the actual circumstances of the spill. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Establishing a soil reference system for fertility assessment and monitoring at plot level in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D. Calalang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the crop production areas of Miarayon Village, along the volcanic footslope of Mt. Kalatungan, Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The elevation range of the longitudinal toposequence is 1,900 to 1,300 m asl. Production areas in the intermediate part of the toposequence (Salsalan are located at about 1,600 to 1,400 m asl and in the lower part (Mambuaw at 1,400 to 1,300 m asl. A total of 24 plots (12 in each location which were planted to potatoes, carrots and corn were investigated. Soils are “Andic” Cambisol in open and convex positions and “Andic” Umbrisol in concave positions and toeslopes. The soil pH values ranged from 5.0-5.9. TOC and TN content were medium to high (4.1-8.9% and 0.30-0.80% respectively with C/N ratios from 8-15. Range values of available Ca, Mg, K and Na were 1.9-11.24, 0.16-2.14 and 0.20-1.13, 0.04-0.13 cmol+kg-1, respectively. Top soil horizon exchangeable Al in Mambuaw was higher than in Salsalan. The differences in TN, C/N ratio and available K levels between the two locations were very highly significant, TOC was highly significant and for soil pH and available Ca and sum of bases, their disparities were significant. Available Mg and Na did not differ between the two sites. Mean potato yield in Salsalan was 8.97 tha-1 more than in Mambuaw. Mean carrot yield in Salsalan was 2.39 tha-1 lesser than in Mambuaw. Mean corn yield in Salsalan was higher than in Mambuaw by 0.29 tha-1 only. Correlations between potato yields with TOC, TN, and available Ca were highly significant while soil pH and K were significant. There was no relationship detected between potato yields and Mg and Na. There was no association detected between carrot yields with topsoil nutrient levels. Correlations were noted in corn yields with available Ca, Mg and K.

  19. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Silva, Fabio; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  20. A comparison of the suitability of patient dosimetry methods for establishing diagnostic dose reference levels and optimisation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfirtner, Hans; Moores, B. Michael; Stieve, Friedrich E.

    2008-01-01

    For 50 adult patients referred for chest radiography, air kerma at the diaphragm KD, dose area product and entrance skin dose were measured. The air kerma at the diaphragm and the dose area product were determined using Diamentor M4KDK(PTW) which allows measuring air kerma and dose area product simultaneously. For the measurement of entrance skin dose TLDs are used. A 50% variation in dose, incident dose as well as entrance skin dose, was registered for the same patient thickness. The recommendation of ICRP to perform the measurements for DRLs at 'representative patients' and that of the CEC to use 'standard-sized patients' seem to make little sense in the case of chest radiography. It could be demonstrated, that the dose area product is the least appropriate dose quantity for patient measurements and to define dose reference levels. For some radiological examinations like chest, pelvis and lumbar spine the dose area product is even sex dependent. Incident dose and entrance surface dose are of equal quality for patient dose measurements in diagnostic radiography. (author)

  1. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Silva, Fabio, E-mail: jaalmeida@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  2. The effect of audiovisual and binaural listening on the acceptable noise level (ANL): establishing an ANL conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Pang, Carol; Zhang, Xuyang

    2014-02-01

    Little is known regarding the acoustic features of a stimulus used by listeners to determine the acceptable noise level (ANL). Features suggested by previous research include speech intelligibility (noise is unacceptable when it degrades speech intelligibility to a certain degree; the intelligibility hypothesis) and loudness (noise is unacceptable when the speech-to-noise loudness ratio is poorer than a certain level; the loudness hypothesis). The purpose of the study was to investigate if speech intelligibility or loudness is the criterion feature that determines ANL. To achieve this, test conditions were chosen so that the intelligibility and loudness hypotheses would predict different results. In Experiment 1, the effect of audiovisual (AV) and binaural listening on ANL was investigated; in Experiment 2, the effect of interaural correlation (ρ) on ANL was examined. A single-blinded, repeated-measures design was used. Thirty-two and twenty-five younger adults with normal hearing participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 1, both ANL and speech recognition performance were measured using the AV version of the Connected Speech Test (CST) in three conditions: AV-binaural, auditory only (AO)-binaural, and AO-monaural. Lipreading skill was assessed using the Utley lipreading test. In Experiment 2, ANL and speech recognition performance were measured using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in three binaural conditions, wherein the interaural correlation of noise was varied: ρ = 1 (N(o)S(o) [a listening condition wherein both speech and noise signals are identical across two ears]), -1 (NπS(o) [a listening condition wherein speech signals are identical across two ears whereas the noise signals of two ears are 180 degrees out of phase]), and 0 (N(u)S(o) [a listening condition wherein speech signals are identical across two ears whereas noise signals are uncorrelated across ears]). The results were compared to the predictions made based on the

  3. Cleanup of contaminated areas; La bonifica di aree contaminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G; Carbone, A I; Zagaroli, M [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell' Uomo, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1989-01-15

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  4. Mplications Of Establishing Location Physical Evidence And Customer Satisfaction Level Of Customer Loyalty In Ritel Modern In Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah Said

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently retailing business in Makassar from time to time increasingly in demand by the whole society. They tend to combine marketing activities and households in the shop with a variety of other recreational activities or simply stroll. This phenomenon is at least encouraging marketers to reach and use the market opportunity to market the product in the achievement of the goals and objectives of the company. This study will examine about Implications Siting Physical Evidence and Consumer Satisfaction Level Of Customer Loyalty In Modern Retail Company In Makassar. Where the author chose a modern retail company minimarkets supermarket hypermarket who offer products such as food and beverage for the daily needs in the area of Makassar as the object which is currently growing so rapidly. The research approach used was survey research methods which is a method of collecting primary data obtained directly from the original source through oral and written questions. While this type of research is Explanatory Research which explains the causal relationship between the study variables with hypothesis testing. Collecting technique uses scale Lkert variables 1 to 5. The technique of collecting data through interviews with managers and employees in each of the modern retail companies to obtain information or documentation in the form of consumer data that is still active in the purchase of existing products through questionnaires containing a list of questions which was distributed to respondents to obtain the data directly Maholtra 20061. The population in this study is a modern retail enterprise customers who have 3 cards of customers minimarket supermarkets hypermarkets in the city of Makassar. Further sampling is done by using random sampling techniques. As for determining the number of samples is done by using Slovin opinion of the Umar Husein 2001 782. In this study the type of data is qualitative and quantitative data obtained in the form of

  5. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergren, C; Wade Whitaker, W; Mary Flora, M

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  6. Historical research in the Hanford site waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Michele S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will acquaint the audience with role of historical research in the Hanford Site waste cleanup - the largest waste cleanup endeavor ever undertaken in human history. There were no comparable predecessors to this massive waste remediation effort, but the Hanford historical record can provide a partial road map and guide. It can be, and is, a useful tool in meeting the goal of a successful, cost-effective, safe and technologically exemplary waste cleanup. The Hanford historical record is rich and complex. Yet, it poses difficult challenges, in that no central and complete repository or data base exists, records contain obscure code words and code numbers, and the measurement systems and terminology used in the records change many times over the years. Still, these records are useful to the current waste cleanup in technical ways, and in ways that extend beyond a strictly scientific aspect. Study and presentations of Hanford Site history contribute to the huge educational and outreach tasks of helping the Site's work force deal with 'culture change' and become motivated for the cleanup work that is ahead, and of helping the public and the regulators to place the events at Hanford in the context of WWII and the Cold War. This paper traces historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and acquaints the audience with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site cleanup today. It presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Examples of the strengths and limitations of the

  7. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  8. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca; Scoma, Alberto; Michoud, Gregoire; Aulenta, Federico; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  9. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  10. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  11. Rough wave-like heaped overburden promotes establishment of woody vegetation while leveling promotes grasses during unassisted post mining site development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan; Mudrák, Ondřej; Reitschmiedová, Erika; Walmsley, Alena; Vachová, Pavla; Šimáčková, Hana; Albrechtová, Jana; Moradi, Jabbar; Kučera, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Geodiversity plays an important role in species establishment during spontaneous succession. At post-mining sites in the Czech Republic in 2003, we established plots in which the surface of the heaped overburden was either kept wave-like or leveled. Based on surveys conducted from 2006 to 2015, leveled plots were increasingly dominated by grasses and herbs (and especially by the grass Calamagrostis epigejos) while the wave-like plots were increasingly dominated by the trees Salix caprea and Betula pendula. In 2015, a detailed survey was conducted of the dominant species. Both S. caprea and B. pendula occurred more often in wave-like plots than in leveled plots; this was particularly true for trees taller than 1 m, which were absent in leveled plots. In wave-like plots, leaf and root biomasses of both woody species were higher on the wave slopes than on the wave depressions. Nitrogen content was higher but content stress indicating proline in leaves of S. caprea was lower in wave-like plots than in leveled plots. In wave-like plots, both woody species occurred mainly on wave slopes but C. epigejos occurred mainly in the depressions. We speculate that trees were more abundant in wave-like plots than in leveled plots because the waves trapped tree seeds and snow and because the soil porosity was greater in wave-like than in leveled plots. Grasses may have preferred the leveled plots because soil porosity was lower and clay content was higher in leveled than in wave-like plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear cleanup and decontamination for dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargues, S.; Solignac, Y.; Lapierre, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In the May 2003 issue of the review 'Controle', the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de Surete Nucleaire or ASN) reviewed the radiation protection and waste management principles applicable to dismantling operations carried out on nuclear installations, i.e. reactors, research laboratories, fuel cycle installations and nuclear power reactors. Estelle Chapelain, of the DGSNR (French General Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection), pointed out that dismantling work does not involve the same radioactive risks as operating an installation. For instance, 'the risk of disseminating radioactive material is generally greater because the dismantling process supposes the removal of one or more containment barriers'. In addition to this risk of internal exposure, the possibility of external irradiation of personnel must be taken into account due to the nature of the work carried out by the operators. The probability of conventional hazards is also accentuated, these hazards varying as work progresses (fire hazards during cutting operations, hazards associated with handling tasks, etc). Other risks must also be considered: hazards due to the ageing of installations, to loss of traceability, and finally the risks associated with waste management. Waste management falls within a strict regulatory framework specified by the decree dated December 31, 1999, which makes it compulsory to carry out a 'waste survey' with the aim of producing an inventory of waste and improving waste management. These surveys include 'waste zoning' to identify those areas liable to have been contaminated. These requirements lead operators to adapt their cleanup methodology in order to distinguish suspect rooms or equipment from those that can be deemed with certainty to be conventional. In its conclusion, the safety authority recalls the importance of 'the safety and radiation protection of dismantling operations being effectively managed and optimised, without imposing

  13. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We

  14. PROGRESS and CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m 3 (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m 3 (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to

  15. Warm Cleanup of Coal-Derived Syngas: Multicontaminant Removal Process Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Kurt A.; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Braunberger, Beau; Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-02-15

    Warm cleanup of coal- or biomass-derived syngas requires sorbent and catalytic beds to protect downstream processes and catalysts from fouling. Sulfur is particularly harmful because even parts-per-million amounts are sufficient to poison downstream synthesis catalysts. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a conventional sorbent for sulfur removal; however, its operational performance using real gasifier-derived syngas and in an integrated warm cleanup process is not well reported. In this paper, we report the optimal temperature for bulk desulfurization to be 450oC, while removal of sulfur to parts-per-billion levels requires a lower temperature of approximately 350oC. Under these conditions, we found that sulfur in the form of both hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide could be absorbed equally well using ZnO. For long-term operation, sorbent regeneration is desirable to minimize process costs. Over the course of five sulfidation and regeneration cycles, a ZnO bed lost about a third of its initial sulfur capacity, however sorbent capacity stabilized. Here, we also demonstrate, at the bench-scale, a process and materials used for warm cleanup of coal-derived syngas using five operations: 1) Na2CO3 for HCl removal, 2) regenerable ZnO beds for bulk sulfur removal, 3) a second ZnO bed for trace sulfur removal, 4) a Ni-Cu/C sorbent for multi-contaminant inorganic removal, and 5) a Ir-Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst employed for ammonia decomposition and tar and light hydrocarbon steam reforming. Syngas cleanup was demonstrated through successful long-term performance of a poison-sensitive, Cu-based, water-gas-shift catalyst placed downstream of the cleanup process train. The tar reformer is an important and necessary operation with this particular gasification system; its inclusion was the difference between deactivating the water-gas catalyst with carbon deposition and successful 100-hour testing using 1 LPM of coal-derived syngas.

  16. Establishing the estimation model on radiation level at the ambience of 60Co radiotherapy treatment room based on NCRP REPORT No.151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Haiyou; Liu Liping; Liang Yueqin; Yu Shui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish the estimation model to evaluate the radiation level at the ambience of 60 Co radiotherapy treatment room. Methods: The estimation model derives from NCRP REPORT No.151- S tructural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities b y making appropriate adjustment, which presents the calculation methods on radiation level at the ambience of megavoltage medical electron linear accelerator treatment room. Results: The application scope of estimation model from NCRP REPORT No.151 is extended to γ-radiotherapy facilities, and it can be regarded as a new model for calculating the radiation level at the ambience of 60 Co radiotherapy treatment room. Conclusion: The estimation model has certain reference value to evaluate the radiation level at the ambience of 60 Co radiotherapy treatment room. (authors)

  17. Planning for cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The cleanup of large areas of contaminated as a result of an accident at a nuclear facility could cost hundreds of millions of dollars and cause inconvenience to the public. Such a cleanup programme would be undertaken only if the detriment to health and social life resulting from cleanup activities would be less than that resulting from further exposures. All reasonable means should, however, be used to minimize the costs and detriment to humans of such a cleanup. For such a cleanup to be carried out safely, efficiently and as quickly as possible under adverse conditions requires: Good preliminary and final planning; A cleanup team having a well defined management structure and well trained personnel; and Suitable cleanup methods and equipment and cleanup criteria. 35 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  18. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  19. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  20. USA - Paper provided by the US delegation to the RWMC. Site Decontamination and Clean-up Under the U.S. EPA 'Superfund'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated and hazardous waste sites, including nuclear facilities, may be subject to clean-up under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabilities Act (CERCLA), commonly known as 'Superfund', authorises EPA to respond to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants that may endanger public health or the environment. The legislation defines hazardous substances to include radiation. Entry into Superfund: The EPA may be notified of a site potentially requiring clean up from any source. Potential sites are evaluated under a numerical hazard ranking system, and are then included on the clean-up list ('National Priorities List') if they meet an established threshold. Nuclear Facilities and Radioactively Contaminated Sites under Superfund: Any site may be subject to CERCLA action if EPA determines that it poses a hazard. There are three major types of sites that have been or are subject to action under this program: Federal nuclear facilities, Decommissioned facilities, Privately-owned, unlicensed sites Liabilities Under Superfund: The authorising legislation specifically provided for liability of persons responsible for releases of hazardous waste at uncontrolled sites. Liability under CERCLA is 'strict,' 'retroactive,' and 'joint and several'. Thus, the burden of proof for disproving liability is quite high, and that the extent of the liability is not limited to the share of the waste or hazardous substance contributed by a party. The EPA may pursue liable parties to recover past and future costs associated with clean-up, including direct costs and indirect costs incurred by both EPA and its contractors. Clean-Up Levels: Clean-up goals and technologies are established on a site-specific basis. In general, clean-up goals must meet risk requirements and be consistent with applicable standards. Other factors such as community acceptance, volume reduction

  1. A study on the establishment of the regulatory guide to the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Paek, Min Hoon; Park, Jong Gil; Han, Byeong Seop; Cheong, Jae Hak; Lee, Hae Chan; Yang, Jin Yeong; Hong, Hei Kwan; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The objectives of this study are the development of regulatory guidance to the establishment of the necessary technology standard of the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste for the safe operation of the waste repositories. In followings, the contents of our report will be presented in two parts. Survey of the characteristics of radioactive waste : investigate and analyze the source, types and characteristics of domestic radioactive waste as a basis for this study, radiochemical analysis of radioactive waste based on foreign and domestic data base, determination of the methodology for the application of the characteristic analysis of waste classification technology. Establishment of the classification criteria of the radioactive waste : collection and analysis of foreign and domestic data base on the classification methodology and criteria, development of low and intermediate level waste classification criteria and the set up of the classification methodology through the analysis of waste data, establishment of the systematic classification methodology of the low and intermediate radioactive waste through the careful survey of the current domestic regulation.

  2. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a practical tool for the optimisation and for quality assurance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukko, E.; Henner, A.; Nieminen, M.T.; Ahonen, S.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Fluoroscopic procedures are an area of special concern in relation to radiation protection. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of patient radiation doses in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) collected from a single centre, as well as to establish and review local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in ERCP. A total of 100 patients' radiation doses in ERCP were recorded, and the third-quartile method was adopted to establish local DRLs for ERCP. The mean dose area product (DAP) was 2.05 Gy cm 2 , fluoroscopy time (FT) 1.7 min and the number of images was 3. The proposed local DRLs for ERCP were 3.00 Gy cm 2 and 3.0 min. Local DRLs were reviewed in a sample of 25 patients 5 y after they had been established. In reviewing data, the averages of DAP and FT were below the local DRLs. Local DRLs help in the optimisation process of fluoroscopic procedures and guides to a good clinical practice. (authors)

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  4. Buying time: Franchising hazardous and nuclear waste cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a private franchise approach to long-term custodial care, monitoring and eventual cleanup of hazardous and nuclear waste sites. The franchise concept could be applied to Superfund sites, decommissioning commercial reactors and safeguarding their wastes and to Department of Energy sites. Privatization would reduce costs by enforcing efficient operations and capital investments during the containment period, by providing incentives for successful innovation and by sustaining containment until the cleanup`s net benefits exceed its costs. The franchise system would also permit local governments and citizens to demand and pay for more risk reduction than provided by the federal government. In principle, they would have the option of taking over site management. The major political drawback of the idea is that it requires society to be explicit about what it is willing to pay for now to protect current and future generations. Hazardous waste sites are enduring legacies of energy development. Abandoned mines, closed refineries, underground storage tanks and nuclear facilities have often become threats to human health and water quality. The policy of the United States government is that such sites should quickly be made nonpolluting and safe for unrestricted use. That is, the policy of the United States is prompt cleanup. Orphaned commercial hazardous waste sites are addressed by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Superfund program. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... greater which are subject to decontamination requirements under TSCA, including those spills listed under... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other... than 1 pound of PCBs by weight (less than 270 gallons of untested mineral oil)—(1) Decontamination...

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-47 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutlip, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of interim remedial action for the 600-47 waste site. This site consisted of several areas of surface debris and contamination near the banks of the Columbia River across from Johnson Island. Contaminated material identified in field surveys included four areas of soil, wood, nuts, bolts, and other metal debris

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulloway, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Mitchell, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste

  10. A risk-based approach to cleanup: Problems and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.

    1995-10-01

    This paper details information dealing with the meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Topics discussed include: Radtest program to summarize all data on radiation doses resulting from nuclear weapons testing; current status of US cleanup strategies; development of new milestones for the project due to reduced budgets; health hazards; and risk reduction

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and T. H. Mitchell

    2006-03-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste.

  12. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, W.

