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Sample records for establish prevalence relatedness

  1. Retail Survey of Brazilian Milk and Minas Frescal Cheese and a Contaminated Dairy Plant To Establish Prevalence, Relatedness, and Sources of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J. Renaldi F.; Santos, Emilia M. P.; Arcuri, Edna F.; Lange, Carla C.; Brito, Maria A. V. P.; Souza, Guilherme N.; Cerqueira, Mônica M. P. O.; Beltran, J. Marcela Soto; Call, Jeffrey E.; Liu, Yanhong; Porto-Fett, Anna C. S.; Luchansky, John B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was designed to recover Listeria monocytogenes from pasteurized milk and Minas frescal cheese (MFC) sampled at retail establishments (REs) and to identify the contamination source(s) of these products in the corresponding dairy processing plant. Fifty milk samples (9 brands) and 55 MFC samples (10 brands) were tested from REs located in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. All milk samples and 45 samples from 9 of 10 MFC brands tested negative for L. monocytogenes; however, “brand F” of MFC obtained from REs 119 and 159 tested positive. Thus, the farm/plant that produced brand F MFC was sampled; all samples from the milking parlor tested negative for L. monocytogenes, whereas several sites within the processing plant and the MFC samples tested positive. All 344 isolates recovered from retail MFC, plant F MFC, and plant F environmental samples were serotype 1/2a and displayed the same AscI or ApaI fingerprints. Since these results established that the storage coolers served as the contamination source of the MFC, plant F was closed so that corrective renovations could be made. Following renovation, samples from sites that previously tested positive for the pathogen were collected from the processing environment and from MFC on multiple visits; all tested negative for L. monocytogenes. In addition, on subsequent visits to REs 159 and 119, all MFC samples tested negative for the pathogen. Studies are ongoing to quantify the prevalence, levels, and types of L. monocytogenes in MFC and associated processing plants to lessen the likelihood of listeriosis in Brazil. PMID:18502929

  2. Prevalence and genotypic relatedness of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is the most common multidrug-resistant pathogen causing nosocomial infections across the world. MRSA is not only associated with significant mortality and morbidity but also places a large economic strain on our health care system. MRSA isolates are also typically resistant to multiple, non-β-lactam antibiotics. We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital, to determine the prevalence of MRSA and to establish the clonal distribution of MRSA isolates recovered from various clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were cultured and S. aureus was identified as per standard microbiological procedures. Susceptibility testing was done by agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method as recommended by CLSI. Methicillin resistance was detected by phenotypic methods namely, oxacillin disc diffusion (ODD, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion (CDD, and MIC of cefoxitin. Amplification of mecA gene by PCR was used as gold standard for detection of methicillin resistance. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE typing was performed for MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 390 S. aureus isolates, 154 (39.48% isolates were MRSA and 236 (60.51% isolates were MSSA. Penicillin was the least effective antibacterial drug against the hospital associated S. aureus isolates with 85.64% resistance rate. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The MRSA showed a high level of resistance to all antimicrobials in general in comparison to the MSSA and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Multiplex PCR performed for all strains showed amplification of both the mecA and nucA genes in MRSA strains whereas MSSA strains showed amplification of only nucA gene. PFGE of these isolates showed 10 different patterns. Conclusion: Prevalence of MRSA in our hospital was 39.48%. Most of these isolates were

  3. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  4. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape...

  5. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  6. The roles of climate, phylogenetic relatedness, introduction effort, and reproductive traits in the establishment of non-native reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Nicola J; Richardson, David M

    2012-04-01

    We developed a method to predict the potential of non-native reptiles and amphibians (herpetofauna) to establish populations. This method may inform efforts to prevent the introduction of invasive non-native species. We used boosted regression trees to determine whether nine variables influence establishment success of introduced herpetofauna in California and Florida. We used an independent data set to assess model performance. Propagule pressure was the variable most strongly associated with establishment success. Species with short juvenile periods and species with phylogenetically more distant relatives in regional biotas were more likely to establish than species that start breeding later and those that have close relatives. Average climate match (the similarity of climate between native and non-native range) and life form were also important. Frogs and lizards were the taxonomic groups most likely to establish, whereas a much lower proportion of snakes and turtles established. We used results from our best model to compile a spreadsheet-based model for easy use and interpretation. Probability scores obtained from the spreadsheet model were strongly correlated with establishment success as were probabilities predicted for independent data by the boosted regression tree model. However, the error rate for predictions made with independent data was much higher than with cross validation using training data. This difference in predictive power does not preclude use of the model to assess the probability of establishment of herpetofauna because (1) the independent data had no information for two variables (meaning the full predictive capacity of the model could not be realized) and (2) the model structure is consistent with the recent literature on the primary determinants of establishment success for herpetofauna. It may still be difficult to predict the establishment probability of poorly studied taxa, but it is clear that non-native species (especially lizards

