Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M
In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.
Mark D. Haub
Full Text Available Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.
Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin
Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M
This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.
Heckman, M M; Lane, S A
In order to evaluate several proposed dietary fiber methods, 12 food samples, representing different food classes, were analyzed by (1) neutral and acid detergent fiber methods (NDF, ADF); (2) NDF with enzyme modification (ENDF); (3) a 2-fraction enzyme method for soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, proposed by Furda (SDF, IDF, TDF); (+) a 1-fraction enzyme method for total dietary fiber proposed by Hellendoorn (TDF). Foods included cereals, fruits, vegetables, pectin, locust bean gum, and soybean polysaccharides. Results show that TDF by Furda and Hellendoorn methods agree reasonably well with literature values by the Southgate method, but ENDF is consistently lower; that ENDF and IDF (Furda method) agree reasonably well; that except for corn corn bran fiber (insoluble) and pectin and locus bean fiber (soluble), all materials have significant fractions of both soluble and insoluble fiber. The Furda method was used on numerous food and ingredient samples and was found to be practical and informative and to have acceptable precision (RSD values of 2.65-7.05%). It is suggested that the Furda (or similar) method be given consideration for the analysis of foods for dietary fiber.
The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and
Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P
One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake. However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water-soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water-soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations. It is estimated that for each additional gram of water-soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by -0.028 mmol/L and -0.029 mmol/L, respectively. Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water-soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water-soluble fibers lower the (re)absorption of in particular bile acids. As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water-soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water-soluble fiber intake.
Full Text Available Introduction: Presently, the scientists recognize the health benefits of food fibers in the menu and also plant food sources are at high interest both for general population and food companies. The food companies are responsible for a clear nutrition labelling that will assist consumers to make informed and healthy choices and health providers has to inform the population about the benefits of fibers. The aim of our study was to evaluate the Romanian knowledge and attitudes regarding dietary fibers from food products. Materials and methods: We made a qualitative survey based on a questionnaire applied in 2015, over a period of 6 months, over 670 Romanian consumers. It was focused on testing the attitudes and knowledge towards ingestion of foods rich in fibers. For all data analysis we used the software SPSS, from IBM Inc. Results and Discussions: Our results showed that the knowledge about dietary fibers and also the ingestion of food products rich in fibers were low, and most of the subjects didn’t have any interest to read the nutritional information from food labels related to fibers. The female participants ate more whole grains and fruits than males and pay more attention to food labelling, the Romanian people prefer to stay and eat home than at restaurants especially in rural areas, and the knowledge about fibers benefits was significantly related to education and urban location. Conclusion: We underline the needs for more efficient community interventions and proper information about the importance of dietary fibers for our health and also to improve and disseminate our nutritional standards and diet recommendation among population.
Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Nørskov, Natalja; Bolvig, Anne Katrine
are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion...
Nuttall, F Q
It generally is accepted that a diet high in fiber, particularly soluble fiber, is useful in the management of the plasma glucose concentration in individuals with diabetes. This is one of the reasons several national diabetes associations have recommended that diabetic individuals ingest a diet high in fiber-containing foods. However, more recent data obtained in carefully controlled studies with more definitive end points, indicate this may not be the case. It has been shown clearly that addition of water-soluble, gel-forming fiber in the form of guar gum and perhaps gum tragacanth to an ingested glucose solution or to a mixed meal will reduce the expected rise in glucose concentration. This has been demonstrated in both normal subjects and subjects with IDDM and NIDDM. However, it is only observed when large amounts of fiber are added. The fiber also must be mixed with the administered glucose or food. Other less viscous soluble fiber sources such as the pectins and psyllium powder are not effective. In long-term, well-controlled trials, guar gum, pectin, beet fiber, or cereal bran fiber ingested with meals has been of little or no value in controlling the plasma glucose concentration in individuals with NIDDM. Several studies have been conducted in which a high-carbohydrate diet has been reported to reduce the plasma glucose concentration. In these diets, foods with a high fiber content have been emphasized. In general, they were not well controlled, and several confounding variables such as weight loss, decreased food energy intake, different food sources with potential for differences in starch digestibility, and decreased dietary fat content were present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei
The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.
Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael
Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.
Dietary fiber can contribute to the prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disorders associated with poor of dietary fiber intake. They have several physical properties such as capacity to hold water and increases ion binding in the digestive system. There is currently no available data on the daily fiber consumption by ...
Kamp, J.W. van der; Jones, J.M.
A study in dietary fiber and whole grains is presented. Efficient tools for detailed characterization of fibers, systems for measuring the behavior of products and diets with fibers in the gastrointestinal tract and a broad range of biomarkers showing the impact of fibers on health and well being
Pereira, Mark A; O'Reilly, Eilis; Augustsson, Katarina
BACKGROUND: Few epidemiologic studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease have compared fiber types (cereal, fruit, and vegetable) or included sex-specific results. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of dietary fiber and its subtypes and risk...... of coronary heart disease. METHODS: We analyzed the original data from 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States and Europe to estimate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Over 6 to 10 years of follow-up, 5249 incident total coronary cases...... associated with risk of coronary heart disease....
Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin
Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010
Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases – coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes and colonic and breast cancer. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of whole......-grains, however, are unclear but is most likely assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. The DF fraction of cereals consists of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), resistant starch, oligosaccharides (mostly fructans) and the non-carbohydrate polyphenolic ether...... lignin. The main NSP in cereals are arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkages β(1-3; 1-4)-glucan (β-glucan) and cellulose, which vary significantly according to the cereal species but also between different tissues of the grains. Rye, triticale, wheat and corn are rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain...
Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek
Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (Pfiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Nørskov, Natalja P; Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Laerke, Helle Nygaard
Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain (WG) cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases-coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and some form of cancers. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of WG are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion and absorption. Associated with the DF matrix of cereals is an array of nonnutritive constituents predominantly concentrated in the bran fraction. Among them, the phenolic phytochemicals, benzoic acid and cinnamic derivatives and lignans, are of importance in a nutritional-health perspective. Only a small fraction of the phenolics is absorbed in the small intestine, but the availability can be increased by bioprocessing. The major part, however, is passed to the large intestine where the microbiota, which degrade and metabolize DF to SCFAs and gases, also convert the phenolic compounds into a range of other metabolites that are absorbed into the body and with the capability of influencing the metabolism at the cellular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Functional and metabolic effects of dietary fiber are recognized by the scientific, clinical and nutritional experts. Dietary fiber plays a very significant role in modifying the intestinal microbiota, exerting prebiotic effects such as stimulating the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG) is a natural dietary fiber (Benefibra™, Novartis CH Italy): it is a white powder, water-soluble, colorless and transparent in water solution and almost tasteless. PHGG is stable and soluble at various pH levels commonly found in foods as well as resistant to heat, acid, salt, high pressure and digestive enzymes. Low viscosity of PHGG provides a distinct advantage for the use of fiber in enteral feeding products to be administered through feeding tubes. It has been studied in adults, both healthy volunteers and patients, in different disorders such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), enteral nutrition, small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and, very recently, in children suffering from functional abdominal pain according to the Rome III Criteria definition for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review takes stock of the situation concerning what is known to date on PHGG as dietary fiber, in order to give the health care professionals, such as gastroenterologists, dieticians and general practitioners, a complete overview on its intrinsic characteristics, preclinical and clinical evaluations, uses in different situations as supportive therapy in the management of the main intestinal functional
Full Text Available Dietary fibers are a type of carbohydrates that are found in plant-based foods. They are not absorbed or digested by the body, but play an important role in maintaining good health. There are two types of dietary fiber - soluble and insoluble. Most foods contain both types, but are usually richer in one type than the other. Current evidence suggests that high-fiber diets, especially of the soluble variety, may offer some improvement in weight management, in carbohydrate metabolism, lower total and LDL cholesterol, and have other positive effects in patients diagnosed with diabetes (improvement of insulin sensitivity, modulation of the secretion of certain gut hormones, improvement of various metabolic and inflammatory markers associated with the metabolic syndrome, thus reducing the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of our review is to reinforce the role of dietary fiber in the improvement of diabetes management
Yang, X; Yang, Y; Zhou, R; Bian, L
For studying the contents of dietary fiber in general foods and functional foods, a enzymatic-gravimetric method recommended by AOAC was established in our laboratory. The method for the determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods and functional foods could be used for many other kind of foods. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of reproducibility between-run and within-run were 2.04%-7.85%, 3.42%-55.23% respectively. The repeatability of the methods was good, and the methods are suitable for many foods.
Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing
Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo
This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Suryanti, V.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Rumingtyas, Y. S.
The objective of this work was to investigate the dietary fiber (DF) contents of Artocorpus camansi (breadnut) fruit and examine their physicochemical properties, such as water-holding capacity (WAC), oil-holding capacity (OHC) and water absorption capacity (WAC). This fruit flour contained of both water soluble fibers (SDF), such as pectin (1.95%) and gum (0.4%), and water insoluble fibers (IDF) (89.25%). The IDF content of this fruit was significantly high in respect to other DF sources. The WHC, OHC and WAC of IDF were 4.10, 2.60 and 4.0%, respectively. Moreover, the WHC, OHC and WHC of total dietary fibers (TDF) were 4.2, 4.3 and 4.6%, respectively. The results showed that the DF of fruit flour had good physicochemical properties. The findings suggested that there is a potential application of A. camansi of fruit as functional ingredients in the food industry.
... chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colon cancer and heart disease. This study ... The study showed that the dietary fiber intake of the students was adequate. ... Keywords: Dietary Fiber, Cereal Fruits Vegetables, University Students ...
Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta
In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
George C. Fahey, Jr.
Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential
de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C
The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical
Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.
BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of
Sáenz, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Elena; Pak, Nelly; Vallejos, Ximena
The development of diverse types of foods of low caloric value and with high content in dietary fiber have occupied a preponderant place in the food industry in the last years, due to the growing interest of the consumers for a healthy and nutritious diet. Pre-cooked or quick to prepare foods are attractive for the time they save; if to this you add their nutritious value, the attractiveness is even greater. For this reason, this study analyzes different formulations of a powder to prepare a dessert (flan), with different percentages of incorporation of nopal flour, as a source of dietary fiber (16%, 18%, 20%). Two flavors (melon and banana) were tried. It was observed that the flan flavored with banana and with 16% of nopal flour, reached better sensorial characteristics. Greater percentages of nopal flour negatively affected the sensorial characteristics, mainly flavor, color and texture. The analysis showed that the powder presented 5.7% of moisture, low water activity (0.48) and therefore a low total recount of microorganisms. The content of protein was high (27.2%), the ether extract low (2.0%) similar to the caloric contribution (40 Kcal/portion). The flan showed a 9.8% of total dietary fiber, being greater the contribution of soluble fiber (6.1%) than that of insoluble fiber (3.7%). Due to these characteristics this formulation could be considered as a food that provides benefits for the human health.
Albrink, M J
The relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia is briefly reviewed. The possibility is considered that excess insulin secretion is the cause rather than the result of insulin resistance and obesity. Glucose administration is one of the most frequently studied of those factors known to stimulate insulin secretion. Much less well documented is the fact that meals of equal protein, fat, and carbohydrate content may cause different responses of plasma glucose and insulin. An experiment is reported in which the effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber meal administered to seven healthy young adults were compared with the effects of a meal equally high in carbohydrate but composed largely of glucose in liquid formula form. The high-fiber meal caused an insulin rise less than half that caused by the liquid formula meal although the plasma glucose response to the two meals was not significantly different. The hypothesis is proposed that a high-carbohydrate, fiber-depleted diet, high in simple sugars, by repeatedly stimulating an excessive insulin response, may lead to insulin resistance and obesity in susceptible individuals and may play a role in the common occurrence of obesity in industrialized societies.
Faruk, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Sani; Adamu, Ahmed; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini Hassan; Ukwenya, Yahaya; Iliyasu, Yawale; Adamu, Abdullahi; Aminu, Surajo Mohammed; Shehu, Mohammed Sani; Ameh, Danladi Amodu; Mohammed, Abdullahi; Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Idoko, John; Ntekim, Atara; Suleiman, Aishatu Maude; Shah, Khalid Zahir; Adoke, Kasimu Umar
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14), mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls ( P fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans "today."
Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.
Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin
This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.
Williams, C L
The article summarizes the materials on the use of dietary fiber (DF) in the diet of children of different ages. According to the few studies that DF used in children's diets, play an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and in lowering serum cholesterol, which reduces the risk of children of cardiovascular disease. Given that children and adolescents consume food insufficient number of DF should be encouraged to increase in baby food for their consumption at the expense of fruit, vegetables and products prepared from cereals. A number of recommendations on the level of consumption of DF children and adolescents of all ages.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Methods: Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14, mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. Results: We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls (P<0.05. The CRC patients had significantly more fecal pH level than the matched apparently healthy controls (P=0.017. Conclusions: The identified differences in the fecal fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans “today.”
Leemhuis, Hans; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Ebbelaar, Monique; Faber, Folkert; Buwalda, Pieter L; van der Maarel, Marc J.E.C.; Kamerling, Johannis P; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an
Leemhuis, H.; Dobruchowska, J.M.; Ebbelaar, M.; Faber, F.; Buwalda, P.L.; Maarel, M.J.E.J.; Kamerling, J.P.; Dijkhuizen, L.
Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an
Dietary fiber is an important non-nutritive component of food and is believed to have various benefits to human health. In many countries, such as the United States and Canada, the intake of dietary fiber is 50 to 70% below recommended levels in greater than 95% of the population. We recently adva...
(Sandra, 1995). Several methods of processing the vegetables are being use without considering the effect on the vitamin C, dietary fiber and minerals components. This study is designed to determine the effect of cooking time on the Vitamin C, dietary fiber. & mineral constituents of T. occidentalis (FP), V. amygdalina (BL),.
Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M
Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. © 2012
Krishnamurthy, Vidya M Raj; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B; Raphael, Kalani L; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan
Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease.
Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta
An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case-control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000-2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the
Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge
The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.
Souza Da Silva, C.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.
he satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to
Full Text Available Studies on dietary fiber and nutrient bioavailability have gained an increasing interest in both human and animal nutrition. Questions are increasingly being asked regarding the faith of nutrient components such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids after feed formulation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence with the perspective of fiber usage in feed formulation. The consumption of dietary fiber may affect the absorption of nutrients in different ways. The physicochemical factors of dietary fiber, such as fermentation, bulking ability, binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity and solubility affect nutrient absorption. The dietary fiber intake influences the different methods in which nutrients are absorbed. The increase in the total fiber content of the diet may delay the glycemic response. Soluble fiber decreased blood glucose content whereas purified insoluble fiber has a little or no effect on the blood glucose levels after a meal. Dietary fiber and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters. Previous studies suggest that fiber affects the bioavailability of nutrients, and maintains the host wellness.
Marlett, Judith A; McBurney, Michael I; Slavin, Joanne L
Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually
Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun
Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.
Full Text Available Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency referred to as the dietary fiber gap. Using an analytical method American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC 2011.25 that conforms to the Codex Alimentarius Commission consensus definition for dietary fiber, the fiber content of these pulse crops was evaluated in seed types used for commercial production. These pulse crops have 2 to 3 times more fiber per 100 g edible portion than other dietary staples. Moreover, there is marked variation in fiber content among cultivars of the same crop. We conclude that pulse crop consumption should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. The substantial differences in fiber content among currently available cultivars within a crop can be used to further improve gains in fiber intake without the need to change dietary habits. This provides a rationale for cultivar-based food labeling.
Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S
Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here.
Englyst, H N; Cummings, J H
A method is described that allows rapid estimation of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber as the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in plant foods. It is a modification of an earlier, more complex procedure. Starch is completely removed enzymatically, and NSP is measured as the sum of its constituent sugars released by acid hydrolysis. The sugars may, in turn, be measured by gas chromatography (GC), giving values for individual monosaccharides, or more rapidly by colorimetry. Both GC and colorimetry are suitable for routine measurement of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Values obtained are not affected by food processing so the dietary fiber content of various processed foods and mixed diets can be calculated simply from knowing the amount in the raw materials. The additional information obtained by GC analysis is valuable in the interpretation of physiological studies and in epidemiology where disease is related to type and amount of dietary fiber.
Slavin, Joanne L.
Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804
V. A. Loseva
Full Text Available The pilot study examined the effects of dietary fiber and filtroperlit on the efficiency of juice purification. The rational consumption of combined sorbent is determined, sorbent contact time with juice and temperature is defined.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies propose a protective role for dietary fiber in colon cancer (CRC. One possible mechanism of fiber is its fermentation property in the gut and ability to change microbiota composition and function. Here, we investigate the role of a dietary fiber mixture in polyposis and elucidate potential mechanisms using TS4Cre × cAPCl°x468 mice. Stool microbiota profiling was performed, while functional prediction was done using PICRUSt. Stool short-chain fatty acid (SCFA metabolites were measured. Histone acetylation and expression of SCFA butyrate receptor were assessed. We found that SCFA-producing bacteria were lower in the polyposis mice, suggesting a decline in the fermentation product of dietary fibers with polyposis. Next, a high fiber diet was given to polyposis mice, which significantly increased SCFA-producing bacteria as well as SCFA levels. This was associated with an increase in SCFA butyrate receptor and a significant decrease in polyposis. In conclusion, we found polyposis to be associated with dysbiotic microbiota characterized by a decline in SCFA-producing bacteria, which was targetable by high fiber treatment, leading to an increase in SCFA levels and amelioration of polyposis. The prebiotic activity of fiber, promoting beneficial bacteria, could be the key mechanism for the protective effects of fiber on colon carcinogenesis. SCFA-promoting fermentable fibers are a promising dietary intervention to prevent CRC.
Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Abramashvili, M
The causes of motility disorder of gastrointestinal tract and in particular Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS are multifold, leading to complexity of treatment and requirement of more precise investigation of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The aim of the study was investigation and comparison of the dietary fiber intake among women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and without, improvement of the dietary fiber intake using interventions with less rough changes of food related behavior and study of its effects on the bowel function, general wellbeing and compliance of patients. In total 100 healthy women, without any clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders and 98 women who met Rome III criteria of IBS-C were enrolled in the dietary fiber intake assessment survey. The dietary habits of all participants, as well as bowel function, digestive feelings and general wellbeing of patients at baseline, on the 7th and 14th day of dietary intervention was assessed by the means of adopted questionnaires. The dietary supplementation was provided during the breakfast with fiber enriched food - bread and muesli. Research data reviled significantly lower daily intake of dietary fiber among patients with IBS-C compared with healthy group. The main source of dietary fiber in IBS-C group was bread and cereals, therefore introduction of dietary fiber rich bread and muesli in the breakfast didn't affect diet-related habits and determined high compliance of patients. Two week long intervention significantly improved the bowel function and irritation related complains, the feeling of general wellbeing was considerably better on the endpoint as well.
Slavin, Joanne L.
Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in ...
Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal
months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0......: The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary...
Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena
Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.
Full Text Available For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body's health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.
Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others
A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)
Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.
BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:
Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.
BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:
Souza Da Silva, C.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.
Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated
Objectives: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fiber intake and risk of knee OA. Methods: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Os...
Królak, Maria; Jeżewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Sajdakowska, Marta; Gębski, Jerzy
The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber as a substitute of white bread is one of the ways to increase fiber intake. The aim of this study was to find out whether nutrition knowledge and perception of dietary fiber affected the frequency of eating wholemeal bread and white bread fortified with fiber. The data were collected in 2014 through a cross-sectional quantitative survey that was performed under the Bioproduct project among a group of 1013 Polish adults. The associations between variables were investigated using multiple regression analysis. The respondents' general knowledge on nutrition influenced their knowledge on fiber intake (correlation coefficient r = 0.30). Respondents with a greater knowledge perceived higher benefits of consuming cereal products that were fortified with fiber ( r = 0.78), and attached greater importance to the information on the label ( r = 0.39) as well. The nutrition knowledge determined the familiarity with fiber-enriched bread and the consumption of this product ( r = 0.40) to a greater degree than the frequency of wholemeal bread consumption ( r = -0.10). The respondents' perception of dietary fiber was observed to play a partial mediation role between the knowledge on nutrition and the consumption of both kinds of breads, suggesting that it can be an important predictor of bread consumption. To increase the consumption of bread that is rich in fiber, emphasis should be laid on specific information on fiber, referring to food products as well as on individual's perception of those products. The said information should be reinforced along with overall communication regarding nutrition to influence the bread-related decisions.
Full Text Available The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition. We examined population-based samples of men and women, aged 25–45 of African origin from Ghana, Jamaica, the Seychelles and the USA. Ghanaians had the lowest prevalence of obesity (10%, while Jamaicans had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (5% across all the sites. Participants from the US presented with the highest prevalence of obesity (52%, and metabolic syndrome (22%. Overall, the Ghanaians consumed the highest dietary fiber (24.9 ± 9.7 g, followed by Jamaica (16.0 ± 8.3 g, the Seychelles (13.6 ± 7.2 g and the lowest in the USA (14.2 ± 7.1 g. Consequently, 43% of Ghanaians met the fiber dietary guidelines (14 g/1000 kcal/day, 9% of Jamaicans, 6% of Seychellois, and only 3% of US adults. Across all sites, cardiometabolic risk (metabolic syndrome, inflammation and obesity was inversely associated with dietary fiber intake, such that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 13% for those in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, compared to 9% those in the highest quartile of fiber intake. Notably, twice as many of participants (38% in the lowest quartile were obese compared to those in the highest quartile of fiber intake (18%. These findings further support the need to incorporate strategies and policies to promote increased dietary fiber intake as one component for the prevention of cardiometabolic
Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph
Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.
Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E
crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have......The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six...... sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated...
Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A
Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole
Dai, Zhaoli; Zhang, Yuqing; Lu, Na; Felson, David T; Kiel, Douglas P; Sahni, Shivani
Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between sexes. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L 2 to L 4 ) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up BMD was measured in 2001-2005 and 2005-2008 among 792 men (mean age 58.1 years; BMI 28.6 kg/m 2 ) and 1065 women (mean age 57.3 years; BMI 27.2 kg/m 2 ). We used sex-specific generalized estimating equations in multivariable regressions to estimate the difference (β) of annualized BMD change in percent (%ΔBMD) at each skeletal site per 5 g/d increase in dietary fiber. We further estimated the adjusted mean for bone loss (annualized %ΔBMD) among participants in each higher quartile (Q2, Q3, or Q4) compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1) of fiber intake. Higher dietary total fiber (β = 0.06, p = 0.003) and fruit fiber (β = 0.10, p = 0.008) was protective against bone loss at the femoral neck in men but not in women. When examined in quartiles, men in Q2-Q4 of total fiber had significantly less bone loss at the femoral neck versus those in Q1 (all p fiber from vegetables appeared to be protective against spine bone loss in women but not men. There were no associations with cereal fiber or nut and legume fiber and bone loss in men or women. Our findings suggest that higher dietary fiber may modestly reduce bone loss in men at the hip. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to
Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette
Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.
Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J
To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.
Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J
Epidemiologic evidence favors the hypothesis that obesity may result from the fiber-depleted diet of industrialized societies. Since hyperinsulinemia is a universal characteristic and perhaps causal of obesity, the possibility is considered that dietary factors causing excess insulin secretion might lead to obesity. Dietary glucose causes a slightly greater insulin rise than cooked starch containing an equal amount of carbohydrate, and high fiber starchy foods cause a much lesser insulin response than does glucose in solution. Doubling the dose of carbohydrate in a meal causes only a small increase in glucose response but a large increase in insulin response. Dietary fiber could act by displacing some of the carbohydrate that would normally be absorbable in the small intestine, or could translocate the carbohydrate to a point lower in the intestinal tract where less effect on insulin secretion would be observed. Evidence is presented that a higher fiber diet is associated with a higher concentration of fasting circulating free fatty acids, a lesser post-cibal decrease in circulating free fatty acids and triglycerides and less chronic increase in fasting triglycerides than a low fiber diet. These differences are associated with a lesser insulin response to high fiber meals. The extreme fluctuations between the fed and fasted states seen with low fiber diets are thus dampened by high fiber diets. The less complete inhibition of lipolysis during the fed state, and more intense lipolysis during fasting, suggested by the above data, might tend to prevent obesity. The mechanisms of the lesser insulin response to high rather than low fiber meals are not known, but the possibility that dietary fiber decreases the GIP response is considered.
Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Arranz, Sara; Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel
The beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers is widely consumed in Mexico. Polyphenols contained in plant foods are frequently associated with dietary fiber. The aim of this work is to quantify the dietary fiber, associated polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of the Roselle flower and the beverage traditionally prepared from it and its contribution to the Mexican diet. Roselle flower contained dietary fiber as the largest component (33.9%) and was rich in phenolic compounds (6.13%). Soluble dietary fiber was 0.66 g/L in beverage, and 66% of total extractable polyphenols contained in Roselle flower passed to the beverage and showed an antioxidant capacity of 335 micromoL trolox equivalents/100 mL beverage measured by ABTS. These data suggest that Roselle flower beverage intake in the Mexican diet may contribute around 166 and 165 mg/per serving to the intake of dietary fiber and polyphenols, respectively. The health benefits from consumption of Hibiscus beverage could be of considerable benefit to the whole population.
Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P
Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.
Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.
A diet rich in dietary fiber (DF) is considered healthy and recommended dietary intake of DF is established all over the world. The physiological effect of DF is mostly related to its behavior during digestion. In this review, the behavior of DF in the human digestive tract is discussed and linked to its physiological effect with special attention to four aspects of such behavior: (i) the modulation of bioavailability by the plant cell walls, (ii) the effect of DF on the rheological and colloidal state of digesta, (iii) the binding of DF with phenolic compounds, bile salts, mineral ions, and digestive enzymes, and (iv) DF fermentation in the large intestine and the corresponding effect on microbiota composition. It is stressed that the detailed chemical characterization of DF is crucial to explain its effect on health and that DF behavior in the digestive tract can be modulated by interactions with other food and meal components so that information of the bare content in DF of food is not sufficient to predict its physiological effect.
Raju, P Narender; Pal, Dharam
Misti dahi, a popular ethnic delicacy of eastern India analogous to caramel coloured set style sweetened yoghurt, besides several therapeutic virtues, contains high fat and sugar. Alike people elsewhere in the world, people in India too are now becoming health conscious and are aware of the relation between diet and health. Hence, high fat and sugar contents are causes of concern for the successful marketing of misti dahi in India. With a view to enhance the health attributes of misti dahi and improve marketability, three commercial dietary fiber preparations (inulin, soy fiber and oat fiber) were incorporated and their effect on the product's quality in terms of physicochemical, sensory and textural quality was assessed. Standard method was followed for the preparation of fiber fortified misti dahi (FFMD). Among the three dietary fibers, inulin significantly decreased viscosity and instrumental firmness and increased lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), syneresis and work of shear values of FFMD. Oat fiber settled at the bottom and gave a poor appearance. Soy fiber did not affect the flavor of FFMD. Although overall acceptability scores of inulin and soy fiber containing FFMD were significantly lower than control, they were still above the minimum acceptable score. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that acceptable quality FFMD could be prepared using inulin and soy fiber at 1.5 % level of fortification.
Penney, Tarra L; Jones, Nicholas R V; Adams, Jean; Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo
Eating meals away from home has been associated with the consumption of unhealthy foods and increased body weight. However, more rigorous assessment of the contribution of different types of away-from-home food establishments to overall diet quality and obesity is minimal. This study examined usage of these food establishments, accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and obesity status in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional analysis of data from a national survey (N=2,083 aged ≥19 years, from 2008 to 2012) with dietary intake measured using a 4-day food diary, and height and weight measured objectively. Exposures included usage of (i.e., by proportion of energy) all away-from-home food establishments combined, and fast-food outlets, restaurants, and cafés separately. Outcomes included accordance with the DASH diet, and obesity status. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 2016 to estimate associations between food establishments, diet quality, and obesity. People consuming a higher proportion of energy from any away-from-home food establishment had lower odds of DASH accordance (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.31, 0.67) and increased odds of obesity (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.10, 1.99). After adjustment, only use of fast-food outlets was significantly associated with lower odds of DASH accordance (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.33, 0.69) and higher odds of obesity (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.01, 1.69). Although a greater reliance on eating away-from-home is associated with less-healthy diets and obesity, dietary public health interventions that target these food establishments may be most effective if they focus on modifying the use of fast-food outlets. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel
Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.
Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P
The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly ( p cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly ( p cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.
Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Jian; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng
Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. All eligible studies were identified by electronic searches in PubMed and Embase through February 2015. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. A total of 15 studies involving 16,885 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43-0.64). Stratified analyses for tumor subtype, study design, geographic location, fiber type, publication year, total sample size, and quality score yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis indicated that a 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a 31% reduction in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors produced similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the overall risk estimate. Our findings indicate that dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. Further large prospective studies are warranted.