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll

  13. Demand driven salt clean-up in a molten salt fast reactor - Defining a priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, B; Litskevich, D; Gregg, R; Mount, A R

    2018-01-01

    The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated. Reactor physical knowledge of the influence of different elements on the neutron economy of the reactor is required. Using an innovative study approach, an element priority list for the salt clean-up is developed, which indicates that separation of Neodymium and Caesium is desirable, as they contribute almost 50% to the loss of criticality. Separating Zirconium and Samarium in addition from the fuel salt would remove nearly 80% of the loss of criticality due to fission products. The theoretical study is followed by a qualitative discussion of the different, demand driven optimization strategies which could satisfy the conflicting interests of sustainable reactor operation, efficient chemical processing for the salt clean-up, and the related economic as well as chemical engineering consequences. A new, innovative approach of balancing the throughput through salt processing based on a low number of separation process steps is developed. Next steps for the development of an economically viable salt clean-up process are identified.

  14. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  15. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  16. Investigation of the feasibility of an international integrated demonstration: Joint demonstration of environmental cleanup technologies in Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe (EE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) republics have areas that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The Westinghouse Hanford Company is exploring the feasibility of establishing a collaborative effort with various US agencies to establish an International Integrated Demonstration (IID). Westinghouse manages the waste management and cleanup programs at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the IID would be to (1) facilitate assistance to EE/FSU cleanup efforts, (2) provide hands-on management and operational assistance to EE/FSU countries, (3) provide a basis for evaluating opportunities for and establishing future collaborations, and (4) evaluate the applicability of US technologies to both US and EE/FSU cleanup efforts. The DOE's Integrated Demonstration Programs are currently providing the conduit for development and demonstration and transfer and deployment of innovative technologies to meet DOE's cleanup need for hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Integrated Demonstrations are focused on all facets of environmental restoration including characterization, remediation, monitoring, site closure, regulatory compliance, and regulatory and public acceptance. Innovative technologies are being tested and demonstrated at host sites across the country to provide the necessary performance data needed to deploy these technologies. The IID concept would be to conduct an Integrated Demonstration at one or more EE/FSU host sites

  17. Cosmetics or Radical Surgery? What’s Right For the Top Levels of the U.S Defense Establishment as it Downsizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-15

    1992. Thompson, W. Scott, and Donaldson D. Frizzell, ed. The Lessons of Viet Nam . New York: Crane, Russak & Company, 1977. Thurman, General Maxwell R...Depuftt .f Deawss. w SOY Or qifMade Thk 4amest may wt be IS-ýi ft 1W 0Mp•"s u ftbwsbee.demadby lbs appespdAdks Of enls COSMETICS OR RADICAL SURGERY...Classification) Cosmetics or Radical Surgery? What’s Right for the Top Levels of the U.S. Defense Establishment as It Downsizes? 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) LTC

  18. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  19. Environmental Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park Year One - Execution with Certainty SM - 13120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, A.L. [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    all cleanup work, UCOR's safety record goes hand in hand with its excellent project performance. Through calendar year 2012, UCOR's recordable injury rate was 0.33, and the company has worked close to 4 million hours without a lost work day injury. UCOR's safety record is one of the best in the DOE EM Complex. This performance was due, in large part, to the people and processes URS and CH2M HILL, the parent companies of UCOR, brought to the project. Key approaches included: - Selected and deployed experienced staff in key leadership positions throughout the organization; - Approached 'Transition' as the 'true' beginning of the cleanup project - kicking off a number of project initiatives such as Partnering, PMB development, D and D Plan execution, etc. - Established a project baseline for performance measurement and obtained EVMS certification in record time; - Determined material differences and changed conditions that warranted contract change - then quickly addressed these changes with the DOE client; - Aligned the project and the contract within one year - also done in record time; - Implemented Safety Trained Supervisor and Safety Conscious Work Environment Programs, and kicked off the pursuit of certification under DOE's Voluntary Protection Program. (authors)

  20. Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Recognizing that there was a general lack of guidance on protection from ionizing radiation in the case of protracted or chronic exposures and prompted by the clear need for such guidance for aiding decision making in the particular case of the rehabilitation of areas affected by residual deposits of radioactive materials from past activities, the IAEA started a project in 1993 to address the problem. A small working group was established and met on several occasions over a three year period. The working group used, as it starting point, the Recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) (Publication 60) and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. The approach emphasizes the use of risk to individuals from existing contamination and from the residual contamination after cleanup actions as a basis for decision making. Nevertheless, links are maintained with the basic ICRP radiation protection system by recognizing that, in many situations, cleanup actions may be influenced by more than only individual risk consideration; there will be radiological and non-radiological constraints which will differ depending on whether the situation is more 'intervention like' or 'practice like'. The framework for decision making being proposed by the working group is being published in this report to allow for a period of review and comment by experts and decision makers in Member States

  1. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs)

  2. Utilizing the right mix of environmental cleanup technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, Wade; Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990's), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical / pH-adjusting injection, phyto-remediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baro-balls, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and micro-blowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works pro-actively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  3. Establishment of sandwich ELISA for soluble alpha-Klotho measurement: Age-dependent change of soluble alpha-Klotho levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Imura, Akihiro; Urakawa, Itaru; Shimada, Takashi; Murakami, Junko; Aono, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Yamashita, Takeyoshi; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Namba, Noriyuki; Kitaoka, Taichi; Ozono, Keiichi; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Hataya, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Shoji; Imel, Erik A; Econs, Michael J; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi

    2010-07-30

    Alpha-Klotho (alphaKl) regulates mineral metabolism such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in circulation. Defects in mice result in clinical features resembling disorders found in human aging. Although the importance of transmembrane-type alphaKl has been demonstrated, less is known regarding the physiological importance of soluble-type alphaKl (salphaKl) in circulation. The aims of this study were: (1) to establish a sandwich ELISA system enabling detection of circulating serum salphaKl, and (2) to determine reference values for salphaKl serum levels and relationship to indices of renal function, mineral metabolism, age and sex in healthy subjects. We successively developed an ELISA to measure serum salphaKl in healthy volunteers (n=142, males 66) of ages (61.1+/-18.5year). The levels (mean+/-SD) in these healthy control adults were as follows: total calcium (Ca; 9.46+/-0.41mg/dL), Pi (3.63+/-0.51mg/dL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 15.7+/-4.3mg/dL), creatinine (Cre; 0.69+/-0.14mg/dL), 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D; 54.8+/-17.7pg/mL), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH; 49.2+/-20.6pg/mL), calcitonin (26.0+/-12.3pg/mL) and intact fibroblast growth factor (FGF23; 43.8+/-17.6pg/mL). Serum levels of salphaKl ranged from 239 to 1266pg/mL (mean+/-SD; 562+/-146pg/mL) in normal adults. Although salphaKl levels were not modified by gender or indices of mineral metabolism, salphaKl levels were inversely related to Cre and age. However, salphaKl levels in normal children (n=39, males 23, mean+/-SD; 7.1+/-4.8years) were significantly higher (mean+/-SD; 952+/-282pg/mL) than those in adults (mean+/-SD; 562+/-146, Plevel was notably lower than those of age-matched controls. We established a detection system to measure human serum salphaKl for the first time. Age, Ca and Pi seem to influence serum salphaKl levels in a normal population. This detection system should be an excellent tool for investigating salphaKl functions in mineral metabolism. Copyright

  4. Serum C-X-C motif chemokine 13 is elevated in early and established rheumatoid arthritis and correlates with rheumatoid factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan D; Hamilton, B JoNell; Challener, Gregory J; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur J; Cossette, Pierre; Liang, Patrick; Masetto, Ariel; Ménard, Henri A; Carrier, Nathalie; Boyle, David L; Rosengren, Sanna; Boire, Gilles; Rigby, William F C

    2014-04-25

    We hypothesized that serum levels of C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), a B-cell chemokine, would delineate a subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients characterized by increased humoral immunity. Serum from patients with established RA (the Dartmouth RA Cohort) was analyzed for CXCL13, rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA) and total immunoglobulin G (IgG); other parameters were obtained by chart review. A confirmatory analysis was performed using samples from the Sherbrooke Early Undifferentiated PolyArthritis (EUPA) Cohort. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, a t-test and Spearman's correlation analysis were utilized to determine relationships between variables. In both the Dartmouth and Sherbrooke cohorts, CXCL13 levels were selectively increased in seropositive relative to seronegative RA patients (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001 for the respective cohorts), with a strong correlation to both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA RF levels (P < 0.0001). There was a weaker relationship to ACPA titers (P = 0.03 and P = 0.006, respectively) and total IgG (P = 0.02 and P = 0.14, respectively). No relationship was seen with regard to age, sex, shared epitope status or inclusion high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in either cohort or regarding the presence of baseline erosions in the Sherbrooke Cohort, whereas a modest relationship with Disease Activity Score in 28 joints CRP (DAS28-CRP) was seen in the Dartmouth cohort but not the Sherbrooke cohort. Using both established and early RA cohorts, marked elevations of serum CXCL13 levels resided nearly completely within the seropositive population. CXCL13 levels exhibited a strong relationship with RF, whereas the association with clinical parameters (age, sex, DAS28-CRP and erosions) or other serologic markers (ACPA and IgG) was either much weaker or absent. Elevated serum CXCL13 levels may identify a subset of seropositive RA patients whose disease is shaped by or responsive to RF

  5. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control...... of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...

  6. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-02-01

    This NRC Plan, which defines NRC's functional role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role, is the first revision to the initial plan issued in July 1980 (NUREG-0698). Since 1980, a number of policy developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision reflects these developments in the area of NRC's review and approval process with regard to cleanup operations as well as NRC's interface with the Department of Energy's involvement in the cleanup and waste disposal. This revision is also intended to update the cleanup schedule by presenting the cleanup progress that has taken place and NRC's role in ongoing and future cleanup activities

  7. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  8. Recent developments in NRC guidelines for atmosphere cleanup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains the policy of updating when necessary, its published guidance for the design of engineered safety feature (ESF) and normal ventilation systems. The guidance is disseminated by means of issuing new, or revisions to, existing Regulatory Guides, Standard Review Plans, Branch Technical Positions and Technical Specifications. A revised Regulatory Guide, new Technical Specifications and new Standard Review Plans with Branch Technical Positions for atmosphere cleanup systems are discussed. Regulatory Guide 1.52, ''Design, Testing and Maintenance Criteria for Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants,'' was issued in July 1973. The major comments received from the nuclear industry since the guide was issued, NRC's experience in implementing the guide in recent license applications, status of operating plants in meeting the guidelines and NRC's continuing assessment of operating data and laboratory tests to assure that the guide reflects the latest technology are discussed

  9. San Diego perspective on UST clean-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In June 1994, CalEPA State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/University of California (LLNL/UC) to review the current UST regulatory framework and cleanup process. As a result of their review, LLNL/UC recommended changes to expedite the cleanup process at leaking UST sites. The LLNL/UC report concludes that natural attenuation of petroleum is an important factor in stabilizing plumes and may be the only remedial activity necessary in the absence of the source. After a review of existing literature and a study of selected leaking UST cases primarily from Coastal Range sedimentary or valley alluvium hydrogeochemical provinces, the LLNL/UC report found that petroleum plumes tend to stabilize close to the source, generally occur in shallow groundwater, and rarely impact drinking water wells in the state. The study and report recommendations focused solely on fuel petroleum hydrocarbon constituents

  10. Shoreline oil cleanup, recovery and treatment evaluation system (SOCRATES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.; Lunel, T.; Sommerville, M.; Tyler, A.; Marshall, I.

    1996-01-01

    A beach cleanup computer system was developed to mitigate the impact of shoreline oiling. The program, entitled SOCRATES, was meant to determine the most suitable cleanup methodologies for a range of different spill scenarios. The development, operation and capabilities of SOCRATES was described, with recent examples of successful use during the Sea Empress spill. The factors which influenced decision making and which were central to the numerical solution were: (1) the volumetric removal rate of oil, (2) area removal rate of oil, (3) length of oil slick removed per hour, (4) volumetric removal rate of oily waste, (5) area of the oil slick, (6) length of the oil slick, (7) volume of liquid emulsion, and (8) length of beach. 14 figs

  11. The Development of an Automated Clean-up for Fat Extracts in the Routine Analysis of Organochlorine Compounds in Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreea CIOCA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a new, automatic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC Clean-up step, in the methodology of sample preparation and multi-residue determination of organochlorine compounds (OCs in fish meat. 24 OCs were taken into study. In addition 7 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, 7 chlorobenzene compounds and one 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD were investigated. The HPLC conditions were established in accordance with the validated traditional Clean-up step of the laboratory. The technique was applied on a dilution of analytes of interest in order to establish the period of time in which the compounds are eluted. Another set of experiments involved fish oil, in order to identify and separate the fat fraction from the analytes. To confirm the findings of the experiments mentioned above, extracts of fish samples obtained after Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE were examined. The samples were spiked with the analytes of interest before HPLC clean-up step and quantified through Gas Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. A HPLC clean-up technique lasting 38 minutes/sample was developed. The method is not suitable for OCs such as Endosulfansulfat and Endrine Ketone due to the very low recovery results.Â

  12. Aflatoxin M1 in milk by immunoaffinity column cleanup with TLC/HPLC determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shundo Luzia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002 and 2003, a total of 107 samples of raw, pasteurized and ultrahigh treated temperature (UHT milk commercialized in the cities of São Paulo and Marília (SP were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. AFM1 was detected in 79 (73.8% of milk samples, ranging from <0.02 to 0.26 mug/L.The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and a thin layer chromatography for determining AFM1. The parameters, such as recovery, repeatibility, detection and quantification limit were evaluated to optimize this method (in-house. Based on spiked samples, the recovery values ranged from 85.83 to 73.86% at levels of 0.010-0.50 mug/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviation for repeatibility ranged from 7.73 to 2.08%. The quantification limit was 0.02 mug/L. The results of some samples analyzed by this method demonstrated a satisfatory correlation when compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In conclusion, immunoaffinity column cleanup gave excellent results for recovery, sensibility and sample through put. Despite the high rate of occurrence of AFM1 in samples in both cities, the contamination level could not be considered a serious public health hazard, according to Brazilian legislation.

  13. EPA's technical methodology for the development of cleanup regulations for radioactively-contaminated soils and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, H.B.; Doehnert, M.; Wolbarst, A.; Mauro, J.J.; Ralston, L.

    1995-01-01

    The total number of sites contaminated with radionuclides in the United States is in the thousands. These sites range in size from corners of laboratories to sprawling nuclear weapons facilities covering many square miles of land. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing regulations for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The rule will apply to site under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. In support of this rulemaking, EPA is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis which will provide information on the volumes of soil requiring remediation at various possible dose and risk levels. The analysis will also provide information at different cleanup levels on the number of potential adverse health effects among people living or working on or near a site following the cleanup of its radioactive contamination. This paper summarizes the overall approach for the technical analysis. (author)

  14. Hanford Cleanup... Restore the Columbia River Corridor Transition the Central Plateau Prepare and Plan for the End State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established during World War II to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. In 1989, Hanford's mission changed to cleanup and closure; today the site is engaged in one of the world's largest and most aggressive programs to clean up radioactive and hazardous wastes. The size and complexity of Hanford's environmental problems are made even more challenging by the overlapping technical, political, regulatory, financial and cultural issues associated with the cleanup. The physical challenges at the Hanford Site are daunting. More than 50 million gallons of liquid radioactive waste in 177 underground storage tanks; 2,300 tons of spent nuclear fuel;12 tons of plutonium in various forms; 25 million cubic feet of buried or stored solid waste; 270 billion gallons of groundwater contaminated above drinking-water standards spread out over about 80 square miles; more than 1,700 waste sites; and approximately 500 contaminated facilities. With a workforce of approximately 7,000 and a budget of about $1.8 billion dollars this fiscal year, Hanford cleanup operations are expected to be complete by 2035, at a cost of $60 billion dollars. (authors)

  15. Public participation in the evaluation of innovative environmental cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Serie, P.; Niesen, K.

    1994-08-01

    Technologies for remediation of contamination are urgently needed to clean up US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the country. DOE is managing a national program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new technologies with promise to expedite this cleanup. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is one such effort. Time and resources, however, are too limited to be invested in methods of remediation that will never be deployed because they have not been rigorously evaluated or because they face the withering opposition of stakeholders. Therefore the VOC-Arid ID is assessing technology both in terms of its technical effectiveness and its stakeholder acceptability. Only if a technology performs as required and is acceptable to regulators, users of technology, and the public will the VOC-Arid ID recommend its use. What distinguishes public involvement in the VOC-Arid ID is the direct influence stakeholders have on the design of technology demonstrations by working directly with technology developers. Stakeholders participated in defining the criteria with which innovative environmental cleanup technology is being evaluated. The integrated demonstration is committed to providing stakeholders with the information they've indicated they need to reach reasoned judgments about the use of specific cleanup technologies. A guiding principle of the VOC-Arid ID is that stakeholder participation improves the technologies being developed, enhances the acceptance of the technologies, and will lead to the broad and timely deployment of appropriate and effective methods of environmental remediation. The VOC-Arid ID has involved stakeholders from the host demonstration site, Hanford, Washington, and from other and sites where the ID technologies may be deployed

  16. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings

  19. Lessons learned at TMI: cleanup for respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, B.A.; Gee, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) presented GPU Nuclear with technical challenges unprecedented in the nuclear power industry. Among these challenges were a myriad of health physics problems that had to be solved to ensure a radiologically safe environment for workers performing cleanup activities. The application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy has been a fundamental aspects in protecting cleanup workers. The unique conditions produced by the accident, however, have necessitated novel and innovative approaches in making this philosophy effective. The option to use respirators is based on which method will result in the lowest radiation dose to the worker. Inherent to this program has been the training of workers to overcome the perception that any internal contamination is of foremost concern and is orders of magnitude greater in biological effect than an identical external dose. It is, of course, the total dose (internal dose plus external dose) that must be minimized to implement a true ALARA philosophy. The need for considering the total radiation dose when making decisions to use respirators has been clear during the TMI-2 cleanup. Prescribing respirators is not always good for the ALARA concept

  20. Biological effects of three different shoreline cleanup methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, J.; Lethinen, C.; Linden, O.

    1981-06-01

    In order to simulate a real oil spill the shore of a small island in the Baltic proper was treated with a weathered crude oil. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare environmental impact of some shoreline cleanup techniques as well as the effectiveness of these methods. Hot water was the quickest cleanup method, whereas cleaning with a solvent took twice as much time and mechanical recovery three and a half time as much. The hot water treatment resulted in the smallest amounts of oil left in the soil compared to the two other methods, where two to three times as much was left. The oil content in sedimenting material and in mussels was highest outside the area cleaned with hot water. The oil content in mussel tissues increased 75 times after cleaning and the sediment contained about twice as much oil as outside the other areas. The vegetation on all four oiled areas was considerably reduced and the soil fauna was completely eliminated. Since no animals were found on the four oiled areas, not even on the untreated area, it appeared to be the oil itself that caused this effect. The number of animals caught with pitfall traps decreased after oiling and cleanup to between 10-40 % of the original amount. The results from the investigation of the fauna in the Cladophora-belt do not indicate any effects so far.

  1. Evolution of the Business Environment Surrounding the UK's Nuclear Site Cleanup Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Lees, P.M.; Wall, C.E.E.