  7. Establishing the prevalence of hypertension. Influence of sampling criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Costa Fuchs

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of systemic hypertension in two different populations: a representative sample of the adult urban population of Porto Alegre, and individuals who sought blood pressure measurement in a hypertension prevention and control campaign. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving a representative sample of the adult urban population of Porto Alegre and a population sample obtained from a hypertension prevention and control campaign, which included all the individuals who sought the blood pressure assessment unit at the Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre. The following parameters were investigated: history of hypertension, use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and sex. Adjustments for age and sex in the prevalence rates were performed to make them comparable. RESULTS: Hypertension prevalence, defined as values > or = 160/95mmHg or treatment with antihypertensive drugs, was higher in the campaign sample (42% as compared with the population sample (24%. Among those who were aware of their hypertensive condition and were under medication, 54% of the campaign sample and 62% of the representative population sample maintained their pressure levels <160/90mmHg. CONCLUSION: Prevalence rates of hypertension differed a lot in the campaign sample and in the representative population sample, showing that the sampling criterion may influence assessment of risk factors and bias the association between risk factors and health aggravations.

  8. Graphics for relatedness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Femenía, Iván; Graffelman, Jan; Barceló-I-Vidal, Carles

    2017-11-01

    Studies of relatedness have been crucial in molecular ecology over the last decades. Good evidence of this is the fact that studies of population structure, evolution of social behaviours, genetic diversity and quantitative genetics all involve relatedness research. The main aim of this article was to review the most common graphical methods used in allele sharing studies for detecting and identifying family relationships. Both IBS- and IBD-based allele sharing studies are considered. Furthermore, we propose two additional graphical methods from the field of compositional data analysis: the ternary diagram and scatterplots of isometric log-ratios of IBS and IBD probabilities. We illustrate all graphical tools with genetic data from the HGDP-CEPH diversity panel, using mainly 377 microsatellites genotyped for 25 individuals from the Maya population of this panel. We enhance all graphics with convex hulls obtained by simulation and use these to confirm the documented relationships. The proposed compositional graphics are shown to be useful in relatedness research, as they also single out the most prominent related pairs. The ternary diagram is advocated for its ability to display all three allele sharing probabilities simultaneously. The log-ratio plots are advocated as an attempt to overcome the problems with the Euclidean distance interpretation in the classical graphics. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of recent and long-established HIV-1 infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV enzyme immunoassay [AxSYM HIV1/2gO Avidity Index (AI) assay] to discriminate between recent and long established. AI of ≤ 0.80 indicated recent infection. Results: The prevalence of recent infection was 11%. Age and sex were not ...

  10. Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Nine Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Southern European Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP) categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999–2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, abdominal obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and depression) across SEP and gender categories. Data on individual education and occupation were collected by questionnaire and used to characterize SEP. The prevalence of seven out of nine well-established risk factors was higher in men. Among women, the prevalence of most of the studied risk factors was higher in lower SEP groups. The main exception was smoking, which increased with education and occupation levels. Among men, socioeconomic gradients were less clear, but lower SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, excessive alcohol intake and depression in a graded mode. The historical cultural beliefs and practices captured throughout the lifecourse frame the wide socioeconomic gradients discernible in our study conducted in an unequal European developed population. While men were more exposed to most risk factors, the clearer associations between SEP and risk factors among women support that their adoption of particular healthy behaviors is more dependent on material and symbolic conditions. To fully address the issue of health inequalities, interventions within the health systems should be complemented with population-based policies specifically designed to reduce socioeconomic gradients. PMID:22666343

  11. Prevalence of Albuminuria in a General Population Cohort of Patients With Established Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between albuminuria and adverse outcomes in adults with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the prevalence of albuminuria in adults with established CHF remains unclear. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2012. Adults aged ≥18 years were included, and diagnosis of CHF was based on participant self-report. The primary outcome was the prevalence of microalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30-300 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio >300 mg/g) in adults with CHF. The secondary outcome was the adjusted odds ratio of any albuminuria in adults with and without CHF. During the study period, 37,961 adults did not have CHF and 1,214 adults had CHF. In adults with CHF, 22.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.6%-24.7%) had microalbuminuria and 10.4% (95% CI 8.1%-12.7%) macroalbuminuria. In adjusted analyses, the odds of albuminuria in adults with CHF was 1.89-fold higher (95% CI 1.59-2.26; P albuminuria is more common in adults with CHF than in those without CHF, even after adjustment for important demographic and clinical confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Renal artery stenosis in patients with established coronary artery disease: Prevalence and predicting factors