Feyera, Takele; Højgaard, Camilla Kaae; Vinther, Jens
The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed to inves......The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed...... assigned to the control and treatment group, respectively. Sows in the control group were fed according to normal feeding strategy of the herd, fed a standard gestation diet until 1 week before expected parturition, fed a transition diet until day 5 of lactation and a standard lactation diet until weaning....... Sows in the treatment group were fed as the control group but part of the gestation diet (from day 102 to 108 of gestation) and part of the transition diet (from day 109 of gestation until farrowing) was replaced by a fiber rich supplement. Thus, 350 and 700 g/d of the supplement replaced part...
Akalın, A S; Kesenkas, H; Dinkci, N; Unal, G; Ozer, E; Kınık, O
This study evaluated the effect of 5 dietary fibers (apple, orange, oat, bamboo, and wheat) on the physicochemical, rheological, and textural characteristics; sensory properties; and culture viability of probiotic ice cream stored at -18°C for 180 d. The presence of orange and apple fibers increased the titratable acidity, decreased the lightness (color) value of the ice creams, and enhanced the red and yellow coloration. Compared with the control sample, the consistency indices and apparent viscosities of the experimental samples increased with the addition of all dietary fibers except oat fiber. The highest viscosity was obtained in the sample fortified with apple fiber, whereas the ice cream containing orange fiber showed the highest hardness after d 60 of storage. The addition of orange and apple fibers significantly increased melting resistance; however, panelists did not generally like these samples in terms of taste-flavor. All ice creams had viable counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus of ≥7 log cfu/g during storage except the samples with orange and bamboo fiber. Bifidobacterium lactis counts were also found to be >6 log cfu/g in those samples until d 150 of storage. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K
Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.
Caleigh M. Sawicki
Full Text Available Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidence map of current research activity in this area was created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber intervention studies in humans to identify studies with the following broad outcomes: (1 modulation of colonic microflora; and/or (2 colonic fermentation/short-chain fatty acid concentration. Study design characteristics, fiber exposures, and outcome categories were summarized. A sub-analysis described oligosaccharides and bacterial composition in greater detail. One hundred eighty-eight relevant studies were identified. The fiber categories represented by the most studies were oligosaccharides (20%, resistant starch (16%, and chemically synthesized fibers (15%. Short-chain fatty acid concentration (47% and bacterial composition (88% were the most frequently studied outcomes. Whole-diet interventions, measures of bacterial activity, and studies in metabolically at-risk subjects were identified as potential gaps in the evidence. This evidence map efficiently captured the variability in characteristics of expanding research on dietary fiber, gut microbiota, and physiological health benefits, and identified areas that may benefit from further research. We hope that this evidence map will provide a resource for researchers to direct new intervention studies and meta-analyses.
Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Inger; Conner, Mark T; Lissner, Lauren
To investigate dietary knowledge and beliefs of schoolchildren, in relationship to breakfast choices, with specific attention to fat and fiber content. Food choice and perceptions were studied by interviews using the "stacking box methodology". Youth (n = 181) aged 11-15 years were instructed to select food items among photographs of breakfast foods. In addition to choosing their own typical breakfasts, they were asked to exchange foods in hypothetical breakfasts to create meals with less fat and more fiber. The interview also dealt with recent changes in breakfast habits, and perceptions of healthy breakfasts, dietary fat, and foods rich in fiber. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Knowledge concerning sources and health attributes of dietary fiber was associated with usual consumption of bread and breakfast cereals rich in fiber. In a similar way, a positive attitude toward limited fat intake predicted consumption of reduced-fat milk products. However, no association was observed between food choices and knowledge of a food-packaging symbol indicating low-fat and fiber-enriched foods. Lack of awareness of, and knowledge about, healthy eating may be important barriers to the development of health promoting food habits by schoolchildren.
Full Text Available Background and aim: This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. Methods: In 2006–2008, we used a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake among 2295 health professionals with no previous history of heart disease. Subjects were subsequently followed until 2012 for incidence of CVD events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of total dietary fiber and different types of fiber. Linear regression models were also used to indicate the association of dietary fiber intakes with changes of cardiovascular risk factors during the follow-up. Results: Mean age of participants (42.8% men was 38.2 ± 13.4, at baseline. Mean (SD dietary intake of total fiber was 23.4 (8.9 g/day. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk score and dietary confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between intakes of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and CVD risk, in the highest compared to the lowest tertiles (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.83, HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09–0.41, and HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14–0.69, respectively. Inverse relations were observed between risk of CVD and dietary fiber from legumes, fruits and vegetables; however, dietary fiber intake from grain and nut sources was not related to risk of CVD. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that higher intakes of dietary fiber from different sources is associated with CVD events and modify its major risk-related factors.
Ullrich, I H; Lai, H Y; Vona, L; Reid, R L; Albrink, M J
The short-term effects of high carbohydrate diets of normal foods either high or low in dietary fiber on fecal steroids and fiber was assessed in eight healthy young men. Each subject consumed in random order for 4 days a diet containing 59 g (high fiber) or 21 g (low fiber) neutral detergent fiber. After a 9-day rest period he consumed the other diet. Analysis of random fecal samples during their usual diet and after 4 days of each experimental diet showed an increased in primary bile acids from less than 4 to 32% of total bile acids, and a decreases of coprostanol from 76% (control diet) or 64% (low fiber diet) to 45% of total neutral sterol after the high fiber diet. Fecal fiber concentration doubled after the high fiber diet. We conclude that 4 days of high fiber diet is sufficient to cause a large increase in primary and decrease in secondary fecal steroids. Such changes have implications for prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer of the colon.
Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan
Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P < 0.05). Butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria were more prevalent in a subgroup of HC subjects with a high fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P < 0.05). A high-fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.
Asians and other non-caucasians are generally more susceptible to obesity related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Viscous soluble dietary fibers such as cereal beta-glucans and psyllium reduce plasma cholesterol and postprandial glycemia in humans. We have stud...
Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha
The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3-3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet.
The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...
Exposure to environmental pollutants can alter gut microbial populations. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from gut microbial fermentation of dietary fibers such as inulin, exert numerous effects on host energy metabolism. SCFAs are also linked to health promoting effects, including a red...
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of dates dietary fiber on diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methodology: Rats were divided into eight groups, among which four groups (Groups 1-4) were normal and the other four groups were ...
Dubick, Michael A.
Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)
Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.
Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...
Full Text Available Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.
Arts, C.J.M.; Govers, C.A.R.L.; Berg, H. van den; Wolters, M.G.E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Thijsen, J.H.
Within the framework of experiments related to the association between dietary fiber and breast cancer an in vitro test system was used to study the binding of estrogens to various fibers (e.g. cholestyramin, lignin and cellulose) and fiber sources (e.g. wheat bran, cereals, seeds and legumes).
Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gómez Del Pulgar, Eva M.; Kjølbæk, Louise
Background Scientific evidence suggests that diet plays a role in obesity and its comorbidities, partly via its interactions with the individual's gut microbiota. Likewise, the individual's microbiota influences the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce body weight. However, we require...... a better understanding of the key components of the gut microbiota that are responsive to specific diets and of their effects on energy balance in order to use this information in practice. Scope and approach This review provides an up-to-date description of the influence of dietary fibers and fat on gut...... microbiota and the mechanisms presumably mediating their effects on metabolic health. We also discuss the main knowledge gaps and the need to gain greater understanding of the role of diet-microbe interactions in obesity and the associated comorbidities. Key findings and conclusions Dietary fibers are major...
Bliss, Donna Z.; Weimer, Paul J.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Savik, Kay
Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21d, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits. PMID:23556460
Müller, Mattea; Canfora, Emanuel E; Blaak, Ellen E
Gastrointestinal transit time may be an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and metabolic health through effects on nutrient absorption and microbial composition, among other mechanisms. Modulation of gastrointestinal transit may be one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary fibers. These effects include improved glucose homeostasis and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we first discuss the regulation of gastric emptying rate, small intestinal transit and colonic transit as well as their relation to glucose homeostasis and metabolic health. Subsequently, we briefly address the reported health effects of different dietary fibers and discuss to what extent the fiber-induced health benefits may be mediated through modulation of gastrointestinal transit.
Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.
A radiolabeled cellulose ( 131 I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested 131 I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of 131 I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, 99 mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 mTc-DTPA), showed that 131 I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some 131 I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. 131 I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of 131 I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet
Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.
A radiolabeled cellulose (/sup 131/I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested /sup 131/I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of /sup 131/I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, /sup 99/mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-DTPA), showed that /sup 131/I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some /sup 131/I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. /sup 131/I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of /sup 131/I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet.
Panel on Macronutrients; Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes; Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes
Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...
A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes
Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs...
Dietary fibers are classified into water soluble or insoluble, and most plant foods include in their composition variable amounts of a mixture of soluble and insoluble fibers. This soluble or insoluble nature of fiber is related to its physiological effects. Insoluble fibers are characterized by high porosity, low density and the ability to increase fecal bulk, and act by facilitating intestinal transit, thus reducing the exposure to carcinogens in the colon and therefore acting as protectors...
Nov 21, 2011 ... Méndez-García, S.1, Martínez-Flores, H.E.2* and Morales-Sánchez, E.3. 1Student of ... product (Sánchez-Alonso et al., 2007), coconut fiber ..... Rodríguez R, Jiménez A, Fernández-Bolaños J, Guillén R, Heredia A. (2006).
Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.
Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF, found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG, is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber WG, and sources of fiber that are not from WG. The study is based on the two-day diets reported consumed by the nationally representative sample of Americans participating in What We Eat In America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003–2010. Foods consumed were classified into tertiles of DF and WG and the contribution of fiber by differing levels of WG content were examined. Foods containing high amounts of WG and DF only contributed about 7% of total fiber intake. Overall, grain-based foods contributed 54.5% of all DF consumed. Approximately 39% of DF came from grain foods that contained no WG, rather these foods contained refined grains, which contain only small amounts of DF but are consumed in large quantities. All WG-containing foods combined contributed a total of 15.3% of DF in the American diet. Thus, public health messaging needs to be changed to specifically encourage consumption of WG foods with high levels of DF to address both recommendations.
Full Text Available In this study, 360 male broilers, out of which 240 of a fast-growing strain (Cobb500, and 120 of a slow-growing strain (Label Rouge, were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber on digesta transit time and digestive metabolism during the period of 1 to 42 days of age. A completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of three groups of birds (slow-growing - SG; fast-growing fed ad libitum - FGAL; and fast-growing pair-fed with SG broilers - FGPF and two iso-protein diets (a 3100 kcal ME/kg low-fiber diet - LFD- and a 2800 kcal ME/kg high-fiber diet - HFD- with 14% wheat bran and 4% oat hulls. HFD-fed birds presented lower ME retention (p < 0.001 and lower dry matter metabolizability (DMM (p < 0.001, which is possibly related to the shorter digesta transit time observed in these birds (p < 0.001. DMM was reduced with age, whereas metabolizable energy remained almost constant (p < 0.001 independently of strain. This may be related to the increase in feed intake as birds age. The slow-growing strain did not present better utilization of the high-fiber diet as compared to the fast-growing strain in none of the analyzed ages, even though showing a significant better use of fiber and dietary energy from 31 days of age.
Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard
The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon......-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer were related to intake of total or specific fiber source using Cox proportional hazards models. For men, an inverse association was observed between intake of total fiber and the risk of colon cancer per an incremental increase of 10 g day(-1) , IRR...... fiber per 2 g day(-1) was also associated with lower risk of colon cancer, 0.97 (0.93-1.00). No clear associations were seen for rectal cancer. Our data indicate a protective role of total and cereal fiber intake, particularly from cereal foods with high fiber content, in the prevention of colon cancer....
Wismar, René; Brix, Susanne; Frøkiær, Hanne
structures. In order to enhance our understanding of factors important for the immunoregulatory activities, this article addresses the importance of chemical structure, origin, and purity of fibers for their capacity to interact with key regulatory immune cells. Furthermore, we assess bioavailability...... important for the activity. Within beta-glucans the activity varies according to structure, molecular weight, and solubility. As many of the preparations tested constitute crude extracts or partly purified NSPs, the risk of contaminants holding immunoregulatory activities should not be ignored. To what...... a major challenge. Studies demonstrating in vivo effects of beta-glucans on microbial infections and cancer treatment strongly indicate an immunoregulatory mechanism behind the effects. However, the potential of NSPs as immunoregulatory food ingredients is still far from fully explored....
Krusińska, Beata; Wuenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna
There has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and young adults, especially in men than women. Many adolescents have a sedentary lifestyle and consume more processed, low-fiber foods. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fiber intake and its selected dietary source consumption in relation to the overweight among Polish male students. This cross-sectional study involved 1,233 male students aged 13.0-24.9 years from northern, eastern and central Poland. The respondents completed a self-administered Block Screening Questionnaire for Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber Intake and measurements of their body mass and height were performed. The overweight and obesity prevalence was assessed using international standards. The most frequently consumed foods by students included: white bread and potatoes, fruit and fruit or vegetable juices. The odds of overweight (including obesity) were lower from 28% (OR=0.72; 95%CI:0.56-0.93) to 31% (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.50-0.95) with a daily consumption of white bread compared to non-daily consumption of white bread. Consumption ≥4 times/week of prepared vegetables (cooked, preserved or marinated) was associated with 51% lower odds of overweight (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.27-0.97) compared to consumption less than 4 times/week of these foods. The odds of overweight for the level of fiber intake was insignificant. This study provides surprising insights regarding high-fiber and low-fiber food consumption and overweight in Polish male students. A lower odds of overweight was associated with a higher frequency consumption of relatively low in fiber foods as white bread and cooked, preserved or marinated vegetables. Most of the students consumed fiber at an unacceptable level, so a beneficial impact of high-fiber foods on overweight prevalence was not shown.
Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C
The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.
Anudeep, Sandanamudi; Prasanna, Vaddi K; Adya, Shruthi M; Radha, Cheruppanpullil
Moringa oleifera (moringa or drumstick) seeds are a potential source of dietary fiber with 6.5% w/w soluble dietary fiber. Biochemical characterization of moringa seed soluble fiber revealed that it is a glycoprotein with 5% neutral sugars. Arabinose and xylose are the major neutral sugars identified by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Moringa seed soluble fiber was identified as protease resistant-glycoprotein and termed as moringa seed resistant protein (MSRP). MSRP was found to be a homodimer (18kDa) containing two 9kDa monomeric units as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis with pI 10.8. Immunostimulating activity of MSRP was assessed by murine splenocyte proliferation and production of NO from macrophages. MSRP at low concentration (0.01μg/well) strongly increased proliferation of splenocytes, while MSRP at high concentration weakly responded. MSRP induced 6-fold increase in NO production when compared to the control which indicates the activation of macrophages. MSRP isolated from defatted moringa seed flour is a potent mitogen, enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes and inducing NO from macrophages. This study concludes that moringa seed is a potential nutritional source to promote the immune system of the host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fernstrand, Amanda M; Bury, Didi; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C.
Background: It has been reported previously that dietary fiber intake provides health benefits. Nevertheless, only a limited number of human studies have investigated whether gender differences exist in the relationship between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status. Objective: To
Sandi L. Navarro
Full Text Available Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, specifically and colorectal cancer (CRC risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017. During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010, 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08. An interaction (p = 0.01 was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004
Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lærke, Helle Nygaard
high-fiber breads differing in amount and source of dietary fiber (two experiments, n = 6 pigs each). Plasma betaine peaked after 30 min when betaine was fed as a supplement, whereas it peaked after 120–180 min when high-fiber breads were fed. Plasma betaine showed no diet × time interaction after...... feeding with high-fiber breads, indicating that the absorption kinetic did not differ between fiber sources. The net absorption of choline was not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, betaine in cereal sources has to be liberated from the matrix prior to absorption, causing delayed...
Basil H. Aboul-Enein
Full Text Available Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19 were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27. The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored.
Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A
Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Hess, Mark W; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Gommers, Lisanne M M; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M
Proton-pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia (PPIH) is the most recognized side effect of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). Additionally, PPIH is associated with hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. It is hypothesized that PPIs reduce epithelial proton secretion and thereby increase the pH in the colon, which may explain the reduced absorption of and Mg2+ and Ca2+. Fermentation of dietary oligofructose-enriched inulin fibers by the microflora leads to acidification of the intestinal lumen and by this enhances mineral uptake. This study aimed, therefore, to improve mineral absorption by application of dietary inulin to counteract PPIH. Here, C57BL/J6 mice were supplemented with omeprazole and/or inulin. Subsequently, Mg2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis was assessed by means of serum, urine and fecal electrolyte measurements. Moreover, the mRNA levels of magnesiotropic and calciotropic genes were examined in the large intestine and kidney by real-time PCR. Treatment with omeprazole significantly reduced serum Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels. However, concomitant addition of dietary inulin fibers normalized serum Ca2+ but not serum Mg2+ concentrations. Inulin abolished enhanced expression of Trpv6 and S100g in the colon by omeprazole. Additionally, intestinal and renal mRNA levels of the Trpm6 gene were reduced after inulin intake. This study suggests that dietary inulin counteracts reduced intestinal Ca2+ absorption upon PPI treatment. In contrast, inulin did not increase intestinal absorption of Mg2+ sufficiently to recover serum Mg2+. The clinical potential of dietary inulin treatment should be the subject of future studies.
Sommer, H; Kasper, H
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (50--70g) were fed a standard laboratory diet containing 6% dietary fiber substances (diet I), the same diet supplemented with 5% guar (diet II), 10% wheat bran (diet III), or 5% pectin of high (76%) methylic esterification (diet IV), or a fiber-free diet (diet V). After a 6-week feeding period, the body weight of the animals had increased to 300--350g. The common bile duct was then canulated and the exocrine pancreatic function tested under urethane anesthesia (1.5 g/kg body weight). The tested fiber substances had no effect on the basal pancreatic secretion of volume, bicarbonate, lipase, amylase or protein, or on the wet weight and histological appearance of the organ. However, the fiber substances influenced the pancreatic response to maximal exogenous stimulation with secretin (3.0 CU/100 g X hour) and cholecystokinin (0.6 IDU/100 g X hour) and the enzyme content of the gland significantly. Compared with diet V, diet I increased the DNA content of the pancreas and its secretion of bicarbonate and protein, and decreased the protein concentration in the gland. Diet II reduced the pancreatic content of trypsinogen and protein. Diet III decreased the protein content, but increased the bicarbonate secretion, which was also increased by diet IV. -- We conclude that fiber substances influence stimulated secretion and the enzyme content of the pancrease to a varying degree.
Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin
The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.
McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Champ, Martine; Okuma, Kazuhiro
A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37 degrees C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization > or =3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (S(R)) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.
Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari
Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...
Bunzel, Mirko; Ralph, John
Compositional information for lignins in food is rare and concentrated on cereal grains and brans. As lignins are suspected to have important health roles in the dietary fiber complex, the confusing current information derived from nonspecific lignin determination methods needs to be augmented by diagnostic structural studies. For this study, lignin fractions were isolated from kiwi, pear, rhubarb, and, for comparison, wheat bran insoluble dietary fiber. Clean pear and kiwi lignin isolates allowed for substantive structural profiling, but it is suggested that the significance of lignin in wheat has been overestimated by reliance on nonspecific analytical methods. Volume integration of NMR contours in two-dimensional (13)C-(1)H correlation spectra shows that pear and wheat lignins have comparable guaiacyl and syringyl contributions and that kiwi lignins are particularly guaiacyl-rich (approximately 94% guaiacyl) and suggest that rhubarb lignins, which could not be isolated from contaminating materials, are as syringyl-rich (approximately 96% syringyl) as lignins from any known natural or transgenic fiber source. Typical lignin structures, including those newly NMR-validated (glycerols, spirodienones, and dibenzodioxocins), and resinols implicated as possible mammalian lignan precursors in the gut are demonstrated via their NMR correlation spectra in the fruit and vegetable samples. A novel putative benzodioxane structure appears to be associated with the kiwi lignin. It is concluded that the fruits and vegetables examined contain authentic lignins and that the detailed structural analysis exposes limitations of currently accepted analytical methods.
Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J
Eight healthy young men were fed a 72% carbohydrate high starch diet either high or low in dietary fiber for 4 days in a double cross-over design. Both groups showed a slight transient increase in plasma triglyceride level and a decrease in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were few differences in glucose and insulin levels after glucose and meal tolerance tests after each diet. Fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were inversely related at base-line; insulin response to oral glucose was inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at the end of the study. We conclude that a high carbohydrate high starch diet, whether high or low in fiber, caused little increase in triglycerides, with little difference between the high and low fiber diets. Dietary fiber did not influence the fall in plasma cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations over and above that seen after the low fiber diet.
Muhammad Imran Chohan
Full Text Available Introduction:The present study evaluated the hypoglycemic perspectives and weight loss significance of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber was supplemented in commercial wheat flour (atta for the preparation of chapaties, a staple diet of South Asia. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 100 were randomly divided into 4 diet groups (n = 25 per group. The control group was fed basal diet that included commercial wheat flour chapati, cornstarch, corn oil, salt and vitamin mixture in such a way that 10% of the protein was available from the final diet. To the basal diet of other 3 groups, chapaties supplemented with 2% guar gum (GG 2%, 3% guar gum (GG 3% and 5% chickpea + 1% guar gum (CP5%+GG1% were added, respectively. All diets were fed to the rats for a period of 8 weeks to perceive the impact of respective compositions. Rats fed on CP 5% + GG1%, showed maximum glucose reduction (14.57% followed by GG 3% (11.64% and GG 2% (9.60% as compared to control diet. Likewise, rats fed on 3% GG showed maximum decline (7.90% in body weight. It was concluded that chapaties prepared from selected treatments provide an additional dietary fiber that could be supportive for diabetic and obese individuals.Results:The results indicated that addition of dietary fiber influenced the physical characteristics of chapati non-significantly. Maximum glucose concentration was found to be 112.50 mg/dL in control group followed by 101.70 and 99.41 mg/dL in groups fed on guar gum 2% and guar gum 3%, respectively. Lowest glucose concentration (96.11 mg/dL was observed in rats fed on the combination of chickpea 5 %+ guar gum 1%. Maximum serum protein concentration was found to be 6.39 g/dL in rats fed on combination of chickpea 5 % + guar gum 1% whilst the remaining three groups showed non significant variations with respect to each other. Means for serum Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:261-278 protein were 6.33, 6.30 and 6.32 g/dL for control, guar gum 3%, and guar gum 2
McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro
A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within
Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad
The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wong, Ka-Hing; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Cheung, Peter C K
The effect of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, on calcium and magnesium absorption was evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed with sclerotial DF based and low Ca (0.3%) diets for 14 days. The animals in the W. cocos DF diet group possessed significantly (p cocos DF group were also significantly (p cocos DF could improve the overall Ca and Mg absorptions of the OVX rats fed a low Ca diet. The potential use of sclerotial DFs as a functional food ingredient for enhancing mineral absorption is also discussed.
Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine
, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity......, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. RESULTS - intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.0001), whereas daily glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0...
Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing
Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Pell, Alice N
Protein is essential for living organisms, but digestibility of crude protein is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Nitrogen is used to estimate protein content because nitrogen is a component of the amino acids that comprise protein, but a substantial portion of the nitrogen in plants may be bound to fiber in an indigestible form. To estimate the amount of crude protein that is unavailable in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, foods routinely eaten were analyzed to determine the amount of nitrogen bound to the acid-detergent fiber residue. The amount of fiber-bound nitrogen varied among plant parts: herbaceous leaves 14.5+/-8.9% (reported as a percentage of crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis), tree leaves (16.1+/-6.7% DM), pith/herbaceous peel (26.2+/-8.9% DM), fruit (34.7+/-17.8% DM), bark (43.8+/-15.6% DM), and decaying wood (85.2+/-14.6% DM). When crude protein and available protein intake of adult gorillas was estimated over a year, 15.1% of the dietary crude protein was indigestible. These results indicate that the proportion of fiber-bound protein in primate diets should be considered when estimating protein intake, food selection, and food/habitat quality.
Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J
The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.
Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K
Preparation of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuberregium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, by a scale-up modified AOAC procedure using industrial enzymes was investigated. A remarkably high level of total dietary fiber (TDF) ranging from 81.7 to 96.3% sample dry matter (DM), in which a content of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) ranging from 86.6 to 94.3% sclerotial TDF DM, was obtained from the three sclerotia. All sclerotial DFs were rich in beta-glucan (the glucose residue ranged from 89.7 to 94.5% NSP DM) with a very low level of resistant glycogen (ranged from 3.77 to 3.94% sclerotial TDF DM). All three novel sclerotial DFs also exhibited similar, if not better, physicochemical and functional properties (pH, color, water binding capacity, oil holding capacity, and emulsifying properties) as those of barely DF control and commercial DF-rich ingredients. The potential use of the three mushroom sclerotial DFs as a new beta-glucan type DF-rich ingredient in the food industry was discussed.
Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel
Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery and w...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P ...Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... >> arabinoxylan >> β-glucan, whereas in the WWG, WAF, and RAF, diets it was arabinoxylan >> cellulose > β-glucan. The diets were fed to the pigs during 3 wk in a crossover design. Within an experimental week, WFL was supplied on Days 1 through 3 and WWG, WAF, or RAF was supplied during Days 4 through 7. Fasting...
Patel, Shawn; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cacioppo, John T.; Masi, Christopher M.
Objective We recently identified an inverse relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone, a metabolite of 17β-estradiol, in postmenopausal women. Formation of 16α-hydroxyestrone is catalyzed primarily by CYP1A2, a cytochrome P450 enzyme. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between known modifiers of CYP1A2 activity and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that fruits, vegetables, and grains, which contain more soluble fiber (a known inducer of CYP1A2) as a proportion of total fiber, would be more positively associated with serum 16α-hydroxyestrone than legumes, which contain less soluble fiber as a proportion of total fiber. Materials and Methods Serum from a population-based sample of 42 postmenopausal women aged 55–69 living in Cook County, Illinois, was assayed for 16α-hydroxyestrone using mass spectrometry. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between dietary fiber and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone after adjusting for multiple covariates. Results Relative to dietary fiber from legumes, dietary fiber from fruits and vegetables was associated with a greater log odds (B = 0.201, p = 0.036) of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone. The log odds of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone was also lower among African-American women (B = −2.300, p = .030) compared to white women. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating a negative relationship between SBP and dietary fruits and vegetables and a positive relationship between African-American race and SBP. Further research is needed regarding dietary factors that may influence the serum concentration of 16α-hydroxyestrone. PMID:21035306
Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD
Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.
Pak, N; Ayala, C; Vera, G; Pennacchiotti, I; Araya, H
Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber (DF) were determined in 35 varieties of certified whole seeds (without processing) of cereals (rice, oat, rye, and wheat) and legumes (pea, cowpea, beans, chikpea, lentil and lupine). The enzymatic method of Asp, Johansson and Siljestrom was used, with modifications in relation to time of incubation with alpha amylase, filtration system and volumes of the filtrates. Results were expressed as g/100 g dry weight. Total DF for cereals showed a range from 10.1 (wheat var. Chasqui) to 22.2 (rice var Quella). Rye, var. Tetra Baer and oats var. Pony Baer presented the highest soluble fiber content (3.3 and 3.9, respectively). In legumes, total DF fluctuated between 12.7 (pea, var. yellow) and 36.6 (lupine, var. Multolupa). Bean, var. Pinto INIA and lupine var. Multolupa presented the highest soluble fiber values (5.8 for both). Based on the results of this research work, it might be concluded that great variation exists in regard to the amount of total soluble and insoluble DF in cereals and legumes, a fact which impedes generalization as to its content in each food item.
Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Ghozali, Muhammad
Fermentation on inulin hydrolysate as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a result of hydrolysis by inulase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi has been performed to bind cholesterol. Their applications on preparation of fermented pour beverages was conducted via a series of concentration process using dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at stirrer rotation of 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure of 40 psia for 0 minute (pre-concentration process) as concentrate (A) and 45 minutes as concentrate (B), and drying process using vacuum dryer at 30 °C and 22 cm Hg for 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 hours. Based on optimization of Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), the best time of drying process was achieved for 40 hours. Long time of drying process would increase TDF and total solids, decreased total acids, and fluctuated dissolved protein and Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC). At the optimum condition of drying process was get fermented inulin fiber powder from concentration processes using both UF as pre process (0 minute) as concentrate (A) and UF for 45 minutes as concentrate (B) with compositions of total solids of 92.31 % and 93.67 %, TDF of 59.07 % (dry weight) and 69.28 %, total acids of 7.03 % and 7.5 %, dissolved protein of 3.95 mg/mL and 3.05 mg/mL, and CBC pH 2 15.71 mg/g and 16.8 mg/g, respectively. Concentration process through dead-end SUFC mode gave distribution of particles with better smoothness level than without through dead-end SUFC mode.
Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari
Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.
Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von T; Martini, Margaret; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Dube, Thomas J; Fiutem, Justin J; Yount, Byron W; Rippe, James M
While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs. Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only. One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=30.9+/-2.4; age=42.3+/-1.2 years) were used in analyses. Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured. Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (Pcereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both Pcereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise. Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.
Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela
Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.
So, Daniel; Whelan, Kevin; Rossi, Megan; Morrison, Mark; Holtmann, Gerald; Kelly, Jaimon T; Shanahan, Erin R; Staudacher, Heidi M; Campbell, Katrina L
Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota, and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. A systematic search was conducted across MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials using culture and/or molecular microbiological techniques evaluating the effect of fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Meta-analyses via a random-effects model were performed on alpha diversity, prespecified bacterial abundances including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp., and fecal SCFA concentrations comparing dietary fiber interventions with placebo/low-fiber comparators. A total of 64 studies involving 2099 participants were included. Dietary fiber intervention resulted in higher abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. (standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86; P < 0.00001) and Lactobacillus spp. (SMD: 0.22; 0.03, 0.41; P = 0.02) as well as fecal butyrate concentration (SMD: 0.24; 0.00, 0.47; P = 0.05) compared with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Subgroup analysis revealed that fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides led to significantly greater abundance of both Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. compared with comparators (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.002, respectively). No differences in effect were found between fiber intervention and comparators for α-diversity, abundances of other prespecified bacteria, or other SCFA concentrations. Dietary fiber intervention, particularly involving fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides, leads to higher fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus
Lv, Jin-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Lin-Shuang
A novel dietary fiber (MsCDF) based core of maize straw (Core) was prepared by using high boiling solvent of sodium peroxide by high pressure pretreatment (HBSHP). The composition of MsCDF, and several physicochemical properties for MsCDF related to its nutritional quality were investigated. The results revealed that the MsCDF contains high contents total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and two main monosaccharaides, xylose and glucose. Meanwhile, the studies of physicochemical properties of MsCDF indicated that MsCDF performed well water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), Swelling, solubility (SOL), Glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and adsorption capacity on cholesterol. The results of this study serve as evidence that MsCDF can be used as a functional food additive, Core can be used as a crude material to produce MsCDF and the technology of HBSHP can be used to modify the physico-chemical properties of Core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sauter, G.; Beuers, U.; Paumgartner, G.
During ursodeoxycholic acid therapy for chronic cholestatic liver disease, the serum levels of lithocholic acid increase about twofold. Lithocholic acid has been shown to be hepatotoxic in some animal species. Administration of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid (PHM), a dietary fiber, has been reported
Johansson-Persson, Anna; Barri, Thaer; Ulmius, Matilda
, in a 5-week randomized controlled crossover intervention. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products, whereas the LF diet was made of equivalent food products to the HF diet, but without adding fibers. Blood plasma samples were collected......The objective was to investigate the alterations of plasma metabolome profiles to identify exposure and effect markers of dietary fiber intake. Subjects (n¿=¿25) aged 58.6 (1.1)¿years (mean and SD) with a body mass index of 26.6 (0.5)¿kg/m(2) were given a high fiber (HF) and a low fiber (LF) diet...
Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C
Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber
Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta
Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease?s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on ...
Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.
. There was a significant time meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p Z 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p meals compared to C and WF meals. Higher mean ratings of satiety (p ...Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results......: Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a doubleblind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from...
Sjoedin, P.B.; Nyman, M.E.; Nilsson, L.; Asp, N.L.; Jaegerstad, M.
Binding of three mutagens, known to occur in fried or broiled foods, by thirteen different types of dietary fiber was investigated in vitro. Nonspecific binding by other food polymers was minimized by using protease and amylase treatment. Water-insoluble fiber components were responsible for most of the binding capacity. Generally, a slightly larger proportion of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) than of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo] -4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was bound. There was a significant correlation between Klason lignin content and binding of mutagens. Optimum pH for binding was between 4 and 6. Dietary fiber from sorghum had the highest binding capacity, which could be due to the presence of a large Klason lignin fraction
Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu
This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...
Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna
Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waﬄes and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.
Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S
The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.
Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z
Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein.
Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Damiani, Clarissa; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas
Cookies were prepared by replacing a mixture of brown rice flour (70%) and corn starch (30%) (BRFCS) by buriti endocarp flour (BEF) (0, 5, 10, 15 or 20%). BEF figured as a potential source of dietary fiber (70.53 g 100 g(-1)), especially of insoluble fiber (67.50 g 100 g(-1)), and gluten-free whole cookies showed increased dietary fiber content by adding 5, 10, 15 and 20% BEF (8.58 to 20.02 g 100 g(-1)) when compared to control cookie (6.91 g 100 g(-1)). The addition of BEF affected diameter, spread ratio, color and texture of cookies. All cookies added with BEF were darker, harder and presented smaller diameter and smaller spread ratio than the control cookie. These difference increased proportionally to level of substitution of BRFSC by BEF. Gluten-free whole cookies with up to 15% BEF were well accepted by consumers. Therefore, the use of BEF in cookies may increase the availability of functional ingredients source of dietary fiber for celiac consumers, add economic value to buriti processing by-products and decrease environmental impacts due to the high amounts of waste generated by buriti processing industries.
García-Magaña, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes
Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42%, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content.
Farcas, Amy K; Larsen, Jennifer A; Owens, Tammy J; Nelson, Richard W; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J
To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Dry (n = 11) and canned (8) canine therapeutic diets. Insoluble and soluble dietary fiber (IDF and SDF), high-molecular-weight SDF (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight SDF (LMWSDF) concentrations were determined. Variables were compared among diets categorized by product guide indication, formulation (dry vs canned), and regulatory criteria for light and low-fat diets. SDF (HMWSDF and LMWSDF) comprised a median of 30.4% (range, 9.4% to 53.7%) of TDF; LMWSDF contributed a median of 11.5% (range, 2.7% to 33.8%) of TDF. Diets for diabetes management had higher concentrations of IDF and TDF with lower proportions of SDF and LMWSDF contributing to TDF, compared with diets for treatment of fat-responsive disease. Fiber concentrations varied within diet categories and between canned and dry versions of the same diet (same name and manufacturer) for all pairs evaluated. Diets classified as light contained higher TDF and IDF concentrations than did non-light diets. All canned diets were classified as low fat, despite providing up to 38% of calories as fat. Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations and compositions; veterinarians should request TDF data from manufacturers, if not otherwise available. Consistent responses to dry and canned versions of the same diet cannot necessarily be expected, and diets with the same indications may not perform similarly. Many diets may not provide adequate fat restriction for treatment of dietary fat-responsive disease.
Rossi, M; Johnson, D W; Xu, H; Carrero, J J; Pascoe, E; French, C; Campbell, K L
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes. Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Albrink, M J; Ullrich, I H
High sucrose diets may cause increased serum triglycerides and decreased high density lipoprotein concentration. To determine whether dietary fiber protects against these effects, four groups of six healthy young men were assigned to one of four very high carbohydrate diets providing 0, 18, 36, or 52% of calories as sucrose. Each diet was fed in both low (less than 14 g) and high (greater than 34 g) levels of dietary fiber for 10 days each. Triglycerides increased during the 36 and 52% sucrose diets compared to 0 and 18% sucrose diets, and fiber protected partially against this rise. Serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were lower during the 0 and 18% sucrose diets than the 36 or 52% sucrose diets but fiber had no effect. HDL cholesterol decreased during all low fat diets, with a trend toward a greater decrease during the high sucrose diets. The results suggest that fiber protects against carbohydrate-induced lipemia but has no effect on cholesterol during very high carbohydrate diets.
Nina Cecilie Øverby
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF and the glycemic index (GI, with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified.
Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C.M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Morales, Patricia; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Mushrooms are considered a good source of non-digestible carbohydrates, which represent a group of dietary fiber with various beneficial health effects to humans e.g., improve the function of the alimentary tract, helps lower postprandrial blood glucose, insuline and cholesterol, strengthens the immune system and antitumor activity . Due to delicate nature, mushrooms suffer severe conservation problems and have to be processed to extend their short shelf-life. Drying is one of the most use...
Rakszegi, M.; Molnár, I.; Lovegrove, A.; Darkó, É.; Farkas, A.; Láng, L.; Bedő, Z.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Molnár-Láng, M.; Shewry, P.
Roč. 8, SEP 6 (2017), č. článku 1529. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aegilops * Arabinoxylan * Dietary fiber * U and M genomes * Wheat * β-glucan Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016
Ingmar S Middelbos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dogs suffer from many of the same maladies as humans that may be affected by the gut microbiome, but knowledge of the canine microbiome is incomplete. This work aimed to use 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize hindgut microbiome in dogs and determine how consumption of dietary fiber affects community structure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six healthy adult dogs were used in a crossover design. A control diet without supplemental fiber and a beet pulp-supplemented (7.5% diet were fed. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rDNA gene amplified using primers suitable for 454-pyrosequencing. Microbial diversity was assessed on random 2000-sequence subsamples of individual and pooled DNA samples by diet. Our dataset comprised 77,771 reads with an average length of 141 nt. Individual samples contained approximately 129 OTU, with Fusobacteria (23-40% of reads, Firmicutes (14-28% of reads and Bacteroidetes (31-34% of reads being co-dominant phyla. Feeding dietary fiber generally decreased Fusobacteria and increased Firmicutes, but these changes were not equally apparent in all dogs. UniFrac analysis revealed that structure of the gut microbiome was affected by diet and Firmicutes appeared to play a strong role in by-diet clustering. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest three co-dominant bacterial phyla in the canine hindgut. Furthermore, a relatively small amount of dietary fiber changed the structure of the gut microbiome detectably. Our data are among the first to characterize the healthy canine gut microbiome using pyrosequencing and provide a basis for studies focused on devising dietary interventions for microbiome-associated diseases.
Schäfer, Judith; Stanojlovic, Luisa; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko
Storage related changes in the cell wall composition potentially affect the texture of plant-based foods and the physiological effects of cell wall based dietary fiber components. Therefore, a detailed characterization of cell wall polysaccharides and lignins from broccoli stems was performed. Freshly harvested broccoli and broccoli stored at 20°C and 1°C for different periods of time were analyzed. Effects on dietary fiber contents, polysaccharide composition, and on lignin contents/composition were much more pronounced during storage at 20°C than at 1°C. During storage, insoluble dietary fiber contents of broccoli stems increased up to 13%. Storage related polysaccharide modifications include an increase of the portions of cellulose, xylans, and homogalacturonans and a decrease of the neutral pectic side-chains arabinans and galactans. Broccoli stem lignins are generally rich in guaiacyl units. Lignins from freshly harvested broccoli stems contain slightly larger amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units than syringyl units. Syringyl units are predominantly incorporated into the lignin polymers during storage, resulting in increased acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents. NMR-based analysis of the interunit linkage types of broccoli stem lignins revealed comparably large portions of resinol structures for a guaiacyl rich lignin. Incorporation of syringyl units into the polymers over storage predominantly occurs through β-O-4-linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Ka-Hing; Wong, King-Yee; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Peter C K
The in vitro fermentability of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, was investigated and compared with that of the cellulose control. All DF samples (0.5 g each) were fermented in vitro with a human fecal homogenate (10 mL) in a batch system (total volume, 50 mL) under strictly anaerobic conditions (using oxygen reducing enzyme and under argon atmosphere) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. All three novel sclerotial DFs exhibited notably higher dry matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 8.56%; P. rhinocerus, 13.5%; and W. cocos, 53.4%) and organic matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 9.82%; P. rhinocerus, 14.6%; and W. cocos, 57.4%) when compared with those of the cellulose control. Nevertheless, only the W. cocos DF was remarkably degraded to produce considerable amounts of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (5.23 mmol/g DF on organic matter basis, with a relatively higher molar ratio of propionate) that lowered the pH of its nonfermented residue to a slightly acidic level (5.89). Variations on the in vitro fermentability among the three sclerotial DFs might mainly be attributed to their different amounts of interwoven hyphae present (different amounts of enzyme inaccessible cell wall components) as well as the possible different structural arrangement (linkage and degree of branching) of their beta-glucans.
Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A
Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger
Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.
Full Text Available Extractable dietary fiber (DF plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3(1→4-β-D-glucan (β-glucan and arabinoxylan (AX in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016 and AX (P = 0.002 due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of Bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF on the mechanical properties, moisture distribution, and microstructure of frozen dough were investigated. The state and distribution of water in frozen dough was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LNMR spectroscopy. The microstructure of frozen dough was studied. The structure of the gluten protein network found in wheat flour dough was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The result showed that the BSDF could significantly improve the viscoelasticity and extensibility of frozen dough after thawing in a dose-dependent manner. It was significantly improved with the increase in the addition amount of BSDF (P<0.05. DSC analysis showed that the freezable water content and thermal stability of frozen dough were increased after the addition of BSDF. LNMR analysis showed that the appropriate (<0.1% addition amount of BSDF could significantly (P<0.05 decline the contents of bound water. Meanwhile, the loose bound water and free water were raised significantly (P<0.05 after the addition of BSDF. Moreover, the addition of BSDF induces arrangement of starch granule and gluten network in frozen dough. BSDF can be used as a novel quality improver of frozen dough.
Usha, V; Vijayammal, P L; Kurup, P A
Effect of feeding isolated dietary fiber from M. paradisiaca on the metabolism of carbohydrates in the liver has been studied. Fiber fed rats showed significantly lower levels of fasting blood glucose and higher concentration of liver glycogen. Activity of glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-1-phosphate, uridyl transferase and glycogen synthase was significantly higher while phosphoglucomutase activity showed lower activity. Activity of some glycolytic enzymes, viz. hexokinase and pyruvic kinase was lower. Glucose-6-phosphatase showed higher activity while fructose 1-6 diphosphatase activity was not affected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on the other hand showed higher activity. The changes in these enzyme activities have been attributed due to the effect of higher concentration of bile acids produced in the liver as a result of feeding fiber. Evidence for this has been obtained by studying the in vitro effect of cholic acid and chenodeoxy cholic acid.
Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Poulsen, Jesper
replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet...
Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei
Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (patients in the higher protein intake group (pintake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.
Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin
In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing.
Kaur, Amandeep; Rose, Devin J; Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R
Sustained colonic fermentation supplies beneficial fermentative by-products to the distal colon, which is particularly prone to intestinal ailments. Blunted/delayed initial fermentation may also lead to less bloating. Previously, we reported that starch-entrapped alginate-based microspheres act as a slowly fermenting dietary fiber. This material was used in the present study to provide a benchmark to compare to other "slowly fermentable" fibers. Dietary fibers with previous reports of slow fermentation, namely, long-chain inulin, psyllium, alkali-soluble corn bran arabinoxylan, and long-chain β-glucan, as well as starch-entrapped microspheres were subjected to in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion and human fecal fermentation and measured over 48 h for pH, gas, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch was used as another form of fermentable starch and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) served as a fast fermenting control. Corn bran arabinoxylan and long-chain β-glucan initially appeared slower fermenting with comparatively low gas and SCFA production, but later fermented rapidly with little remaining in the final half of the fermentation period. Long-chain inulin and psyllium had slow and moderate, but incomplete, fermentation. The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch fermented rapidly and appeared similar to FOS. In conclusion, compared to the benchmark slowly fermentable starch-entrapped microspheres, a number of the purported slowly fermentable fibers fermented fairly rapidly overall and, of this group, only the starch-entrapped microspheres appreciably fermented in the second half of the fermentation period. Consumption of dietary fibers, particularly commercial prebiotics, leads to uncomfortable feelings of bloating and flatulence due to their rapid degradation in our large intestine. This article employs claimed potential slowly fermenting fibers and compares their fermentation rates
Narita, Saki; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a validated 138-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer incidence were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 624,423 person-years of follow-up period, 681 breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for major confounders for breast cancer risk, inverse trends were observed but statistically non-significant. Extremely high intake of fiber was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but this should be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power. In stratified analyses by menopausal and hormone receptor status, null associations were observed except for ER-PR- status. Our findings suggest that extreme high fiber intake may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but the level of dietary fiber intake among Japanese population might not be sufficient to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.
Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIt has been estimated that more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide , rendering obesity a global epidemic . Obesity is associated with significant morbidity, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers . Thus, obesity is clearly a medical issue, its costs impacting heavily on health care systems in both developed and developing nations . The combined impact of transmissible and chronic disease in the third world is particularly devastating to the very health care systems with fewest resources .Because obesity has been identified as a major health issue, treating obesity is an important goal. However, weight loss management has proven notoriously difficult. It is well documented that reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure may reduce body weight in the short term, but obesity relapse is the long term is anticipated . In a study of overweight or obese US adults who weighed ≥ 10% less than their maximum body weight the year prior to the survey (n=1310, 33.5% regained > 5% during that year .Despite its somewhat unimpressive success rate, "lifestyle" weight management remains the first line intervention for obesity treatment . Lifestyle weight management can be defined as interventions based on energy restriction (weight loss diet; increased energy output (exercise; and/or behavioral change (cognitive or behavior therapy. Functional foods have been explored as a tool for enhancing lifestyle weight management.Functional foods evaluated for their efficacy as obesity interventions can be divided into two broad categories: 1 foods which suppress appetite and increase satiety; and 2 foods which enhance thermogenesis. The present review will focus on those foods thought to act by increasing satiety and suppressing appetite.Key words: Obesity, weight loss, systematic review, dietary fiber
Jensen, C D; Spiller, G A; Gates, J E; Miller, A F; Whittam, J H
Water-soluble dietary fibers (WSDF) are generally thought to lower cholesterol. This study compared the cholesterol-lowering effects of a medium viscosity WSDF mixture (psyllium, pectin, guar gum and locust bean gum) with an equal amount of WSDF from acacia gum, which has a lower viscosity. Hypercholesterolemic males (n = 13) and females (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two WSDF treatments provided in a low-calorie powder form for mixing into beverages (powders into their usual beverages and to consume them three times daily (5 g WSDF/serving) for 4 weeks while consuming their typical fat-modified diets. Exercise and body weights were also held constant. The WSDF mixture yielded a 10% decrease in plasma total cholesterol (from 251 +/- 20 to 225 +/- 19 mg/dL; p gum-treated group showed no change in any plasma lipid parameters. The WSDF treatments did not produce significant changes in mean dietary intakes within or between treatment groups. These data support previous findings that a diet rich in select WSDF can be a useful cholesterol-lowering adjunct to a fat-modified diet, but that caution should be exercised in ascribing cholesterol-lowering efficacy to dietary fibers based solely on their WSDF classification. Finally, WSDF viscosity is a potential cholesterol-lowering factor to be explored further.
Full Text Available Increased fiber intake has been linked with lower risk of overweight and obesity in adults, but data are sparse for children. To address this issue, NHANES 2003–2006 data was used to evaluate (1 the food sources of fiber in children, (2 the dietary fiber density levels and risk of being classified as overweight/obese, and (3 the association between fiber intake level and impaired glucose metabolism in children. Analyses were restricted to the subsample of children with biological plausible diet reports (N=4,667 and stratified by 2–11 year olds (n=2072 and 12–18 year olds (n=2595. Results showed that the food sources are predominantly foods that are low in dietary fiber, but are consumed at high levels. In 2–18 year old plausible reporters, the risk for overweight/obesity decreased by 17% from children in the medium tertile of fiber density intake compared to the lowest tertile (OR=0.83, P value = 0.043 and by 21% between the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR=0.79, P value = 0.031. There was a protective effect of being in the medium tertile of dietary fiber density (OR=0.68, P value <0.001 on impaired glucose metabolism. These results indicate a beneficial effect of higher fiber density in children’s diets.
Gómez-Favela, Mario Armando; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Canizalez-Román, Vicente Adrián; Del Rosario León-Sicairos, Claudia; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant is native from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Their seeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds which protect consumers against chronic diseases. Germination improves functionality of the seeds due to the increase in the bioactive compounds and associated antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to obtain functional flour from germinated chia seeds under optimized conditions with increased antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, GABA, essential amino acids, and dietary fiber with respect to un-germinated chia seeds. The effect of germination temperature and time (GT = 20-35 °C, Gt = 10-300 h) on protein, lipid, and total phenolic contents (PC, LC, TPC, respectively), and antioxidant activity (AoxA) was analyzed by response surface methodology as optimization tool. Chia seeds were germinated inside plastic trays with absorbent paper moisturized with 50 mL of 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite dissolution. The sprouts were dried (50 °C/8 h) and ground to obtain germinated chia flours (GCF). The prediction models developed for PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA showed high coefficients of determination, demonstrating their adequacy to explain the variations in experimental data. The highest values of PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA were obtained at two different optimal conditions (GT = 21 °C/Gt = 157 h; GT = 33 °C/Gt = 126 h). Optimized germinated chia flours (OGCF) had higher PC, TPC, AoxA, GABA, essential amino acids, calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER), and total dietary fiber (TDF) than un-germinated chia seed flour. The OGCF could be utilized as a natural source of proteins, dietary fiber, GABA, and antioxidants in the development of new functional beverages and foods.
Tan, Jian; McKenzie, Craig; Vuillermin, Peter J; Goverse, Gera; Vinuesa, Carola G; Mebius, Reina E; Macia, Laurence; Mackay, Charles R
The incidence of food allergies in western countries has increased dramatically in recent decades. Tolerance to food antigens relies on mucosal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs), which promote differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. We show that high-fiber feeding in mice improved oral tolerance and protected from food allergy. High-fiber feeding reshaped gut microbial ecology and increased the release of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate and butyrate. High-fiber feeding enhanced oral tolerance and protected against food allergy by enhancing retinal dehydrogenase activity in CD103(+) DC. This protection depended on vitamin A in the diet. This feeding regimen also boosted IgA production and enhanced T follicular helper and mucosal germinal center responses. Mice lacking GPR43 or GPR109A, receptors for SCFAs, showed exacerbated food allergy and fewer CD103(+) DCs. Dietary elements, including fiber and vitamin A, therefore regulate numerous protective pathways in the gastrointestinal tract, necessary for immune non-responsiveness to food antigens. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The incidence of food allergies in western countries has increased dramatically in recent decades. Tolerance to food antigens relies on mucosal CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs, which promote differentiation of regulatory T (Treg cells. We show that high-fiber feeding in mice improved oral tolerance and protected from food allergy. High-fiber feeding reshaped gut microbial ecology and increased the release of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly acetate and butyrate. High-fiber feeding enhanced oral tolerance and protected against food allergy by enhancing retinal dehydrogenase activity in CD103+ DC. This protection depended on vitamin A in the diet. This feeding regimen also boosted IgA production and enhanced T follicular helper and mucosal germinal center responses. Mice lacking GPR43 or GPR109A, receptors for SCFAs, showed exacerbated food allergy and fewer CD103+ DCs. Dietary elements, including fiber and vitamin A, therefore regulate numerous protective pathways in the gastrointestinal tract, necessary for immune non-responsiveness to food antigens.
Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan
Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rao, B Dayakar; Kulkarni, Dhanashri B; C, Kavitha
The study aimed to identify best cultivars suitable for sorghum cookies accordingly nutrient and mineral compositions were evaluated. Protein and fat content of cookies were ranged from 5.89±0.04 to 8.27±0.21% and 21.03±0.01 to 23.08±0.03% respectively. The starch content of cookie ranged between 47.06±0.01 and 42.15±0.03% and dietary fiber was reported highest in CSH14 (9.27±0.01%). The highest Mg (56.24±0.03mg/100g) P (255.54±0.03mg/100g), and K (124.26±0.02mg/100g) content were found in C43 cultivar. CSV18R was reported highest iron content (1.23±0.01mg/100g). The sensory scores for overall acceptability of cookies were highest in CSH23, CSH13R and CSV18R cultivars which are rich in dietary fiber and minerals. Normally the hybrids are high yielders and the grain price/qt is 20% lower than varieties. It is implied the raw material costs of two identified cultivars (CSH23 & CSH13R) would help the industry to reduce overall cost of production and offer a better profit margins over the varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu
Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sebelien, Mari Bøe
Background and aims: The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) can be modified by diet- and lifestyle related factors such as intake of red meat, dietary fiber and alcohol, as well as obesity. These risk factors may also increase the risk of recurrence, secondary cancers and comorbidity. The prevalence of obesity and the habitual diet of CRC patients directly prior to diagnosis is, however, not well characterized. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to characterize BMI and dietary intake of...
Pillai, M G; Thampi, B S; Menon, V P; Leelamma, S
The influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel isolated by the neutral detergent fiber method on the antioxidant status in rats treated with the colon specific carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was studied in rats fed a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. The DMH-treated fiber group showed higher levels of lipid peroxides than the control group treated with DMH at the preneoplastic and neoplastic stages. Free fatty acid levels were found to decrease significantly in the DMH-treated control group, whereas it was near normal in the fiber groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity also were found to be increased in the liver, intestine, proximal colon, and distal colon. Glutathione levels in all the tissues studied showed significant decreases in the fiber group. The results suggest that coconut kernel fiber can protect cells from loss of oxidative capacity with the administration of the procarcinogen DMH.
Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.
Formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in archived colon tissue from animals in a previous study was examined. The animals were fed a semisynthetic casein-based diet in which the carbohydrate pool was substituted with a dietary beet fiber (Fibeta) as the only source of fiber. Oral doses...... experimental data. The present state of knowledge could indicate that ACF represent true preneoplastic lesions progressing into colon tumors or that ACF and colon tumors represent two parallel independent events as a consequence of the cancer initiation (i.e., the ACF not being preneoplastic lesions per se)....... between duration of intake of high-fiber diet and number of animals with ACF, as well as the total number of ACF and number of small A CF (1-3 crypts) per affected animal. The previously reported data showed no protective effect of the dietary fiber at any stage of the colorectal carcinogenic process...
Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong
Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.
Jiao, Jun; Xu, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Weiguo; Han, Shufen; Qin, Li-Qiang
Previous studies suggested that dietary fiber intake may have a lowing effect on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation, in overweight/obese adults with inconsistent results. A literature search was performed in April 2014 for related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analysis was conducted. Meta-analysis including 14 RCTs showed that intervention with dietary fiber or fiber-rich food, compared with control, produced a slight, but significant reduction of 0.37 mg/L (95% CI -0.74, 0) in circulating CRP level among this population. Subgroup analyses showed that such a significant reduction was only observed after combining studies where the total fiber intake was 8 g/d higher in the intervention group than in the control group. No obvious heterogeneity and publication bias were found in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that dietary fiber or food naturally rich in fiber has beneficial effects on circulating CRP level in overweight/obese adults.
Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.
Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Astrup, Arne
We conducted two single-blinded randomized crossover acute studies with 24 and 20 subjects, respectively, to compare (I) CONTROL vs. Flax drink; and (II) Flax drink vs. Flax tablets. The subjects were exposed to one of the treatments after an overnight fast, and rated appetite sensation for 120 min using visual analog scales (VAS). Hereafter they consumed an ad libitum early lunch to assess energy intake. The treatments were iso-caloric and iso-volumeric: 300 mL drink; Flax drink: CONTROL drink with addition flax fiber extract (2.5 g of soluble fibers); and Flax tablet: CONTROL drink with flax fiber tablets (2.5 g of soluble fibers). Flax drink increased sensation of satiety and fullness compared to CONTROL and a significant decrease in subsequent energy intake was observed after the Flax drink compared to CONTROL (2937 vs. 3214 kJ). Appetite ratings were similar for Flax tablets and Flax drink as they did not differ by more than 1-4%. Subsequent energy intake was similar after the two treatments (3370 vs. 3379 kJ). A small dose of flaxseed fiber significantly suppresses appetite and energy intake. Furthermore, flaxseed fibers administered as drinks or tablets produce similar responses. Copyright Â© 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of β-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX than wheat lines, and elevated β-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits.Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.
Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID
Zebeli, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Tafaj, M.; Steingass, H.; Ametaj, B.N.; Drochner, W.
The main objective of this study was to develop practical models to assess and predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in high-yielding dairy cows. We used quantitative methods to analyze relevant research data and critically evaluate and determine the responses of ruminal pH and production
The increasing demand of healthier foods favors the consumption of natural bioactive compounds such as antioxidants and dietary fiber (DF) that confers protection against cardiovascular diseases and other degenerative diseases. On the industrial processing of mango, 35-60 % of this fruit is discarde...
Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E
The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P motivation at 1900 h (P motivation during the night compared with feeding once daily. Among restricted-fed sows, plasma concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were greater in sows fed high-fiber diets compared with the control (P = 0.02). Nonesterified fatty acid was least in sows on the control diet and greatest in sows on the potato diet, whereas sows on the pectin and
Koch, L E; Gomez, N A; Bowyer, A; Lascano, G J
The addition of dietary fiber can alter nutrient and N utilization in precision-fed dairy heifers and may further benefit from higher inclusion levels of RUP. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-RUP diet when dietary fiber content was manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (555.4 ± 31.4 kg BW; 17.4 ± 0.1 mo) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of forage, high forage (HF; 60% forage) or low forage (LF; 45% forage), and to a fiber proportion sequence (low fiber: 100% oat hay and silage [OA], 0% wheat straw [WS]; medium fiber: 83.4% OA, 16.6% WS; and high fiber: 66.7% OA, 33.3% WS) administered according to a split-plot 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods). Similar levels of N intake (1.70 g N/kg BW) and RUP (55% of CP) were provided. Data were analyzed as a split-plot, 3 × 3 Latin square design using a mixed model with fixed effects of period and treatment. A repeated measures model was used with data that had multiple measurements over time. No differences were observed for DM, OM, NDF, or ADF apparent digestibility coefficients (dC) between HF- and LF-fed heifers. Heifers receiving LF diets had greater starch dC compared to HF heifers. Increasing the fiber level through WS addition resulted in a linear reduction of OM dC. There was a linear interaction for DM dC with a concurrent linear interaction in NDF dC. Nitrogen intake, dC, and retention did not differ; however, urine and total N excretion increased linearly with added fiber. Predicted microbial CP flow (MP) linearly decreased with WS inclusion mainly in LF heifers, as indicated by a significant interaction between F:C and WS. Rumen pH linearly increased with WS addition, although no F:C effect was detected. Ruminal ammonia concentration had an opposite linear effect with respect to MP as WS increased. Diets with the higher proportion of
Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L
OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...... to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values. RESULTS: An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27...
Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria
Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ham, Youn-Kyung; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Il; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant ( p >0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly ( p color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant ( p color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food.
Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W
Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.
Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Lucas-Gonzalez, Raquel; Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Muñoz, Loreto A; Fernández-López, Juana
The aim of this work was to determine the protective effect of different dietary fibers on (i) the recovery and bioaccessibility indexes, and (ii) the stability of polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins) of maqui berry powder subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (GID). The extracts obtained in each phase (oral, gastric and intestinal) of GID were used to analyze the stability of polyphenolic compounds by HPLC, and the bioaccessibility of these compounds was also determined. At the end of the GID process, the mixture of maqui berry with the different fibers increased the bioaccessibility index of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all cases. The results obtained suggest that the anthocyanins and phenolic acids and flavonoid compounds present in maqui are stabilized through dietary fiber interactions, which might provide sufficient levels for absorption during gastrointestinal digestion. The gums sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum and guar gum provided the best protective effect.
Schatzkin, Arthur; Mouw, Traci; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Kipnis, Victor; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael F; Thompson, Frances E
Whether the intake of dietary fiber can protect against colorectal cancer is a long-standing question of considerable public health import, but the epidemiologic evidence has been inconsistent. The objective was to investigate the relation between dietary fiber and whole-grain food intakes and invasive colorectal cancer in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. The analytic cohort consisted of 291 988 men and 197 623 women aged 50-71 y. Diet was assessed with a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1995-1996; 2974 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified during 5 y of follow-up. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with colorectal cancer. The multivariate RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake quintile (RR(Q5-Q1)) was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.15; P for trend = 0.96). In analyses of fiber from different food sources, only fiber from grains was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate RR(Q5-Q1): 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98; P for trend = 0.01). Whole-grain intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk: the multivariate RR(Q5-Q1) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89) for the whole cohort (P for trend cancer. In this large prospective cohort study, total dietary fiber intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas whole-grain consumption was associated with a modest reduced risk.
Full Text Available A recent study demonstrated a positive effect of apple polyphenol (APP intake on muscle endurance of young-adult animals. While an enhancement of lipid metabolism may be responsible, in part, for the improvement, the contributing mechanisms still need clarification. Here we show that an 8-week intake of 5% (w/w APP in the diet, up-regulates two features related to fiber type: the ratio of myosin heavy chain (MyHC type IIx/IIb and myoglobin protein expression in plantaris muscle of 9-week-old male Fischer F344 rats compared to pair-fed controls (P < 0.05. Results were demonstrated by our SDS-PAGE system specialized for MyHC isoform separation and western blotting of whole muscles. Animal-growth profiles (food intake, body-weight gain, and internal-organ weights did not differ between the control and 5% APP-fed animals (n = 9/group. Findings may account for the increase in fatigue resistance of lower hind limb muscles, as evidenced by a slower decline in the maximum isometric planter-flexion torque generated by a 100-s train of electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. Additionally, the fatigue resistance was lower after 8 weeks of a 0.5% APP diet than after 5% APP, supporting an APP-dose dependency of the shift in fiber-type composition. Therefore, the present study highlights a promising contribution of dietary APP intake to increasing endurance based on fiber-type composition in rat muscle. Results may help in developing a novel strategy for application in animal sciences, and human sports and age-related health sciences.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variations in the daily intake of dietary fiber and calories according to the different nutrient composition and homemade measure tables. Methods: Five different methods based on different nutrient composition and household measure tables were used to calculate daily calorie and fiber intake, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, of 633 pregnant women receiving care in primary health care units in the Southern region of Brazil; they were selected to participate in a cohort study. The agreement between the five methods was evaluated using the Kappa and weighted Kappa coefficients. The Nutritional Support Table, a Brazilian traditional food composition table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 1. Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Table for the Assessment of Household Measures (Pinheiro were used in Methods 2 and 3. The average values of all subtypes of food listed in the Brazilian Food Composition Table for each corresponding item in the food frequency questionnaire were calculated in the method 3. The United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Table and the table complied by Pinheiro were used in Method 4. The Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 5. Results: The highest agreement of calorie intake values were found between Methods 2 and 3 (Kappa=0.94; 0.92-0.95, and the lowest agreement was found between Methods 4 and 5 (Kappa=0.46; 0.42-0.50. As for the fiber intake, the highest agreement was found between Methods 2 and 5 (Kappa=0.87; 0.82-0.90, and the lowest agreement was observed between Methods 1 and 4 (Kappa=0.36; 0.3-0.43. Conclusion: Considerable differences were found between the nutritional composition tables. Therefore, the choice of the table can influence the comparability between studies.
Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata; Moskwa, Justyna; Gromkowska-Kępka, Krystyna; Laskowska, Emilia; Laskowska, Jolanta; Tomczuk, Justyna; Borawska, Maria Halina
Bakery products are a source of bioactive compounds, such as dietary fibre (DF), whose proper supply plays an important role in prevention of civilisation diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine total dietary fibre (TDF) content in bakery products and their contribution to TDF supply. The determination of TDF content was performed using enzymatic-gravimetric method in 72 samples of six types of bakery products (wholemeal rye bread, wheat-rye bread, wheat-rye bread with grains, toast bread, crispbread, rolls) included in the young adults diet. Simultaneously, frequency of bakery products consumption and their contribution to TDF supply were assessed based on dietary interview questionnaires carried out among 224 students from Poland. Index of nutritional quality (INQ) of examined bakery products was calculated. Our data indicate that average TDF content depended on the type of bakery products and ranged from 2.19 g/100 g in rolls to 11.80 g/100 g in wholemeal rye bread. All of the tested types of bakery products, except rolls, were a good source of fibre (INQ≥1), but the richest were wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads. Analysis of questionnaires data showed that bakery products were regularly consumed by 80% of young adults; however, most of whom preferred rolls. Consumption of bakery products covered current recommendations for dietary fibre in 27%. Daily intake of bakery products and TDF was not correlated with student's BMI, however, women frequently consuming bread had a lower BMI than those who rarely ate it. Wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads are the rich source of TDF and they should be consumed by young adults in order to achieve the recommended TDF values.
Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.
/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive...
Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.
Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun
In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.
Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1 control diet (C group, (2 high fat + high fiber diet (HF group, (3 high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group, and (4 HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.
曾琳娜; 刘博; 林亲录; 罗非君
Soluble dietary fiber can dissolve in water and swelling,and it can be degraded in the large intestine of fiber. The physiological functions of soluble dietary fiber including:excreting toxins from the body,reducing blood fat,lowering blood glucose and so on. It may play an important role in preventing diabetes,cardiovascular disease and cancer. Especially,reducing blood lipid by soluble dietary fiber has made some breakthroughs. Epidemiological studies have shown that soluble dietary fiber such as oat beta glucan has a cholesterol-lowering effect. Animal experiments found that dietary fiber composites have obvious lipid-lowering effect in the hypercholesterolemia mice. Intervention study in population found that soluble dietary fiber and soy protein can reduce cholesterol and triglyceride in serum etc. In recent years,some studies found that soluble dietary fiber can regulate lipid and cholesterol-related gene expressions. This paper summarizes the recent progress of soluble dietary fiber in the field of anti-hypolipidemia and the possible molecular mechanisms are involved in.%可溶性膳食纤维是能溶解于水，也能吸水膨胀，并能被大肠中微生物降解的纤维。可溶性膳食纤维生理功能包括：排泄体内毒素、降血脂、降血糖等，在心血管疾病、糖尿病、癌症等防治中起重要作用，特别是可溶性膳食纤维降血脂方面取得了一些突破性进展。流行病学研究表明：可溶性膳食纤维如燕麦β-葡聚糖具有降低胆固醇的作用；利用动物实验，发现复合膳食纤维对高胆固醇血症小鼠有明显降脂作用等；人群干预研究发现在膳食中可溶性纤维和大豆蛋白可降低血清胆固醇和血清甘油三酯作用等。近年来研究发现，可溶性膳食纤维能够调控血脂和胆固醇相关的基因表达。该文总结了近年来可溶性膳食纤维降血脂及其分子机制等方面研究新进展。
Saarinen, Markku T; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Sørensen, Jens F; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Rautonen, Nina; Morgan, Andrew
Different ways of treating bran by baking enzymes prior to dough making and the baking process were used to increase the amount of water-soluble dietary fiber (DF) in wheat bread with added bran. Soluble DF was extracted from the bread with water and separated from the digestible material with gastrointestinal tract enzymes and by solvent precipitation. The baking enzyme mixtures tested (xylanase and glucanase/cellulase, with and without lipase) increased the amounts of soluble arabinoxylan and protein resistant to digestion. The isolated fiber was used as a growth substrate for 11 probiotic and intestinal Bifidobacterium strains, for commensal strains of Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli, and for potential intestinal pathogenic strains of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Clostridium perfringens. Fermentation analyses indicated that the tested strains had varying capacity to grow in the presence of the extracted fiber. Of the tested probiotic strains B. longum species generally showed the highest ability to utilize the fiber extracts, although the potential pathogens tested also showed an ability to grow on these fiber extracts. In sum, the enzymes used to improve the baking process for high-fiber bread can also be used to produce in situ soluble fiber material, which in turn can exert prebiotic effects on certain potentially beneficial microbes.
Amankwaah, Akua F; Sayer, R Drew; Wright, Amy J; Chen, Ningning; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W
Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women ( n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast treatments during four 2-week interventions in a randomized crossover fashion. On the last day of each intervention, meal tolerance tests were completed to assess postprandial (every 60 min for 240 min) serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to measure 24-h interstitial glucose during five days of the second week of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied for data analyses. The HPHF treatment did not affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses or 24-h glucose total area under the curve (AUC). Higher fiber intake reduced 240-min insulin AUC. Doubling the amount of protein from 12.5 g to 25 g/meal and quadrupling fiber from 2 to 8 g/meal at breakfast was not an effective strategy for modulating insulin-mediated glucose responses in these young, overweight adults.
Arora, Simran Kaur; Patel, A A; Kumar, Naveen; Chauhan, O P
The shear-thinning low, medium and high-viscosity fiber preparations (0.15-1.05 % psyllium husk, 0.07-0.6 % guar gum, 0.15-1.20 % gum tragacanth, 0.1-0.8 % gum karaya, 0.15-1.05 % high-viscosity Carboxy Methyl Cellulose and 0.1-0.7 % xanthan gum) showed that the consistency coefficient (k) was a function of concentration, the relationship being exponential (R(2), 0.87-0.96; P flow behaviour index (n) (except for gum karaya and CMC) was exponentially related to concentration (R(2), 0.61-0.98). The relationship between k and sensory viscosity rating (SVR) was essentially linear in nearly all cases. The SVR could be predicted from the consistency coefficient using the regression equations developed. Also, the relationship of k with fiber concentration would make it possible to identify the concentration of a particular gum required to have desired consistency in terms of SVR.
López-Olmedo, Nancy; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Campirano, Fabricio; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Rivera, Juan A
The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was carried out in 2012. Information from the survey is used to design and evaluate food and nutrition policies in Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy and macronutrients in the Mexican population by using the ENSANUT 2012. Twenty-four-hour recall interviews were administered to a nationally representative subsample of 10,096 individuals aged ≥1 y from the ENSANUT 2012. Usual intake distributions and the prevalence of inadequate intakes were estimated by using the Iowa State University method. Student's t tests and tests on the equality of proportions were used to compare usual intakes and prevalence of inadequacy across socioeconomic status, area (rural or urban), and region of residence (North, Center, or South). Energy and macronutrient intakes and indicators of dietary adequacy are presented for children (ages 1-4 y and 5-11 y), adolescents (12-19 y), and adults (≥20 y). At the national level, the estimated mean fiber intake was below the Adequate Intake for all population subgroups, suggesting inadequacies. The estimated proportion with a usual added sugars intake of >10% of total energy intake was >64% in all age groups. The proportion with a usual saturated fat intake of >10% of total energy intake was estimated to be >78% in children, >66% in adolescents, and >50% in adults. Overall, fiber intake was lower and intakes of saturated fat and added sugars were higher in urban compared with rural areas, in the North compared with South regions, and among those with high compared with low socioeconomic status (P 50% of the Mexican population aged ≥1 y. These results highlight the importance of improving the diets of the overall population to reduce the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Rao, Shyama Prasad; Muralikrishna, G
The nature of carbohydrates present in the food is growing field of interest within the food industry due to the potential of some of them to help prevent diseases of lifestyle. Non-glycemic carbohydrates, i.e., those carbohydrates (or their components) that are not absorbed in the small intestine...... and, therefore, transit down to become fermented in the colon, have drawn lot of attention. In fact, food carbohydrates can be broadly classified on the basis of their in vivo digestibility into digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates (Table1) (Asp, 1996; Englyst et al., 1992). Non......-digestible carbohydrates have been collectively referred to as ‘dietary fibre’ (Hipsley, 1953). Some of these carbohydrates are of particular interest to the food industry for the purpose of developing ‘functional foods’, i.e., foods that are able to exert positive health effects. Non-digestible oligo...
Dietary modulation of erythrocyte insulin receptor interaction and the regulation of adipose tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in growing rats; a mechanism of action of dietary fiber in metabolism
The metabolic effects of graded cellulose (a dietary fiber) intake were studied at minimal (10%) and maximal (20%) protein levels in male weanling Sprague Dawley rats. The hypothesis was tested that the hypoglycemic effect of high fiber diets is partly mediated through increased tissue sensitivity to insulin at the cell receptor level. Erythrocyte insulin receptor interaction (IRI) and percent insulin stimulation of adipose tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity (PDS) were used as indices of tissue sensitivity to insulin. IRI was determined by a standardized radioceptor assay PDS by the rate of oxidation of 1-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in epidymal fat pads and serum insulin levels by radioimmunoassay. In both protein groups, the addition of fiber in the diet resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in food intake (FI) for calorie compensation. Fiber and protein intake had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on IRI and both basal (PDB) and PDS activities of PDH. At all fiber levels, specific percent /sup 125/I-insulin binding (SIB) was higher in the 20% protein groups while in the fiber-free group, a higher SIB was observed in the 10% protein group.
Garg, Pankaj; Singh, Pratiksha
The root cause of hemorrhoids resides in three deranged defecation habits (DDH), namely increased straining, prolonged defecation-time, and frequent bowel-motions. These DDH are responsible for the development of new hemorrhoids, progression of existing one and hemorrhoidal rupture (bleeding). DDH can be corrected with the help of the "TONE" mnemonic. TONE entails specifying exact treatment goals: T, three minutes at defecation; O, once-a-day defecation frequency; N, no straining during passing motions; E, enough fiber. TONE can be implemented by proper counseling and by prescribing fiber supplement appropriately (5-6 teaspoonfuls of psyllium husk with 600 mL of water daily. Corrected DDH would prevent the progression of hemorrhoids and bleeding episodes. An office procedure may be done to further downgrade the hemorrhoids. Patients with advanced hemorrhoids (grades III and IV) who were referred for surgery were prescribed fiber supplement and were counseled to follow TONE. The outcome parameters evaluated were improvement in prolapse, bleeding episodes, satisfaction levels. A total of 102 patients (75 males and 10 females, mean age 46.0±13.5 years, 17 lost to follow-up) with advanced hemorrhoids (41 with early grade III, 38 with late grade III, and 6 with grade IV) were included in the study. All patients had symptoms of prolapsed hemorrhoids and bleeding episodes were present in 71.8% (61/85) of patients. After the follow-up of 40 (12-96) months, 68.2% (58/85) patients were highly satisfied, 12.9% (11/85) were moderately satisfied and 18.9% (16/85) were not satisfied with treatment. Prolapse improved in 56.5% (48/85), did not progress over time in 25.9 (22/85) and continued to progress in 4.7% (4/85) patients. 12.9% (11/85) underwent operation for hemorrhoids. Bleeding episodes decreased from 71.8% (61/85) to 29.4% (25/85) (Phemorrhoids and bleeding, and preventing surgery in most patients with advanced hemorrhoids.
Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía
This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFCs) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, with the highest content found with 100% H 2 O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H 2 O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H 2 O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H 2 O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing
Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.
Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko
Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.
Arribas, C; Cabellos, B; Sánchez, C; Cuadrado, C; Guillamón, E; Pedrosa, M M
Consumers and the food industry are demanding healthier products. Expanded snacks with a high nutritional value were developed from different rice, pea and carob flour blends. The proximate composition, starch (total and resistant), amylose and amylopectin, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) contents, and the in vitro protein digestibility of different rice-legume formulations, were evaluated before and after the extrusion process. Compared with the corresponding non-extruded blends (control), the extrusion treatment did not change the total protein content, however, it reduced the soluble protein (61-86%), the fat (69-92%) and the resistant starch contents (100%). The total starch content of all studied blends increased (2-19%) after extrusion. The processing increased the in vitro protein digestibility, reaching values around 88-95% after extrusion. Total dietary fiber was reduced around 30%, and the insoluble fraction was affected to a larger extent than the soluble fraction by the extrusion process. Because of its balanced nutritional composition, high dietary fiber content, as well as low energy density, these novel gluten-free snack-like foods could be considered as functional foods and a healthier alternative to commercially available gluten-containing or gluten-free and low nutritional value snacks.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary factors play an important role in glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, little is known about their effects among Chinese diabetic patients, whose diets are typically abundant in fiber and high in glycemic index (GI values. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 934 patients with type 2 diabetes and 918 healthy volunteers from Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China, were interviewed during the period of Oct-Dec, 2006 to elicit demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, bio-specimen collection and biochemical assays were conducted at the interview according to a standard protocol. In this population, diabetic patients consumed lower levels of energy and macronutrients but had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, glycolated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, triglyceride and body mass index than healthy adults. While the average consumption levels of the nutrients among diabetic patients did not vary along duration of the disease, the average levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with increasing duration. Regardless of diabetes duration, HbA1c level was observed lower in patients having a higher fiber or lower GI intake. Compared with those with the lowest tertile intake of fiber, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs for poor glycemic control reduced from 0.75 (95%CI: 0.54-1.06 to 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34-0.75 with increasing tertile intake (P for trend <0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fiber may play an important role in reducing HbA1c level. Increasing fiber intake may be an effective approach to improve glycemic control among Chinese diabetic patients.
Tobaruela, Eric de C; Santos, Aline de O; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B de; Araujo, Elias da S; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete W
AOAC 2011.25 method enables the quantification of most of the dietary fiber (DF) components according to the definition proposed by Codex Alimentarius. This study aimed to compare the DF content in fruits analyzed by the AOAC 2011.25 and AOAC 991.43 methods. Plums (Prunus salicina), atemoyas (Annona x atemoya), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), and mature coconuts (Cocos nucifera) from different Brazilian regions (3 lots/fruit) were analyzed for DF, resistant starch, and fructans contents. The AOAC 2011.25 method was evaluated for precision, accuracy, and linearity in different food matrices and carbohydrate standards. The DF contents of plums, atemoyas, and jackfruits obtained by AOAC 2011.25 was higher than those obtained by AOAC 991.43 due to the presence of fructans. The DF content of mature coconuts obtained by the same methods did not present a significant difference. The AOAC 2011.25 method is recommended for fruits with considerable fructans content because it achieves more accurate values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Velázquez-López, Carolina; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; Goñi, Isabel
Dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidant compounds are widely used as functional ingredients. The market in this field is competitive and the search for new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is intensifying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and antioxidant activity of by-products generated during the decoction of calyces of four Mexican Hibiscus sabdariffa L. cultivars ('Criolla', 'China', 'Rosalis' and 'Tecoanapa') in order to assess them as a source of functional ingredients. Some calyx components were partially transferred to the beverage during the decoction process, while most were retained in the decoction residues. These by-products proved to be a good source of DF (407.4-457.0 g kg⁻¹ dry matter) and natural antioxidants (50.7-121.8 µmol Trolox equivalent g⁻¹ dry matter). The decoction process extracted some soluble carbohydrates, ash and some extractable polyphenols. The DF content changed in the dried residues, which could be considered as high-DF materials with a high proportion of soluble DF (∼20% of total DF) and considerable antioxidant capacity. These by-products could be used as an antioxidant DF source. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rafaëlle M. A. van Gijssel
Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS. These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042, and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003, but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.
Poeker, Sophie A; Geirnaert, Annelies; Berchtold, Laura; Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Steinert, Robert E; de Wouters, Tomas; Lacroix, Christophe
Consumption of fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), which can induce growth and/or activity of specific beneficial populations, is suggested a promising strategy to modulate the gut microbiota and restore health in microbiota-linked diseases. Until today, inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are the best studied DFs, while little is known about the gut microbiota-modulating effects of β-glucan, α-galactooligosaccharide (α-GOS) and xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS). Here, we used three continuous in vitro fermentation PolyFermS model to study the modulating effect of these DFs on two distinct human adult proximal colon microbiota, independently from the host. Supplementation of DFs, equivalent to a 9 g daily intake, induced a consistent metabolic response depending on the donor microbiota. Irrespective to the DF supplemented, the Bacteroidaceae-Ruminococcaceae dominated microbiota produced more butyrate (up to 96%), while the Prevotellaceae-Ruminococcaceae dominated microbiota produced more propionate (up to 40%). Changes in abundance of specific bacterial taxa upon DF supplementation explained the observed changes in short-chain fatty acid profiles. Our data suggest that the metabolic profile of SCFA profile may be the most suitable and robust read-out to characterize microbiota-modulating effects of a DF and highlights importance to understand the inter-individual response to a prebiotic treatment for mechanistic understanding and human application.
Cameron, I L; Hardman, W E; Heitman, D W
The effect of supplementation of the diet with autohydrolyzed lignin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied using 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received eight weekly injections of DMH (9.5 mg/kg s.c.) or the saline vehicle solution and then were maintained on a basal AIN-76 fiber-free diet or the basal fiber-free diet plus 5% or 10% (wt/wt) lignin for 24 weeks. Rats were killed 32 weeks after the start of the experiment. Colon tumor incidence, location, and multiplicity were determined. Body weight, caloric intake, fecal dry weight, gut transit time, pH of cecal contents, and total fecal bile acid excretion were measured. Supplementation of the diet with 5% or 10% lignin resulted in increased fecal dry weight and total fecal bile acid excretion and in decreased gut transit time, colon pH, and fecal bile acid concentration. Dietary lignin did not significantly affect colon tumor incidence or multiplicity compared with the fiber-free diet. Thus dietary supplementation with autohydrolyzed lignin, a food fiber with good bulking characteristics, had a significant effect on several factors that have previously been linked to reduction of colon cancer risk, but the consumption of high levels of lignin did not decrease the risk for colon cancer.
Vuksan, V; Sievenpiper, J L; Owen, R; Swilley, J A; Spadafora, P; Jenkins, D J; Vidgen, E; Brighenti, F; Josse, R G; Leiter, L A; Xu, Z; Novokmet, R
Dietary fiber has recently received recognition for reducing the risk of developing diabetes and heart disease. The implication is that it may have therapeutic benefit in prediabetic metabolic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of supplementing a high-carbohydrate diet with fiber from Konjac-mannan (KJM) on metabolic control in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome. We screened 278 free-living subjects between the ages of 45 and 65 years from the Canadian-Maltese Diabetes Study. A total of 11 (age 55+/-4 years, BMI 28+/-1.5 kg/m2) were recruited who satisfied the inclusion criteria: impaired glucose tolerance, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, and moderate hypertension. After an 8-week baseline, they were randomly assigned to take either KJM fiber-enriched test biscuits (0.5 g of glucomannan per 100 kcal of dietary intake or 8-13 g/day) or wheat bran fiber (WB) control biscuits for two 3-week treatment periods separated by a 2-week washout. The diets were isoenergetic, metabolically controlled, and conformed to National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 guidelines. Serum lipids, glycemic control, and blood pressure were the outcome measures. Decreases in serum cholesterol (total, 12.4+/-3.1%, PFasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and body weight remained unchanged. A diet rich in high-viscosity KJM improves glycemic control and lipid profile, suggesting a therapeutic potential in the treatment of the insulin resistance syndrome.
Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M.; Rosch, Christiane; Schols, Henk A.; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul
Scope: In the present study, the direct interaction of commonly consumed fibers with epithelial or dendritic cells (DCs) was studied. Methods and results: The fibers were characterized for their sugar composition and chain length profile. When in direct contact, fibers activate DCs only mildly. This
Bermudez-Brito, M.; Sahasrabudhe, N.M.; Rösch, C.; Schols, H.A.; Faas, M.M.; Vos, de P.
Scope In the present study, the direct interaction of commonly consumed fibers with epithelial or dendritic cells (DCs) was studied. Methods and results The fibers were characterized for their sugar composition and chain length profile. When in direct contact, fibers activate DCs only mildly. This
... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...
Oufir, L E; Barry, J L; Flourié, B; Cherbut, C; Cloarec, D; Bornet, F; Galmiche, J P
To assess the effects of drug-induced changes in mean transit time (MTT) on the activity of human fecal flora in vitro. The activity of fecal flora was estimated by the ability of a fecal inoculum to ferment a substrate (beet fiber) in vitro in a batch system for 24 h. The inoculum was collected from 8 healthy volunteers studied during three 3-week randomized periods, who received a controlled diet alone (control period) or the same diet with either cisapride or loperamide. Cisapride and loperamide were adjusted in order to halve and double MTT measured during the control period. At the end of each period, the percentage disappearance of the initial added substrate and the concentration and the profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), were determined. In the control period, the pH of the inoculum and SCFA concentration were inversely related to MTT (P=0.0001). Individual SCFA production was also significantly related to MTT (P<0.01). Cisapride-reduced transit time was associated with a significant rise in the concentrations of total SCFAs (P<0.05), propionic and butyric acids (P<0.05) and the percentage substrate disappearance (P<0.05). Inverse relations were observed during the loperamide period. Moreover, MTT was inversely related to the percentage substrate disappearance (P<0.001), SCFA production (P<0.001) and butyrate production (P<0.0005). Changes in MTT alter bacterial activity and modify the bacterial pathways affecting the proportion of individual SCFAs. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 603-609
Ha, Vanessa; Sievenpiper, John L; de Souza, Russell J; Jayalath, Viranda H; Mirrahimi, Arash; Agarwal, Arnav; Chiavaroli, Laura; Mejia, Sonia Blanco; Sacks, Frank M; Di Buono, Marco; Bernstein, Adam M; Leiter, Lawrence A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Vuksan, Vladimir; Bazinet, Richard P; Josse, Robert G; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A
Evidence from controlled trials encourages the intake of dietary pulses (beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas) as a method of improving dyslipidemia, but heart health guidelines have stopped short of ascribing specific benefits to this type of intervention or have graded the beneficial evidence as low. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction. We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of selected trials for relevant articles published through Feb. 5, 2014. We included RCTs of at least 3 weeks' duration that compared a diet emphasizing dietary pulse intake with an isocaloric diet that did not include dietary pulses. The lipid targets investigated were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol. We pooled data using a random-effects model. We identified 26 RCTs (n = 1037) that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Diets emphasizing dietary pulse intake at a median dose of 130 g/d (about 1 serving daily) significantly lowered LDL cholesterol levels compared with the control diets (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.25 to -0.09 mmol/L). Treatment effects on apolipoprotein B and non-HDL cholesterol were not observed. Our findings suggest that dietary pulse intake significantly reduces LDL cholesterol levels. Trials of longer duration and higher quality are needed to verify these results. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01594567.