    2006-01-01

    placing contracts via the major procurements being conducted in support of the nuclear site cleanup program. The next most powerful influence is the NDA itself, which has oversight responsibility for procurements conducted by the site management and operations contractors. The NDA must, of necessity, maintain some level of review over major procurements, but how best to do so with a limited number of staff, without slowing down the awarding of contracts? More dramatic in their impact on the UK's nuclear industry will be the competitive procurements to be conducted by the NDA to select the best site operators for the twenty sites. These major procurements, while common in the USA and elsewhere, will be new to the NDA's nuclear site cleanup program. Considering the large contract values expected, the procurements should attract some of the best talent in nuclear site cleanup. It is anticipated that these procurements will necessitate contractors to compete at the highest level, leaving no stone unturned to maximize the chance of being selected. Contract awards are expected to be in the range of 100 million pounds to several billion pounds. The first such procurement is currently planned to begin in April 2006, according to the NDA's draft strategy document. Lastly, the business relationships with local suppliers to the nuclear sites are also changing. These suppliers will be required to compete, primarily for contracts let by subcontractors to the site management and operations contractors, and even by sub-sub contractors, rather than directly from the site management and operations contractors. The benign paternalism previously practiced at some sites by the management and operations contractors should also cease, of necessity. Many other business aspects will evolve as well, such as contract awards being based on best value, rather than on lowest price or lowest hourly rate. Electronic commerce is expected to become more widely used. Even as late as 2003, little

  2. ''Z'' Facility Dielectric Oil Clean-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandri, Daniel; Bloomquist, Doug; Donovan, Guy; Feltz, Greg; Grelle, Nibby; Guthrie, Doug; Harris, Mark; Horry, Mike; Lockas, Mike; Potter, Jimmy; Pritchard, Chuck; Steedly, Jim.

    1999-01-01

    In August of 1998 the Z facility leaked approximately 150 gallons of deionized water into the dielectric oil of the Energy Storage Section (ESS). After processing the oil to remove existing particulate and free water the dielectric breakdown strength increased from the mid 20kV range to values in excess of 40 kV. 40 kV is above historical operating levels of about 35 kV. This, however, was not enough to allow 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. Further analysis of the oil showed dissolved water at a saturated level (70 - 80 ppm) and some residual particulate contamination smaller than 3 microns. The dissolved water and particulate combination was preventing the 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. After consulting with the oil industry it was determined that nitrogen sparging could be used to remove the dissolved water. Further particulate filtering was also conducted. After approximately 20 hours of sparging the water content in the ESS was reduced to 42 ppm which enabled Marx charging to 90 kV

  3. Clean-up of a radioactive spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, W.

    1987-01-01

    Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands of the South Pacific was extensively contaminated with radionuclides deposited by thermonuclear weapons testing in the 1940s and 1950s. In recent years, the U.S. government has attempted to restore the habitability of the islands by cleaning up the remaining radioactive material. Although the island no longer presents an acute radiation risk to inhabitants, plants growing on the island concentrate cesium-137 from the soil, presenting an unacceptable risk to the future population. The behavior of Cs-137 has proved to be an intractable problem that has major implications for the risks associated with transporting and processing high-level nuclear wastes in the U.S. Various proposed soil treatment strategies for Bikini are discussed, including ion-exchange treatments and competing-ion strategies. No fully satisfactory treatment currently exists and the problems and prospects of cleaning up after a major nuclear waste spill are presented

  4. Correlation between E. coli levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens in surface irrigation water: Establishment of a sampling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Hernandez, Natalia; Gil, Maria I; Ivanek, Renata; Allende, Ana

    2018-01-01

    To establish the association between microbial indicators and the presence of foodborne pathogens in irrigation water, Escherichia coli was enumerated using two quantification methods (plate counts and PMA-qPCR) and presence/absence of pathogenic microorganisms, including five strains from the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7, O26, O103, O111 and O145) and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. The results confirmed that surface water can be considered a microbial hazard when used for irrigation. The levels of viable E. coli were very similar to those of cultivable E. coli, except for irrigation water obtained from water reservoirs. Comparison between the E. coli counts in samples positive and negative for the presence of pathogenic bacteria for the evaluated water sources identified E. coli level of 2.35 log cfu/100 mL as a cut-off able to correctly predict positive and negative samples with 93% sensitivity and 66% specificity, respectively. Thus, for the samples with levels of E. coli under 2.35 log cfu/100 mL (e.g., 2.24 log cfu/100 mL) there was a 90% probability that the samples were not contaminated with pathogenic microorganism in locations with similar prevalence. E. coli levels in irrigation water were affected by the ambient temperature confirming that water source and climate conditions should be taken into account by growers when designing a sampling program and the frequency of the monitoring to make a better and more efficient use of their resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disposal of waste from the cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the methodology and technology available to load, transport and dispose of large volumes of contaminated material arising from the cleanup of areas after a nuclear accident and includes data on the planning, implementation, management and costing of such activities. To demonstrate the use of this information, three cleanup and disposal scenarios are examined, ranging from disposal in many small mounds or trenches within the contaminated area to disposal in a large facility away from the plant. As in the two companion reports, it is assumed that the population has been evacuated from the affected area. The report reviews the generic types of low level radioactive waste which are likely to arise from such a cleanup. The report does not deal with the recovery and disposal of intermediate and high level radioactive material on or near the plant site. This material will have to be recovered, packaged, transported and stored on-site or disposed of at an appropriate facility. These operations should be done by specialist teams using shielded or remotely operated equipment. Also not included are methods of in situ stabilization of contamination, for example ploughing to bury the top contaminated layer at a suitable depth. These techniques, which are likely to be widely used in part of the evacuated are, are discussed in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 300, Vienna, 1989. 50 refs, 18 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  7. Personnel contamination protection techniques applied during the TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The severe damage to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) core and the subsequent discharge of reactor coolant to the reactor and auxiliary buildings resulted in extremely hostile radiological environments in the TMI-2 plant. High fission product surface contamination and radiation levels necessitated the implementation of innovative techniques and methods in performing cleanup operations while assuring effective as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) practices. The approach utilized by GPU Nuclear throughout the cleanup in applying protective clothing requirements was to consider the overall health risk to the worker including factors such as cardiopulmonary stress, visual and hearing acuity, and heat stress. In applying protective clothing requirements, trade-off considerations had to be made between preventing skin contaminations and possibly overprotecting the worker, thus impacting his ability to perform his intended task at maximum efficiency and in accordance with ALARA principles. The paper discusses the following topics: protective clothing-general use, beta protection, skin contamination, training, personnel access facility, and heat stress

  8. Early aging in Chernobyl clean-up workers: long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, V; Kryukov, V; Samedova, E; Emelianova, I; Ryzhova, I

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes). No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology.

  9. Early Aging in Chernobyl Clean-Up Workers: Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krasnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents data of long-term open prospective study. 312 male clean-up workers, who participated in elimination of the Chernobyl disaster consequences in 1986-87, were observed and examined in Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. The average age of patients was 57,0 ± 6,8 years. All patients were diagnosed with psychoorganic syndrome, caused by combination of different factors, which led to early cerebrovascular pathology, which was confirmed by clinical, neuropsychological, and instrumental examination. Anamnesis and the level of social adaptation were also assayed. Clinical estimation was done with the use of specially developed Clinical Psychopathological Chart. All the symptoms were divided into 4 groups (asthenic, psychovegetative, dysthymic, and cognitive symptom-complexes. No pronounced signs of dementia were observed. The control group included 44 clean-up workers without mental disorders. Predomination of various exogenous factors before and after accident was noted. Therapy included different vasotropic remedies, as well as family therapy, art therapy, and cognitive training. The possibilities of the reverse development of symptoms were statistically proved. The results allow making a conclusion that these disorders could not be explained either by radiation effects or by PTSD but connected with cerebrovascular pathology.

  10. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  11. Principles for establishing intervention levels for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide is based on the report of an Advisory Group which met in Vienna in October 1984 in order to develop guidance on the radiation protection principles concerning emergency response planning and the establishment of intervention levels to be applied for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. It considers the relationship between emergency response planning and various accident sequences, examines the pathways for radiation exposure and the sources of advice to decision makers during each of the three main accident phases, and specifies the dosimetric quantities that apply. The relevant pathological effects that must be protected against are summarized and the measures that may need to be implemented to provide protection with respect to each of the exposure pathways are discussed. It sets out the principles which underline decisions on intervention planning for each of the accident phases, gives guidance on dose values for the introduction of relevant protective measures and considers the application of cost-benefit analysis and the determination of the optimum dose level at which to withdraw protective measures

  12. Establishing empirical relationships to predict porosity level and corrosion rate of atmospheric plasma-sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. In this work, empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and corrosion rate of alumina coatings by incorporating independently controllable atmospheric plasma spray operational parameters (input power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite rotatable design with three factors and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Within the scope of the design space, the input power and the stand-off distance appeared to be the most significant two parameters affecting the responses among the three investigated process parameters. A linear regression relationship was also established between porosity and corrosion rate of the alumina coatings. Further, sensitivity analysis was carried out and compared with the relative impact of three process parameters on porosity level and corrosion rate to verify the measurement errors on the values of the uncertainty in estimated parameters.

  13. The state of immune system in children of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up at the final state of sexual maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyakhova, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the immune system involving all links of the immunity are three times more frequent in children whose fathers participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up. Disorders of humoral and phagocyte links are gender-dependent. Significant difference in the level of immunological parameters depending on the year of the father's stay in the zone was not revealed.

  14. Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Rabhubir

    2012-03-06

    The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a Therminator to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very

  15. Multi-class multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in meat using enhanced matrix removal lipid cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limian; Lucas, Derick; Long, David; Richter, Bruce; Stevens, Joan

    2018-05-11

    This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60-120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42-58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with 30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Zhang Haijun; Chen Jiping; Zhang Qing; Tian Yuzeng; Qi Peipei; Yu Zhengkun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sediment sample could be purified by the optimized cleanup method, and satisfying cleanup efficiency was obtained. Highlights: → The elution characters of sPCAs and interfering substances were evaluated on three adsorbents. → An optimized cleanup method was developed for sPCAs with satisfying cleanup efficiency. → The cleanup method combined with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS was applied for sPCAs analysis. → The sPCAs levels range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 in tested sediment samples. - Abstract: The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g -1 . Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl]· - ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 . C 10 - and C 11 -PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment samples.

  17. 2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations

  18. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan

  19. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan.

  20. A summary and historical review of the radioactive clean-up in Port Hope, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 several buildings and other areas of the town of Port Hope were found to be contaminated by radium and radon from residues produced by a local uranium refining plant and from materials salvaged from old refinery buildings. In the spring of 1976 the entire town was surveyed and 550 houses were found to have elevated radon gas levels or background radiation levels. Of these, 500 properties were classified as sites requiring remedial work. Large amounts of contaminated soil and fill were removed, as well as other building materials. Demolition was necessary in some cases. For the first three years contaminated materials were stored at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, but finally the waste disposal site there was filled with over 104 000 tons of contaminated soil. By the end of 1979 work had been completed on 441 properties. Work on smaller sites was continuing, but progress on the cleanup of of larger areas depended on another disposal area being found

  1. Evaluating 239Pu levels using field detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.; Smith, W.J. II; Martin, B.

    1996-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cleanup was planned at three septic tanks where surface soil in the outfall drainage areas was found to be contaminated with 239 Pu. To meet budget and deadline constraints, a technique was developed that used field instruments to verify 239 Pu soil contamination at levels less than 2.8 Bq g -1 , the established cleanup level. The drainage areas were surveyed using a low-energy gamma probe to identify likely areas of 239 Pu contamination. Between 40 and 135 0.1-min gamma radiation measurements were obtained from each drainage area. From these data, locations were identified for subsequent screening for alpha radioactivity. Soil samples from between 11 and 18 locations at each drainage area were placed in petri dishes, dried, and counted for 10 minutes using an alpha probe. Alpha counts were then related to 239 Pu concentrations using a curve developed from local soils containing known concentrations of 239 Pu. Up to six soil samples from each drainage area, representing a range of alpha radioactivity levels, were sent for laboratory analysis of isotopic plutonium to confirm field measurement results. Analytical and field results correlated well at all but one outfall area. At this area, field measurements predicted more 239 Pu than was measured in the laboratory, indicating the presence of another alpha-emitting radionuclide that might have been missed if only laboratory analyses for plutonium had been used. This technique, which combined a large number of gamma radioactivity measurements, a moderate number of alpha radioactivity measurements, and a few isotopic plutonium measurements, allowed quick and inexpensive comparison of 239 Pu with the cleanup level

  2. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Establishing an Appropriate Level of Detail (LoD) for a Building Information Model (BIM) - West Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, S.; Rafeiro, J.

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) embarked on a comprehensive rehabilitation of the historically significant West Block of Canada's Parliament Hill. With over 17 thousand square meters of floor space, the West Block is one of the largest projects of its kind in the world. As part of the rehabilitation, PWGSC is working with the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) to develop a building information model (BIM) that can serve as maintenance and life-cycle management tool once construction is completed. The scale and complexity of the model have presented many challenges. One of these challenges is determining appropriate levels of detail (LoD). While still a matter of debate in the development of international BIM standards, LoD is further complicated in the context of heritage buildings because we must reconcile the LoD of the BIM with that used in the documentation process (terrestrial laser scan and photogrammetric survey data). In this paper, we will discuss our work to date on establishing appropriate LoD within the West Block BIM that will best serve the end use. To facilitate this, we have developed a single parametric model for gothic pointed arches that can be used for over seventy-five unique window types present in the West Block. Using the AEC (CAN) BIM as a reference, we have developed a workflow to test each of these window types at three distinct levels of detail. We have found that the parametric Gothic arch significantly reduces the amount of time necessary to develop scenarios to test appropriate LoD.

  4. Hanford: A Conversation About Nuclear Waste and Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-01-01

    The author takes us on a journey through a world of facts, values, conflicts, and choices facing the most complex environmental cleanup project in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Starting with the top-secret Manhattan Project, Hanford was used to create tons of plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hundreds of tons of waste remain. In an easy-to-read, illustrated text, Gephart crafts the story of Hanford becoming the world's first nuclear weapons site to release large amounts of contaminants into the environment. This was at a time when radiation biology was in its infancy, industry practiced unbridled waste dumping, and the public trusted what it was told. The plutonium market stalled with the end of the Cold War. Public accountability and environmental compliance ushered in a new cleanup mission. Today, Hanford is driven by remediation choices whose outcomes remain uncertain. It's a story whose epilogue will be written by future generations. This book is an information resource, written for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting an overview of Hanford and cleanup issues facing the nuclear weapons complex. Each chapter is a topical mini-series. It's an idea guide that encourages readers to be informed consumers of Hanford news, to recognize that knowledge, high ethical standards, and social values are at the heart of coping with Hanford's past and charting its future. Hanford history is a window into many environmental conflicts facing our nation; it's about building upon success and learning from failure. And therein lies a key lesson, when powerful interests are involved, no generation is above pretense. Roy E. Gephart is a geohydrologist and senior program manager at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. He has 30 years experience in environmental studies and the nuclear waste industry

  5. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities

  6. Funding Site Cleanup at Closing Army Installations: A Stochastic Optimization Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardic, Sureyya

    2001-01-01

    ...) to help determine how to allocate limited yearly funding to installations for environmental cleanup, Considering environmental policies and yearly installation funding requests from 2002 to 2015...

  7. Where is New York State relative to cleanup standards for soils contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merges, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In September 1993, New York State adopted a cleanup guideline for radioactively contaminated sites being remediated for unrestricted release. This paper reviews this cleanup guideline and discusses its implementation by Bureau of Radiation staff. A cleanup guideline (1) has been adopted by the State of New York which applies to residual radiological contamination on sites undergoing remediation for unrestricted use. The guideline is flexible and allows for alternative site cleanup approaches. The application of this guidance by radiation control program staff is discussed herein. There may be a need to revisit properties that were felt to be open-quotes cleanclose quotes previously - but fail to meet the new guidance

  8. Improving Sampling, Analysis, and Data Management for Site Investigation and Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the adoption of streamlined approaches to sampling, analysis, and data management activities conducted during site assessment, characterization, and cleanup.

  9. Risky business: Assessing cleanup plans for waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.

    1995-01-01

    ORNL was chosen to perform human health and ecological risk assessments for DOE because of its risk assessment expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy's many production and research sites contain radioactive and hazardous wastes. These waste sites pose potential risks to the health and safety of remediation and waste management workers and the public. The risks, however, vary from site to site. Some sites undoubtedly present larger risks than others and should be cleaned up first. However, before the cleanup begins, DOE is required by law to prepare an environmental impact statement on any actions that may significantly affect the environment-even actions that would clean it up

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  11. NHC's contribution to cleanup of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauve, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The one billion dollars per year Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, calls for cleanup of the Hanford Site for the Department of Energy. Project Hanford comprises four major subprojects, each managed by a different major contractor. Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) is a fifth major subcontractor which provides energy and technology to each of the Hanford projects. NHC draws on the experience and capabilities of its parent companies, COGEMA and SGN, and relies on local support from its sister Company in Richland, COGEMA Engineering Corporation, to bring the best commercial practices and new technology to the Project

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities

  13. Reagan's TMI cleanup: a smoke and mirror trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Little federal money will actually be sent to help relieve the cleanup burden of General Public Utilities despite the administration's public support of a cost/share plan. The $100 million was not new money, but existing DOE research and development money already in hand and earmarked for Three Mile Island-related research. Pennsylvania congressmen and officials were quick to point out the deceptive nature of Reagan's approval of the plan to share the costs. The administration feels that federal participation should not be open-ended, but should be limited to research on safe nuclear waste disposal of general benefit

  14. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and

  16. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE

  17. Use of decision analysis techniques to determine Hanford cleanup priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.; Gregory, R.; Winterfeldt, D. von; John, R.

    1992-01-01

    In January 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office, Westinghouse Hanford Company, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP) to ensure that technically sound and publicly acceptable decisions are made that support the environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the HIPP's key roles is to develop an understanding of the science and technology (S and T) requirements to support the cleanup mission. This includes conducting an annual systematic assessment of the S and T needs at Hanford to support a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to success is a planning and assessment methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the various Hanford stakeholders. Decision analysis techniques were used to help identify and prioritize problems and S and T needs at Hanford. The approach used structured elicitations to bring many Hanford stakeholders into the process. Decision analysis, which is based on the axioms and methods of utility and probability theory, is especially useful in problems characterized by uncertainties and multiple objectives. Decision analysis addresses uncertainties by laying out a logical sequence of decisions, events, and consequences and by quantifying event and consequence probabilities on the basis of expert judgments

  18. Solvent cleanup using base-treated silica gel solid adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-06-01

    A solvent cleanup method using silica gel columns treated with either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or lithium hydroxide (LiOH) has been investigated. Its effectiveness compares favorably with that of traditional wash methods. After treatment with NaOH solution, the gels adsorb HNO 3 , dibutyl phosphate (DBP), UO 2 2+ , Pu 4+ , various metal-ion fission products, and other species from the solvent. Adsorption mechanisms include neutralization, hydrolysis, polymerization, and precipitation, depending on the species adsorbed. Sodium dibutyl phosphate, which partially distributes to the solvent from the gels, can be stripped with water; the stripping coefficient ranges from 280 to 540. Adsorption rates are diffusion controlled such that temperature effects are relatively small. Recycle of the gels is achieved either by an aqueous elution and recycle sequence or by a thermal treatment method, which may be preferable. Potential advantages of this solvent cleanup method are that (1) some operational problems are avoided and (2) the amount of NaNO 3 waste generated per metric ton of nuclear fuel reprocessed would be reduced significantly. 19 references, 6 figures, 12 tables

  19. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Public involvement in cleanup - the Rocky Flats experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.; Pennock, S.; Schassburger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant recently completed and implemented the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plan for public involvement in environmental restoration of the site. The plan was developed in cooperation with the plant's regulators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Health. In addition, citizens near the plant played a significant role in shaping the document through extensive community interviews and public comment. The result of these cooperative efforts is a plan that meets and exceeds the applicable federal and state community relations requirements for a cleanup program. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has used the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plants a model for similar plans at other federal facilities. Plan development, however, is only the starting point for an effective community relations effort. The Rocky Flats Plant and the public will face many challenges together as we implement the plan and build a partnership for addressing environmental cleanup issues. (author)

  1. A software tool for soil clean-up technology selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranes, S.; Gonzalez-Valencia, E.; Lodolo, A.; Miertus, S.

    2002-01-01

    Soil remediation is a difficult, time-consuming and expensive operation. A variety of mature and emerging soil remediation technologies is available and future trends in remediation will include continued competition among environmental service companies and technology developers, which will definitely result in further increase in the clean-up options. Consequently, the demand has enhanced developing decision support tools that could help the decision makers to select the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site, before the costly remedial actions are taken. Therefore, a software tool for soil clean-up technology selection is currently being developed with the aim of closely working with human decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess the available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the best remedial options is based on technical, financial, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all involved parties to determine their relative importance for a particular project. (author)

  2. Elaboración de corredores o canales endémicos mediante planillas de cálculo Establishing endemic levels or ranges with computer spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bortman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Las epidemias o brotes pueden ser definidos como un exceso en el número de casos de un problema de salud dado, en una población, un período y un lugar en particular. Sin embargo, determinar lo que constituye un exceso implica conocer lo que es normal o de esperar. La elaboración de canales o corredores endémicos permite definir los valores de casos esperados y de esta forma evidenciar de forma gráfica la aparición de un nú mero mayor de casos. En el presente trabajo se describe una nueva metodología para la realización de estos canales endémicos, en la que se utilizan las planillas de cálculo Qpro y Excel, mediante la determinación de la media geométrica de lastasas históricas y su in tervalo de confianza. Se presenta también un corredor endémico acumulativo que facilita la vigilancia de sucesos endémicos de baja incidencia.Epidemics or disease out breaks can be defined as an excess in the number of cases of a given health problem, in a particular population, period, and place. However, to determine what constitutes an excess implies knowing what is normal or to be expected. Establishing endemic levels or ranges makes it possible to determine figures for the number of expected cases and to show in graphic form the appearance of a higher number of cases. In this work a new methodology is described to develop these endemic ranges, in which the Quattro Pro (Qpro and Excel software programs are used to calculate the geometric mean of historical rates and their confidence intervals. Also presented is a procedure for cumulative endemic ranges that facilitates surveillance of endemic events with a low incidence.

  3. Health conditions among workers who participated in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarli, Z.; Abdulina, A.

    1996-01-01

    People who took part in the Chernobyl accident cleanup have been registered upon their return to Kyrgyzstan since 1991, and their children since 1992. Later, citizens affected by the Semipalatinsk and Chelyabinsk contamination incidents were included for registration and health care purposes. The effects of the nuclear waste depositories in the Mailuu-Suu region were examined with the assistance of the Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America). All these investigations of affected people indicated apparent increases in a number of symptoms and illnesses when compared to the rest of the population. Samples sizes ranged from several hundred to several thousand. Above-normal radiation levels and/or the stress and fear of living in contaminated areas can lead to significant increases in nervous disorders, cardiovascular diseases and other problems. The most significant increase was in the suicide rate. 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Remediation of uranium contaminated sites: clean-up activities in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    One of the serious environmental problems in Serbia represent sites contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) during past war activities. According to UNEP reports and our findings there are two types of contamination: (i) localized points of high, concentrated contamination where DU penetrators enter the soil, and (ii) low level of widespread DU contamination, which indicates that during the conflict DU dust was dispersed into the environment. Remediation of these sites is an urgent need because they represent a permanent threat to the population living in this area. Here we give a brief description of approaches commonly used in remediation of DU contaminated sites, and an overview of current clean-up activities performed in Serbia. (author)

  5. From Pushing Paper to Pushing Dirt - Canada's Largest LLRW Cleanup Gets Underway - 13111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Walter van; Lawrence, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The Port Hope Project is the larger of the two projects in the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), Canada's largest low level radioactive waste (LLRW) cleanup. With a budget of approximately $1 billion, the Port Hope Project includes a broad and complex range of remedial elements from a state of the art water treatment plant, an engineered waste management facility, municipal solid waste removal, remediation of 18 major sites within the Municipality of Port Hope (MPH), sediment dredging and dewatering, an investigation of 4,800 properties (many of these homes) to identify LLRW and remediation of approximately 450 of these properties. This paper discusses the status of the Port Hope Project in terms of designs completed and regulatory approvals received, and sets out the scope and schedule for the remaining studies, engineering designs and remediation contracts. (authors)

  6. Using a risk assessment protocol to develop soil cleanup criteria for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante-Duah, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum contaminated site may prose significant risks to the public because of potential health and environmental effects, and to Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) because of financial liabilities that could result from such effects. The effective management of petroleum contaminated sites has therefore become an important environmental priority and will be a growing challenge for years to come. It has also become evident that the proper management of such sites poses great challenges. Risk assessment seems to be one of the fastest evolving tools for developing appropriate management decisions, including those relating to the levels of cleanup warranty under specific scenarios. This paper reports that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recognizes the use of risk assessment to facilitate decisions on whether or not remedial actions are needed to abate site-related risks, and also in the enforcement of regulatory standards. Risk assessment techniques have been used in various regulatory programs employed by federal, state, and local agencies

  7. 40 CFR 312.25 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cleanup liens. 312.25 Section 312.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS INNOCENT LANDOWNERS, STANDARDS FOR... cleanup liens. (a) All appropriate inquiries must include a search for the existence of environmental...

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-5 PNL Sawdust Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-5 Burial Ground, the PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Sawdust Pit. The 118-F-5 Burial Ground was an unlined trench that received radioactive sawdust from the floors of animal pens in the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm

  9. Status of Pesticides and Degradation Products in Soil After Clean-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of pesticide residues in soil samples collected from a former storage site one year after clean-up of stockpiles and treatment with NaOH was investigated. The analytes were extracted from samples by pressurized fluid extraction using n-hexane:acetone (75:25) mixture. Clean-up of extracts was conducted by ...

  10. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M.; Baynes, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies

  11. Waste Cleanup: Status and Implications of Compliance Agreements Between DOE and Its Regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G. L.; Swick, W. R.; Perry, T. C.; Kintner-Meyer, N.K.; Abraham, C. R.; Pollack, I. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses compliance agreements that affect the Department of Energy's (DOE) cleanup program. Compliance agreements are legally enforceable documents between DOE and its regulators, specifying cleanup activities and milestones that DOE has agreed to achieve. Over the years, these compliance agreements have been used to implement much of the cleanup activity at DOE sites, which is carried our primarily under two federal laws - the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 0f 1976, as amended (RCRA). Our objectives were to determine the types of compliance agreements in effect at DOE cleanup sites, DOE's progress in achieving the milestones contained in the agreements, whether the agreements allowed DOE to prioritize work across sites according to relative risk, and possible implications the agreements have on DOE's efforts to improve the cleanup program

  12. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Overview of EPA's Methodology to Address the Environmental Footprint of Site Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated site cleanups involving complex activities may benefit from a detailed environmental footprint analysis to inform decision-making about application of suitable best management practices for greener cleanups.

  13. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.J.; Miller, J.H.; Sasser, L.B.; Schultz, I.R.; Thrall, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop critical data for changing risk-based clean-up standards for trichloroethylene (TCE). The project is organized around two interrelated tasks: Task 1 addresses the tumorigenic and dosimetry issues for the metabolites of TCE that produce liver cancer in mice, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA). Early work had suggested that TCA was primarily responsible for TCE-induced liver tumors, but several, more mechanistic observations suggest that DCA may play a prominent role. This task is aimed at determining the basis for the selection hypothesis and seeks to prove that this mode of action is responsible for TCE-induced tumors. This project will supply the basic dose-response data from which low-dose extrapolations would be made. Task 2 seeks specific evidence that TCA and DCA are capable of promoting the growth of spontaneously initiated cells from mouse liver, in vitro. The data provide the clearest evidence that both metabolites act by a mechanism of selection rather than mutation. These data are necessary to select between a linear (i.e. no threshold) and non-linear low-dose extrapolation model. As of May of 1998, this research has identified two plausible modes of action by which TCE produces liver tumors in mice. These modes of action do not require the compounds to be mutagenic. The bulk of the experimental evidence suggests that neither TCE nor the two hepatocarcinogenic metabolites of TCE are mutagenic. The results from the colony formation assay clearly establish that both of these metabolites cause colony growth from initiated cells that occur spontaneously in the liver of B 6 C 3 F 1 mice, although the phenotypes of the colonies differ in the same manner as tumors differ, in vivo. In the case of DCA, a second mechanism may occur at a lower dose involving the release of insulin. This observation is timely as it was recently reported that occupational exposures to trichloroethylene results in 2 to 4-fold

  14. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers. I. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahu, Mati

    1999-01-01

    The most comprehensive epidemiological project ever performed in Estonia - The Estonian Study of Chernobyl Cleanup Workers - was the joint effort of researchers from Estonia, Finland and USA. Until September 1999, the results of this study were published in English only. To familiarize the readership of 'Eesti Arst' with the major study findings, the abridged versions of four original papers from 'Radiation Research' are presented in the current issue of the journal. For the Estonian epidemiologists, the work under this project that consists of eight sub projects was a real challenge. In the course of the study, skills were developed in writing a study protocol, preparing a questionnaire, progress reporting, documenting the structure of databases, record linkage, and problem solving. It was an exciting experience to work with top scientists like William Bigbee, John Boice, Timo Hakulinen, Ronald Jensen and Gayle Littlefield. (author)

  15. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ''Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.'' To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste

  16. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the 1890s. Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines. A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site. The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it

  17. Statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of volumes sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Statistical Policy Branch, that provide statistical methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup Standards at Superfund sites. Volume 1 (USEPA 1989a) provides sampling designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for soils and solid media. Volume 2 (USEPA 1992) provides designs and tests for evaluating attainment of risk-based standards for groundwater. The purpose of this third volume is to provide statistical procedures for designing sampling programs and conducting statistical tests to determine whether pollution parameters in remediated soils and solid media at Superfund sites attain site-specific reference-based standards. This.document is written for individuals who may not have extensive training or experience with statistical methods. The intended audience includes EPA regional remedial project managers, Superfund-site potentially responsible parties, state environmental protection agencies, and contractors for these groups.

  18. Conceptual design of an emergency tritium clean-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build, and operate a facility to demonstrate the operability of the tritium-related subsystems that would be required to successfully develop fusion reactor systems. An emergency tritium clean-up subsystem (ETC) for this facility will be designed to remove tritium from the cell atmosphere if an accident causes the primary and secondary tritium containment to be breached. Conceptually, the ETC will process cell air at the rate of 0.65 actual m 3 /s and will achieve an overall decontamination factor of 10 6 per tritium oxide (T 2 O). Following the maximum credible release of 100 g of tritium, the ETC will restore the cell to opertional status within 24 h without a significant release of tritium to the environment

  19. Williston Reservoir: Site preparation and post-flood cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Williston Reservoir is the second largest in Canada and ranks ninth on the world scale. It was formed by the construction of the W.A.C. Bennet Dam and is the most important hydroelectric storage reservoir and largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Site preparation for the reservoir began in 1962, with pre-flood clearing involving salvage of merchantable timber, handfalling, machine downing, burning of slash and burial. Post-flood cleanup included timber salvage, bailing and burning debris, tractor piling and burning, crane piling in shallows, underwater cutting, and hand cutting during low drawdown. Various types of floating debris have presented problems for recreational use, log booming and transport, waterways and aviation. Protection of the spillway is accomplished with a floating boom upstream of the channel. Administration, funding, forest clearance, salvage methods, clearing standards, wood volumes, project costs, environmental concerns, and future priorities are discussed. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Studies of leukemia and thyroid disease among Chernobyl clean-up workers from the Baltics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, P.D.; Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl in late April of 1986, hundreds of thousands of men from throughout the former Soviet Union were sent to Chernobyl to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris, and help decontaminate the local environment. They remained for an average of three months and were allowed to accumulate up to 25 cGy of radiation before being sent home. Doses for some workers may have exceeded the allowable limit. The experience of Chernobyl clean-up workers is potentially informative about cancer risk associated with protracted exposure to low levels of radiation. Cohorts of clean-up workers from the Baltic Republics were assembled for study, based on military records and other lists. The study population includes 4,833 men from Estonia 5,709 from Latvia and at least 5,446 from Lithuania, where a pilot study is underway. They are being monitored for cancer incidence through linkages with the corresponding national cancer registries. Biodosimetric assays, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome translocation analysis and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic cell mutation assay, are being used to supplement information about radiation doses from worker records and questionnaires. Thyroid screening examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed on nearly 2,000 workers in the Estonian cohort (mean age, 40 y) during the spring of 1995, nine years after the reactor accident. The study is still in progress. Work began first in Estonia, and results presented here pertain to this subgroup except as otherwise noted. The average age at the time of arrival at Chernobyl was 31 years. 62% were sent in 1986. Possible reasons for the apparent absence or rarity of radiation-induced thyroid nodules include low and protracted doses, low susceptibility among men exposed as adults, and insufficient passage of time since the accident

  1. Soil and groundwater cleanup: benefits and limits of emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliman, Florentina Anca; Robu, Brindusa Mihaela; Smaranda, Camelia; Pavel, Vasile Lucian; Gavrilescu, Maria [Technical University of Iasi, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi (Romania)

    2011-04-15

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of study and research, so that the field of remediation has grown and evolved, continually developing and adopting new technologies in attempts to improve the decontamination. The cleanup of environmental pollution involves a variety of techniques, ranging from simple biological processes to advanced engineering technologies. Cleanup activities may also address a wide range of contaminants. This article is a short analysis of the technologies for cleaning up groundwater and soil, highlighting knowledge and information gaps. Challenges and strategies for cleaning up different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are described. Included are technologies that treat ground water contaminants in place in the subsurface and soil technologies that treat the soil either in place or on site in a treatment unit. Emerging technologies such as those based on oxidation-reduction, bioremediation, and nanotechnologies are covered. It is evident that for a good efficiency of remediation, techniques or even whole new technologies may be incorporated into an existing technology as a treatment train, improving its performance or overcome limitations. Several economic and decision-making elements are developed in the final part, based on the analysis carried out throughout the article. The work highlights the fact that excellence in research and technology progress could be attained by the development of technologies to deal more effectively and economically with certain toxic contaminants such as heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and persistent organic pollutants, associated with optimization of technologies under field remediation conditions and requirements, improving capacity and yields, and reducing costs. Moreover, increasing knowledge of the scope and problem of equipment development could improve the benefits. (orig.)

  2. Plutonium contamination at Maralinga - dosimetry and clean-up criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; O'Brien, R.S.; Williams, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga during 1955 - 1963. Of importance is the long-lived 239-Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, involving scraping of surface soil and burial at depth on site. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of clean-up criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination.The standard for this intervention is that the annual committed dose, for any scenario involving permanent occupancy by semi-traditional Aborigines, will be less than 5 mSv. In fact, following the clean-up, annual doses are not expected to exceed 1 mSv for all realistic scenarios. The possibility of intentional behaviour, such as fragment scavenging, has led to limits on particulate contamination. Three plutonium-contaminated sites have been treated by soil-removal. At Taranaki, the most contaminated site, by limiting the activity of the remaining soil to below about 400 kBq/m2 of 239Pu, and by limiting occupancy factors to those typical of hunting activities in a particular location (0.8%), the dose criteria will be met. An area of about 1.5 km 2 has been treated by removal of surface soil at Taranaki. At the other two sites, with no occupancy constraints, more stringent soil-removal criteria have been applied

  3. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  4. Feasibility of establishing a biosafety level 3 tuberculosis culture laboratory of acceptable quality standards in a resource-limited setting: an experience from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Gelderbloem, Sebastian J.; Mboowa, Gerald; Wajja, Anne; Namaganda, Carolyn; Musoke, Philippa; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the recent innovations in tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosis, culture remains vital for difficult-to-diagnose patients, baseline and end-point determination for novel vaccines and drug trials. Herein, we share our experience of establishing a BSL-3

  5. A program optimization system for the cleanup of DOE hazardous waste sites an application to FY 1990 funding decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Jenni, K.E.; Cotton, T.A.; Lehr, J.C.; Longo, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a formal system used by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an aid for allocating funds for cleaning up hazardous waste sites. The system, called the Program Optimization System (POS), is based on multiattribute utility analysis and was developed for DOE's Hazardous Waste and Remedial Actions Division (HWRAD). HWRAD has responsibility for recommending environmental restoration (ER) activities to the Assistant Secretary of Energy. Recently, the POS was used to analyze and recommend funding levels for FY 1990 cleanup activities at DOE defense program facilities

  6. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  7. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  8. Decommissioning and Environmental Cleanup of a Small Arms Training Facility - 13225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Karen M. [United States Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (United States); Kmetz, Thomas F.; Smith, Sandra B.; Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    constituents posed a migration risk to groundwater. The NTCR action involved removal of approximately 12,092 m{sup 3} (15,816 yd{sup 3}) of spent bullets and lead-impacted soil and off-site disposal. The removal action included soils from the berm area, a fill area that received scraped soils from the berm, and soil from a drainage ditch located on the edge of the berm area. Also included in the removal action was a mixture of soil, concrete, and asphalt from the other three range areas. Under this action, 11,796 m{sup 3} (15,429 yd{sup 3}) of hazardous waste and impacted soil were removed from the SATA and transported to a permitted hazardous waste disposal facility (Lone Mountain Facility in Oklahoma) and 296 m{sup 3} (387 yd{sup 3}) of nonhazardous waste (primarily concrete debris) were removed and transported to a local solid waste landfill for disposal. During the excavation process, the extent was continuously assessed through the use of a hand-held, field-portable X-ray fluorescence unit with results verified using confirmation sampling with certified laboratory analysis. Following the completion of the excavation and confirmation sampling, final contouring, grading, and establishment of vegetative cover was performed to stabilize the affected areas. The NTCR action began on August 17, 2010, and mechanical completion was achieved on April 27, 2011. The selected removal action met the removal action objectives (RAOs), is protective of human health and the environment both in the short- and long-term, was successful in removing potential ecological risks, and is protective of surface water and groundwater. Furthermore, the selected NTCR action met residential cleanup goals and resulted in the release of the SEA from restricted use contributing to the overall footprint reduction at SRS. (authors)

  9. Development of a new chemical technology for cleanup of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smykov, V.B.; Yermolaev, N.P.; Ivanov, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    As shows the maintenance experience of SG's, the long-time maintenance them without chemical cleanup on secondary-side results in accumulation of considerable amounts of depositions of oxides of iron with a high content of copper on outside of tubes. The deposit accumulation creates conditions for concentrating of salts which promote corrosion and, then, the loosing of inter-contour tightness. Therefore the experts do not have any doubts in necessity of chemical cleanups and the chemical cleanups were carried out at some NPP's with VVER during last years. However it is possible to say, that these cleanups were carried out not by the best mode - the same main reagents had been used in order to dissolve the copper and iron oxides. For example, all cleanups at Balakovo NPP in 1996-1997 years had the common deficiency - even during 5. final stage of process the copper prolongs to be washed. By our opinion, the reasons of it are the poor scientific and technical justification of this process. Therefore at various NPP's with VVER cleanups realize by various techniques. The process of chemical cleanup, close to offered in the present work, was repeated many times utilized at BN-600 Belojarsk NPP and at BN-350 Shevtchenko NPP. The purposes of the present work are: 1. Research the behaviours of physicochemical processes during dissolution of components of depositions and their mixtures with use of the various formulas; 2. Analysis of the carried out chemical cleanups of PGV-1000M at an example of Balakovo NPP; 3. Development of a new process of SG's cleanup on the base of experimental researches and analysis; 4. Check of this process on the samples of full-scale depositions from SG Balakovo NPP. (authors)