Parcina, Marijo; Brune, Maik; Kaese, Vareska; Zorn, Markus; Spiegel, Rainer; Vojvoda, Valerija; Fleming, Thomas; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Paul Nawroth, Peter
This study addressed the question whether the composition of supposedly 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' dietary regimes has a calorie-independent short-term effect on biomarkers of metabolic stress and vascular risk in healthy individuals. Healthy male volunteers (age 29.5 ± 5.9 years, n = 39) were given a standardized baseline diet for two weeks before randomization into three groups of different dietary regimes: fast food, Mediterranean and German cooking style. Importantly, the amount of calories consumed per day was identical in all three groups. Blood samples were analyzed for biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and metabolic stress after two weeks of the baseline diet and after two weeks of the assigned dietary regime. No dietary intervention affected the metabolic or cardiovascular risk profile when compared in-between groups or compared to baseline. Subjects applied to the Mediterranean diet showed a statistically significant increase of uric acid compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. Plasma concentrations of urea were significantly higher in both the fast food group and the Mediterranean group, when compared to baseline and compared to the German diet group. No significant differences were detected for the levels of vitamins, trace elements or metabolic stress markers (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde and methylglyoxal, a potent glycating agent). Established parameters of vascular risk (e.g. LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine) were not significantly changed in-between groups or compared to baseline during the intervention period. The calorie-controlled dietary intervention caused neither protective nor harmful short-term effects regarding established biomarkers of vascular or metabolic risk. When avoiding the noxious effects of overfeeding, healthy individuals can possess the metabolic capacity to compensate for a potentially disadvantageous composition of a certain diet.
This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) provides guidance on the translation of nutrient based dietary advice into guidance, intended for the European population as a whole, on the contribution of different foods or food groups to an overall diet...
Lascano, G J; Koch, L E; Heinrichs, A J
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-rumen-degradable protein (RDP) diet when dietary fiber content is manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six cannulated Holstein heifers (486.98±15.07kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 F:C, low- (45% forage; LF) and high-forage (90% forage; HF) diets and to a fiber proportion sequence [33% grass hay and wheat straw (HS), 67% corn silage (CS; low fiber); 50% HS, 50% CS (medium fiber); and 67% HS, 33% CS (high fiber)] within forage proportion administered according to a split-plot, 3×3 Latin square design (16-d periods). Heifers fed LF had greater apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility coefficients (dC), neutral detergent fiber, and cellulose than those fed LC diets. Substituting CS with HS resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter, organic matter, and cellulose dC. Nitrogen dC was not different between F:C or with increasing proportions of HS in diets, but N retention tended to decrease linearly as HS was increased in the diets. Predicted microbial protein flow to the duodenum decreased linearly with HS addition and protozoa numbers HS interacted linearly, exhibiting a decrease as HS increased for LF, whereas no effects were observed for HF. Blood urea N increased linearly as HS was incorporated. The LF-fed heifers had a greater ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration. We noted a tendency for a greater dry matter, and a significantly higher liquid fraction turnover rate for HF diets. There was a linear numerical increase in the liquid and solid fraction turnover rate as fiber was added to the diets. Rumen fermentation parameters and fractional passages (solid and liquid) rates support the reduction in dC, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis observed as more dietary fiber is added to the rations of dairy heifers precision-fed a constant proportion of rumen
Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K; Wu, Jin-Zhong
The proximate composition of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos, together with the yield, purity, monosaccharide profile, and microstructure of their insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions prepared from AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods were investigated and compared. All three sclerotia were typical carbohydrate rich sclerotia [ranging from 90.5 to 98.1% dry matter (DM)] with an exceptionally low amount of crude lipid content (ranging from 0.02 to 0.14% DM). Besides, all three sclerotia possessed substantial amounts of IDF (ranging from 77.4 to 94.6% DM) with notably high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (89.9-92.2% DM) in which glucose was the predominant sugar residue (90.6-97.2% of NSP DM). On the contrary, both the yield (only ranging from 1.45 to 2.50% DM) and the amount of NSP (ranging from 22.4 to 29.6% DM) of the three sclerotial SDF fractions were very low. Scanning electron micrographs showed fragments of interwoven hyphae and insoluble materials in the three sclerotial IDF fractions, but only an amorphous structure of soluble materials was observed in the SDF fractions. The potential use of these fiber preparations was discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.
Zoraida Cañas Ángel
Full Text Available Durante los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés de la industria, los especialistas y del público en general, hacia los posibles usos y beneficios de la fibra dietaria (FD. Este ingrediente funcional, ha sido reportado especialmente por favorecer el funcionamiento digestivo, controlando el tránsito intestinal de los alimentos, el estreñimiento, las hemorroides, la absorción de glucosa, el colesterol, la sensación de saciedad, entre otros. En este artículo se hace una revisión de literatura publicada principalmente de la última década de la fibra dietaria como componente con actividad fisiológica (ingrediente funcional, haciendo énfasis en las fuentes vegetales, sus propiedades funcionales y aplicabilidad. El resultado del repaso, identifica que son muchas las fuentes de fibra dietaria actualmente subutilizadas y que representan una alternativa viable y de bajo costo para mejorar la nutrición de la población.During the last years there has been an increasing interest from industry, professionals and the general public about possible uses and benefits of dietary fiber (DF. These functional ingredients have been reported especially by promoting gastrointestinal operation, controlling the intestinal transit of food, constipation, hemorrhoids, the absorption of glucose, cholesterol, satiety, among others. This article is a review of literature published primarily in the last decade as a component of dietary fiber with physiological activity (functional ingredient, with emphasis on plant sources, its functional properties and applicability. The results of the review, identified that there are many sources of dietary fiber currently underutilized and represent a viable alternative to improve the nutrition of the population at low cost.
Satoh, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Hirakawa, Tomoe; Wada, Naoki
How to prevent the small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs is an urgent issue to be resolved. In the present study, we examined the effects of soluble dietary fibers on both anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin in arthritic rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used. Arthritis was induced by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant (killed M. tuberculosis) into the plantar region of the right hindpaw. The animals were fed a regular powder diet for rats or a diet supplemented with soluble dietary fibers such as pectin or guar gum. Indomethacin was administered once a day for 3 days starting 14 days after the adjuvant injection, when marked arthritis was observed. The volumes of the hindpaw were measured before and after indomethacin treatment to evaluate the effect of indomethacin on edema. The lesions in the small intestine were examined 24 h after the final dosing of indomethacin. Hindpaw volume was increased about 3 times 14 days after injection of the adjuvant. Indomethacin (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased hindpaw volume dose-dependently, but caused severe lesions in the small intestine at doses of 6 and 10 mg/kg. The addition of pectin (1-10 %) or guar gum (10 %) to the diet markedly decreased the lesion formation without affecting the anti-edema action of indomethacin. The same effects of pectin were observed when indomethacin was administered subcutaneously. It is suggested that soluble dietary fibers can prevent intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs without affecting the anti-inflammatory effect of these agents.
Sorensen, MD; Hsi, RS; Chi, T; Shara, N; Wactawski-Wende, J; Kahn, AJ; Wang, H; Hou, L; Stoller, ML
© 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Results Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p < 0.001), greater fruit intake (12% to 25% decreased risk, p < 0.001) and greater vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney...
Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev
Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.
Ben Jeddou, Khawla; Bouaziz, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Chaari, Fatma; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma
Demand for health oriented products such as low calories and high fiber product is increasing. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of the addition of potato peel powders as protein and dietary fiber source on the quality of the dough and the cake. Powders obtained from the two types of peel flour showed interesting water binding capacity and fat absorption capacity. Potato peel flours were incorporated in wheat flours at different concentration. The results showed that peel powders additionally considerably improved the Alveograph profile of dough and the texture of the prepared cakes. In addition color measurements showed a significant difference between the control dough and the dough containing potato peels. The replacement of wheat flour with the potato powders reduced the cake hardness significantly and the L(*) and b(*) dough color values. The increased consumption of cake enriched with potato peel fiber is proposed for health reasons. The study demonstrated that protein/fiber-enriched cake with good sensory quality could be produced by the substitution of wheat flour by 5% of potato peel powder. In addition and technological point of view, the incorporation of potato peel powder at 5% increase the dough strength and elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Cheikh Rouhou, Marwa; Abdelmoumen, Souhir; Thomas, Sabu; Attia, Hamadi; Ghorbel, Dorra
This work aims to compare the development of three green chemistry methods in the extraction of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) dietary fibers. The influence of extraction conditions (solvent nature: water, lemon juice and ethanol; extraction process: maceration and steam explosion; extraction time: 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 5 h) on the chemical and structural composition was studied. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy proved that all treatments do not affect the cellulose structure and could induce the reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin content. The steam treatment with lemon juice was the best treatment in term of quality of the fibers extracted. Through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, it was demonstrated that this treatment contributed to the destruction of the amorphous phase with preservation of the crystalline phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the microstructure of the sample surface was uniform and contains arranged fibers. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed fibers with 80 nm of diameter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril Fm; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E; Mela, David J
Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1 ) DF name and origin and 2 ) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetite-related outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for
Raj Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C.; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan
Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The ...
Dreher, Mark L; Cho, Sungsoo Susan
... out a joint campaign to educate consumers that wheat bran ﬁber may lower the incidence of certain types of cancers, such as colon cancer. This opened a new avenue for nutraceuticals and functional foods for consumers throughout the world to lower their risk of chronic diseases by consuming foods formulated with functional ingredients. The...
Zaineddin, Aida Karina; Buck, Katharina; Vrieling, Alina; Heinz, Judith; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Linseisen, Jakob; Chang-Claude, Jenny
Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to estrogens and may affect breast cancer risk by mimicking estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In Western societies, whole grains and possibly soy foods are rich sources of phytoestrogens. A population-based case-control study in German postmenopausal women was used to evaluate the association of phytoestrogen-rich foods and dietary lignans with breast cancer risk. Dietary data were collected from 2,884 cases and 5,509 controls using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, which included additional questions phytoestrogen-rich foods. Associations were assessed using conditional logistic regression. All analyses were adjusted for relevant risk and confounding factors. Polytomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status. High and low consumption of soybeans as well as of sunflower and pumpkin seeds were associated with significantly reduced breast cancer risk compared to no consumption (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-0.97; and OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97, respectively). The observed associations were not differential by ER status. No statistically significant associations were found for dietary intake of plant lignans, fiber, or the calculated enterolignans. Our results provide evidence for a reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with increased consumption of sunflower and pumpkin seeds and soybeans.
Zebeli, Q; Dijkstra, J; Tafaj, M; Steingass, H; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W
The main objective of this study was to develop practical models to assess and predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in high-yielding dairy cows. We used quantitative methods to analyze relevant research data and critically evaluate and determine the responses of ruminal pH and production performance to different variables including physical, chemical, and starch-degrading characteristics of the diet. Further, extensive data were used to model the magnitude of ruminal pH fluctuations and determine the threshold for the development of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Results of this study showed that to minimize the risk of SARA, the following events should be avoided: 1) a daily mean ruminal pH lower than 6.16, and 2) a time period in which ruminal pH is content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) or the ratio between peNDF and rumen-degradable starch from grains in the diet increased up to 31.2 +/- 1.6% [dry matter (DM) basis] or 1.45 +/- 0.22, respectively, so did the daily mean ruminal pH, for which a asymptotic plateau was reached at a pH of 6.20 to 6.27. This study also showed that digestibility of fiber in the total tract depends on ruminal pH and outflow rate of digesta from reticulorumen; thereby both variables explained 62% of the variation of fiber digestibility. Feeding diets with peNDF content up to 31.9 +/- 1.97% (DM basis) slightly decreased DM intake and actual milk yield; however, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were increased, resulting in greater milk energy efficiency. In conclusion, a level of about 30 to 33% peNDF in the diet may be considered generally optimal for minimizing the risk of SARA without impairing important production responses in high-yielding dairy cows. In terms of improvement of the accuracy to assessing dietary fiber adequacy, it is suggested that the content of peNDF required to stabilize ruminal pH and maintain milk fat content without compromising milk energy efficiency can be arranged based
Krashenitsa, G M; Botvineva, L A; Mogila, A V
Patients with early NIDDM were put on routine diet N 9 (food fiber 25 g/day) and test diet (food fiber 55 g/day). The diet of both groups (group 1 and 2, respectively) was supplemented with oral mineral water Essentuki 17. High-fiber diets proved to be effective for the above patients as they induced positive trends in NIDDM clinical symptoms, body weight, lowering of basal insulin, an increase in insulin immediate pool. There was also a reduction of insulinemia and hyperglycemia later in the course of glucose tolerance test. The above shifts were more pronounced in 2 patients.
Frassetto, L A; Shi, L; Schloetter, M; Sebastian, A; Remer, T
Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for 'Paleolithic-type' (Paleo) diets-which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here, we compare measured NAEs with established NAE estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thirteen subjects with well-controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days. Twenty-four hour urine collections were performed at baseline and end of the diet period, and analyzed for titratable acid, bicarbonate and ammonium to calculate measured NAE. Three formulas for estimating NAE from dietary intake were used; two (NAE_diet R or L) that include dietary mineral intake and sulfate- and organic acid (OA) production, and one that is empirically derived (NAE_diet F) only considering potassium and protein intake. Measured NAE on the Paleo diet was significantly lower than on the ADA-diet (+31±22 vs 112±52 mEq/day, P=0.002). Although all formula estimates showed similar and reasonable correlations (r=0.52-0.76) with measured NAE, each one underestimated measured values. The formula with the best correlation did not contain an estimate of dietary OA production. Paleo-diets are lower in NAE than typical Western diets. However, commonly used formulas clearly underestimate NAE, especially for diets with very high F&V (as the Paleo diet), and in subjects with T2D. This may be due to an inappropriate estimation of proton loads stemming from OAs, underlining the necessity for improved measures of OA-related proton sources.
Luiz Carlos Gutkoski
and are a source of vitamins, minerals, fibers, proteins and complex carbohydrates. The objective of this work was to study the effect of dietary fiber concentration and sugar in cereal bars made of oats with a high dietary fiber content. In the research, oat flakes, bran and flour from cultivar UPFA 22, selected on the basis of the dietary fiber and beta-glucans content, were used. The ingredients were used in amounts defined in laboratory tests. The experiment was carried out using a central composite rotational design applicable to the response surface methodology (RSM, and the effects of the sugar syrup concentration (70, 75 and 80 °Brix and dietary fiber content in the formulation (12, 16 and 20% on the chemical composition, calorie value, water activity, microbiology and sensorial characteristics of the cereal bars were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple regression and the significant linear, quadratic and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The results showed that oats can be used as an ingredient when making cereals bars presenting an adequate texture, flavor and appearance. The oats used in the formulation makes cereal bars with high dietary fiber and beta-glucan content. The bars present acceptable sensorial properties, similar to the industrialized bars, with higher acceptability when made with average concentration of sugar and high dietary fiber content. The cereal bars present low water activity and are within sanitary specifications and can be stored for 60 days.
Ogneva, I V; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M
The intensity of cell respiration of the rat m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius c.m. and tibialis anterior fibers during 35-day gravitational unloading, with the addition of succinate in the diet at a dosage rate of 50 mg per 1 kg animal weight has been investigated. The gravitational unloading was modeled by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The intensity of cell respiration was estimated by polarography. It was shown that the rate of oxygen consumption by soleus and gastrocnemius fibers on endogenous and exogenous substrates and with the addition of ADP decreases after the discharge. This may be associated with the transition to the glycolytic energy path due to a decrease in the EMG-activity. At the same time, the respiration rate after the addition of exogenous substrates in soleus fibers did not increase, indicating a disturbance in the function of the NCCR-section of the respiratory chain and more pronounced changes in the structure of muscle fibers. In tibialis anterior fibers, no changes in oxygen consumption velocity were observed. The introduction of succinate to the diet of rats makes it possible to prevent the negative effects of hypokinesia, although it reduces the basal level of intensity of cell respiration.
Yi, Tian; Huang, Xingjian; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Lufeng
Orange by-products from juice extraction are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to their low market value. However, orange by-products show potential as dietary fiber (DF) and fat replacers in products such as yogurt. This study assessed the benefits of using orange by-products in DF-enriched materials such as DF powders (OP) and micronized DF with ball-milling (MDF). The study also investigated the effects of adding different levels of OP and MDF on the quality of low-fat yogurt. Results show that MDF showed better physicochemical and functional properties than OP, and that 2% MDF as a fat replacer in yogurt retained most of the textural and sensory properties of full-fat yogurt. Therefore, this study showed that MDF is a promising alternative as a fat replacer in low-fat yogurt, without sacrificing good taste and other qualities of full-fat yogurt.
Segundo, Cristina; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; Martínez, Mario M
This article describes the effect of mechanically fractionated flours from green bananas on the nutritional, physical and sensory attributes of two types of cakes (sponge and layer). A plausible 30% replacement of banana flour in the formulation of layer cakes is demonstrated, finding only a small decline in the sensory perception. On the contrary, sponge cakes were noticeable worsened with the use of banana flours (lower specific volume, worse sensory attributes and higher hardness), which was minimized when using fine flour. Both layer and sponge cakes exhibited an enhancement of the resistant starch and dietary fiber content with the replacement of green banana flour (up to a fivefold improvement in RS performance). Moreover, sponge cakes yielded more polyphenols and antioxidant capacity with banana flours, especially with the coarse fraction. Therefore, results showed that a mechanical fractionation allowed a feasible nutritional enhancement of cakes with the use of banana flours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Belghith-Fendri, Lilia; Chaari, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha
Attention has focused on bakery products such as cake which is one of the most common bakery products consumed by people in the world. Legume by-products, pea pods (PPs) (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean pods (BBPs) (Vicia faba L.) mediterranean (Tunisian), has been studied for its high dietary fiber content (PP: 43.87 g/100 g; BBP: 53.01 g/100 g). Protein content was also a considerable component for both by-products. We investigated the effect of substituted of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of PP and BBP flours on the sensory and technological properties in cake. Cakes hardness increased whereas L * and a * color values decreased. The overall acceptability rate showed that a maximum of 15% of PP and BBP flours can be added to prepare acceptable quality cakes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel
in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any......, indicating that feeding twice daily reduced feeding motivation during the night compared with feeding once daily. Among restricted-fed sows, plasma concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were greater in sows fed high-fiber diets compared with the control (P = 0.02). Nonesterified fatty acid...... level of fiber in the diet of restrictedly fed sows did not reduce their feeding motivation irrespective of fiber source....
Triff, Karen; McLean, Mathew W; Callaway, Evelyn; Goldsby, Jennifer; Ivanov, Ivan; Chapkin, Robert S
Dietary fermentable fiber generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), e.g., butyrate, in the colonic lumen which serves as a chemoprotective histone deacetylase inhibitor and/or as an acetylation substrate for histone acetylases. In addition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in fish oil can affect the chromatin landscape by acting as ligands for tumor suppressive nuclear receptors. In an effort to gain insight into the global dimension of post-translational modification of histones (including H3K4me3 and H3K9ac) and clarify the chemoprotective impact of dietary bioactive compounds on transcriptional control in a preclinical model of colon cancer, we generated high-resolution genome-wide RNA (RNA-Seq) and "chromatin-state" (H3K4me3-seq and H3K9ac-seq) maps for intestinal (epithelial colonocytes) crypts in rats treated with a colon carcinogen and fed diets containing bioactive (i) fish oil, (ii) fermentable fiber (a rich source of SCFA), (iii) a combination of fish oil plus pectin or (iv) control, devoid of fish oil or pectin. In general, poor correlation was observed between differentially transcribed (DE) and enriched genes (DERs) at multiple epigenetic levels. The combinatorial diet (fish oil + pectin) uniquely affected transcriptional profiles in the intestinal epithelium, e.g., upregulating lipid catabolism and beta-oxidation associated genes. These genes were linked to activated ligand-dependent nuclear receptors associated with n-3 PUFA and were also correlated with the mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle and the inhibition of lipogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the chemoprotective fish oil + pectin combination diet uniquely induces global histone state modifications linked to the expression of chemoprotective genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.
Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Nilsson, Anne; Akrami, Rozita
consumption of barley kernel-based bread (BKB) with those who responded least to this dietary intervention. The Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio was higher in responders than non-responders after BKB. Metagenomic analysis showed that the gut microbiota of responders was enriched in Prevotella copri and had...
Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.
Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.
Fan, Yang-Yi; Vaz, Frederic M.; Chapkin, Robert S.
We have demonstrated that the combination of bioactive components generated by fish oil (containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fermentable fiber (leading to butyrate production) act coordinately to protect against colon cancer. This is, in part, the result of an enhancement of apoptosis at
Nareman S. Eshak
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different concentrations of banana peels BP (5% and 10% as a partial replacement for wheat flour on physicochemical and sensory properties of Egyptian balady flat bread. The peel powder (0.50 mm size from banana was prepared from their dried peel. The bread was prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of wheat flour with a banana peel. The bread prepared was designated as B1 and B2 respectively. They were tested for moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber as per the standard methods. The physicochemical and sensory parameters of these two test bread were compared with a control bread 100% wheat flour designated as B0. Results showed that BP flour was owing 11.20% crude fiber which is higher than the wheat flour 1.21%. Also, BP flour has high potassium, calcium, sodium, iron and manganese compared with wheat flour. The protein and fiber content of B2 and B1 bread were higher (12.52% and 11.79% protein and 2.18% and 1.97% fiber as compared to the control bread (10.79 protein and 1.42% fiber. B1 and B2 had the highest K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn content compared with control bread. The water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity (OHC of bread with BP flour were higher as compared to the bread control. The bread prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of BP (B2 is found to be sensorially acceptable. Our results showed that the nutritionally and sensory accepted bread can be prepared by replacing at most 10% of flour.
Iqbal, Sofia I; Helge, Jørn W; Heitmann, Berit L
the associations between ED and subsequent changes in BW, and despite a general belief that ED is a major determinant of obesity, the present study did not generally lend support for an association. However, among certain subgroups, an energy-dense diet may be a risk factor for weight development.......OBJECTIVE: We examined whether associations between dietary components and, in particular, energy density (ED) predicted subsequent 5-year weight changes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The present longitudinal population study was part of the Danish World Health Organization Multinational...... Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) and the 1936 cohort dietary studies. Effects of components were studied in relation to subsequent 5-year weight changes in 862 men and 900 women, 30 to 60 years old. Linear multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Mean 5...
Silvana Magalhães Salgado
Full Text Available Avaliou-se os efeitos do processo utilizado na obtenção de polpa de frutas congelada sobre o teor de fibras alimentares, empregando-se acerola, caju, goiaba, graviola, manga, pinha, pitanga, sapoti e uva no estágio maduro. Demonstrou-se que o processo tecnológico empregado reduziu significativamente o percentual de fibras alimentares das frutas, determinadas por método gravimétrico não enzimático, principalmente da goiaba, seguida da uva, graviola, sapoti, caju, pinha e acerola; com exceção da manga e pitanga, as demais polpas congeladas não substituem, em termos quantitativos, a fibra alimentar dos frutos in natura na dieta de indivíduos sadios. Considerando que essas perdas são variáveis face às características dos frutos processados, a inclusão de polpas congeladas na dieta em substituição às frutas dependerá de estudos qualitativos que permitam esclarecer os constituintes da referida fração.The effects of the process utilized to obtain frozen fruit pulp on the quality of dietary fibers were evaluated, using ripe samples of acerola, cashew, guava, soursop, mango, sweetsop, pitanga, sapoti and grapes. The results obtained showed that the technological process used reduced significantly the fiber percentual of the fruit, determined by gravimetric non-ensymatic method particularly the guava, followed by the grapes, soursop, saoti, cashew, sweetsop and acerola. With the exception of mango and pitanga, all the frozen pulps tested do not seem to substitute, in terms of quantity of dietary fiber, the in natura fruit in the diet of healthy individuals. Considering the fact that these losses are variable, depending on the characteristics of the fruit which was processed, the inclusion of frozen pulps in the human diet in substitution to fruits will depend on quality control studies which may lead to a classification of the components of the mentioned fraction.
da Silva, Leila Picolli; Ciocca, Maria de Lourdes Santorio; Furlong, Eliana Badiale
The precision attributes and use of the enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky et al. (1992) (AOAC 985.29) were evaluated using corn (BR 5202 Pampa) and oat (UFRGS 15) samples. The effect of laboratory batches carried out in different days were evaluated in six laboratory batches, using for each material one duplicate for total fiber (FT) determination, one duplicate for insoluble fiber (FI) determination and blank ones for FT and for FI (both in duplicate). In order to characterize repetitive aspects, five other FT and FI determinations added to each sample were evaluated, summing up 11 data. The low coefficients of variation in the first six batches were considered acceptable as an expression of expected total intralaboratory variation. The repetitive of the method was considered good for FT determinations (CVs gravimetric corrections varies with the kind of the sample and is especially influenced by the protein content.
Full Text Available In Norway the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber harvest is quota-regulated. Once the annual quota for each municipality has been determined it is distributed to landowner-organized beaver management units. Municipal wildlife managers can choose between two distributional models: the traditional “areal model” whereby each management unit receives its portion of the municipal quota based on the relative area of beaver habitat within the township that it contains, or the more recently developed “linear model” based on the relative length of beaver-utilized shoreline it contains. The linear model was developed in an attempt to increase the precision of the quota distribution process and is based on the fact that beaver occupy landscapes in a linear fashion along strips of shoreline rather than exploiting extensive areas. The assumption was that the linear model would provide a more precise and just method of distributing the municipal quota among landowners. Here we test the hypothesis that the length of beaverutilized shoreline is a better predictor of beaver colony density than the area of beaver habitat on 13 beaver management units of typical size (794 – 2200 hectares in Bø Township, Norway, during 2 years. As hypothesized, the number of beaver occupied sites on management units correlated significantly (p≤ 0.001 with the length of beaver-utilized shoreline, but not with the area of beaver habitat. Therefore municipalities should employ the linear model when a precise distribution of quotas is necessary. The density of Eurasian beaver colonies at the landscape scale (>100 km2 in south-central Scandinavia averages approximately 1 occupied site per 4 km2. This figure can be employed by municipal wildlife managers to estimate the colony density in their townships, and to calculate municipal quotas, when more precise census information is lacking.
Ruedinger, V.; Ricketts, C.I.; Wilhelm, J.G.; Alken, W.
Practical experience from routine operation in nuclear installations as well as extensive bench and laboratory testing proved the structural limits of HEPA filters to be very low thus demonstrating the need for improvement of their structural strength. Detailed analysis of the courses and modes of filter failure under the challenge of dry air at high velocities and ambient temperature, together with additional measurements, allowed the establishment of the dominating mechanisms of filter failure. Based on this information, the following three options for effective and economical improvements in filter structural limits exist: (1) an increase in the tensile strength of the filter medium; (2) an increase in the stability of the pack to prevent the swelling of individual pleats; and (3) an increase in the area moment of inertia of the separators and a decrease in the sharpness of their edges. By using a reinforced glass fiber filter medium, the structural strength of standard size HEPA filters was increased to 31 kPa with dry air and beyond 10 kPa with air at high humidity. Prototype filters built with standard glass-fiber media and separators with inclined corrugations exhibited failure pressures of approximately 50 kPa under high velocity airflows. The combination of both types of improvements, together with other measures, will soon lead to even higher HEPA-filter structural strength
Shen, Hong; Lu, Zhongyan; Xu, Zhihui; Chen, Zhan; Shen, Zanming
Diet-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the rumen have broad effects on the health and growth of ruminants. The microbe-G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) and microbe-histone deacetylase (HDAC) axes might be the major pathway mediating these effects. Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model. In addition to the analysis of the microbial composition and identification of the genes and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed GPRs and HDACs, the combined data including the expression of HDACs and GPRs, the relative abundance of the bacteria, and the molar proportions of the individual SCFAs were used to identify the significant co-variation of the SCFAs, clades, and transcripts. The major bacterial clades promoted by the 30% NFC diet were related to lactate metabolism and cellulose degradation in the rumen. The predominant functions of the GPR and HDAC regulation network, under the 30% NFC diet, were related to the maintenance of epithelium integrity and the promotion of animal growth. In addition, the molar proportion of butyrate was inversely correlated with the expression of HDAC1, and the relative abundance of the bacteria belonging to Clostridum_IV was positively correlated with the expression of GPR1. This study revealed that the effects of rumen microbiota-derived SCFA on epithelium growth and metabolism were mediated by the GPR and HDAC regulation network. An understanding of these mechanisms and their relationships to dietary components provides better insights into the modulation of ruminal fermentation and metabolism in the promotion of livestock production.