  10. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  11. Multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains using modified magnetic nanoparticle adsorbent for facile and efficient cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Xiahong; Chen, Wenxue; Wu, Liyu; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan

    2017-09-01

    A facile, rapid sample pretreatment method was developed based on magnetic nanoparticles for multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe 3 O 4 -PSA) and commercial C18 were selected as the cleanup adsorbents to remove the target interferences of the matrix, such as fatty acids and non-polar compounds. Rice was used as the representative grain sample for method optimization. The amount of Fe 3 O 4 -PSA and C18 were systematically investigated for selecting the suitable purification conditions, and the simultaneous determination of 50 pesticides and 8 related metabolites in rice was established by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimal conditions, the method validation was performed including linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery and precision, which all satisfy the requirement for pesticides residue analysis. Compared to the conventional QuEChERS method with non-magnetic material as cleanup adsorbent, the present method can save 30% of the pretreatment time, giving the high throughput analysis possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Remediation strategies after nuclear or radiological accidents: part 2 - accident scenarios for assessing effectiveness of cleanup procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares], e-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.br; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dneves@ird.gov.br, e-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br, e-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and remediation strategies after an accident needs to be based on previously established criteria, to minimize unnecessary stress and the exposures involved in cleanup operations that are not effective in reducing doses to the public. In a first stage, a database describing the countermeasures has been developed including their efficiency on removing contamination from surfaces. However, to assess the effectiveness of cleanup procedures in reducing doses to members of the public, it was necessary to derive specific scenarios in order to simulate the long term behavior of the material in the environment, since the contribution of different surfaces to doses changes with time after contamination. A basic release and exposure scenario was developed to assess the dose reduction due to the mostly used procedures. Exposure scenarios were selected to fit the surroundings of the Brazilian nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis. Simulations were performed using SIEM, the integrated system for dose assessment after contamination events, developed at IRD. The contamination of urban environments was assessed for Cs-137, as this was found to be the most relevant long term radionuclide to contribute to doses to member of the public. The effects on reducing external exposures were assessed for periods up to 50 years after the contamination. For agricultural areas, the focus was on ingestion doses from contamination with I-131 for periods up to 1 year after contamination. Results will be complemented on the database in order to support multi-criteria decision making processes after accidents. (author)

  13. Determination of ochratoxin A in wine by means of immunoaffinity and aminopropyl solid-phase column cleanup and fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Francesco; Iacovelli, Vito; Catucci, Lucia; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Pascale, Michelangelo; Visconti, Angelo; Agostiano, Angela

    2013-02-27

    A new analytical method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in red wine has been developed by using a double-extract cleanup and a fluorometric measurement after spectral deconvolution. Wine samples were diluted with a solution containing 1% polyethylene glycol and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate, filtered, and purified by immunoaffinity and aminopropyl solid-phase column. OTA contents in the purified extract were determined by a spectrofluorometer (excitation wavelength, 330 nm; emission wavelength, 470 nm) after deconvolution of fluorescence spectra. Average recoveries from wine samples spiked with OTA at levels ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ng/mL were 94.5-105.4% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of <15% (n = 4). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.2 ng/mL, and the total time of analysis was 30 min. The developed method was tested on 18 red wine samples (naturally contaminated and spiked with OTA at levels ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 ng/mL) and compared with AOAC Official Method 2001.01, based on immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC with fluorescence detector. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.9765) was observed between OTA levels obtained with the two methods, highlighting the reliability of the proposed method, the main advantage of which is the simple OTA determination by a benchtop fluorometer with evident reductions of cost and time of analysis.

  14. Development and application of techniques to assist in the establishment of intervention levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the event of an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Konstantinov, Y.O.; Demin, V.F.

    1993-02-01

    International and CIS (Commenwealth of independent states) guidance on intervention after nuclear or radiological accidents are reviewed, both the guidance existing at the time of the Chernobyl accident and the present guidance from ICRP, IAEA, OECD/NEA, WHO, CAC and CEC. The new thinking on intervention policy in the CIS is briefly addressed. The basic justification/optimisation principles for intervention as recommended by the international organisations have been applied for the longer term protective measures of relocation and foodstuff restrictions to derive intervention levels based on averted doses and monetary costs. Numerical values of the Intervention Levels as well as Operational Intervention Levels are presented. (au) (23 refs.)

  15. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology - A Strategic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.; Reichmuth, B.; Wood, T.; Glasper, M.; Hanson, J.

    2002-01-01

    In November 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) initiated an effort to produce a single, strategic perspective of RL Site closure challenges and potential Science and Technology (S and T) opportunities. This assessment was requested by DOE Headquarters (HQ), Office of Science and Technology, EM-50, as a means to provide a site level perspective on S and T priorities in the context of the Hanford 2012 Vision. The objectives were to evaluate the entire cleanup lifecycle (estimated at over $24 billion through 2046), to identify where the greatest uncertainties exist, and where investments in S and T can provide the maximum benefit. The assessment identified and described the eleven strategic closure challenges associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site. The assessment was completed in the spring of 2001 and provided to DOE-HQ and the Hanford Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) for review and input. It is the first step in developing a Site-level S and T strategy for RL. To realize the full benefits of this assessment, RL and Site contractors will work with the Hanford STCG to ensure: identified challenges and opportunities are reflected in project baselines; detailed S and T program-level road maps reflecting both near- and long-term investments are prepared using this assessment as a starting point; and integrated S and T priorities are incorporated into Environmental Management (EM) Focus Areas, Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) and other research and development (R and D) programs to meet near-term and longer-range challenges. Hanford is now poised to begin the detailed planning and road mapping necessary to ensure that the integrated Site level S and T priorities are incorporated into the national DOE S and T program and formally incorporated into the relevant project baselines. DOE-HQ's response to this effort has been very positive and similar efforts are likely to be undertaken at other sites

  16. Establishing geochemical background levels of selected trace elements in areas having geochemical anomalies: The case study of the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Croudace, Ian W.; Ausili, Antonella; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The determination of background concentration values (BGVs) in areas, characterised by the presence of natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic impact, appears essential for a correct pollution assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a reliable method for determination of local BGVs. The case of the Orbetello lagoon, a geologically complex area characterized by Tertiary volcanism, is illustrated. The vertical concentration profiles of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied in four sediment cores. Local BGVs were determined considering exclusively samples not affected by anthropogenic influence, recognized by means of multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb). Results showed BGVs well-comparable with mean crustal or shale values for most of the considered elements except for Hg (0.87 mg/kg d.w.) and As (16.87 mg/kg d.w.), due to mineralization present in the catchment basin draining into the lagoon. - Highlights: • Pollution assessment in areas with geochemical anomalies needs local reference values. • A new method for the determination of background values (BGV) was established. • Geochemical data from unpolluted samples of sediment cores were used. • Statistics and geochronology were applied to recognize unpolluted sediments. • Anthropogenically influenced samples were not considered for BGV determination. - A method including multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating is proposed for determining local background values for trace elements using analytical data form sediment cores

  17. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  18. Deep vadose zone remediation: technical and policy challenges, opportunities, and progress in achieving cleanup endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, D.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Truex, M.J.; Lee, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches. (authors)

  19. Deep vadose zone remediation: technical and policy challenges, opportunities, and progress in achieving cleanup endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, D.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Truex, M.J.; Lee, M.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches. (authors)

  20. Multimedia risk-based soil cleanup at a gasoline-contaminated site using vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.B.; Johnson, K.M.; Liu, S.; Loh, J.Y.; Lew, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    At a utility service center, gasoline from an underground storage tank had leaked into subsurface vadose zone soils for several years. To remediate the site, a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system was installed and operated. At the completion of the SVE operation, gasoline-containing residues in several confirmation soil borings exceeded agency-mandated cleanup levels. Rather than continue with SVE, a risk-based approach was developed to evaluate what levels of gasoline-containing residues could be left in the soil and still protect human health. The risk-based approach consisted of simulating the fate of chemical residues through the vadose zone and then into both the ground water and atmosphere. Receptor point concentrations were predicted, and health risks were assessed. The risk assessment concluded that ingestion of contaminated ground water and inhalation of air while showering were the largest potential contributors to risk, and that risks associated with inhalation of vapor-containing ambient air are small. However, all predicted risks are below the acceptable risk levels of 10 -6 individual cancer risk probability and 1.0 hazard index. Therefore, the lead agency accepted the recommendation that the site requires no further remediation. The service center continues normal operations today

  1. Effort to earn public support and confidence in Hanford Site cleanup work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.C.; Edwards, C.; Beers, A.A.

    1991-09-01

    Public involvement is needed for Hanford Site cleanup to succeed. If people do not know about, understand, and support cleanup, it will be more difficult and expensive. The Tri-Party Agreement calls for public involvement in decisions about cleanup options and schedules. This paper defines what public involvement means and how the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and US Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted it. Experience and survey research have shown ways to improve our performance. While we have improved our conduct of public meetings, we must identify other ways to involve the public. Efforts continue to open decision making earlier in the decision process, to share information that is clear and understandable, and to open the channels of communication. We have made good progress. We have many opportunities to continue to improve. This paper describes some of the highlights and lessons learned in public involvement in Hanford Site cleanup. 4 refs

  2. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  3. Options for improving hazardous waste cleanups using risk-based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores how risk- and technology-based criteria are currently used in the RCRA and CERCLA cleanup programs. It identifies ways in which risk could be further incorporated into RCRA and CERCLA cleanup requirements and the implications of risk-based approaches. The more universal use of risk assessment as embodied in the risk communication and risk improvement bills before Congress is not addressed. Incorporating risk into the laws and regulations governing hazardous waste cleanup, will allow the use of the best scientific information available to further the goal of environmental protection in the United States while containing costs. and may help set an example for other countries that may be developing cleanup programs, thereby contributing to enhanced global environmental management

  4. Estimating Differences in the Cost of Groundwater Treatment of Trichioroethylene Based on Different Cleanup Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atchue, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    ...) to develop a health-based groundwater (GW) cleanup standard for trichloroethylene (TCE). Reevaluation of the health risk of TCE exposure may provide sufficient evidence for EPA program offices...

  5. Comparative study on cleanup procedures for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvin, Chai Lian Kuet; Lau, Seng

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the cleanup procedures for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. Eleven organophosphorus pesticides were extracted with acetone and methylene chloride. Extracts were cleanup by solid-phase extraction (SPE) mixed-mode column using quaternary amine and aminopropyl (SAX/ NH 2 ) or octadecyl (C 18 ) sorbents. The pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detector. The recovery results obtained from the SPE SAX/ NH 2 and C 18 cleanups in carrot, cucumber and green mustard samples were in the range of 71.0 % to 115 %. Lower recoveries were obtained for polar pesticides, methamidophos and dimethoate. These results were compared to the method currently used in the laboratory which does not include any cleanup. (author)

  6. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  7. Effectiveness of clean-up procedures on stain susceptibility of different orthodontic adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pundlik Mane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical-cure adhesive showed higher stain susceptibility than light-cure adhesive in all clean-up procedures. Both adhesives would show less stain susceptibility with polishing step with rubber cup and pumice.

  8. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Faust, R.A.; Brewster, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  9. Efforts to earn public support and confidence in Hanford site cleanup work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.C.; Edwards, C.; Beers, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Public involvement is needed for Hanford Site cleanup to succeed. If people do not know about, understand, and support cleanup, it will be more difficult and expensive. The Tri-Party Agreement (1) calls for public involvement in decisions about cleanup options and schedules. This paper defines what public involvement means and how the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and US Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted it. Experience and survey research have shown ways to improve our performance. While we have improved our conduct of public meetings, we must identify other ways to involve the public. Efforts continue to open decision making earlier in the decision process, to share information that is clear and understandable, and to open the channels of communication. We have made good progress. We have many opportunities to continue to improve. This paper describes some of the highlights and lessons learned in public involvement in Hanford Site cleanup

  10. Development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and establishment of normal levels in the first trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, F; Masson, G M; Wood, P J [Southampton Univ. (UK)

    1983-01-01

    An accelerated double antibody method has been developed for the radioimmunoassay of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in serum. The workable range for the assay was 0.4-1.8 mg/l of serum. PAPP-A levels were determined in single serum samples from 110 women with prospective normal pregnancies of between 7 and 14 weeks' gestation. The level of pregnancy specific ..beta../sub 1/ glycoprotein (SP/sub 1/) was also measured in these samples and normal ranges for PAPP-P and SP/sub 1/ were constructed from the results obtained.

  11. Development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and establishment of normal levels in the first trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, F; Masson, G M; Wood, P J [Southampton Univ. (UK)

    1983-01-01

    An accelerated double antibody method has been developed for the radioimmunoassay of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in serum. The workable range for the assay was 0.04-1.8 mg/l of serum. PAPP-A levels were determined in single serum samples from 110 women with prospective normal pregnancies of between 7 and 14 weeks' gestation. The level of pregnancy specific ..beta../sub 1/ glycoprotein (SP/sub 1/) was also measured in these samples and normal ranges for PAPP-A and SP/sub 1/ were constructed from the results obtained.

  12. Development of a radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and establishment of normal levels in the first trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, F.; Masson, G.M.; Wood, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerated double antibody method has been developed for the radioimmunoassay of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in serum. The workable range for the assay was 0.4-1.8 mg/l of serum. PAPP-A levels were determined in single serum samples from 110 women with prospective normal pregnancies of between 7 and 14 weeks' gestation. The level of pregnancy specific #betta# 1 glycoprotein (SP 1 ) was also measured in these samples and normal ranges for PAPP-P and SP 1 were constructed from the results obtained. (author)

  13. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  14. EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE STRATEGY FOR THE CLEANUP OF K BASINS AT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMBALAM, T.

    2004-01-01

    , sludge, debris and water. At present, almost all of the spent fuel has been removed from the basins and other activities to remove sludge, debris and water are scheduled to be completed in 2007. Developing environmental documentation and obtaining regulatory approvals for a project which was initiated outside CERCLA and came under CERCLA during execution, was a significant priority to the successful completion of the SNF retrieval, transfer, drying, transport and storage of fuel, within the purview of strong conduct-of-operations culture associated with nuclear facilities. Environmental requirements promulgated in the state regulations by Washington Department of Public Health for radiation were recognized as ''applicable or relevant and appropriate.'' Effective implementation of the environmental compliance strategy in a project that transitioned to CERCLA became a significant challenge involving multiple contractors. This paper provides an overview of the development and implementation of an environmental permitting and surveillance strategy that enabled us to achieve full compliance in a challenging environment, with milestones and cost constraints, while meeting the high safety standards. The details of the strategy as to how continuous rapport with the regulators, facility operators and surveillance groups helped to avoid impacts on the clean-up schedule are discussed. Highlighted are the role of engineered controls, surveillance protocols and triggers for monitoring and reporting, and active administrative controls that were established for the control of emissions, water loss and transport of waste shipments, during the different phases of the project

  15. Active-to-Passive Environmental Cleanup Transition Strategies - 13220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Mills, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site uses a graded approach to environmental cleanup. The selection of groundwater and vadose zone remediation technologies for a specific contamination area is based on the size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration, and configuration of the plume. These attributes are the result of the nature and mass of the source of contamination and the subsurface characteristics in the area of the plume. Many large plumes consist of several zones that are most efficiently addressed with separate complementary corrective action/remedial technologies. The highest concentrations of contaminants are found in the source zone. The most robust, high mass removal technologies are often best suited for remediation of the source zone. In the primary plume zone, active remedies, such as pump-and-treat, may be necessary to remove contaminants and exert hydraulic control of the plume. In the dilute fringe zone, contaminants are generally lower in concentration and can often be treated with passive techniques. A key determination in achieving an acceptable and cost-effective end state for a given waste unit is when to transition from an active treatment system to a more passive or natural approach (e.g., monitored natural attenuation or enhanced attenuation). This paper will discuss the considerations for such a transition as well as provide examples of successful transitions at the Savannah River Site. (authors)

  16. Statistical evaluation of cleanup: How should it be done?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-02-01

    This paper discusses statistical issues that must be addressed when conducting statistical tests for the purpose of evaluating if a site has been remediated to guideline values or standards. The importance of using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process to plan and design the sampling plan is emphasized. Other topics discussed are: (1) accounting for the uncertainty of cleanup standards when conducting statistical tests, (2) determining the number of samples and measurements needed to attain specified DQOs, (3) considering whether the appropriate testing philosophy in a given situation is ''guilty until proven innocent'' or ''innocent until proven guilty'' when selecting a statistical test for evaluating the attainment of standards, (4) conducting tests using data sets that contain measurements that have been reported by the laboratory as less than the minimum detectable activity, and (5) selecting statistical tests that are appropriate for risk-based or background-based standards. A recent draft report by Berger that provides guidance on sampling plans and data analyses for final status surveys at US Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities serves as a focal point for discussion

  17. Experimental Tritium Cleanup System availability analysis from 1984 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the availability percentage of the Experimental Tritium Cleanup System (ETC) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report. Sample calculations of the failure rates obtained from these data are given in the appendices. While future fusion experiments might use different or more advanced means to detritiate room air, the analysis of this system gives a data point for an actual detritiation system. Such a data point can be extrapolated for comparison with fault tree results on system designs, or can be used in a Bayesian failure rate analysis for estimating reliability of a new type of system. The nine years of testing operations on TSTA's ETC result in a reasonable average availability value of 92% for the maximal tritium release event. The failure rates for new systems are expected to be lower than for the TSTA ETC, since improvements will be made in the design of the room air detritiation system based on the TSTA system experiences. Nonetheless, these TSTA data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks

  18. Canadian coastal environments, shoreline processes, and oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1994-03-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic environment, so that in developing practical and effective oil spill response strategies it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to shore-zone processs. The coasts of Canada encompass a wide range of environments and are characterized by a variety of shoreline types that include the exposed, resistant cliffs of eastern Newfoundland and the sheltered marshes of the Beaufort Sea. A report is presented to provide an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada, including the Great Lakes. An outline of the general character and processes on a regional basis describes the coastal environments and introduces the literature that can be consulted for more specific information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shoreline is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shoreline cleanup or treatment countermeasures. Lessons learned from recent experience with major oil spills and field experiments are integrated into the discussion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the four sections of this report. 502 refs., 5 figs

  19. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  20. Simulation of the cleanup of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.; Allen, G.K.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Site is a 1,450-km 2 (560-mi 2 ) tract of semiarid land in southeastern Washington State. Nuclear materials for the nation's defense programs were manufactured at the Hanford Site for more than 40 years. The waste generated by these activities has been treated, stored, or disposed of in a variety of ways. The Hanford Site strategic analysis provides a general comparison analysis tool to guide selection and future modification of the integrated Site cleanup plan. A key element of the Hanford strategic analysis is a material flow model that tracks 80 individual feed elements containing 60 componentsof interest through 50 functional processing blocks in 12 different configurations. The material flow model was developed for parametric analyses using separation factors and parameters specific to individual feeds. The model was constructed so that the effects of individual feed streams can be traced through a flowsheet, and the performance parameters of each functional block can be varied independently. The material flow model has five major elements: input database, process flow diagrams, sequential modular process simulation, output database, and output summing program

  1. Major clean-up effort in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Document Server

    Marzio Nessi

    On Tuesday 10 October, 58 ATLAS collaborators volunteered to give a hand for a major clean-up of the ATLAS detector prior to the toroid magnet ramp-up. This special task monopolised all of the technical coordination team and eight supervisors to oversee the volunteers who were assigned to two separate five-hour shifts. The volunteers removed all sorts of loose material inside and outside the detector, focusing mainly on potentially magnetic material lost inside the detector and dirt accumulated over several months, not to mention zillions of clipped cable ties! The technical crew provided 120 garbage bags and all were used. All sorts of material that had been lost inside the detector by various people was retrieved, in particular small tools which could potentially damage the detector, as well as metallic fillings hazardous for the electronics once the magnet will be ramped up. A more detailed inspection followed for all the inside of the detector, making sure the current on the magnet could be raised to 5KA ...

  2. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  3. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  4. Potential impact of licensee default on cleanup of TMI-2. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.O.; Saltzman, J.

    1980-11-01

    Financial repercussions of the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 on the ability of the Licensee, Metropolitan Edison Co., to complete cleanup of the facility are examined. Potential impacts of licensee default on cleanup and alternatives to minimize the potential of bankruptcy are discussed. Specific recommendations are made regarding steps the Nuclear Regulatory Commission might take in keeping with its regulatory functions and its mission to protect the public health and safety

  5. Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Lee, Jong Seong; Kwon, Hojang; Ha, Eun-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Choi, Yeyong; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Eun-Jung; Im, Hosub

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to examine the relationship between crude oil exposure and physical symptoms among residents participating in clean-up work associated with the Hebei Spirit oil spill, 2007 in Korea. Methods A total of 288 residents responded to a questionnaire regarding subjective physical symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and clean-up activities that occurred between two and eight weeks after the accident. Additionally, the urine of 154 of the respondents was ana...

  6. Expression of Cyclin D1 protein and CCN DI with PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean-up worker of Chernobyl accident with different state of immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazika, D.A.; Kubashko, A.V.; Yil'jenko, Yi.M.; Belyajev, O.A.; Pleskach, O.Ya.

    2015-01-01

    The investigate of Cyclin D1+cells levels changes, associated CCND1 and PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cleanup workers of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system in depends on the dose irradiation. Analyzed data of the nuclear controller of cell cycle- Cyclin D1 protein expression changes and related CCND1 and PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cleanup workers Chornobyl accident with different status of immune system in remote period after exposure is represented. Reveled changes in expression of Cyclin D1+cells and regulation of related genes may point on possible radiation-associated firm molecular disturbances occurred during elimination of consequences of Chornobyl accident, that could be a potential basis for cell and humoral communicative links breach in immune system result ing in elevation of stochastic effects like oncopathology in cleanup workers of Chornobyl accident in remote peri od after exposure

  7. Revised guidance of the principles for establishing intervention levels for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    An IAEA Advisory Group met in February 1987 to: i) review existing Agency guidance on intervention levels of dose and whether, and if so, what, revision is required; ii) consider whether, and if so, what additional guidance is required on limiting the stochastic risk and collective dose equivalent, and; iii) consider whether, and if so, what, additional guidance should be developed on derived intervention levels. The purpose of this Interim Report is to present to a broader audience the initial conclusions and recommendations of the Advisory Group in order that they may be used in conjunction with the guidance currently presented in Safety Series No. 72, pending publication of the revised Safety Series, scheduled for late 1989. 14 refs

  8. Terminating Safeguards on Excess Special Nuclear Material: Defense TRU Waste Clean-up and Nonproliferation - 12426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Operations Group (United States); Nelson, Roger [Department Of Energy, Carlsbad Operations Office (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) manages defense nuclear material that has been determined to be excess to programmatic needs and declared waste. When these wastes contain plutonium, they almost always meet the definition of defense transuranic (TRU) waste and are thus eligible for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The DOE operates the WIPP in a manner that physical protections for attractiveness level D or higher special nuclear material (SNM) are not the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is currently a requirement to terminate safeguards before disposal of these wastes at the WIPP. Presented are the processes used to terminate safeguards, lessons learned during the termination process, and how these approaches might be useful for future defense TRU waste needing safeguards termination prior to shipment and disposal at the WIPP. Also described is a new criticality control container, which will increase the amount of fissile material that can be loaded per container, and how it will save significant taxpayer dollars. Retrieval, compliant packaging and shipment of retrievably stored legacy TRU waste has dominated disposal operations at WIPP since it began operations 12 years ago. But because most of this legacy waste has successfully been emplaced in WIPP, the TRU waste clean-up focus is turning to newly-generated TRU materials. A major component will be transuranic SNM, currently managed in safeguards-protected vaults around the weapons complex. As DOE and NNSA continue to consolidate and shrink the weapons complex footprint, it is expected that significant quantities of transuranic SNM will be declared surplus to the nation's needs. Safeguards termination of SNM varies due to the wide range of attractiveness level of the potential material that may be directly discarded as waste. To enhance the efficiency of shipping waste with high TRU fissile content to WIPP, DOE designed an

  9. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and cleanup criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-09-01

    Soil cleanup criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals, this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria that include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semivolatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:861-869. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  10. Feasibility of establishing a biosafety level 3 tuberculosis culture laboratory of acceptable quality standards in a resource-limited setting: an experience from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Gelderbloem, Sebastian J; Mboowa, Gerald; Wajja, Anne; Namaganda, Carolyn; Musoke, Philippa; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2015-01-15

    Despite the recent innovations in tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosis, culture remains vital for difficult-to-diagnose patients, baseline and end-point determination for novel vaccines and drug trials. Herein, we share our experience of establishing a BSL-3 culture facility in Uganda as well as 3-years performance indicators and post-TB vaccine trials (pioneer) and funding experience of sustaining such a facility. Between September 2008 and April 2009, the laboratory was set-up with financial support from external partners. After an initial procedure validation phase in parallel with the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and legal approvals, the laboratory registered for external quality assessment (EQA) from the NTRL, WHO, National Health Laboratories Services (NHLS), and the College of American Pathologists (CAP). The laboratory also instituted a functional quality management system (QMS). Pioneer funding ended in 2012 and the laboratory remained in self-sustainability mode. The laboratory achieved internationally acceptable standards in both structural and biosafety requirements. Of the 14 patient samples analyzed in the procedural validation phase, agreement for all tests with NTRL was 90% (P 80% in all years from NTRL, CAP, and NHLS, and culture was 100% for CAP panels and above regional average scores for all years with NHLS. Quarterly DST scores from WHO-EQA ranged from 78% to 100% in 2010, 80% to 100% in 2011, and 90 to 100% in 2012. From our experience, it is feasible to set-up a BSL-3 TB culture laboratory with acceptable quality performance standards in resource-limited countries. With the demonstrated quality of work, the laboratory attracted more research groups and post-pioneer funding, which helped to ensure sustainability. The high skilled experts in this research laboratory also continue to provide an excellent resource for the needed national discussion of the laboratory and quality management systems.

  11. Simultaneous extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites from small tissue samples using pressurized liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Zhao, Hongxia; Norstrom, Karin; Li, Xueshu; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction-based method for the simultaneous extraction and in situ clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated (OH)-PCBs and methylsulfonyl (MeSO2)-PCBs from small (< 0.5 gram) tissue samples was developed and validated. Extraction of a laboratory reference material with hexane:dichloromethane:methanol (48:43:9, v/v) and Florisil as fat retainer allowed an efficient recovery of PCBs (78–112%; RSD: 13–37%), OH-PCBs (46±2%; RSD: 4%) and MeSO2-PCBs (89±21%; RSD: 24%). Comparable results were obtained with an established analysis method for PCBs, OH-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs. PMID:19019378

  12. CASTOR {sup ®} and CONSTOR {sup ®}. A well established system for the dry storage of spent fuel and high level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Hannes; Skrzyppek, Juergen; Koebl, Michael [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The German company GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH today looks back on more than 30 years of operational experience with dual-purpose casks for the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants and high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing. Following customer demands, GNS developed two different cask types for SNF. By now, almost 1,300 GNS-casks are in operation worldwide. This article gives an overview over several national and international projects and shows the bandwidth of customised solutions by GNS.

  13. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding-Yan; Lee, Yi-Pin; Li, Chiu-Ping; Chi, Kai-Hsien; Liang, Bo-Wei P.; Liu, Wen-Yao; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Susana; Chen, Ting-Chien; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum C.; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chao, How-Ran; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine dioxin levels in 800 soil samples collected from Taiwan. An in vitro DR-CALUX® assay was carried out with the help of an automated Soxhlet system and fast cleanup column. The mean dioxin level of 800 soil samples was 36.0 pg-bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs)/g dry weight (d.w.). Soil dioxin-BEQs were higher in northern Taiwan (61.8 pg-BEQ/g d.w.) than in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan (22.2, 24.9, and 7.80 pg-BEQ/g d.w., respectively). Analysis of multiple linear regression models identified four major predictors of dioxin-BEQs including soil sampling location (β = 0.097, p contamination. Soil samples collected in northern Taiwan, and especially in Bade City, soils near industrial areas, and soils with darker color may contain higher dioxin-BEQ levels. PMID:24806195

  14. Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) individuals have been underserved before and during emergencies. This paper will assess Deaf/HH related emergency preparedness training needs for state emergency management agencies and deaf-serving community-based organizations (CBOs). Methods Four approaches were used: 1) a literature review; 2) results from 50 key informant (KI) interviews from state and territorial-level emergency management and public health agencies; 3) results from 14 KI interviews with deaf-serving CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area; and 4) a pilot program evaluation of an emergency responder training serving the Deaf/HH in one urban community. Results Results from literature review and state and territorial level KIs indicate that there is a substantive gap in emergency preparedness training on serving Deaf/HH provided by state agencies. In addition, local KI interviews with 14 deaf-serving CBOs found gaps in training within deaf-serving CBOs. These gaps have implications for preparing for and responding to all-hazards emergencies including weather-related or earthquake-related natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and nuclear-chemical disasters. Conclusion Emergency preparedness trainings specific to responding to or promoting preparedness of the Deaf/HH is rare, even for state agency personnel, and frequently lack standardization, evaluation, or institutionalization in emergency management infrastructure. This has significant policy and research implications. Similarly, CBOs are not adequately trained to serve the needs of their constituents. PMID:23497178

  15. Phenotypical characteristics of leukocyte membranes in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia: use of the fluorescent probe ABM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnina, I.; Meirovics, I.; Garbuseva, N.; Bruvere, R.; Heisele, O.; Zvagule, T.; Volrate, A.; Feldmane, G.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescent probe - aminoderivative of benzanthrone, AMB (developed at the Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia) - has been previously shown to localise within the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane, and shown to affect the structural and functional properties of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The probe ABM was used to characterise the PBMC membranes of 97 Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. The study was conducted in the years 1997-1998. After addition of the probe to PBMC, fluorescence intensity of ABM (F) was measured, the depolarisation value P was calculated, and emission spectra were recorded. Screening of all individuals showed 5 different patterns of fluorescence spectra. Four of the patterns had never been previously observed in healthy individuals or patients with tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, oncologic patients, etc., examined by us. The spectral patterns of ABM suspensions were associated with ability of leukocytes to produce interferons, with the levels of immunoglobulins A, G, and M, the concentration of lead in peripheral blood, and with several neurologic diseases. The use of ABM allowed to show phenotypic differences in PBMC between Chernobyl clean-up workers and individuals who had never had professional contact with radioactivity. (author)

  16. A sediment extraction and cleanup method for wide-scope multitarget screening by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Riccardo; Byers, Harry; Beckers, Liza-Marie; Prothmann, Jens; Brack, Werner; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on organic sediment contaminants focused mainly on a limited number of highly hydrophobic micropollutants accessible to gas chromatography using nonpolar, aprotic extraction solvents. The development of liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) permits the spectrum of analysis to be expanded to a wider range of more polar and ionic compounds present in sediments and allows target, suspect, and nontarget screening to be conducted with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, we propose a comprehensive multitarget extraction and sample preparation method for characterization of sediment pollution covering a broad range of physicochemical properties that is suitable for LC-HRMS screening analysis. We optimized pressurized liquid extraction, cleanup, and sample dilution for a target list of 310 compounds. Finally, the method was tested on sediment samples from a small river and its tributaries. The results show that the combination of 100 °C for ethyl acetate-acetone (50:50, neutral extract) followed by 80 °C for acetone-formic acid (100:1, acidic extract) and methanol-10 mM sodium tetraborate in water (90:10, basic extract) offered the best extraction recoveries for 287 of 310 compounds. At a spiking level of 1 μg mL -1 , we obtained satisfactory cleanup recoveries for the neutral extract-(93 ± 23)%-and for the combined acidic/basic extracts-(42 ± 16)%-after solvent exchange. Among the 69 compounds detected in environmental samples, we successfully quantified several pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides.

  17. Evaluating the impact of extraction and cleanup parameters on the yield of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Eija; Peraemaeki, Paavo; Jalonen, Jorma [University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Interlaboratory comparisons for the analysis of mineral oil in polluted soil using the GC-FID method indicate that extraction and cleanup conditions have significant effects on the analytical results. In this investigation a ruggedness test was performed on the extraction and cleanup method for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was utilized to study the effect of 11 different method parameters on the extraction recovery of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil. Both qualitative and quantitative factors were investigated. The results indicate that total petroleum hydrocarbons can be relatively reliably monitored through strict implementation of the ISO and CEN draft standards. However, variation in certain method parameters readily affects the validity of the results. The most critical factors affecting TPH recovery were the solvent and co-solvent used for extraction, the extraction time, adsorbent and its weight and sample TPH concentration. Because adaptation of the draft standards especially with respect to these factors easily leads to TPH recoveries higher than 200% or lower than 70%, the validity of the adapted method should always be verified. A proper estimate of the expanded uncertainty should also be appended to TPH results, because only then can the reliability of the results be guaranteed and further justification is gained to support the end-use of the data. This also supports the credibility of the analytical services and prevents the data end-users from drawing misleading conclusions concerning the environmental risks and potential remediation requirements. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high concentrations of POPs were detected in some pellet samples from the remote islands is underscored. Some plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly

  19. Partnerships in cleanup at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hula, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Restoration activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are currently being conducted under a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFA/CO). The FFA/CO was signed by the US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), the Environmental Protection Agency-Region 10 (EPA), and the state of Idaho Department of Health and Welfare (IDHW) in December 1991. The INEL FFA/CO has been successfully implemented due to the coordination, integration and communication among the DOE-ID, IDHW and EPA Project and WAG Managers. Successful implementation of this Tri-party Agreement hinges on one key concept: ownership of the agreement, including the routine and unexpected problems and conflicting schedules typically associated with three separate agencies. Other factors, such as (1) open and frequent communication, (2) trust among all players, (3) ''giving'' in order to ''get,'' (4) clear, concise documentation surrounding key decisions during implementation and (5) little turnover among the implementers of the Agreement, i.e., good institutional knowledge, will enhance implementation of the Agreement, but without ownership, successful implementation of the agreement may be jeopardized. This sense of ownership, as well as a sound professional working relationship between the Project and WAG Managers from each agency, has resulted in avoidance of the need for invoking the formal ''dispute resolution'' process outlined in the INEL Agreement. This facilitates timely decision-making (10 Record of Decisions have been signed to date at the INEL) which has quickly progressed the program from an ''assessment'' phase to a ''cleanup'' phase

  20. Conceptual design of an emergency tritium clean-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been selected to design, build, and operate a facility to demonstrate the operability of the tritium-related subsystems that would be required to successfully develop fusion reactor systems. Basically, these subsystems would consist of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and associated environmental control systems. An emergency tritium clean-up subsystem (ETC) for this facility will be designed to remove tritium from the cell atmosphere if an accident causes the primary and secondary tritium containment to be breached. Conceptually, the ETC will process cell air at the rate of 0.65 actual m 3 /s (1385 ACFM) and will achieve an overall decontamination factor of 10 6 for tritium oxide (T 2 O). Following the maximum credible release of 100 g of tritium, the ETC will restore the cell to operational status within 24 h without a significant release of tritium to the environment. The basic process will include compression of the air to 0.35 MPa (3.5 atm) in a reciprocating compressor followed by oxidation of the tritium to T 2 O in a catalytic reactor. The air will be cooled to 275 K (350 0 F) to remove most of the moisture, including T 2 O, as a condensate. The remaining moisture will be removed by molecular sieve dryer beds that incorporate a water-swamping step between beds, allowing greater T 2 O removal. A portion of the detritiated air will be recirculated to the cell; the remainder will be exhausted to the building ventilation stack to maintain a slight negative pressure in the cell. The ETC will be designed for maximum flexibility so that studies can be performed that involve various aspects of room air detritiation

  1. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  2. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi 2 (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives

  3. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tank waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission

  4. Computed oscillator strengths and energy levels for Fe III, Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI with calculated wavelengths and wavelengths derived from established data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    Calculated weighted oscillator strengths are tabulated for spectral lines of Fe III, Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI. The lines belong to transition arrays 3d 6 -3d 5 4p and 3d 5 4s-3d 5 4p in Fe III, 3d 5 -3d 4 4p and 3d 4 4s-3d 4 4p in Fe IV, 3d 4 -3d 3 4p and 3d 3 4s-3d 3 4p in Fe V, and 3d 3 -3d 2 4p and 3d 2 4s-3d 2 4p in Fe VI. For the calculations, Slater parameters are optimized on the basis of minimizing the discrepancies between observed and computed wavelengths. Configuration interaction was included among the 3d n , 3d n-1 4s, 3d n-2 4s 2 , 3d n-1 4d, and 3d n-1 5s even configurations and among the 3d n-1 4p, 3d n-2 4s4p, and 3d n-1 5p odd configurations, with 3p 5 3d n+1 added for Fe VI. Calculated wavelengths are compared with observational data, and the compositions of energy levels are listed. This completes a series of similar computations for these complex configurations covering Fe I to Fe VI

  5. Comparison study for the CCME reference method for determination of PHC in soil by using internal and external standard methods and by using silica gel column cleanup and in-situ silica gel cleanup methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Sigouin, L.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.

    2003-01-01

    The assessment, cleanup, and remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is covered in the Reference Method for Canada-Wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Tier 1 Method. It replaces several analytical methods used in the past by some laboratories and jurisdictions in Canada. The authors conducted two comparative evaluations to validate the Tier 1 Analytical Method. The first compared the Internal and External Standard Methods, and the second compared the Silica Gel Column Cleanup Method with the In-situ Silica Gel Cleanup Method. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Tier 1 Method recommends and requires the External Standard Method to determine petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in soil samples. The Internal Method is widely used to quantify various organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental samples. The Tier 1 Method offers two options for the same extract cleanup. They are: Option A - In-situ Silica Gel Cleanup, and Option B - Silica Gel Column Cleanup. Linearity, precision, and PHC quantification results were the parameters considered for diesel and motor oil solutions, for diesel spiked soil samples, and for motor oil spiked soil samples. It was concluded that both the External and Internal Standard Methods for gas chromatograph (GC) determination of PHC in soil possess their own advantages. The PHC results obtained using the In-Situ Silica Gel Cleanup Method were lower than those obtained with the Silica Gel Column Cleanup Methods. The more efficient and effective sample cleanup method proved to be the Silica Gel Column Method. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  6. Cleanup Progress on High Hazard Legacy Facilities at Sellafield: Pile Fuel Cladding Silo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skilbeck, D.