Mizunoya, Wataru; Miyahara, Hideo; Okamoto, Shinpei; Akahoshi, Mariko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Do, Mai-Khoi Q; Ohtsubo, Hideaki; Komiya, Yusuke; Lan, Mu; Waga, Toshiaki; Iwata, Akira; Nakazato, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Anderson, Judy E; Tatsumi, Ryuichi
A recent study demonstrated a positive effect of apple polyphenol (APP) intake on muscle endurance of young-adult animals. While an enhancement of lipid metabolism may be responsible, in part, for the improvement, the contributing mechanisms still need clarification. Here we show that an 8-week intake of 5% (w/w) APP in the diet, up-regulates two features related to fiber type: the ratio of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type IIx/IIb and myoglobin protein expression in plantaris muscle of 9-week-old male Fischer F344 rats compared to pair-fed controls (P strategy for application in animal sciences, and human sports and age-related health sciences.
Özkaya, H; Özkaya, B; Duman, B; Turksoy, S
Fermentation and hydrothermal methods were tested to reduce the phytic acid (PA) content of oat bran, and the effects of these methods on the dietary fiber (DF) and total phenolic (TP) contents as well as the antioxidant activity (AA) were also investigated. Fermentation with 6% yeast and for 6 h resulted in 88.2% reduction in PA content, while it only resulted in 32.5% reduction in the sample incubated for 6 h without yeast addition. The PA loss in autoclaved oat bran sample (1.5 h, pH 4.0) was 95.2% while it was 41.8% at most in the sample autoclaved without pH adjustment. In both methods, soluble, insoluble, and total DF contents of samples were remarkably higher than the control samples. Also for TP in the oat bran samples, both processes led to 17% and 39% increases, respectively, while AA values were 8% and 15%, respectively. Among all samples, the autoclaving process resulted in the lowest PA and the greatest amount of bioactive compounds.
Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Szwengiel, Artur; Górecka, Danuta; Gujska, Elżbieta; Kaczkowska, Joanna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Walkowiak, Jarosław
The influence of bile acid concentration on the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria was demonstrated. Exposing these bacteria to the environment containing bile acid salts, and very poor in nutrients, leads to the disappearance of these microorganisms due to the toxic effect of bile acids. A multidimensional analysis of data in the form of principal component analysis indicated that lactic acid bacteria bind bile acids and show antagonistic effect on E. coli spp. bacteria. The growth in E. coli spp. population was accompanied by a decline in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. with a simultaneous reduction in the concentration of bile acids. This is direct proof of acid binding ability of the tested lactic acid bacteria with respect to cholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. This research demonstrated that the degree of fineness of wheat dietary fibre does not affect the sorption of bile acids and growth of some bacteria species; however, it has an impact on the profile of synthesized short-chained fatty acids. During the digestion of a very fine wheat fibre fraction (WF 90), an increase in the concentration of propionic and butyric acids, as compared with the wheat fiber fraction of larger particles - WF 500, was observed. Our study suggested that wheat fibre did not affect faecal bacteria growth, however, we observed binding of bile acids by Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.
Tao, Bingbing; Ye, Fayin; Li, Hang; Hu, Qiang; Xue, Shan; Zhao, Guohua
The effects of mechanical and jet grindings on the proximate composition, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of insoluble antioxidant dietary fiber powder from citrus pomace (IADFP-CP) were investigated in comparison with ordinary grinding. IADFP-CP from jet grinding showed higher levels of crude fat, total sugar, and free phenolics and lower levels of crude protein and bound phenolics than that from ordinary grinding. Totally, 14 phenolics (9 free, 1 bound, and 4 free/bound) in IADFP-CP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Hesperidin accounted for >57% of total phenolics in IADFP-CP. Among IADFP-CPs, the jet-ground presented the highest free phenolics but the lowest bound phenolics. The IADFP-CP from jet grinding presented the highest antioxidant capacity of free phenolics (by DPPH and FRAP assays), followed by the ones from mechanical and then ordinary grinding. The present study suggests that jet grinding could improve the extraction of phenolic compounds from IADFP-CP and increase the antioxidant capacities of free phenolics and the resultant powder.
Fu, Boqiang; Wang, Jing; Roturier, Jean Michel; Tang, Zhiyu; Li, Huan; Wei, Guangyan
An interlaboratory study was conducted in China to validate the modified AOAC Official Method 2001.03 for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF) in foods containing resistant maltodextrin (RMD), which will be adopted as the National Standard Method of China. The kind of buffer solution, the volume of filtrate evaporation, the volume of eluent for desalting and residual solution after evaporation, etc. were modified, which had been proved to have acceptable accuracy and precision in the routine assay. TDF contents in 3 representative foods and 2 kinds of RMD ingredient (i.e., NUTRIOSE 06 and NUTRIOSE 10) were measured using the modified method in 6 eligible laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and governmental laboratories in China. The results of the interlaboratory study indicated that the intralaboratory repeatability, interlaboratory reproducibility, and precision of the modified method are adequate for reliable analysis of TDF in food containing RMD, as well as resistant dextrin. Compared to AOAC Official Method 2001.03, the modified method is time- and cost-saving.
Digestibilidade e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal de dietas contendo níveis crescentes de fibra bruta para pacu - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8625 Digestibility and gastrointestinal transit time of diets with increasing dietary fiber levels to pacu - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8625
Thiago Matias Torres Nascimento
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestibilidade e o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal (TTGI de dietas contendo níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (FB para pacus. Para avaliar a digestibilidade foram utilizados 288 pacus, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, alimentados em aquários e transferidos para coletores do tipo Guelf Modificado, utilizando-se o método de coleta parcial de fezes. As rações foram marcadas com 1% de óxido de crômio para a determinação da digestibilidade das dietas. No ensaio de TTGI, 288 pacus foram distribuídos em 24 aquários em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados com rações contendo 1% óxido de titânio ou crômio, que apresentam cores diferentes, verde ou branca, respectivamente. Por meio de massagem abdominal foi averiguada periodicamente a cor das fezes, e o TTGI foi estabelecido quando as fezes de todos os peixes apresentaram cor verde. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente das dietas e o TTGI foram reduzidos com aumento do nível de FB nas dietas. Conclui-se que em dietas para pacus pode-se empregar até 9% de FB sem efeito negativo na digestibilidade da energia, proteína, matéria seca e estrato etéreo e sem alterar o TTGI.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary fiber levels on the digestibility and gastrointestinal transit time (GTT for pacu. The digestibility trial used 288 pacu in a completely randomized design, fed in aquaria and transferred to a modified Guelf-type feces collector, using the partial sampling method. The inert marker on the diets was chromic oxide (1% to establish the diet digestibility. In the GTT assay, 288 pacu were distributed in 24 aquaria in a completely randomized design. Fish were fed with two colored diets – green and white – and feces color was determined after abdominal pressure. The white and green diets used 1% of titanium and chromic oxides, respectively. Total GTT was determined when all fish showed green
Hjorth, Mads F; Blædel, Trine; Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Holm, Jacob B; Kiilerich, Pia; Roager, Henrik M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Larsen, Lesli H; Astrup, Arne
Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and dietary intake (by 7-day dietary records) were determined. Individuals were dichotomized according to their pre-treatment P/B ratio derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of collected fecal samples to test the potential modification of dietary effects using linear mixed models. Independent of the randomized diets, individuals with high P/B lost 3.8 kg (95%CI, 1.8,5.8; P ratio lost 8.3 kg (95% CI, 5.8;10.9, P ratio [Mean difference: 5.1 kg (95% CI, 1.7;8.6, P = 0.003)]. Partial correlation coefficients between fiber intake and weight change was 0.90 (P ratio and 0.25 (P = 0.29) among individuals with low P/B ratio. Individuals with high P/B lost more body weight and body fat compared to individuals with low P/B, confirming that individuals with a high P/B are more susceptible to weight loss on a diet rich in fiber.
Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S
A central composite rotatable design was applied to study the effects of soaking time, germination time and temperature on the responses; total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity for the biochemical enhancement of bioactive components of Kodo millet. The optimum conditions for producing germinated Kodo millet flour of highest TPC (83.01mgGAE/100g), TFC (87.53mgRUE/g) and AoxA (91.34%), were soaking time (13.81h), germination temperature (38.75°C) and germination time (35.82h). Protein increased significantly form, 6.7 to 7.9%, dietary fibers from 35.30 to 38.34g/100g, minerals from 232.82 to 251.73mg/100g, GABA contents from 9.36 to 47.43mg/100g, whereas phytates and tannins decreased from 1.344 to 0.997mol/kg and 1.603 to 0.234mg/100g respectively, in optimized germinated Kodo millet sample. Six new bioactive compounds [n-propyl-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (0.86%), pregan,20-one-2hydroxy,5,6,epox-15-methyl (3.45%), hexa-decanoicacid (8.19%), 9,O-ctadecenoicacid (5.00%), butyl-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoate (4.03%), hexadecanoicacid-methylester (1.43%)], synthesized as a result of germination under optimum conditions in the Kodo millet depicted the germination potential of millets as a source of valuable bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K
The in vitro mineral binding capacity of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, to Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human stomach, small intestine, and colon was investigated and compared. Apart from releasing most of their endogenous Ca (ranged from 96.9 to 97.9% removal) and Mg (ranged from 95.9 to 96.7% removal), simulated physiological conditions of the stomach also attenuated the possible adverse binding effect of the three sclerotial DFs to the exogenous minerals by lowering their cation-exchange capacity (ranged from 20.8 to 32.3%) and removing a substantial amount of their potential mineral chelators including protein (ranged from 16.2 to 37.8%) and phytate (ranged from 58.5 to 64.2%). The in vitro mineral binding capacity of the three sclerotial DF under simulated physiological conditions of small intestine was found to be low, especially for Ca (ranged from 4.79 to 5.91% binding) and Mg (ranged from 3.16 to 4.18% binding), and was highly correlated (r > 0.97) with their residual protein contents. Under simulated physiological conditions of the colon with slightly acidic pH (5.80), only bound Ca was readily released (ranged from 34.2 to 72.3% releasing) from the three sclerotial DFs, and their potential enhancing effect on passive Ca absorption in the human large intestine was also discussed.
Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Leemhuis, Hans; Pijning, Tjaard; van Leeuwen, Sander Sebastiaan; Jin, Zhengyu; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
4,6-α-Glucanotransferase (4,6-α-GTase) enzymes, such as GTFB and GTFW of Lactobacillus reuteri strains, constitute a new reaction specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) and are novel enzymes that convert starch or starch hydrolysates into isomalto/maltopolysaccharides (IMMPs). These IMMPs still have linear chains with some α1→4 linkages but mostly (relatively long) linear chains with α1→6 linkages and are soluble dietary starch fibers. 4,6-α-GTase enzymes and their products have significant potential for industrial applications. Here we report that an N-terminal truncation (amino acids 1 to 733) strongly enhances the soluble expression level of fully active GTFB-ΔN (approximately 75-fold compared to full-length wild type GTFB) in Escherichia coli. In addition, quantitative assays based on amylose V as the substrate are described; these assays allow accurate determination of both hydrolysis (minor) activity (glucose release, reducing power) and total activity (iodine staining) and calculation of the transferase (major) activity of these 4,6-α-GTase enzymes. The data show that GTFB-ΔN is clearly less hydrolytic than GTFW, which is also supported by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of their final products. From these assays, the biochemical properties of GTFB-ΔN were characterized in detail, including determination of kinetic parameters and acceptor substrate specificity. The GTFB enzyme displayed high conversion yields at relatively high substrate concentrations, a promising feature for industrial application. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G
The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits.
Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou
Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans...... respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized...... different basal metabolome concentrations in the plasma of pigs and humans. Humans had higher contents of phosphatidylcholines, oleic acid, and carnitine in plasma, possibly reflecting a higher intake of meats and fats. In pigs, betaine, choline, creatinine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine were higher...
A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE
Rohit Subhedar; R. K. Sinha; Saumi Sinha
Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was cond...
Maria da Graça Kolinski Callegaro
Full Text Available A cultura do milho é de grande importância na agricultura brasileira, com ampla distribuição do norte ao sul do país. O milho pode ser uma fonte significativa de fibra, dependendo da forma como é utilizado na alimentação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel (FAI, solúvel (FAS e total (FAT de produtos derivados do milho. Determinou-se também os teores de umidade, resíduo mineral fixo, extrato etéreo e proteína bruta das amostras analisadas. Trabalhou-se com amostras de canjica, pipoca, farinha fina, farinha média e farinha pré-cozida. O método utilizado na determinação de fibra foi o de Prosky et al. Entre os produtos analisados observou-se que a pipoca apresentou o maior teor de FAT (média de 12,15% e a canjica o menor (média de 2,39 %. Em relação às farinhas, a fina e a média apresentaram teores de fibra semelhantes, enquanto as amostras de farinha pré-cozida apresentaram um teor um pouco mais baixo. Em todos os produtos analisados, a FAI correspondeu a mais de 90% da fibra total. Quanto aos demais constituintes avaliados, encontrou-se, neste trabalho, valores de acordo com os já disponíveis na literatura.Corn crop is of great importance to Brazilian agriculture, ranging from the north to the south of the country. Corn can be an important source of fiber, depending on the way it is used as food. The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of insoluble (IDF, soluble (SDF, and total (TDF dietary fiber of corn-derived products. The content of moisture, ash, lipids, and crude protein were also determined in the samples. We have worked with "canjica", popcorn, and meal (finely ground, medium ground, and pre-cooked. The PROSKY'S enzymic-gravimetric method was used to determine dietary fiber. Among the products analyzed, we have observed that the popcorn showed the greatest content of TDF (12.15%, and the "canjica" showed the smallest one (2.39%. Thin and medium corn meals
Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.
Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S
Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and
Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min
Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons
Luiz C. GUTKOSKI
Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º
Markova, Yu M; Sheveleva, S A
The content of lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the experiment in rats with varying levels of vitamins and dietary fiber was studied. The study was performed on 48 male weanling Wistar rats randomized into 8 groups, with the creation of vitamin deficiency (30 d.) and its further compensation (5 d.). Vitamin content in the semisynthetic diet in rats of the control group N 1 corresponded to 100% of a daily adequate intake. In the similar composition of the diet of the control group N 2 wheat bran was added in amount of 5% of the weight of the diet. In groups N 3–8 rats received a diet with the reduced amount of vitamin mixture by 5 times (20% of the adequate intake) and the total exclusion of tocopherol, thiamine and riboflavin from the mixture. The wheat bran (5% of diet mass) was added to the diets in Groups N 4, 6, 8. At the stage of compensation of deficiency rats were fed with the diets with increased content of vitamin mixture: Group 5–6 to 80% 7–8 to 200% (100 and 220% of the adequate intake, respectively), and the groups N 3–4 continued to receive deficient diet with or without wheat bran until the end of the experiment. After 35 days rats were anesthetized with ether, decapitated, necropsied and the cecum segments were selected for quantitative microbiological analysis of its contents. It has been shown that the addition of wheat bran to vitamin deficient diet lead to the reduction of the manifestation of physical sign of hypovitaminosis. It also eliminated the differences in the integrated index of growth and development of rats in comparison with the group without vitamin deficiency. It was found that the vitamin deficiency in the diet, regardless of the presence or absence of wheat bran, led to a significant reduction of the number of lactobacilli in the intestinal contents, but almost did not affect the number of normal and opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria. The compensation of deficiency during 5 days lead to the increased number of
Manoj, G; Thampi, B S; Leelamma, S; Menon, P V
The effects of fiber isolated from black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) kernel on the metabolic activity of intestinal and fecal beta glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis were studied. The results indicated that the inclusion of fiber from black gram and coconut kernel generally supported lower specific activities and less fecal output of beta-glucuronidase than did the fiber free diet. This study suggests that the fibers isolated from coconut or black gram may potentially play a role in preventing the formation of colon tumors induced by the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine by reducing the activity of the intestinal as well as fecal beta-glucuronidase.
The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775
Full Text Available The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF, lactulose, and resistant starch (RS meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS, transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.
A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE
Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.
A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.
Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary
Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chiara Cheng Lim
Full Text Available DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl- radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs. Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC, and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0oC, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37oC, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the
Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang
In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.
Full Text Available Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF or cellulose (CF diet (control for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. The fecal lipids content (% DW of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058. Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects.
Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter
Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...
Castillejo, Gemma; Bulló, Mònica; Anguera, Anna; Escribano, Joaquin; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Although a diet that is rich in fiber is widely recommended for preventing and treating constipation, the efficacy of fiber supplements have not been tested sufficiently in children. Our aim with this pilot study was to evaluate if fiber supplementation is beneficial for the treatment of children with idiopathic chronic constipation. Using a parallel, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, we conducted an interventional study to evaluate the efficacy of a supplement of cocoa husk rich in dietary fiber on intestinal transit time and other indices of constipation in children with constipation. After screening, the patients were randomly allocated to receive, for a period of 4 weeks, either a cocoa husk supplement or placebo plus standardized toilet training procedures. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, we (1) performed anthropometry, a physical examination, and routine laboratory measurements, (2) determined total and segmental colonic transit time, (3) evaluated bowel movement habits and stool consistency using a diary, and (4) received a subjective evaluation from the parents regarding the efficacy of the treatment. The main variable for verifying the efficacy of the treatment was the total colonic transit time. Fifty-six chronically constipated children were randomly assigned into the study, but only 48 children completed it. These children, who were aged between 3 and 10 years, had a diagnosis of chronic idiopathic constipation. With respect to total, partial colon, and rectum transit time, there seemed to be a trend, although statistically nonsignificant, toward faster transit times in the cocoa husk group than in the placebo group. When we analyzed the evolution of the intestinal transit time throughout the study of children whose total basal intestinal transit time was > 50th percentile, significant differences were observed between the groups. The total transit time decreased by 45.4 +/- 38.4 hours in the cocoa husk group and by 8.7 +/- 28.9 hours
David W. Lafond
Full Text Available The effects of an enzyme-hydrolyzed arabinoxylan from wheat (AXOS versus an intact arabinoxylan from flax (FLAX added to a ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC on the postprandial appetitive, hormonal, and metabolic responses in overweight women (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 were evaluated. Subsequent meal energy intake was also assessed. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover design studies were completed. For trial 1, the participants consumed the following RTEC breakfast, matched for total weight and varied in energy content: low-fiber (LF, 4 g; high-fiber (HF, 15 g as either AXOS or FLAX. For trial 2, the participants consumed LF, HF-AXOS, and HF-FLAX RTECs but also consumed another LF breakfast that was isocaloric (LF-iso to that of the HF breakfasts. Perceived appetite and blood samples (trial 2 only were assessed before and after breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was offered 4 h post-breakfast. No differences in postprandial appetite responses were observed among any breakfasts in either trial. The HF-AXOS and HF-FLAX led to increased postprandial GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY concentrations vs. LF-iso. No differences were observed in lunch meal energy intake among breakfast meals in either trial. Collectively, these data suggest that 15 g of low molecular weight fiber added to RTECs did not affect perceived appetite or subsequent energy intake despite differences in satiety hormone signaling in overweight females.
Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Gerschenson, Lía N; Giannuzzi, Leda
The effect of different fractions enriched in soluble fiber obtained from artichoke using citric acid or citric acid/hemicellulase on the selective growth of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 was evaluated. Gompertz modeling of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 growth showed a higher specific growth rate (μ: 0.16 h(-1)) in the presence of fractions isolated from stems using hemicellulase (fraction A) than in the presence of glucose (μ: 0.09 h(-1)). In the case of Bifidobacterium bifidum 11863, the highest μ was obtained for the microorganism grown in the presence of fraction A and for the fraction isolated from stems without hemicellulase, their rate being twice that observed for glucose (0.04 h(-1)). The positive prebiotic activity scores observed with respect to Escherichia coli 25922 indicated that fibers assayed are metabolized as well as glucose by Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 and that they are selectively metabolized by these microorganisms. The potential capacity to selectively stimulate the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health shown by fraction A can be ascribed to its high inulin and low methylation degree pectin contents.
Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S
Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.
Whole-grain wheat consumption reduces inflammation in a randomized controlled trial on overweight and obese subjects with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors: role of polyphenols bound to cereal dietary fiber.
Vitaglione, Paola; Mennella, Ilario; Ferracane, Rosalia; Rivellese, Angela A; Giacco, Rosalba; Ercolini, Danilo; Gibbons, Sean M; La Storia, Antonietta; Gilbert, Jack A; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Thielecke, Frank; Gallo, Maria A; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo
Epidemiology associates whole-grain (WG) consumption with several health benefits. Mounting evidence suggests that WG wheat polyphenols play a role in mechanisms underlying health benefits. The objective was to assess circulating concentration, excretion, and the physiologic role of WG wheat polyphenols in subjects with suboptimal dietary and lifestyle behaviors. A placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial with 80 healthy overweight/obese subjects with low intake of fruit and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle was performed. Participants replaced precise portions of refined wheat (RW) with a fixed amount of selected WG wheat or RW products for 8 wk. At baseline and every 4 wk, blood, urine, feces, and anthropometric and body composition measures were collected. Profiles of phenolic acids in biological samples, plasma markers of metabolic disease and inflammation, and fecal microbiota composition were assessed. WG consumption for 4-8 wk determined a 4-fold increase in serum dihydroferulic acid (DHFA) and a 2-fold increase in fecal ferulic acid (FA) compared with RW consumption (no changes). Similarly, urinary FA at 8 wk doubled the baseline concentration only in WG subjects. Concomitant reduction in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after 8 wk and increased interleukin (IL)-10 only after 4 wk with WG compared with RW (P = 0.04) were observed. No significant change in plasma metabolic disease markers over the study period was observed, but a trend toward lower plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with higher excretion of FA and DHFA in the WG group was found. Fecal FA was associated with baseline low Bifidobacteriales and Bacteroidetes abundances, whereas after WG consumption, it correlated with increased Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes but reduced Clostridium. TNF-α reduction correlated with increased Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. No effect of dietary interventions on anthropometric measurements and body composition was found. WG wheat
Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd
Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...
Vries, de S.; Kabel, M.A.; Vasanthan, Thava; Zijlstra, Ruurd
Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types
Kuzyk, Mark G
... scope of the project. In addition to our work in optical limiting fibers, spillover results included making fiber-based light-sources, writing holograms in fibers, and developing the theory of the limits of the nonlinear...
Caracterización de la Funcionalidad Tecnológica de una Fuente Rica en Fibra Dietaria Obtenida a partir de Cáscara de Plátano / Characterization of Technological Functionality of Dietary Fiber Rich Source Obtained from Plantain Peel
Alarcón García Miguel Ángel
Full Text Available Resumen. Con el objetivo de obtener la fuente de fibra dietaria y realizar su caracterización, cáscaras de plátano verde (Musa AAB fueron sometidas a un proceso industrial que involucró etapas de selección, lavado, troceado, secado (hasta alcanzar una humedad final del 5% y molido. El proceso completo presentó un rendimiento de 2% en fuente de fibra de cáscara de plátano (FFCP. Se determinaron valores de fibra dietaria total (FDT; 46,79%, fibra dietaria soluble (FDS; 1,68% y fibra dietaria insoluble (FDI; 45,12%. El material resultante fue sometido al efecto de la temperatura utilizando 2 niveles (temperatura ambiente, 20 ºC, y temperatura de escaldado para productos cárnicos, 74 °C y bajo estas condiciones fue caracterizado en términos de capacidad de absorción de agua, capacidad de absorción de aceite, capacidad de retención de agua y capacidad de absorción de moléculas orgánicas; variables que no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, a excepción de la capacidad de absorción de aceite. Por lo anterior, puede concluirse que la FFCP corresponde a un recurso con aptitud para su inclusión en matrices alimenticias tipo cárnicas. / Abstract. Green plantain peels (Musa AAB were subjected to an industrial process involving selection, washing, chopping, drying (until reach a final moisture content of 5% and grounding steps with the aim of obtaining a source of dietary fiber and perform their characterization. The total process yield was 2% as a fiber source plantain peel (FSPP. Values for total dietary fiber (TDF; 46.79%, soluble dietary fiber (SDF; 1.68% and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF; 45.12% were determined. The resulting material was subjected to the effect of two levels of temperature(environmental temperature, 20 ºC, and scalding temperature, 74 °C for meat products. Under these conditions, the FSPP was characterized in terms of water absorption capacity, oil retention capacity, water holding capacity
Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen
The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.
Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup
A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...
Lipowicz, P.J.; Yeh, H.C.
Dielectrophoresis is the motion of uncharged particles in nonuniform electric fields. We find that the theoretical dielectrophoretic velocity of a conducting fiber in an insulating medium is proportional to the square of the fiber length, and is virtually independent of fiber diameter. This prediction has been verified experimentally. The results point to the development of a fiber length classifier based on dielectrophoresis. (author)
Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L
Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed
Amy R. Mobley
Full Text Available Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.
Mobley, Amy R.; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M.
Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857
The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....
Consumo de fibra alimentar por crianças e adolescentes com constipação crônica: influência da mãe ou cuidadora e relação com excesso de peso Dietary fiber intake for children and adolescents with chronic constipation: influence of mother or caretaker and relationship with overweight
Carolina Santos Mello
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da mãe ou da cuidadora sobre o consumo de fibra alimentar por crianças e adolescentes com constipação crônica bem como sua relação com a ocorrência de excesso de peso. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 38 crianças e adolescentes com constipação funcional e suas respectivas cuidadoras. Para análise do consumo de fibra alimentar, foi utilizado o registro alimentar de três dias. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para verificar o estado nutricional. A história familiar de constipação foi investigada. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes com constipação (89,5%; 34/38 apresentava consumo insuficiente de fibra (inferior à idade +5g. Das 38 cuidadoras, apenas uma (2,6% apresentou ingestão de fibra superior à recomendação mínima (20g/dia. Excesso de peso foi encontrado em 28,9% (11/38 dos pacientes e em 60,5% (23/38 das suas responsáveis. Associação entre excesso de peso e presença de constipação foi verificada entre as cuidadoras (p=0,046. As crianças e adolescentes do sexo feminino com excesso de peso apresentaram menor ingestão de fibra, comparadas às sem excesso de peso (p=0,011. Nos pacientes do sexo masculino, essa associação não foi observada. O consumo de fibra pelas cuidadoras com excesso de peso foi inferior ao das demais (p=0,027. Observou-se correlação entre consumo de fibra pelas crianças com constipação e suas cuidadoras, nos sexos masculino (r=+0,561; p=0,005 e feminino (r=+0,782; pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the mother or caretaker on the consumption of dietary fiber by children and adolescents with chronic constipation and its relationship with the occurrence of overweight. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 38 children and adolescents with functional constipation and their respective caretakers. A three-day food register was used for the analysis of the dietary fiber consumption. Weight and height were measured to verify the nutritional status
... and vegetables, pulp-free juices, white breads and pastas, and non-whole-grain cereals — are lower in ... with brown rice, wild rice, barley, whole-wheat pasta and bulgur wheat. Bulk up baked goods. Substitute ...
Koh, Ara; De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia
executors of diet-based microbial influence on the host. Here, we will review data supporting the diverse functional roles carried out by a major class of bacterial metabolites, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs can directly activate G-coupled-receptors, inhibit histone deacetylases, and serve...
Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis
Whilst fruits and vegetables are an essential part of our dietary intake, the role of fiber in the prevention of colorectal diseases remains controversial. The main feature of a high-fiber diet is its poor digestibility. Soluble fiber like pectins, guar and ispaghula produce viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal tract delaying small bowel absorption and transit. Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, pass largely unaltered through the gut. The more fiber is ingested, the more stools will have to be passed. Fermentation in the intestines results in build up of large amounts of gases in the colon. This article reviews the physiology of ingestion of fiber and defecation. It also looks into the impact of dietary fiber on various colorectal diseases. A strong case cannot be made for a protective effect of dietary fiber against colorectal polyp or cancer. Neither has fiber been found to be useful in chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also not useful in the treatment of perianal conditions. The fiber deficit - diverticulosis theory should also be challenged. The authors urge clinicians to keep an open mind about fiber. One must be aware of the truths and myths about fiber before recommending it. PMID:17696243
Modificações do método gravimétrico não enzimático para determinar fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel em frutos Modifications in the gravimetric non enzymatic method for determination of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in fruits
Nonete Barbosa Guerra
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Modificações do tratamento da amostra e da seqüência operacional do método gravimétrico não enzimático foram realizadas, com vistas a simplificá-lo e permitir a quantificação das frações solúvel e insolúvel da fibra alimentar total. MÉTODOS: A influência da liofilização foi inicialmente avaliada em amostras de goiaba e, posteriormente, em acerola, manga, pinha, sapoti e uva. As modificações inerentes à seqüência metodológica foram testadas nos referidos frutos e em abacaxi, caju, maracujá e morango. RESULTADOS: As médias de fibra alimentar total obtidas para goiaba liofilizada e não liofilizada: 10,47%±1,15 e 10,53 %±0,88, respectivamente, demonstram: boa reprodutibilidade do método e inexistência de diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos aplicados à goiaba e demais frutos. Diferentemente do constatado na determinação da Fibra Alimentar Insolúvel, cujo percentual variou de 99,6% para o caju a 54,0% para a acerola, os dados gerados para a fibra alimentar solúvel foram desconsiderados, dada a dispersibilidade apresentada. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados evidenciam que as amostras prescindem da liofilização e que a quantificação da Fibra Alimentar Solúvel requer ajustes na etapa de precipitação.OBJETIVES: Modifications in the treatment of samples and operational sequence of the gravimetric non enzymatic method were carried out in order to simplify it and allow the quantification of soluble and insoluble quantities of the total dietary fiber. METHODS: Lyophilization influence was first evaluated in guava samples and afterward in samples of acerola, mango, sugar apples, sapodilla and grapes. The mentioned fruits and also pineapple, cashew, passion fruit and strawberry were tested for the modifications intrinsic in the methodological sequence. RESULTS: The average total dietary fiber for guava, both lyophilized and non-lyophilized, were: 10.50% ±0.97 and 10.53% ±0.88, respectively
Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C
A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.
The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...
European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public Consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on establishing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines
taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received 60 contributions from 19 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national assessment bodies). After a meeting with national experts on Dietary Reference Values which was held...... of diet-health relationships, possible adverse health effects of excessive consumption of sugar(s), sugar-sweetened beverages, the performance of risk-benefit analysis, the contribution of food supplements and fortified food as nutrient sources in the diet, and to the section on implementation...
George, Elena S; Forsyth, Adrienne; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Nicoll, Amanda J; Ryan, Marno; Sood, Siddharth; Roberts, Stuart K; Tierney, Audrey C
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges. The Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition classification system was used to grade these principles. Five key dietary recommendations were developed: 1) follow traditional dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet; 2) limit excess fructose consumption and avoid processed foods and beverages with added fructose; 3) PUFAs, especially long-chain omega-3 rich foods and MUFAs, should replace SFAs in the diet; 4) replace processed food, fast food, commercial bakery goods, and sweets with unprocessed foods high in fiber, including whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds; and 5) avoid excess alcohol consumption. Improving diet quality may reduce the incidence and progression of NAFLD and associated risk factors. Many of the benefits are likely to result from the collective effect of dietary patterns. High-quality research-in particular, randomized clinical trials assessing dietary interventions that focus on liver-specific endpoints-are needed as a priority. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il
With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.
Eloísa A. PÁDUA
industries and the importance of yeast derivatives as functional ingredients in human foods. A casein standard reference diet (AIN-93G with 5% cellulose as dietary fiber was used for comparison. Hypercholesterolemic diet with 10 and 20% addition of cellulose was also used. The following indices were determined: apparent digestibility and biological value, net apparent protein utilization, diet efficiency ratio, food intestinal transit velocity, small intestine length, and serum concentrations of total lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Yeast cell wall and cellulose decreased apparent protein digestibility but did not influence other indices of protein utilization. A decrease in diet efficiency ratio was observed which did not affect body weight gain by the rats. Addition of 10 and 20% cell wall fraction or cellulose increased food intestinal transit and small intestine length. The cell wall fraction at 10% (1st experiment and 20% (2nd experiment produced a lowering effect on rat serum triacylglycerols. There was no influence on the total lipids and total cholesterol of the cell wall fraction.
林淼; 张建刚; 陈志远; 赵国琦
本试验采用4×4拉丁方试验设计,研究4种中性洗涤纤维与非纤维性碳水化合物比例(NDF/NFC)的饲粮(0.58、0.71、1.20、1.57)对湖羊瘤胃硝态氮含量动态变化和发酵特性的影响。各组饲粮中均含有1.0%硝酸钾,在喂后0、0.5、1.0、1.5、2.0、4.0、6.0、8.0 h通过瘤胃瘘管采集瘤胃液,测定硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐含量以及瘤胃发酵参数；晨饲后2.0 h通过颈静脉采血,测定高铁血红蛋白含量。结果表明,6.0~8.0 h饲粮NDF/NFC=0.71时瘤胃亚硝酸盐含量最低；且0~1.5 h随着NDF/NFC的增大,氨态氮( NH3-N)含量有逐渐降低的趋势；0、8.0 h总微生物蛋白质含量以NDF/NFC=0.58时最高,且与NDF/NFC=0.71时差异不显著(P>0.05),整个试验期未出现亚硝酸盐中毒。因此,在本试验条件下,湖羊饲粮NDF/NFC=0.71时,最有利于瘤胃硝态氮还原及瘤胃发酵。%A 4 × 4 Latin square design in this study was used to investigate the effects of different dietary neu-tral detergent fiber to non-fiber carbohydrates ratios (NDF/NFC) (0.58, 0.71, 1.20 and 1.57) on dynamic changes of ruminal nitrate nitrogen content and fermentation characteristics of Hu sheep. The diet of each group contained 1.0% potassium nitrate, and rumen fluid was obtained at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 h after feeding to determine the contents of nitrate and nitrite and ruminal fermentation parameters. Blood sample was collected at 2.0 h after feeding to determine the blood methemoglobin content. The results showed that the nitrite content of sheep fed diet with NDF/NFC=0.71 was lowest at 6.0 to 8.0 h after feeding. With the rising of NDF/NFC, NH3-N content had a trend of decrease at 0 to 1.5 h after feeding. Total microbial protein con-tent of sheep fed diet with NDF/NFC=0.58 was highest at 0 and 8.0 h after feeding, and had no significant difference with sheep fed diet with NDF/NFC=0.71 ( P>0.05) . In addition, the nitrite toxicity was not detec-ted during
Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard
than 50% of the total budget each year through 1998. A newly emerging activity is the commercial development of doped optical fibers which can be pumped by laser diodes to provide amplification of the communication signals. This technology is newly emerging and will be developed for commercial interests in the United States by Galileo Electro-optical Incorporated in Sturbridge, MA on a license from British Telecom. Long repeaterless communication links provide the biggest stimulus for this technology. As an example of the of the revenues involved in the optical fiber communications 3 industry, the current trade journal lists that for the fiscal years, 1991 - 1994, 185 separate undersea links were established. In addition, another 105 links are planned through 1998. The distribution of revenues involved in the undersea installations is roughly $8.5 billion through 1993 and another $13 billion planned through 1998. A large portion of the future activity (34%) is planned for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Region. Other examples of the commercial utility of optical fiber networks is given in a recent scientific symposium in which the outlook for HMFG infrared fiber was determined to be very bright.Another area of interest lies in the use of fiber optics for laser surgery delivery systems.
Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro
Exposure to food service establishments is considered to encourage consumption and contribute to poorer diet quality, and hence adverse health profiles. However, empirical verification of these links remains rare, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out are associated with unfavorable patterns of dietary intake and thus possibly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. The subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 y of age. Dietary intake and frequency of eating out (i.e., consumption of commercially prepared meals) during the preceding month were assessed using a comprehensive, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Neighborhood restaurant availability was defined as the number of restaurants within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (i.e., full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, and cafeterias). Increasing frequency of eating out was associated with higher intake of meat, confectionery and bread, and dietary fat, lower intake of fruit and vegetables, rice, and dietary fiber, and higher dietary energy density. However, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with either the frequency of eating out or any of the dietary variables examined. Further, frequency of eating out and neighborhood restaurant availability were not associated with BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, although frequency of eating out was positively associated with unfavorable dietary intake patterns in a group of young Japanese women, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with frequency of eating out or dietary intake.
Influences of fiber upon the radiation degradation of fiber-reinforced plastics were investigated by using 2 MeV electrons. Radiation resistances were evaluated from the three-point bending strength of the fiber laminates which used bisphenol A-type epoxy resin as a matrix. Carbon fiber laminates had higher radiation resistance values than the laminates made of glass fiber. Model laminates using polyethylene as a matrix were prepared in order to examine the differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber filler, the relation between gel fraction and absorbed dose was established. When the polyethylene was filled in the carbon fiber, forming the gel was strikingly delayed. This result suggests that radiation protective action existing in carbon fiber to matrix resin is the main cause of the higher radiation resistance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics. (author)
Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús
The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de la Iglesia, Rocio; Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramirez de Molina, Ana
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%-50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.
Pal, Dilipkumar; Banerjee, Subham; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar
Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system's response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.
Rocio de la Iglesia
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%–50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.
Full Text Available Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system′s response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.
Effects of dietary fiber preparations made from maize starch on the growth and activity of selected bacteria from the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria phyla in fecal samples from obese children.
Barczynska, Renata; Slizewska, Katarzyna; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Szalecki, Mieczyslaw; Kapusniak, Janusz
Currently, there is a search for substances that would be very well tolerated by an organism and which could contribute to the activation of the growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains, with simultaneous inhibition of the growth of Firmicutes. High expectations in this regard are raised with the use of fiber preparations from starch - resistant corn dextrins, branched dextrins, resistant maltodextrins and soluble corn fiber. In this paper, the influence of fiber preparations made from corn starch was evaluated on growth and activity of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes strains isolated from obese children. It was demonstrated that in the stool of obese children Firmicutes strains predominate, while Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains were in the minority. A supplementation of fecal culture with fiber preparations did not cause any significant changes in the number of strains of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Addition of fiber preparations to the fecal samples of obese children increased the amount of short-chain fatty acids, especially acetic (p < 0.01), propionic, butyric (p = 0.05) and lactic acid (p < 0.01).
Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C
The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.
An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.
This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates digested and absorbed in the human small intestine, and „dietary fibre‟, non-digestible carbohydrates passing to the large intestine. In this Opinion, dietary fibre is defined as non-digestible car...
Mendez, M. A.; Pera, Guillem; Aguclo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Ftima; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goeran; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Stenling, Roger; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria J.; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Ocke, Marga C.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.
Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date,
Chen, Kang; Chen, Hao; Faas, Marijke M; de Haan, Bart J; Li, Jiahong; Xiao, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Diana, Julien; de Vos, Paul; Sun, Jia
Scope: Dietary fibers capable of modifying gut barrier and microbiota homeostasis affect the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we aim to compare modulatory effects of inulin-type fructans (ITFs), natural soluble dietary fibers with different degrees of fermentability from chicory root, on
Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Zhang, Jie-Xian; Tidehag, Per; Erik Bach Knudsen, Knud; Moazzami, Ali A; Aman, Per
Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.
Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A
Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...... daily intake of dietary fiber was higher in Them than in Copenhagen. These observations document changes due to industrialization of food production, modern distribution, and marketing methods....
Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal; Stringhini, Silvia
In high-income countries, high socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with a healthier diet, but whether social differences in dietary intake are also present in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains to be established. We performed a systematic review of studies that assessed the relation between SES and dietary intake in LMICs. We carried out a systematic review of cohort and cross-sectional studies in adults in LMICs and published between 1996 and 2013. We assessed associations between markers of SES or urban and rural settings and dietary intake. A total of 33 studies from 17 LMICs were included (5 low-income countries and 12 middle-income countries; 31 cross-sectional and 2 longitudinal studies). A majority of studies were conducted in Brazil (8), China (6), and Iran (4). High SES or living in urban areas was associated with higher intakes of calories; protein; total fat; cholesterol; polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids; iron; and vitamins A and C and with lower intakes of carbohydrates and fiber. High SES was also associated with higher fruit and/or vegetable consumption, diet quality, and diversity. Although very few studies were performed in low-income countries, similar patterns were generally observed in both LMICs except for fruit intake, which was lower in urban than in rural areas in low-income countries. In LMICs, high SES or living in urban areas is associated with overall healthier dietary patterns. However, it is also related to higher energy, cholesterol, and saturated fat intakes. Social inequalities in dietary intake should be considered in the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases in LMICs. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...
Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J
Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2). Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y ( n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences. Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts ( P diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts ( P diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan
It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4
Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina
explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary...... that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more...
As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below
Howie, B J; Shultz, T D
The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17 beta, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels was investigated in 12 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) vegetarian (SV), 10 SDA nonvegetarian (SNV), and 8 non-SDA nonvegetarian (NV) men. Fasting blood samples and 3-day dietary intake information were obtained from each subject. The SV subjects consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber than the SNV and NV subjects, respectively. Plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta were significantly lower in the SV than in the omnivores. Additionally, the plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta of the combined groups (SV, SNV, and NV) revealed a significant negative relationship with their crude and dietary fiber intakes. These subjects hormonal milieu was related to specific dietary constituents, possibly leading to a decreased plasma concentration of androgen and estrogen in vegetarians. Implications include the possible modification of prostate cancer risk through dietary intervention.
Mukai, Rie; Matsui, Naoko; Fujikura, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Norifumi; Hou, De-Xing; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Horikawa, Manabu; Iwasa, Keiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Nikawa, Takeshi; Terao, Junji
Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid in fruits and vegetables. We aimed to clarify the preventive effect of dietary quercetin on disuse muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms. We established a mouse denervation model by cutting the sciatic nerve in the right leg (SNX surgery) to lack of mobilization in hind-limb. Preintake of a quercetin-mixed diet for 14days before SNX surgery prevented loss of muscle mass and atrophy of muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM). Phosphorylation of Akt, a key phosphorylation pathway of suppression of protein degradation, was activated in the quercetin-mixed diet group with and without SNX surgery. Intake of a quercetin-mixed diet suppressed the generation of hydrogen peroxide originating from mitochondria and elevated mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA expression as well as NADH dehydrogenase 4 expression in the GM with SNX surgery. Quercetin and its conjugated metabolites reduced hydrogen peroxide production in the mitochondrial fraction obtained from atrophied muscle. In C2C12 myotubes, quercetin reached the mitochondrial fraction. These findings suggest that dietary quercetin can prevent disuse muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue through protecting mitochondria from decreased biogenesis and reducing mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide release, which can be related to decreased hydrogen peroxide production and/or improvements on antioxidant capacity of mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Dietary supplements, including fish oil, dietary fibers, and various natural products, and exercise training exert vasoprotective effects. However, the mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective benefits of dietary supplements and physical activity demand extensive investigation. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of macrovascular and microvascular function. TNFα induces vascular inflammation, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, vascular oxidative stress, apoptosis, and atherogenic response and participates in the regulation of thrombosis and coagulation through multiple signaling pathways involving NFκB, Sp1, activator protein 1, JNK, p38, STAT3, and so forth. Dietary supplements and exercise training decrease TNFα production and ameliorate TNFα-mediated pathological changes in vasculature. Thus, the inhibitory effects of dietary supplements and physical exercise on TNFα production and TNFα signaling may contribute to their vasoprotective properties.
Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick
Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.
Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.
The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...
... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...
Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia
This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.
Liu Lie; Li Limin; Wen Jianchun; Wan Hong
Models of electron emission mechanism are established concerning metal and carbon fiber cathodes. Correctness of the electron emission mechanism was proved according to micro-photos and electron scanning photos of cathodes respectively. The experimental results and analysis show that the surface flashover induces the electron emission of carbon fiber cathode and there are electron emission phenomena from the top of the carbon and also from its side surface. In addition, compared with the case of the stainless steel cathode, the plasma expansion velocity for the carbon fiber cathode is slower and the pulse duration of output microwave can be widened by using the carbon fiber cathode. (authors)
Níveis de fibra da dieta sobre o desempenho de coelhas no primeiro e segundo ciclos reprodutivos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1930 Dietary fiber levels on rabbit does’ performance on the first and second reproductive cycles - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1930
Jeffrey Frederico Lui
Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos dos níveis de fibra em detergente ácido (15,1%; 17,9%; 20,6%; 23,0% da dieta sobre o desempenho de 64 coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, nos dois primeiros ciclos reprodutivos. As dietas continham 2850 kcal/kg de ED, 19,8% de PB e 28,8% de amido. No primeiro ciclo, o consumo diário apresentou variação quadrática (p0,05 sobre o tamanho das ninhadas. Dietas mais fibrosas promoveram uma maior produção de leite (pThe experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary acid detergent fiber levels (15.1; 17.9; 20.6; 23.0% ADF on the performance of 64 New Zealand White rabbit does, during first and second reproductive cycles. The experimental diets contained 2850 kcal/kg digestive energy (DE, 19.8% crude protein (CP and 28.8% starch. In the first cycle, the feed intake in pregnancy presented quadratic variation (P0.05 of treatments on litter size. More fibrous diets provided greater milk production (P<0.02.
Pal, Bishnu P.
In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...
This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs
Previous research which was conducted in Madurese and Javanese ethnic groups showed that the incidence of central obesity in Madurese ethnic group was higher than the Javanese. Central obesity increases the risk of incidence of degenerative diseases such as high blood pressure. According to Riskesdas, 2013, the prevalence of eating less fruit and vegetables in East Java were about 90.5%. People with low consumption of dietary fiber have a risk of suffering from hypertension, 4.5 times greater than the respondents with enough dietary fiber. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of dietary fiber intake with blood pressure in WUS with high blood pressure in Kecamatan Kedungkandang. The design of this study was a descriptive cross sectional analytic approach. Respondents in this study were 19-44 years of age WUS as many as 48 people. Respondents retrieval technique using purposive sampling technique. Analysis using Spearman correlation test with significance level of 95%. The result of the research showed that the respondents did not consume the appropriate dietary fiber intake. Spearman correlation test results, shown the correlation between dietary fiber intake with systolic and diastolic blood pressure were not statistically significant (p = 0.787 ; p = 0.521. It can be concluded that there was no statistical relationship between dietary fiber intake with blood pressure, but there was a trend where more and more dietary fiber intake, the lower the systolic and diastolic blood pressure at WUS with pre hypertension and hypertension. Keywords: dietary fiber intake, blood pressure
Chemical, Physicochemical and Functional Characteristics of Dietary Fiber Obtained From Asparagus byproducts (Asparagus officinalis L. / Características Químicas, Físicoquímicas y Funcionales de la Fibra Dietaria Obtenida de los Subproductos del Espá
Edith Lorena Agudelo Cadavid
Full Text Available Abstract. Due to its mechanical and biochemical properties,dietary fiber is part of a healthy diet. Containing good levels ofprebiotics, asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. produces healthyeffects when incorporated into processed foods. The objective ofthe current study was to obtain fiber from asparagus byproductsand determine its chemical composition [Total Dietary Fiber (TDF,protein, moisture and ash] and physicochemical [pH, and wateractivity (aw] and functional characteristics [Water AbsorptionIndex (WAI, Water Solubility Index (WSI, Oil Absorption Index(OAI and Swelling Volume (SV]. The plant material was treatedthrough extraction and dehydration thermal treatments. Aresponse surface model was applied to evaluate the effects ofextraction and drying temperatures. The TDF ranged from 60.7 to79%. Significant differences were only observed for TDF, moistureand aw (P ≤ 0.05. The WAI, WSI, OAI and SV were found to bewithin the range observed for similar plant materials. Due totheir functional properties and elevated TDF content, asparagusbyproducts can be used as active biological components in foodproduction. This innovative utilization will contribute to reducingthe environmental impact of the industrial processing of thisvegetable. / Resumen. Por sus propiedades mecánicas y bioquímicas, la fibradietética puede formar parte de una alimentación saludable. Alser incorporado en los alimentos en el proceso de elaboración, elespárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. tiene efectos benéficos parala salud del consumidor, debido a su contenido de prebióticos. Elobjetivo del estudio fue obtener fibra a partir de los subproductos delespárrago para determinar su composición química [Fibra DietariaTotal (FDT, proteína, humedad y cenizas] y sus propiedadesfísicoquímicas [pH y actividad del agua (aw] y funcionales [Índicede Absorción del Agua (IAA, Índice de Solubilidad del Agua (ISA,Índice de Absorción de Aceite (IAAc y Volumen de
Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta
-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread...... (20 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day) for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day) and a nibbling (seven meals per day) meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h...... was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management....
Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud
Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and lipid gels. Methods and results: Five participants took part in a cross-over study and collected timed urine samples up to 24 h after consumption of proteins, dietary fibers, and lipid gels containing ...
To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.
Blanco Canalis, María S; Steffolani, María E; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D
This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high-fat, high-sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological and structural properties involved in fiber-enriched biscuit dough. High-amylose corn starch (RSII), chemically modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) in dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied via dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was assessed by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. OF reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked IN-incorporated biscuits as much as control biscuits. The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
... of common carp and establish a threshold for dietary copper toxicity in the ... temperature 27.4 ± 0.420C and left unfed in the first 2 .... dependent effects of dietary copper exposure on .... mechanisms of acclimation to metals in freshwater fish.
Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L
Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.
Forster, Hannah; Walsh, Marianne C; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; McGirr, Caroline; Daly, E J; O'Riordan, Richard; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Kolossa, Silvia; Hartwig, Kai; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Gjelstad, Ingrid Merethe Fange; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine
Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice. The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system. The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study. Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers. The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139
Strate, Lisa L; Keeley, Brieze R; Cao, Yin; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T
Dietary fiber is implicated as a risk factor for diverticulitis. Analyses of dietary patterns may provide information on risk beyond those of individual foods or nutrients. We examined whether major dietary patterns are associated with risk of incident diverticulitis. We performed a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men who were free of diverticulitis and known diverticulosis in 1986 (baseline) using data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Each study participant completed a detailed medical and dietary questionnaire at baseline. We sent supplemental questionnaires to men reporting incident diverticulitis on biennial follow-up questionnaires. We assessed diet every 4 years using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Western (high in red meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy) and prudent (high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Follow-up time accrued from the date of return of the baseline questionnaire in 1986 until a diagnosis of diverticulitis, diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding; death; or December 31, 2012. The primary end point was incident diverticulitis. During 894,468 person years of follow-up, we identified 1063 incident cases of diverticulitis. After adjustment for other risk factors, men in the highest quintile of Western dietary pattern score had a multivariate hazard ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.20-1.99) for diverticulitis compared to men in the lowest quintile. High vs low prudent scores were associated with decreased risk of diverticulitis (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.91). The association between dietary patterns and diverticulitis was predominantly attributable to intake of fiber and red meat. In a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men, a Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of diverticulitis, and a prudent pattern was associated with decreased risk. These data can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of
Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean
There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.
This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates...
Cusano, Andrea; Crescitelli, Alessio; Ricciardi, Armando
This book focuses on a research field that is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising ones for the global optics and photonics community: the "lab-on-fiber" technology. Inspired by the well-established 'lab on-a-chip' concept, this new technology essentially envisages novel and highly functionalized devices completely integrated into a single optical fiber for both communication and sensing applications.Based on the R&D experience of some of the world's leading authorities in the fields of optics, photonics, nanotechnology, and material science, this book provides a broad and accurate de
Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults
Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez
Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.
Inomata, Chisato; Ikebe, Kazunori; Okada, Tadashi; Takeshita, Hajime; Maeda, Yoshinobu
The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) replacing a small number of teeth on dietary intake. Participants had at least 20 teeth and were classified as Eichner B1 or B2. The participants underwent dental and oral examinations, and their dietary intake was assessed. Analysis of covariance showed that RPD wearers consumed more vegetables, n-3 fatty acids, calcium, vitamin A, and dietary fiber than nonwearers after adjusting for possible confounding factors. It is concluded that RPDs are effective for improving dietary intake even in participants who have lost a small number of teeth.
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water
.... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...
... that responds to national priorities for establishing an evidence-based culture for ... It will host a workshop with researchers, local nutrition specialists and social ... of dietary behaviour and practical solutions to improve nutrition decisions.
Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne
Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....
Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly
Bakker MI; SIR
The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The
The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.
Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D
Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....
Libori, Stig E. Barkou
. Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light...
Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.
A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.
Sonja de Vries
Full Text Available Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucuronoarabinoxylans and cellulose with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6% or retrograded tapioca (40% substituted for corn starch were formulated. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (BW 28±1.4 kg were assigned to the diets according to a 6×6 Latin square. β-glucan-extract increased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of non-glucosyl polysaccharides (accounting for ~40% of the fiber-fraction from rapeseed meal (6%-units, P10%-units, P<0.001, indicating that the large amount of resistant starch entering the hindgut was preferentially degraded over recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal and DDGS, possibly related to reduced hindgut-retention time following the increased intestinal bulk. Fermentation of fiber sources was not only dependent on fiber characteristics, but also on the presence of other fibers in the diet. Hence, interactions in the gastrointestinal tract among fibrous feed ingredients should be considered when evaluating their nutritive value.
Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...
Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail
Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T
Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Drying of sicilian lemon residue: influence of process variables on the evaluation of the dietary fiber produced Secagem do resíduo de limão siciliano: influência das variáveis de processo na avaliação da fibra alimentar produzida
Vanessa Martins Silva
Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the process variables of the air-drying of Sicilian lemon residues on some technological properties of the fibers produced was studied. The determination and modeling of desorption isotherms were used to establish the equilibrium moisture content at 60, 75, and 90 °C using the static method with 8 saturated salt solutions. The best fit was obtained with BET and GAB models. The drying process was conducted in a vertical tray dryer and delineated according to a central composite experimental design (2² using the following as factors: air velocity (0.5, 0.75 and 1 m/s and temperature (60, 75, and 90 °C, and it presented a good fit to the exponential model (R² > 99.9%. The experimental design responses evaluated were the technological properties of the fibers: water-holding, oil-holding, and swelling capacity. Since these properties were present in high levels, the lemon residues could be used to increase content of fibers in foods resulting in the addition of nutritional benefits for the consumers.Estudou-se o efeito das variáveis de processo da secagem do resíduo de limão siciliano sobre algumas propriedades tecnológicas das fibras produzidas. A determinação e modelagem das isotermas de dessorção foram utilizadas para determinar o conteúdo de umidade de equilíbrio a 60, 75 e 90 °C, através do método gravimétrico estático com 8 soluções salinas saturadas. O melhor ajuste dos dados experimentais foi encontrado com os modelos de BET e GAB. A secagem foi conduzida em um secador vertical de bandejas e delineada de acordo com um planejamento experimental (2², tendo como fatores: velocidade do ar (0,5, 0,75 e 1 m/s e temperatura (60, 75 e 90 °C, apresentando bons ajustes ao modelo exponencial (R² > 99.9%. As respostas do planejamento avaliadas foram relacionadas a algumas propriedades tecnológicas das fibras, como a capacidade de absorção em água e óleo e o volume de intumescimento. Uma vez que
Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.
High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.
Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.
This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements
Hansen, Kim Per
Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....
Yablon, Andrew D
This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.
Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.
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Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.
A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.
Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila
Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.
Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations
Burns, William E.
Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)
Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance
This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.
Kinnan, Mark K.; Roach, Dennis P.
A composite article is disclosed that has non-circular fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. The composite article has improved damage tolerance, toughness, bending, and impact resistance compared to composites having traditional round fibers.
Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...
Jan de Vries
Full Text Available Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.
de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon
Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.
Full Text Available Uniaxial tensile tests of basalt fiber/epoxy (BF/EP composite material with four different fiber orientations were conducted under four different fiber volume fractions, and the variations of BF/EP composite material failure modes and tensile mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that when the fiber volume fraction is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all decrease with increasing fiber orientation angle. When the fiber orientation angle is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all increase with increasing fiber volume fraction. A certain degree of fiber clustering appears in the epoxy resin when the basalt fiber volume fraction is >1.2%. The fiber equidistribution coefficient and clustering fiber content were used to characterize the basalt fiber clustering effect. With the increase of fiber volume fraction, the clustering fiber content gradually increased, but the fiber equidistribution coefficient decreased. Meanwhile, based on Tsai theory, a geometric model and a tensile mechanical model of the clustering fiber are established. By considering the fiber clustering effect, the BF/EP composite material tensile strength is calculated, and the calculated values are close to the experimental results.