    2006-01-01

    This facility was constructed in the 1940's as the original dry storage silo for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) arising from the Windscale Pile Reactors. Subsequently it was used as the main storage facility for all ILW arising from the Sellafield operation. It was operated until it became full and the Magnox Swarf Storage Silos were constructed in the mid 1960's. A systematic and As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) risk reduction approach has been adopted at Sellafield to address issues in order of risk magnitude. Prior to being in a position to retrieve stored wastes it has been necessary to improve the overall safety performance of the silo. This has involved installing new fire prevention systems, improving structural integrity, clearing waste from the Transfer Tunnel, and improving overall seismic performance. A major step towards reducing the overall risk profile of this facility has been to seal the six charge holes in the Transfer Tunnel, that were used for tipping the waste into the silo compartments during operations. This also enabled the silo Transfer Tunnel to be removed. Overall this work has proved that significant cleanup can be performed safely and successfully, in one of the most hazardous environments at Sellafield. (authors)

  7. Modeling emissions and dispersion of contaminants from cleanup activities at a mixed waste site to estimate air impacts and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.; Menlove, S.

    1993-09-01

    The transport and dispersion of contaminants via the air pathway is a major concern during cleanup of contaminated sites. Impacts to air quality and human health during cleanup were evaluated for the Weldon Spring site by using site-specific information for source areas, activities, and receptor locations. In order to ensure protection of human health and the environment, results are being used to focus on those cleanup activities for which release controls should be emphasized

  8. Review of decontamination and clean-up techniques for use in the UK following accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Cooper, J.R.; Jones, J.A.; Flaws, L.; McGeary, R.; Spooner, J.

    1996-10-01

    This review examines decontamination and clean-up methodologies that may be applied following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere in the UK. An accidental release of radionuclides to the environment could cause contamination of land and property, and may necessitate movement of the resident population to reduce their exposure. Decontamination procedures may reduce the level of contamination and, in determining whether to implement such procedures in an affected area, it is necessary to weigh the effectiveness of the techniques against the associated economic costs and other disadvantages. The report gives a review of available methods of decontamination and clean-up in terms of the effectiveness of the various methods to remove activity from building or land surfaces and dose saved. It also considers associated disadvantages, costs, clean-up rates for land and buildings, waste disposal implications, and personnel and resource requirements. On the basis of these factors, the techniques are prioritised and overall strategies for decontamination following releases of both fission products and alpha emitters are presented. (author)

  9. Drivers and applications of integrated clean-up technologies for surfactant-enhanced remediation of environments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Shasha; Wick, Lukas Y; Peng, Dan; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Yin, Hua; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is considered as a promising and efficient remediation approach. This review summarizes and discusses main drivers on the application of SER in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and water. The effect of PAH-PAH interactions on SER efficiency is, for the first time, illustrated in an SER review. Interactions between mixed PAHs could enhance, decrease, or have no impact on surfactants' solubilization power towards PAHs, thus affecting the optimal usage of surfactants for SER. Although SER can transfer PAHs from soil/non-aqueous phase liquids to the aqueous phase, the harmful impact of PAHs still exists. To decrease the level of PAHs in SER solutions, a series of SER-based integrated cleanup technologies have been developed including surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR), surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR) and SER-advanced oxidation processes (SER-AOPs). In this review, the general considerations and corresponding applications of the integrated cleanup technologies are summarized and discussed. Compared with SER-AOPs, SEBR and SEPR need less operation cost, yet require more treatment time. To successfully achieve the field application of surfactant-based technologies, massive production of the cost-effective green surfactants (i.e. biosurfactants) and comprehensive evaluation of the drivers and the global cost of SER-based cleanup technologies need to be performed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Immune state of patients of vegeto-vascular dystonia, clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhno, T.A.; Davydova, T.I.; Bazika, D.A.; Chumak, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Immune state of 272 clean-up workers, participants of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, suffering from vegeto-vascular dystonia is studied. Comparison groups were formed by 20 healthy clean-up workers, 25 vegeto-vascular dystonia patients non-participating in the clean-up works, and 60 healthy donors. Immune state disturbances in the vegeto-vascular dystonia patients have unidirectional changing but among the clear-up workers their expression was much significant coinciding with the more severe clinical courses of disease comparing to the patients non-participating in the clean-up works

  11. Evaluation of containment failure and cleanup time for Pu shots on the Z machine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    Between November 30 and December 11, 2009 an evaluation was performed of the probability of containment failure and the time for cleanup of contamination of the Z machine given failure, for plutonium (Pu) experiments on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Due to the unique nature of the problem, there is little quantitative information available for the likelihood of failure of containment components or for the time to cleanup. Information for the evaluation was obtained from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the Z machine facility. The SMEs provided the State of Knowledge (SOK) for the evaluation. There is significant epistemic- or state of knowledge- uncertainty associated with the events that comprise both failure of containment and cleanup. To capture epistemic uncertainty and to allow the SMEs to reason at the fidelity of the SOK, we used the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for this evaluation. We quantified two variables: the probability that the Pu containment system fails given a shot on the Z machine, and the time to cleanup Pu contamination in the Z machine given failure of containment. We identified dominant contributors for both the time to cleanup and the probability of containment failure. These results will be used by SNL management to decide the course of action for conducting the Pu experiments on the Z machine.

  12. Providing support for day-to-day monitoring of shoreline cleanup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Tarpley, J.

    1997-01-01

    Experiences gained during the 'Cape Mohican' incident in October 1996, in San Francisco Bay, were recounted and proposed as a potential example of day-to-day monitoring, evaluation and reporting of shoreline cleanup effort. During this cleanup a set of communications procedures, progress reports and maps were developed which should be equally useful in other similar situations. The cartographic representations were specially highlighted as they focused on ways to provide a clear picture of the short term modifications in oiling conditions of the affected shoreline. The most important lesson learned from this oil spill was the importance of having personnel and equipment sufficiently matched to the task in order to evaluate oil conditions, produce cleanup recommendations, execute and communicate the status of the cleanup effort as fast, and as efficiently and effectively as possible. It was clearly demonstrated that unless the decision process is streamlined and supported with the best, most up-to-date information, the efforts of the cleanup team would be seriously undermined. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  14. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs

  15. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m 2 grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards

  16. Soil-Water Repellency and Critical Humidity as Cleanup Criteria for Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Adams, Randy H.

    2010-05-01

    , in May before the first rains, the soil humidity was 20,3%, and thus values below the critical levels were not experienced. This permitted the development of a complete vegetative cover, vigorous growth, and transformation of a geologic substrate (bentonitic drilling muds) into a soil-like material apt for agricultural use. This focus on soil-water relationships and the use of soil fertility parameters in general is important in establishing cleanup criteria for the real remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites in agricultural areas. As seen in this study, relatively high WDPT and MED values may not necessarily indicate soil moisture problems and these need to be complemented with actual site information on soil humidity during the annual cycle and with determinations of critical humidity. Additionally, the augmentation of field capacity using organic conditioners may effectively mitigate potential critical humidity problems.

  17. Long-term impact of radiation on plasma concentrations of cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and P-selectin) in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Kirsfinks, M.; Hagina, E.; Socnevs, A.

    2001-01-01

    Study was undertaken to evaluate plasma concentrations of interleukin-1beta (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin in persons who participated in the clean-up work of the Chernobyl NPP explosion aftereffects. 40 Chernobyl clean-up workers suffering from most common neurological diseases - polyneuropathy and encephalopathy, and 40 healthy blood donors were analyzed for plasma levels of IL-6, IL1-β, sICAM-1 and sP-selectin 13 years after the accident. The documented external radiation dosage to the investigated Chernobyl clean-up workers was exposed from 0,009 to 0,28 Gy. Significantly elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 and P-selectin but not of IL-1β were found in Chernobyl clean-up labourers as compared to those in healthy blood donors. (p<0.01). There was no obvious association of cytokine and adhesion molecule levels with radiation doses, as individuals working in the Chernobyl area in 1986 at a time when the external radiation exposure was higher revealed similar plasma concentrations if compared to those of a later period of time (1987-1990). (authors)

  18. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihui; Hu, Yichen; Kong, Weijun; Chu, Xianfeng; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 μg/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2→358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 μg/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Impact of Federal R and D funding on Three Mile Island cleanup costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Chairman and the Ranking Minority Member of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs requested that GAO respond to several questions concerning the administration's proposed $123 million in Federal funding for data acquisition and research and development activities during the cleanup of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor Unit 2. GAO found that: adequate legislative authority exists to support DOE's proposed data acquisition and research and development activities during the cleanup process; adherence to the estimated timetable for cleanup completion will allow DOE to meet its program objectives within the proposed budget, but slippages would probably make additional funding necessary; and the DOE program will reduce the utility company's financial needs by an estimated $66 to $69 million, about one-third of the Federal share proposed by the Governor of Pennsylvania on July 9, 1981

  20. The cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2: A technical history, 1979--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.; Negin, C.A.; Owrutsky, S.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored a technical history project to ensure that the logic and consequences of decisions made during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup are available for recovery from an accident involving damaged fuel and fission product release. The objectives of the history project are to identify the major questions and challenges facing management; describe the influencing factors and the options available; and present the final decisions and their consequences. This history of decision-making is intended to assist a project manager who must respond to a fuel damage accident, even if the scale is much smaller than TMI-2. The history has focused on decisions related to seven major aspects of the cleanup: cleanup management, postaccident stabilization, personnel protection, data acquisition, radioactive waste management, decontamination, and defueling. A detailed chronology and extensive bibliography accompany the text

  1. NRC's rulemaking to require materials licensees to be financially responsible for cleanup of accidental releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    On June 7, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register to address funding for cleanup of accidents and unexpected decontamination by certain materials licensees. The NRC asked for public comment to help them determine whether to amend its regulations to require certain materials and fuel cycle licensees to demonstrate that they possess adequate financial means to pay for cleanup of accidental releases of radioactive materials. If licensees lack adequate financial resources and funds are to available for prompt cleanup, the consequences could be potentially significant for the public, the licencee and the federal government. The purpose of this paper is to explain the purpose and scope of the Commission's proposed regulatory action, as well as describing several accidents that made the Commission consider this action. Additionally, the paper will address other regulatory precedents. Finally, the paper will conclude by generally characterizing the public comments and items of concern raised by commenters

  2. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, D.

    1993-12-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards, in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100m 2 grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 clean up protocol has been developed. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR Part 192 relative to supplemental standards

  3. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers. II. Cohort assembling and questionnaire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekkel, Mare; Rahu, Mati; Veidebaum, Toomas

    1999-01-01

    An abridged version of the published paper, Radiation Research 1997, 147, 641-652. A cohort of 4832 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia was assembled. Response rate to the mailed questionnaire was 81.4%. The majority of workers were 20-39 years old, and they were less educated than their counterparts in the general population. Most of the cleanup workers were sent to the Chernobyl area in 1986-1987 and more than half of them spent about three months there. Four hundred and twenty seven cleanup workers worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. (author)

  4. Prognostic utility of plasma S100A12 levels to establish a novel scoring system for predicting mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a two-year prospective observational study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background S100A12 protein is an endogenous receptor ligand for advanced glycation end products. In this study, the plasma S100A12 level was assessed as an independent predictor of mortality, and its utility in clinical settings was examined. Methods In a previous cross-sectional study, plasma S100A12 levels were measured in 550 maintenance hemodialysis patients to determine the association between S100A12 and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this prospective study, the risk of mortality within a two-year period was determined. An integer scoring system was developed to predict mortality on the basis of the plasma S100A12 levels. Results Higher plasma S100A12 levels (≥18.79 ng/mL) were more closely associated with higher all-cause mortality than lower plasma S100A12 levels (statistic = 0.730 (0.656–0.804)]. The resulting model demonstrated good discriminative power for distinguishing the validation population of 303 hemodialysis patients [c-statistic = 0.721 (0.627–0.815)]. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma S100A12 level is an independent predictor for two-year all-cause mortality. A simple integer scoring system was therefore established for predicting mortality on the basis of plasma S100A12 levels. PMID:23324110

  5. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  6. Oiling and cleanup issues in wetlands, M/T Julie N spill, Portland, Maine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.; Lehmann, S.M.; Henry, C.B.Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The clean up and environmental assessment techniques which were used following the September 1996 oil spill from the M/T Julie N in Portland Harbor, Maine were reviewed and documented. The spill resulted in heavy oiling of wetland. Aerial photography, ground-truth surveys, transects and chemical sampling were conducted to try to assess the impact to wetlands and to decide on appropriate cleanup options. A range of cleanup methods were attempted including low-pressure flushing, shoreline cleaning agents, vegetation cutting, and natural recovery. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Post-accident cleanup of radioactivity at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Armento, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    The technical staff of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepare documentation concerned with the cleanup of radioactivity on the Three Mile Island site following the March 28, 1979 accident. The objective of this report is to provide information in a summarized form, which will be of direct usefulness to the commissioners. The information contained herein includes discussion of on-site assistance and accomplishments following the accident, flowsheet development for the TMI recovery team (by the Technical Advisory Group), and the numerous reports already generated on the TMI cleanup and recovery

  8. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  9. Potential for preparation of hot gas cleanup sorbents from spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Biagini, M. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Labs.

    1996-01-01

    Three spent-decoked hydroprocessing catalysts and two corresponding fresh catalysts were tested as hot gas clean-up sorbents and compared with the zinc ferrite using a simulated coal gasification gas mixture. The catalysts deposited only by coke exhibited relatively good cleaning efficiency. The catalyst deposited by coke and metals such as vanadium and nickel was less efficient. The useful life of the spent hydroprocessing catalysts may be extended if utilized as hot gas clean-up sorbents. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  11. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade process control system structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Staffon, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; describes the main control computer hardware and system software features in more detail; and, then, describes the real-time control tasks, and how they interact with each other, and how they interact with the operator interface task

  12. Cleanup operations at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant contaminated metal scrapyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Cleanup operations at the contaminated metal storage yard located at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been completed. The storage yard, in existence since the early 1970s, contained an estimated 35,000 tons of mixed-type metals spread over an area of roughly 30 acres. The overall cleanup program required removing the metal from the storage yard, sorting by specific metal types, and size reduction of specific types for future processing. This paper explains the methods and procedures used to accomplish this task

  13. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  14. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R.J.

    1997-06-01

    'The Pacific Northwest National Lab. was awarded ten (10) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research grants in Fiscal Year 1996. This section gives a summary of how each grant is addressing significant DOE cleanup issues, including those at the Hanford Site. The technical progress made to date in each of these research projects is addressed in more detail in the individual progress reports contained in this document. This research is primarily focused in three areas-Tank Waste Remediation, Soil and Groundwater Cleanup, and Health Effects.'

  15. Fuel cleanup system for the tritium systems test assembly: design and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, E.C.; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A major subsystem of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is the Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) whose functons are to: (1) remove impurities in the form of argon and tritiated methane, water, and ammonia from the reactor exhaust stream and (2) recover tritium for reuse from the tritiated impurities. To do this, a hybrid cleanup system has been designed which utilizes and will test concurrently two differing technologies - one based on disposable, hot metal (U and Ti) getter beds and a second based on regenerable cryogenic asdorption beds followed by catalytic oxidation of impurities to DTO and stackable gases and freezout of the resultant DTO to recover essentially all tritium for reuse

  16. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software

  17. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  18. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology--A Strategic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Kreid, Dennis K.; Walton, Terry L.

    2001-01-01

    The sheer expanse of the Hanford Site, the inherent hazards associated with the significant inventory of nuclear materials and wastes, the large number of aging contaminated facilities, the diverse nature and extent of environmental contamination, and the proximity to the Columbia River make Hanford perhaps the world's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. It is not possible to address the more complex elements of this enormous challenge in a cost-effective manner without strategic investments in science and technology. Success requires vigorous and sustained efforts to enhance the science and technology basis, develop and deploy innovative solutions, and provide firm scientific bases to support site cleanup and closure decisions at Hanford

  19. Volume overload cleanup: An approach for on-line SPE-GC, GPC-GC, and GPC-SPE-GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkdijk, H.; Mol, H.G.J.; Nagel, B. van der

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for cleanup, based on volume overloading of the cleanup column, has been developed for on-line coupling of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), or both, to gas chromatography (GC). The principle is outlined and the applicability demonstrated by the

  20. Determination of the viability of chicken feather as oil spill clean-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a comparative assessment was conducted between chicken feather and a conventional synthetic sorbent mat used in the oil industry to clean-up oil spill. The result of the study shows that chicken feather has higher oil sorption capacity and sorbed oil recoverability than the standard (synthetic sorbent mat), and ...

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the 'metal line' of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  2. Determination of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted SPE clean-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new liquid chromatography method to detect fusaric acid in maize is reported based on molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction clean-up (MISPE) using mimic-templated molecularly-imprinted polymers. Picolinic acid was used as a toxin analog for imprinting polymers during a thermolytic s...

  3. Solar-Assisted Fast Cleanup of Heavy Oil Spill by a Photothermal Sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Shi, Yusuf; Wu, Mengchun; Li, Renyuan; Shi, Le; Jin, Yong; Qing, Weihua; Tang, Chuyang; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    of the photothermal effect to heating the heavy oil by using sunlight as energy source to significantly reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil and thus to achieve a fast heavy oil cleanup. A carbon nanotube (CNT) modified polyurethane sponge was fabricated

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  5. Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A; Salomaa, S [eds.; Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rahu, M; Veidebaum, T; Tekkel, M [eds.; Inst. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn (Estonia); Hakulinen, T [ed.; Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Boice, Jr, J D [ed.; Int. Epidemiology Inst., MD (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the development and summarizes the results of the project Cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian Chernobyl clean-up workers. One of the goals of the report is to give research protocols and questionnaires for researchers involved in other studies. Eight previously published articles are also included summarizing the results. The development of the collaboration work of the project is described in the introduction of the report. Epidemiological methods are described in an article complemented by the protocol and English version of the questionnaire administered to all cleanup workers, as well as the data collection form of the thyroid study. The results from biological biodosimetry using both glycophorin A and FISH methods have shown that the radiation doses received by the Chernobyl cleanup workers were relatively low. Thyroid nodularity was not associated with any radiation exposure characteristic in the thyroid screening study. Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers were followed up for cancer incidence through the Estonian Cancer Registry. No cases of leukemia or thyroid cancer were observed by the end of 1993. It is too early to observe possible effect on other types of cancer. However, mortality from suicides was increased compared with general population. Further follow-up and the extension to other Baltic countries in the future will undoubtedly strengthen the study. There are also plans for future projects covering areas from psychosocial factors to radiation biology

  6. Firms vie to offer DOE a prize-winning recipe for cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Eager to get the most bang for its waste cleanup bucks, the US Department of Energy is conducting its own version of the Pillsbury bake-off. DOE is pitting two environmental contractors, Rust International Corp. and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., against each other to come up with the prize-winning recipe for cleaning up some nasty waste problems

  7. Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers dynamics of morbidity 15 years of the post radiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvagule, T.; Eglite, M.; Bruvere, R.; Gabruseva, N.; Feldmane, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 1.0% of the male population of Latvia were sent (1986-1991) to Chernobyl to assist in the clean-up activities after the nuclear power plant accident (1986). The prevalence of all types of diseases, dynamic of breaking out of the key symptoms and interferon status were evaluated in respect to date of work, duration of work and kind of work in the whole clean-up workers group and in the particular group with seizures of unconsciousness. The disease incidence in clean-up workers from Latvia exceeds that observed in age and sex matched male population. Most had several diseases each and their poly-symptomatic sicknesses exhibited tendency to progress even 10-14 years after the exposure (during 1996-2000). Diseases of nervous, digestive and circulatory system, mental disorders and diseases of muscles and connective tissue were the most frequent. The primary outset of symptoms being low in the first 2-3 years after the work gradually increased during the following 10 years. Leukopenia was predominant in 1990-1993 and leucocytosis in 1997-2000. Ability of leukocytes to produce interferons was significantly decreased. Since the external radiation doses did not exceed 50 centyGy (cGy) there is sufficient reasons to believe that the principal cause of the gradually increased frequency of health problems is the long-life radioisotopes incorporated in the clean-up workers bodies as permanent radiation and toxic compounds source. (authors)

  8. Private-Sector Cleanup Expenditures and Transaction Costs at 18 Superfund Sites (1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfund allows the government either to clean up a site and recover its cost from the potentially responsible parties (PRPs) or to require the PRPs to undertake the cleanup themselves. This study examines private-sector expenditures and transaction-costs

  9. Assessment and recommendations for the oil spill cleanup of Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    The potential impact of an oil spill consisting of a blend of diesel and a heavy residual fuel oil on water column resources, benthic resources, intertidal habitats and communities, birds, and socio-economic resources was assessed and recommendations for clean-up given. The oil spill occurred in the bay on January 18, 2000

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Sulloway, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations

  13. Review of recent ORNL studies in solvent cleanup and diluent degradation. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1982-01-01

    Testing of solvent cleanup methods to replace the use of sodium carbonate in the Purex process has been ongoing for several years in order to reduce the quantity of waste sodium nitrate generated and to improve phase separation. Alternate solvent cleanup methods include the use of packed columns of base-treated silica gel or solvent scrubbing with hydrazine oxalate. Degradation of the diluent was shown to generate long-chain organic acids which appear to be the major culprits in the phase separation problems encountered in sodium carbonate scrubbers. Solvent scrubbing with hydrazine oxalate gives improved phase separations. Solvent cleanup in columns packed with base-treated silica gel avoids the phase separation problem since a dispersable aqueous phase is not present. Removals of TBP degradation products and metal-ion complexes by sodium carbonate, hydrazine salts, or by packed beds of base-treated silica gel are all satisfactory. Solvent scrubbing by hydrazine oxalate solutions is the prime candidate for solvent cleanup in fuel reprocessing plants

  14. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, D.J.

    1982-12-01

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or expected ranges of impacts where possible), suggested mitigation measures, and some key sources of information. The major topical areas covered are physical and biological impacts, radiological impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Some project-related issues were beyond the scope of this document, including dollar costs, specific accident scenarios, project funding and changes in Congressional mandates, and project management (contracts, labor relations, quality assurance, liability, emergency preparedness, etc.). These issues will be covered in other documents supporting the decision-making process. Although the scope of this document covers property-cleanup and interim-storage actions, it is applicable to other similar remedial actions. For example, the analyses discussed herein for cleanup activities are applicable to any FUSRAP action that includes site cleanup

  15. Legal aspects of the clean-up and reclamation of the manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joldzic, V. [Belgrade University, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Inst. for Criminology and Sociological Research

    1995-12-31

    The laws associated with the cleanup of manufactured gas plants in Yugoslavia is described. These comprise the Environmental Protection Act; the Law about Space Planning and Organizing; Building Law; and Agricultural Land Use Law. Joint remedial action in the Danube Basin is discussed. 13 refs.

  16. Applicability of the Clean Water Act to Indian tribes - may tribes stop or constrain a cleanup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emge, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Indian tribes retain their sovereign rights of self-government and self-determination unless it is specifically waived by the tribe or abrogated by the US Congress, through treaty or statute. The Clean Water Act does not specifically abrogate tribal sovereignty. This raises the issue of what would occur if an on-scene coordinator decides that cleanup of tribal lands is necessary to protect the public health and welfare, but the tribe does not want the cleanup activities to proceed? May a tribe impede cleanup efforts? During the cleanup of the barge Nestucca oil spill, this occurred when the Quinault Tribe did not allow the OSC to clean lands that the tribe holds sacred. This issue with the Clean Water Act has not been decided by Congress, nor by the courts. Recently, courts have applied at least three different approaches to determine if a statute of general application, such as the Clean Water Act, applies to Indian tribes. The different tests do not always yield the same result. An on-scene coordinator, when confronted with this scenario, might handle the situation in several different ways, or perhaps move to prevent such an occurrence. The different approaches used by the courts can be taken together to gain a sense of whether the Clean Water Act may preempt tribal sovereignty

  17. The concepts of the 'factory of the future' applied to cleanup and dismantling works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiban, A.; Girones, P.; Moitrier, C.; Gouhier, E.; Torreblanca, L.

    2016-01-01

    The 'factory of the future' relies on the implementation of new concepts and technologies like: connected robots, data analysis, virtual reality or enhanced reality in the fabrication processes. The article describes how these concepts can be used in cleanup or dismantling works. Both activities can be considered as the fabrication of a waste package and the processing plant as a factory. (A.C.)

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  19. 77 FR 21433 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA will prohibit activities that would disturb the seabed, such... or capped are arsenic, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, PAHs and PCBs. The metal contaminants were... installed in the designated regulated navigation area, pursuant to the remediation efforts of the U.S...

  20. Chromosome aberrations and rogue cells in lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazutka, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 183 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 27 control individuals. Increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations were associated with exposure to radiation at Chernobyl, alcohol abuse and a history of recent influenza infection. However, only approximately 20% of Chernobyl clean-up workers had an increased frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes. At the same time, an increased frequency of acentric fragments in lymphocytes of clean-up workers was characteristic. The use of multivitamins as dietary supplement significantly decreased the frequency of chromosome aberrations, especially of chromatid breaks. Rogue cells were found in lymphocytes of 28 clean-up workers and 3 control individuals. The appearance of rogue cells was associated with a recent history of acute respiratory disease (presumably caused by adenoviral infection) and, probably, alcohol abuse. Dicentric chromosomes in rogue cells were distributed according to a negative binomial distribution. Occurrence of rogue cells due to a perturbation of cell cycle control and abnormal apoptosis is suggested

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.; Capron, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes

  2. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine... collection for developing and updating a cleanup program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in underground coal mines. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or...

  3. Separation techniques for the clean-up of radioactive mixed waste for ICP-AES/ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swafford, A.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Two separation techniques were investigated for the clean-up of typical radioactive mixed waste samples requiring elemental analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These measurements frequently involve regulatory or compliance criteria which include the determination of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List (TAL). These samples usually consist of both an aqueous phase and a solid phase which is mostly an inorganic sludge. Frequently, samples taken from the waste tanks contain high levels of uranium and thorium which can cause spectral interferences in ICP-AES or ICP-MS analysis. The removal of these interferences is necessary to determine the presence of the EPA TAL elements in the sample. Two clean-up methods were studied on simulated aqueous waste samples containing the EPA TAL elements. The first method studied was a classical procedure based upon liquid-liquid extraction using tri-n- octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane. The second method investigated was based on more recently developed techniques using extraction chromatography; specifically the use of a commercially available Eichrom TRU·Spec trademark column. Literature on these two methods indicates the efficient removal of uranium and thorium from properly prepared samples and provides considerable qualitative information on the extraction behavior of many other elements. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the extraction behavior of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List. Experimental studies on these two methods consisted of determining whether any of the analytes were extracted by these methods and the recoveries obtained. Both methods produced similar results; the EPA target analytes were only slightly or not extracted. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated and found to be comparable

  4. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergren, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  5. Thyroid Nodularity and cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Farbtuha, T.; Matisane, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986, resulted in massive radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. Radiation exposure was from rapidly decaying radioactive iodines, as well as from 137 CS and other long-lived radioisotopes. About 6000 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident were from Latvia. External radiation exposure was defined for 40% of them and the doses were 0.01-0.5 Grey (Gy). Although according to conclusions of authoritative experts of different countries, the actual doses of radiation might be at least 3-4 times higher. Because the thyroid is highly susceptible to cancer induction by ionizing radiation, our examination was conducted in 2001 to determine the prevalence of thyroid tumors in 1990-2000 and other nodular thyroid disease 14 years after the accident in Latvia's Chernobyl clean-up workers. The Latvian State Register for persons who have received ionising radiation in Chernobyl and Latvia's Cancer Register were used in this work as well as 1000 Chernobyl accident clean-up workers medical ambulatory cards were analysed. We have received that occurrence of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers was 10,6 times higher than in Latvia's population (men) in 1990-2000 and also it occurs at earlier age in comparison with population data (40-50 and 55-65 accordingly). This can be explained in two ways: either due to effect of the short-term or long-term external and internal radiation exposure (including, from the incorporated 131 I) on the thyroid tissue, or due to a better dispensarisation (obligatory thyroid ultrasound examination once per year) of the examined group. The first thyroid cancer was discovered in 1996 -after ten years of latent period. The relative risk of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers in 1996 was 33.27, and in 1997 -42.64. Then, the morbidity of the thyroid cancer exhibits tendency to decrease (RR 18.27 in 1998, and 9.42 in 1999). The presence of thyroid benign nodules was

  6. Defining the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup: The Hanford site tri-party agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.; Wisness, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, commonly called the Tri-Party Agreement, was signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in May of 1989. It was the first three-party agreement of its magnitude in the country and was touted as a landmark agreement. It was one of the most significant actions that has been taken to define the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup actions at the Hanford Site. Accomplishments thus far represent a lot of planning, permitting, and development activities either required by regulation or necessary to ensure an adequate infrastructure to support cleanup activities. Actual cleanup work and construction of new facilities are beginning to accelerate as the Hanford Site moves out of study and development phases into actual cleanup activities. Significant changes to the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement were negotiated between May 1993 and January 1994. These negotiations were precipitated by the completion of a 15-month rebaselining study of the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. The revised agreement is based on comments and values the three agencies heard from people of the region during the negotiation process. The recent renegotiation reflected an ability of the agencies and the agreement to change commensurate with technical, economic, and political realities of today. Hanford has moved into a new era of public participation which will continue to watch and guide cleanup efforts in manners satisfactory to regional concerns and values

  7. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Ben [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    was designed and constructed on schedule and under budget and was operated for approximately 1,500 total hours utilizing ~20% of the IGCC’s total syngas as feed (~1.5 MM scfh of dry syngas). The WDP system reduced total sulfur levels to ~10 ppmv (~99.9% removal) from raw syngas that contained as high as 14,000 ppmv of total sulfur. The integration of WDP with the activated amine process enabled further reduction of total sulfur in the final treated syngas to the anticipated sub-ppmv concentrations (>99.99% removal), suitable for stringent syngas applications such as chemicals, fertilizers, and fuels. Techno-economic assessments by RTI and by third parties indicate potential for significant (up to 50%) capital and operating cost reductions for the entire syngas cleanup block when WDP technology is integrated with a broad spectrum of conventional and emerging carbon capture or acid gas removal technologies. This final scientific/technical report covers the pre-FEED, FEED, EPC, commissioning, and operation phases of this project, as well as system performance results. In addition, the report addresses other parallel-funded R&D efforts focused on development and testing of trace contaminant removal process (TCRP) sorbents, a direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP), and a novel sorbent for warm carbon dioxide capture, as well as pre-FEED, FEED, and techno-economic studies to consider the potential benefit for use of WDP for polygeneration of electric power and ammonia/urea fertilizers.

  8. Development and Use of Life-Cycle Analysis Capabilities To Evaluate, Select, and Implement Plans to Accelerate Hanford Site Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, Michael R.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress in developing and executing plans to transform and accelerate cleanup of the Hanford Site. Notable progress has been in the cleanup of the River Corridor, including the relocation of spent nuclear fuel to the Central Plateau, and the stabilization of plutonium materials. However, difficult work still remains. DOE has already accelerated the completion of the Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission from 2070 to 2035 and believes its completion can be achieved even sooner by reducing excess conservatism, substantively changing technical strategy and management approach, and making new front-end investments. Work is well under way in the detailed planning, analyses and decision making required to implement and support the execution of the accelerated cleanup program at Hanford. Various cleanup, contract, and regulatory approaches are being explored. DOE has instituted a process that allows DOE to efficiently explore and test alternative cleanup approaches using a life-cycle model. This paper provides a means to share the planning approach and the life-cycle modeling and analysis tools used with other sites and interested parties. This paper will be of particular interest to analysts performing similar planning and evaluations at other sites as well as provide insight into the current status of Hanford's cleanup program and DOE's plans for the future

  9. Prognostic utility of plasma S100A12 levels to establish a novel scoring system for predicting mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a two-year prospective observational study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiotsu Yayoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100A12 protein is an endogenous receptor ligand for advanced glycation end products. In this study, the plasma S100A12 level was assessed as an independent predictor of mortality, and its utility in clinical settings was examined. Methods In a previous cross-sectional study, plasma S100A12 levels were measured in 550 maintenance hemodialysis patients to determine the association between S100A12 and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In this prospective study, the risk of mortality within a two-year period was determined. An integer scoring system was developed to predict mortality on the basis of the plasma S100A12 levels. Results Higher plasma S100A12 levels (≥18.79 ng/mL were more closely associated with higher all-cause mortality than lower plasma S100A12 levels (P = 0.001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed higher plasma S100A12 levels [hazard ratio (HR, 2.267; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.195–4.302; P = 0.012], age ≥65 years (HR, 1.961; 95%CI, 1.017–3.781; P = 0.044, serum albumin levels P = 0.012, and history of CVD (HR, 2.068; 95%CI, 1.146–3.732; P = 0.016 to be independent predictors of two-year all-cause mortality. The integer score was derived by assigning points to these factors and determining total scores. The scoring system revealed trends across increasing scores for predicting the all-cause mortality [c-statistic = 0.730 (0.656–0.804]. The resulting model demonstrated good discriminative power for distinguishing the validation population of 303 hemodialysis patients [c-statistic = 0.721 (0.627–0.815]. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma S100A12 level is an independent predictor for two-year all-cause mortality. A simple integer scoring system was therefore established for predicting mortality on the basis of plasma S100A12 levels.

  10. Thermal analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch on the 2nd progress report for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Iwasa, Kengo

    1999-11-01

    For the underground facility of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the space is needed to set the engineered barrier, and the set engineered barrier and rock-mass of near field are needed to satisfy some conditions or constraints for their performance. One of the conditions above mentioned is thermal condition arising from heat outputs of vitrified waste and initial temperature at the disposal depth. Hence, it is needed that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. Therefore, the design of engineered barrier and underground facility is conducted so that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. One of these design is establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch. In this report, thermal analysis is conducted to establish the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch to satisfy the constraint temperature in the near field. Also, other conditions or constraints for establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch are investigated. Then, design of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch, considering these conditions or constraints, is conducted. For the near field configuration using the results of the design above mentioned, the temperature with time dependency is studied by analysis, and then the temperature variation due to the gaps, that will occur within the engineered barrier and between the engineered barrier and rock mass in setting engineered barrier in the disposal tunnel or pit, is studied. At last, the disposal depth variation is studied to satisfy the temperature constraint in the near field. (author)

  11. Research of the cost-benefit evaluation for reprocessing research and development and high-level radioactive waste disposal research and development. Establishing R and D scenarios and extracting their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, K; Miura, N; Arii, Y

    2004-02-01

    This report is intended to explain the outline of research in the FY 2003 on cost-benefit evaluation for Reprocessing R and D and High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal R and D. We decided to apply the Method of Cost-Benefit Analysis, based on cost-benefit analysis for Fast Reactor cycle system R and D, to Reprocessing R and D and High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal R and D, and to compare with the results of cost-benefit analysis for both the JNC R and D scenario and the other optional scenarios. In this year, we first thought out all R and D scenarios in the future for Reprocessing R and D and High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal R and D, and rejected difficult scenarios technically and impossible scenarios socially. Finally, the reasonable R and D scenarios were established. Besides, we thought out the effects (merits) by carrying out the R and D, and separated out them from economical view, environmental view, view of nuclear non-proliferation and so on. (author)

  12. Comparison of extraction and clean-up techniques for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ultrasonication and mechanical shaking used in the extraction of a low-level PAH soil certified ... hydrocarbons (PAHs), soil, solid phase extraction (SPE), soxhlet extraction, ultrasonication. ... soxhlet) (Lopez-Avila et al., 1993) supercritical fluid.

  13. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Lijun [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Sapozhnikova, Yelena [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.Lehotay@ars.usda.gov [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g⁻¹ spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix.

  14. Accelerated Clean-up of the United States Department of Energy, Mound Nuclear Weapons Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehew, J.G.; Bradford, J.D.; Cabbil, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    CH2M HILL is executing a performance-based contract with the United States Department of Energy to accelerate the safe closure of the nuclear facilities at the former Mound plant in Miamisburg, Ohio. The contract started in January 2003 with a target completion date of March 31, 2006. Our accelerated baseline targets completion of the project 2 years ahead of the previous baseline schedule, by spring 2006, and for $200 million less than previous estimates. This unique decommissioning and remediation project is located within the City of Miamisburg proper and is designed for transfer of the property to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse. The project is being performed with the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation and their tenants co-located on the site creating significant logistical, safety and stakeholder challenges. The project is also being performed in conjunction with the United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency under the Mound 2000 regulatory cleanup process. The project is currently over 95% complete. To achieve cleanup and closure of the Mound site, CH2M HILL's scope includes: - Demolition of 64 nuclear, radiological and commercial facilities - Preparation for Transfer of 9 facilities (including a Category 2 nuclear facility) to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse - Removal of all above ground utility structures and components, and preparation for transfer of 9 utility systems to Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation - Investigation, remediation, closure, and documentation of all known Potential Release Sites contaminated with radiological and chemical contamination (73 identified in original contract) - Storage, characterization, processing, packaging and shipment of all waste and excess nuclear materials - Preparation for Transfer of the 306 acre site to the

  15. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized

  16. Hazards ahead: Managing cleanup worker health and safety at the nuclear weapons complex. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Cold War nuclear weapons production has left a legacy of environmental contamination that is unprecented in scope and complexity. The Department of Energy has begun cleaning up pollution at the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC)--an expensive, decades-long task that will require a workforce numbering tens of thousands of scientists, technicians, and laborers. Protecting their health and safety must be a major goal of the cleanup effort. Achieving the goal will require DOE to successfully confront significant technical and managerial challenges, but it also poses a unique opportunity to advance state-of-the-art occupational health and safety technologies and practices. The report provides an evaluation of environmental restoration and waste management at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. It examines risks workers might face in cleaning up contamination at the complex and evaluates the effectiveness of DOE's occupational safety and health programs for cleanup workers

  17. Epidemiology of non-tumor diseases in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.A.; Pirogova, E.A.; Tereshchenko, V.M.; Krasnikova, L.I.; Vojchulene, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological study of non-tumor diseases in Chernobyl clean-up workers was effectuated on the materials of State Registry of Ukraine for Victims of Chernobyl NPP Accident. Percent of healthy people among the clean-up workers of 1986 - 1987 decreased from 67.6% in 1988 to 9.6% in 1998, patients with chronic diseases increased from 12,8% in 1988 to 79,1% in 1998. Quantitative risk-analysis proves to possible relationship with absorbed doses prevalences of diseases of blood and hemopoietic organs, coronary hearth disease, cerebrovascular diseases, thyroid pathology. The age at the time of investigation, tobacco smoking and stress were statistically significant non-radiation factors of relative risk

  18. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  19. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study

  20. Hanford Site Cleanup Challenges and Opportunities for Science and Technology--A Strategic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Kreid, Dennis K.; Walton, Terry L.

    2001-02-01

    The sheer expanse of the Hanford Site, the inherent hazards associated with the significant inventory of nuclear materials and wastes, the large number of aging contaminated facilities, the diverse nature and extent of environmental contamination, and the proximity to the Columbia River make Hanford perhaps the world's largest and most complex environmental cleanup project. It is not possible to address the more complex elements of this enormous challenge in a cost-effective manner without strategic investments in science and technology. Success requires vigorous and sustained efforts to enhance the science and technology basis, develop and deploy innovative solutions, and provide firm scientific bases to support site cleanup and closure decisions at Hanford.