Krumbeck, Janina A; Maldonado-Gomez, Maria X; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Hutkins, Robert W
A wide range of dietary carbohydrates, including prebiotic food ingredients, fermentable fibers, and milk oligosaccharides, are able to produce significant changes in the intestinal microbiota. These shifts in the microbial community are often characterized by increased levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. More recent studies have revealed that species of Faecalibacterium, Akkermansia, and other less well studied members may also be enriched. We review the implications of these recent studies on future design of prebiotics and synbiotics to promote gastrointestinal health. Investigations assessing the clinical outcomes associated with dietary modification of the gut microbiota have shown systemic as well as specific health benefits. Both prebiotic oligosaccharides comprised of a linear arrangement of simple sugars, as well as fiber-rich foods containing complex carbohydrates, have been used in these trials. However, individual variability and nonresponding study participants can make the outcome of dietary interventions less predictable. In contrast, synergistic synbiotics containing prebiotics that specifically stimulate a cognate probiotic provide additional options for personalized gut therapies. This review describes recent research on how prebiotics and fermentable fibers can influence the gut microbiota and result in improvements to human health.
in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers . A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin
Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw
A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693
TIANSAWANG,Kasarin; LUANGPITUKSA,Pairoj; VARANYANOND,Warunee; HANSAWASDI,Chanida
Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...
The nutritional composition of banana flowers of two cultivars [cvs. Baxijiao (AAA) and Paradisical (AAB)] grown in Hainan of China has been studied. Flower samples were collected and extracted according to methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Results showed that banana flowers contained ...
The mineral content (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, lead, arsenic, mercury and .... generally in the form of chitin in their cell walls. The total ash content of ..... Wickramarachchi KS, Ranamukhaarachchi SL (2005). Preservation of.
The contents of vitamin E, total saponin and flavonoids were 0.87-1.07, 0.12 and 5.27–5.90 .... method. The content of ash was measured by gravimetric measure- ment of the ... Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan) as.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000193.htm High-fiber foods To use the sharing features on this page, ... Read food labels carefully to see how much fiber they have. Choose foods that have higher amounts of fiber, such as ...
Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin
In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...
A. V. Volyar
The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.
Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Liu, Simin; Marquart, Len; McKeown, Nicola; Reicks, Marla; Riccardi, Gabriele; Seal, Chris; Slavin, Joanne; Thielecke, Frank; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; Webb, Densie
Although the term “whole grain” is well defined, there has been no universal standard of what constitutes a “whole-grain food,” creating challenges for researchers, the food industry, regulatory authorities, and consumers around the world. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Technical Advisory Committee issued a call to action to develop definitions for whole-grain foods that could be universally accepted and applied to dietary recommendations and planning. The Committee’s call to action, and the lack of a global whole-grain food definition, was the impetus for the Whole Grain Roundtable held 3–5 December 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The objective was to develop a whole-grain food definition that is consistent with the quartet of needs of science, food product formulation, consumer behavior, and label education. The roundtable’s expert panel represented a broad range of expertise from the United States and Europe, including epidemiology and dietary intervention researchers, consumer educators, government policy makers, and food and nutrition scientists from academia and the grain food industry. Taking into account the totality, quality, and consistency of available scientific evidence, the expert panel recommended that 8 g of whole grain/30 g serving (27 g/100 g), without a fiber requirement, be considered a minimum content of whole grains that is nutritionally meaningful and that a food providing at least 8 g of whole grains/30-g serving be defined as a whole-grain food. Having an established whole-grain food definition will encourage manufacturers to produce foods with meaningful amounts of whole grain, allow consistent product labeling and messaging, and empower consumers to readily identify whole-grain foods and achieve whole-grain dietary recommendations. PMID:24618757
Brierly, M.C.; France, P.W.; Moore, M.W.; Davey, S.T.
Rare-earth-doped fiber lasers fabricated using silica-based fibers are rapidly becoming an established technology. Simultaneously, in the search for lower losses to achieve longer repeaterless communications links, another fiber technology based on fluorozirconate glasses is emerging. Fluorozirconate glass systems are known to be suitable laser hosts, and the authors have already reported Nd-doped fiber lasers using this technology. Recently the authors have used a 0.5-m length of 44-μm core fluorozirconate fiber doped with 1000 ppm of Nd 3+ ions in a longitudinally pumped Fabry-Perot cavity with a 90% output coupler. They observed lasing at 1.05 μm with a threshold of 33-mW launched power at 514 nm and a slope efficiency of 16.8%. The authors attribute this improvement to the higher dopant concentration, better fiber to mirror coupling, and more optimum output coupler reflectivity. In addition the same fiber used with two high-reflector mirrors at 1.35μm produced lasing at 1.35μm with a threshold of 60-mW launched power
The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)
Lesnikova, Yu I.; Smetannikov, O. Yu; Trufanov, A. N.; Trufanov, N. A.
The impact of contact transverse forces on the birefringence of the single-mode polarization-maintaining Panda-type fiber is numerically modeled. It has been established that with a single-row power winding on a cylindrical mandrel, the fiber tension at winding is the principal factor that influences birefringence. When coiling the fiber based on the local defect microbending, the birefringence at the microbending point differs from that of the free fiber by 1.3%.
Milewska, Magdalena; Sińska, Beata; Kluciński, Andrzej
Diverticular disease is more often categorized as a civilization disease that affects both women and men, especially at an old age. The pathophysiology remains complex and arises from the interaction between dietary fiber intake, bowel motility and mucosal changes in the colon. Obesity, smoking, low physical activity, low-fiber diet (poor in vegetables, fruit, whole grain products, seeds and nuts) are among factors that increase the risk for developing diverticular disease. Additionally, the colonic outpouchings may be influenced by involutional changes of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the fiber rich diet (25-40 g/day) plays an important role in prevention, as well as nonpharmacological treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease. The successful goal of the therapy can be achieved by well-balanced diet or fiber supplements intake. Research indicate the effectiveness of probiotics in dietary management during the remission process. Moreover, drinking of appropriate water amount and excluding from the diet products decreasing colonic transit time - should be also applied. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Albrink, M J; Newman, T; Davidson, P C
Seven healthy young adults were maintained for two separate 1-week periods on each of two very high-carbohydrate diets, one with low-fiber and one with high-fiber content. In both diets 15% of the calories were from protein, 15% from fat, and 70% were from carbohydrate. The low-fiber diet consisted of milk, glucose, and dextrins in liquid formula form, the high-fiber diet was composed of starchy foods. The crude fiber content of the high- and low-fiber diets was 18.0 and 1.0 g, respectively. The diets were isocaloric and the subjects maintained a stable weight. During the low-fiber diet the fasting triglycerides rose, reaching a peak 45% above base-line in 6 days. During the high-fiber diet the triglycerides fell to a level slightly below base-line. The cholesterol fell 16 and 23% below base-line on the low- and high-fiber diets. The glucose response to test meals representative of each diet was similar. The insulin response to a low-fiber meal was twice as great as that to a high-fiber meal containing an equivalent amount of carbohydrate. The results suggest that carbohydrate-induced hyperlipemia does not occur if the high carbohydrate diet is rich in dietary fiber, and furthermore that the insulin-stimulating potential of foods in a very high-carbohydrate diet is a critical determinant of the magnitude of carbohydrate-induced lipemia.
Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary
In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)
Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L
Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.
Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R
Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes
High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...
Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes
High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities - requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...
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Sichieri, Rosely; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Pereira, Rosângela Alves; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Willett, Walter C
The Brazilian dietary guidelines are based in part on mainstream United States' recommendations, in spite of the criticisms and shortcomings of the American guidelines. In this paper, Brazilian food guidelines are summarized and discussed in comparison with the USA recommendations. American and Brazilian dietary recommendations are quite similar in many aspects, particularly those related to variety in the diet, the importance of physical activity and weight management. Different to American guidelines, those from Brazil advise people to choose fresh foods, to prefer healthier types of fat, to limit trans fat intake and to eat good sources of protein, but does not recommend the consumption of whole grains. Besides the challenges related to their implementation, indicators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these guidelines should be established from the beginning, particularly those related to changes in dietary habits and the prevalence of obesity.
Sjödin, Anders Mikael
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...
The microradiography of glass fiber reinforced polymers allowed to obtain informations on the growth of defects during molding. A relation was established between microstructure and routine radiography. The conditions needed for obtaining good quality radiograms are analyzed [fr
Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.
Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.
Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.
Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...
Full Text Available The article presents experimental data on the study of fermentation of dietary fibers of different origin under the action of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Citrus and apple pectin, flax fiber and glucose were used as substrate. The dynamics of the process was determined by the dependence of the content of short-chain fatty acids (propionic, butyric, valeric in the analyzed systems on time. Qualitative and quantitative composition of shot-chain fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. It was found that the amount of metabolites (propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids depends both on the type of the fermentable substrate, and the type of bacteria used for fermentation.
Nicole E. Zander
Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.
Full Text Available In Oman, efforts are underway to find alternative sources of fwd to support domestic livestock. The date industry thrives in Oman and one of its by-products is date fiber, a by-product of date syrup production. Although the product contains some free sugars, an evaluation of its potential in broiler diets has never been undertaken. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to investigate the value of date fiber in broiler chick diets. The experimental diets consisted of four graded levels of date fiber: 0, 15, 30 and 45 % in a broiler-starter ration replacing corn as an energy source. The diets were isonitrogenous. There were five replicates for each of the four diets and each replicate contained six broiler chicks. As date fiber percent increased in the dietary treatment, there were linear reductions in body weight gain, calculated apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn content, and apparent protein digestibility (P < 0.05. Poor feed utilization (i .e., reduced feed efficiency was observed in birds fed date fiber diets compared to the control group (P < 0.05. The poor performance of birds fed date fiber may be attributed to protein and energy limitations. We conclude that date fiber has no value in growing broiler diets. However, it may have utility in diets where a stable body weight is desirable.
Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli
We demonstrate a practical scalable approach to the fabrication of tunable metamaterials. Designed for terahertz (THz) wavelengths, the metamaterial is comprised of polyurethane filled with an array of indium wires using the well-established fiber drawing technique. Modification of the dimensions...
Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.
Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At
Abdullah, M.; Bidin, N.; Yasin, M.
An extrinsic fiber optic vibration sensor is demonstrated for a fiber optic displacement sensor based on a bundled multimode fiber to measure a vibration frequency ranging from 100 until 3000 Hz. The front slope has a sensitivity of 0.1938mV/mm and linearity of 99.7% within a measurement range between 0.15-3.00 mm. By placing the diaphragm of the concave load-speaker within the linear range from the probe, the frequency of the vibration can be measured with error percentage of less than 1.54%. The graph of input against output frequency for low, medium and high frequency range show very high linearity up to 99%. Slope for low, medium, and high frequency range are calculated as 1.0026, 0.9934, and 1.0007 respectively. Simplicity, long term stability, low power consumption, wide dynamic and frequency ranges, noise reduction, ruggedness, linearity and light weight make it promising alternative to other well-establish methods for vibration frequency measurement.
María Elisa Zapata
Full Text Available Introduction: a diet high in fiber has associated with better glycaemic control in diabetes 2 patients, being the soluble fraction of the most effective in the control of blood sugar levels. The aim of the study is determine the amount of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber intake by patients with type 2 diabetes who attended a medical centre for diabetics in Rosario.Material and methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. It was determined a sample of 60 adults with a diagnosis of diabetes type 2 >6 months, 18 to 70 years old, with no disease or intestinal disorders. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of foods source of dietary fiber, and a photo album was used to identify the portion size. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed and Chi-square and ANOVA test was used to evaluate the association.Results: the average consumption of total fiber was 18,8±5,9 g/d, 14, 8±4,6 g/d corresponded to insoluble fiber and 4,0±1,5 g/d to soluble fiber. Fruits and vegetables contributed 82% of soluble fiber. Most patients (62% had a consumption of fiber total less than the recommendation of the ADA, and 60% presented an inadequate relationship between intake of soluble and insoluble fiber.Conclusions: it is necessary to increase the contribution of total dietary fiber, especially the soluble fraction in diabetes 2 patients, because there are evidences that supports its benefits.
Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.
Kieffer, Edith C; Welmerink, Diana B; Sinco, Brandy R; Welch, Kathleen B; Rees Clayton, Erin M; Schumann, Christina Y; Uhley, Virginia E
We evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based healthy lifestyle intervention in improving dietary behaviors of pregnant Latinas from 2004 to 2006 in Detroit, Michigan. The 11-week, culturally tailored, Spanish-language Healthy Mothers on the Move (MOMs) intervention offered home visits, group classes, related activities, and social support from trained community health workers (CHWs) and peers. Dietary behaviors were measured by food frequency questionnaire. Linear mixed models estimated pre- and post-intervention changes, within and between MOMs intervention and minimal intervention (MI) groups. MOMs (n = 139) and MI (n = 139) participants had similar baseline characteristics and dietary intake. Post-intervention, MOMs participants showed significant improvement in all dietary behaviors, except fruit and fiber consumption. Compared with MI participants, MOMs participants had significantly decreased consumption of added sugar (P = .05), total fat (P < .05), saturated fat (P < .01), percentage of daily calories from saturated fat (P < .001), solid fats and added sugars (P < .001), and had increased vegetable consumption (P < .001). Their increase in fiber consumption (P < .05) was significant relative to MI participants' decrease in fiber intake. We confirmed the hypothesis that a community-planned, CHW-led healthy lifestyle intervention could improve dietary behaviors of low-income Latina women during pregnancy.
This paper is concerned with four questions about establishing software QA: What is software QA. Why have software QA. What is the role of software QA. What is necessary to ensure the success of software QA
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Severyn, J.; Parker, J.
SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter
Fareed, Ali [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States); Craig, Phillip A. [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States)
Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.
Goldberg, Niels; Ospald, Felix; Schneider, Matti
In this article we introduce a fiber orientation-adapted integration scheme for Tucker's orientation averaging procedure applied to non-linear material laws, based on angular central Gaussian fiber orientation distributions. This method is stable w.r.t. fiber orientations degenerating into planar states and enables the construction of orthotropic hyperelastic energies for truly orthotropic fiber orientation states. We establish a reference scenario for fitting the Tucker average of a transversely isotropic hyperelastic energy, corresponding to a uni-directional fiber orientation, to microstructural simulations, obtained by FFT-based computational homogenization of neo-Hookean constituents. We carefully discuss ideas for accelerating the identification process, leading to a tremendous speed-up compared to a naive approach. The resulting hyperelastic material map turns out to be surprisingly accurate, simple to integrate in commercial finite element codes and fast in its execution. We demonstrate the capabilities of the extracted model by a finite element analysis of a fiber reinforced chain link.
Lotero Cadavid, J.
Are analyzed the establishment of prairies, such as the selection of the species, the factors of the environment, the impact in the establishment and forage production and its relation to the soil, the precipitation, the temperature, the light and the biotic factors. It is indicated that the selection of the species to settle down, is directly related with the climate and the soil and they group to be tolerant to drought, tolerant to flood soils, tolerant to humid soils, tolerant to soils very acids, moderately acids and saline. It is noticed that a bad establishment of the grasses can be due to the bad quality of the seed, a temperature and unfavorable humidity can cause low germination; equally seeds planted very deeply in heavy soils with excess of humidity. Considerations are made about the establishment and growth of the prairies in connection with the germination, cultures, sowing density and sowing on time, as well as for the soil preparation, the sowing in terrestrial mechanic and non mechanic and the use of cultivations forms of low cost and fertilization systems; equally the establishment of leguminous in mixture with gramineous, the renovation of prairies and the establishment of pastures
Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.
Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix
Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.
Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.
Effects of increasing dietary fiber on digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics: II. prepuberty and puberty gilts/ Efeitos do incremento de fibra dietética sobre digestibilidade, desempenho e características de carcaça: II. fêmeas suínas em prépuberdade e puberdade
Soraia Marques Putrino
Full Text Available Female pigs that are intended to be used as sows have to follow a dietary plan that restricts caloric intake. Roughages due to their high content of fiber are low energy sources for swine. This feeding strategy gets around the excessive body fat accumulation. Aiming to study these aspects, prepuberty and puberty gilts were fed isoenergetic and isoproteic rations containing 0; 6.6; 13.2 and 19.8% of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, obtained with the inclusion of coast-cross hay. Twenty crossbred gilts were assigned to a randomized block design experiment which lasted 97 days. Then, the animals were slaughtered. Increment of NDF reduced linearly body weight gain (0.675; 0.607; 0.525; 0.483 g/day; body weight on first physiological heat onset (118.0; 114.0; 102.2; 98.2 kg and worsened feed conversion (3.6; 4.0; 4.7; 5.3. It was observed a quadratic response on the backfat thickness (3.28; 3.34; 2.82; 1.74 cm. There was no effect over the age of first physiological heat onset (203 days and hot carcass yield; however, quadratic response for cold carcass yield was obtained (79.79; 80.24; 79.58; 77.40% and lean meat yield (54.45; 54.35; 55.51; 58.31%. Increasing content of NDF reduced linearly dry matter digestibility (76.23; 67.23; 55.83; 55.73% and NDF digestibility (56.63; 44.24; 34.17; 39.12%; there were quadratic responses to crude protein (72.16; 64.46; 53.52; 62.74% and crude energy digestibilities (71.95; 61.23; 49.21; 53.81%. Gilts body condition was not affected by continuous offering of fibrous ration during prepuberty and puberty phases.Fêmeas suínas destinadas à reprodução devem seguir um plano de restrição alimentar objetivando controlar excessiva ingestão calórica. Emprego de alimentos volumosos, devido ao seu alto teor de fibra, fornece menor aporte de energia para suínos. Esta estratégia alimentar contorna o problema da acumulação excessiva de gordura corporal. Objetivando estudar estes aspectos, fêmeas pré-púberes e p
Maie, Takashi; Meister, Andrew B; Leonard, Gerald L; Schrank, Gordon D; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L
Differences in fiber type distribution in the axial muscles of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes have previously been linked to differences in locomotor performance, behavior, and diet across species. Using ATPase assays, we examined fiber types of the jaw opening sternohyoideus muscle across five species, as well as fiber types of three jaw closing muscles (adductor mandibulae A1, A2, and A3). The jaw muscles of some species of Hawaiian stream gobies contained substantial red fiber components. Some jaw muscles always had greater proportions of white muscle fibers than other jaw muscles, independent of species. In addition, comparing across species, the dietary generalists (Awaous guamensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis) had a lower proportion of white muscle fibers in all jaw muscles than the dietary specialists (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Eleotris sandwicensis). Among Hawaiian stream gobies, generalist diets may favor a wider range of muscle performance, provided by a mix of white and red muscle fibers, than is typical of dietary specialists, which may have a higher proportion of fast-twitch white fibers in jaw muscles to help meet the demands of rapid predatory strikes or feeding in fast-flowing habitats. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Camila Xavier Alves
Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an important cause of morbidity, particularly among young children. The dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators should be used to assess zinc status and to indicate the need for zinc interventions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the zinc status and reference intervals for serum zinc concentration considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in apparently healthy children in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Design: The cross-sectional study included 131 healthy children: 72 girls and 59 boys, aged between 6 and 9 years. Anthropometric assessment was made by body mass index (BMI and age; dietary assessment by prospective 3-day food register, and an evaluation of total proteins was performed. Zinc in the serum samples was analyzed in triplicate in the same assay flame, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: With respect to dietary assessment, only the intake of fiber and calcium was below the recommendations by age and gender. All subjects were eutrophic according to BMI and age classification. Zinc intake correlated with energy (p=0.0019, protein (p=0.0054, fat (p<0.0001, carbohydrate (p=0.0305, fiber (p=0.0465, calcium (p=0.0006, and iron (p=0.0003 intakes. Serum zinc correlated with protein intake (p=0.0145 and serum albumin (p=0.0141, globulin (p=0.0041, and albumin/globulin ratio (p=0.0043. Biochemical parameters were all within the normal reference range. Reference intervals for basal serum zinc concentration were 0.70–1.14 µg/mL in boys, 0.73–1.17 µg/mL in girls, and 0.72–1.15 µg/mL in the total population. Conclusions: This study presents pediatric reference intervals for serum zinc concentration, considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators, which are useful to establish the zinc status in specific groups. In this regard, there are few studies in the literature conducted under these conditions, which make it an innovative methodology.
Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C
An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This
Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt
Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hu, Jun; Xu, Hebing; Li, Chao
Laser processing of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is a non-traditional machining method which has many prospective applications. The laser absorption characteristics of CFRP are analyzed in this paper. A ray tracing model describing the interaction of the laser spot with CFRP is established. The material model contains randomly distributed carbon fibers which are generated using an improved carbon fiber placement method. It was found that CFRP has good laser absorption due to multiple reflections of the light rays in the material’s microstructure. The randomly distributed carbon fibers make the absorptivity of the light rays change randomly in the laser spot. Meanwhile, the average absorptivity fluctuation is obvious during movement of the laser. The experimental measurements agree well with the values predicted by the ray tracing model.
Li, Chunming; Zhao, Rui; Tang, Jun; Xia, Meijing; Guo, Huiting; Xie, Chengfeng; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jun
This paper reports a fiber ring resonator with erbium-doped fiber (EDF) for resonant fiber optical gyro (RFOG). To analyze compensation mechanism of the EDF on resonator, a mathematical model of the erbium-doped fiber ring resonator (EDFRR) is established based on Jones matrix to be followed by the design and fabrication of a tunable EDFRR. The performances of the fabricated EDFRR were measured and the experimental Q-factor of 2 . 47 × 108 and resonant depth of 109% were acquired separately. Compared with the resonator without the EDF, the resonant depth and Q-factor of the proposed device are increased by 2.5 times and 14 times, respectively. A potential optimum shot noise limited resolution of 0 . 042∘ / h can be obtained for the RFOG, which is promising for low-cost and high precise detection.
The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...
Leal, J. R.; Tan, M.
Gentle precisely controlled process is used to draw polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to denier as low as 0.17 per fiber. Yarns of lightweight fibers could be useful in applications where lightweight textiles must withstand high temperatures, corrosion, or radiation.
Miguel Ángel Medina
Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.
Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice
Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.
* The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo
Cashman, Kevin D.; FitzGerald, A. P.; Viljakainen, H. T.
Background: Knowledge gaps have contributed to considerable variation (between 0 and 15 μg/d) in international dietary recommendations for vitamin D in adolescents. Objective: We aimed to establish the distribution of dietary vitamin D required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) conc...
Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg
Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.
Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E
Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.
Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove
influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...
Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre
A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).
Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes
laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...
Fiber sensor technologies are overviewed. Since the early 1970s, this field has been developed, on the basis of the same devices and photonic principles as fiber communication technologies. Besides simple configurations, in which the fiber acts only as a data transmission line, sophisticated configurations have also been developed, in which the fiber is used as a device to realize unique sensing mechanisms. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a good example, and has been developed as an absolute rotation sensor used, for example, for navigation and/or attitude control applications. Compared with traditional spinning-mass gyroscopes, the FOG has advantages, such as a short warming-up time, a light weight, and easy handling. A Japanese satellite, which was launched in August 2005 with a mission to observe the aurora, is controlled with a FOG. The FOG has also been used in consumer applications, such as the camera stabilizer, radio-controlled (RC) helicopter navigation, and the control of humanoid robots. Recently, distributed and multiplexed sensing schemes, in particular, have been studied and developed, in which a long fiber acts like a “nerve” for feeling the strain and/or the temperature distribution along the fiber. Performances of artificial nerve systems have markedly improved within the last couple of years, in spatial resolution and measurement speed. By embedding the “fiber-optic nerve system” in aircraft wings, bridges and tall buildings, these materials and structures can sense damage to prevent disasters.
... can help to lower cholesterol. Third, it helps prevent constipation and diverticulosis. And fourth, adequate fiber from food ... is similar to a new sponge; it needs water to plump up pass smoothly. If you ... or constipation. Before you reach for the fiber supplements, consider ...
Akchurin, N.; Doulas, S.; Ganel, O.; Gershtein, Y.; Gavrilov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvinsev, D.; Merlo, J.-P.; Onel, Y.; Osborne, D.; Rosowsky, A.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Sullivan, J.; Ulyanov, A.; Wigmans, R.; Winn, D.
A calorimeter with optical quartz fibers embedded into an absorber matrix was proposed for the small angle region of the CMS detector at LHC (CERN). This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. (orig.)
Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.
High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....
Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.
This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...
Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...
Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.
A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.
Lemish, Donald L.
A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…
Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori
Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.
Xue, Wen; Chen, Ju; Xie, Fang; Feng, Bing
The orientation of steel fibers in magnetically driven concrete and magnetically driven mortar was experimentally studied in this paper using a magnetic method. In the magnetically driven concrete, a steel slag was used to replace the coarse aggregate. In the magnetically driven mortar, steel slag and iron sand were used to replace the fine aggregate. A device was established to provide the magnetic force. The magnetic force was used to rotate the steel fibers. In addition, the magnetic force was also used to vibrate the concrete and mortar. The effect of magnetic force on the orientation of steel fibers was examined by comparing the direction of fibers before and after vibration. The effect of magnetically driven concrete and mortar on the orientation of steel fibers was also examined by comparing specimens to normal concrete and mortar. It is shown that the fibers could rotate about 90° in magnetically driven concrete. It is also shown that the number of fibers rotated in magnetically driven mortar was much more than in mortar vibrated using a shaking table. A splitting test was performed on concrete specimens to investigate the effect of fiber orientation. In addition, a flexural test was also performed on mortar test specimens. It is shown that the orientation of the steel fibers in magnetically driven concrete and mortar affects the strength of the concrete and mortar specimens.
Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan
Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.
Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan
The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.
Norris, Jr., Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mainka, Hendrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, and evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the collaboration
Schröder, H; Marrugat, J; Covas, M; Elosua, R; Pena, A; Weinbrenner, T; Fito, M; Vidal, M A; Masia, R
The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between age and both dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity, and to determine nutrient inadequacy of aged groups in our population. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of the 25-74-y-old population of Gerona, Spain. A total of 838 men and 910 women were selected from among the general population according to the 1991 census. Analysis of dietary habits, including amount and type of alcohol consumption, and detailed evaluation of leisure-time physical activity. Nutrient densities of carbohydrates, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(12), vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, and dietary fiber increased significantly (Phabits, characterized through a composite dietary score, with age after adjusting for several confounders both in men and women (P<0.001). This score was composed of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, dietary fibre, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium. In all, 29 and 10% of male and female subjects aged 65-74 y, respectively, reported inadequate intakes of six or more of 16 nutrients. Total leisure-time physical activity increased with age in men (P<0.002), and was not different among female age groups. Dietary behaviours and levels of physical activity spent during leisure time indicate a healthy lifestyle of the aged men and women in the present population. Nutrient inadequacy observed in some aged men and women, however, deserves particular intervention of health-care programmes for this growing part of our society.
Jenkins, David J A; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Gigleux, Iris; Ramprasath, Vanu; de Souza, Russell; Ireland, Chris; Patel, Darshna; Srichaikul, Korbua; Abdulnour, Shahad; Bashyam, Balachandran; Collier, Cheryl; Hoshizaki, Sandy; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri
Combining foods with recognized cholesterol-lowering properties (dietary portfolio) has proven highly effective in lowering serum cholesterol under metabolically controlled conditions. To assess the effect of a dietary portfolio administered at 2 levels of intensity on percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants following self-selected diets. A parallel-design study of 351 participants with hyperlipidemia from 4 participating academic centers across Canada (Quebec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver) randomized between June 25, 2007, and February 19, 2009, to 1 of 3 treatments lasting 6 months. Participants received dietary advice for 6 months on either a low-saturated fat therapeutic diet (control) or a dietary portfolio, for which counseling was delivered at different frequencies, that emphasized dietary incorporation of plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and nuts. Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months. Percentage change in serum LDL-C. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis of 345 participants, the overall attrition rate was not significantly different between treatments (18% for intensive dietary portfolio, 23% for routine dietary portfolio, and 26% for control; Fisher exact test, P = .33). The LDL-C reductions from an overall mean of 171 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 168-174 mg/dL) were -13.8% (95% CI, -17.2% to -10.3%; P portfolio; -13.1% (95% CI, -16.7% to -9.5%; P portfolio; and -3.0% (95% CI, -6.1% to 0.1%; P = .06) or -8 mg/dL (95% CI, -13 to -3 mg/dL; P = .002) for the control diet. Percentage LDL-C reductions for each dietary portfolio were significantly more than the control diet (P portfolio interventions did not differ significantly (P = .66). Among participants randomized to one of the dietary portfolio interventions, percentage reduction in LDL-C on the dietary portfolio was associated
Clark, Alan; Dalyell, Tam; Haynes, Frank
The Bill debated concerns the government's proposal for the future organisations of the atomic weapons establishment in the United Kingdom. The proposals arise from a full review carried out in 1989 and include points raised by the Select Committee on the Trident programme. Studies of productivity, pay and conditions, information systems and long term manufacturing strategy have been started to enable recommendations of the reorganisation of the establishments to be made. The details of the Bill were debated for just over two hours. The debate is reported verbatim. The main issues were over the principle of contractorisation, possible staff redundancies, conditions of employment, safety and security. The proposal that the Bill be read a second time was carried. (UK)
Chu, Lisa W
.... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...
Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.
Wei, Yingying; An, Qinglong; Cai, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ming; Ming, Weiwei
The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE) signals.