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    Mohammad Reza Khatami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between renal artery stenosis (RAS and other atherosclerotic diseases (particularly coronary artery diseases is well known. In general, the risk factors for atherosclerosis have been clarified, but whether these risk factors operate equally in all forms of atherosclerotic diseases is not known. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of RAS in patients with established coronary artery diseases and then to define the most important risk factors that may help to predict the RAS in this population. In this cross-sectional study, 146 patients with established coronary artery stenosis by angiography simultaneously underwent renal angiography; RAS >50% was considered significant. We found that 25.3% of patients with coronary artery diseases had RAS. The prevalence of significant stenosis was 17.1%. Females were more vulnerable to this disorder than males (47.1% vs. 13.7%, P = 0.001. There was no relationship between the severity and number of stenosed coronary arteries and those of stenosed renal arteries (P = 0.716. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis revealed that among the risk factors for atherosclerosis, female sex (P = 0.001, duration of hypertension (P = 0.032, age (P = 0.046 and serum creatinine (P = 0.018 were strong predictors of the presence of RAS. We concluded that RAS is a common finding in patients with coronary artery disease. We suggest that all older females with deteriorating renal function and long-standing hypertension should be carefully evaluated for early detection of the RAS.

  13. Investigation of Demodex Spp. prevalence among managers and workers of health hazard bearing and sanitary establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali; Karaman, Ulku; Degerli, Serpil; Colak, Cemil; Karadan, Mesut; Karci, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Two Demodex species are known to live on people. Demodex folliculorum lives in the openings of hair follicles alone or in groups. D brevis lives in the depths of the sebaceous glands alone. There are different related on the epidemiology of Demodex species have been published. In this study, taking into account that the parasite is transmitted through close contact from person to person, we aimed to evaluate the relation between the presence of Demodex spp with gender and age among the Health hazard bearing and sanitary establishment operators and workers who came for porter examination. For this purpose, 862 male and 215 female patients with a total of 1077 volunteers from the face area of the standard superficial skin biopsy (SSSB) method and studied samples were taken. More than five mites in 1 cm(2) density was defined as positive. In investigated samples 37.3% Demodex spp. positivity was detected. Only two were found to be D brevis and the others were D folliculorum. The study revealed statistically significant relationships between the positivity of parasites with the occupational group, age and sex. Since the prevalence of Demodex among healthy individuals without any complaint was found to be 37%, we believe Demodex spp should be investigated in porter examinations of people who have dermatological complaints. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Thematic relatedness production norms for 100 object concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; McRae, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of thematic relations is an area of increased interest in semantic memory research because it is crucial to many cognitive processes. One methodological issue that researchers face is how to identify pairs of thematically related concepts that are well-established in semantic memory for most people. In this article, we review existing methods of assessing thematic relatedness and provide thematic relatedness production norming data for 100 object concepts. In addition, 1,174 related concept pairs obtained from the production norms were classified as reflecting one of the five subtypes of relations: attributive, argument, coordinate, locative, and temporal. The database and methodology will be useful for researchers interested in the effects of thematic knowledge on language processing, analogical reasoning, similarity judgments, and memory. These data will also benefit researchers interested in investigating potential processing differences among the five types of semantic relations.

  15. Investigation of Demodex Spp. prevalence among managers and workers of health hazard bearing and sanitary establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ozer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Since the prevalence of Demodex among healthy individuals without any complaint was found to be 37%, we believe Demodex spp should be investigated in porter examinations of people who have dermatological complaints.

  16. Establishing the Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among Hair Salon Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Rebecca F; DiVietro, Susan C; Dunn, Maureen; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Clough, Meghan E; Lapidus, Garry D; Joseph, D'Andrea K

    2017-09-27

    This study determined prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among female clients at three hair salons in Connecticut using an anonymous tablet based screening tool. While many may assume that women receive services at hair salons, victims of IPV are often isolated by their partners and unable to access help. Of the 203 clients who participated, 40 (20%) had experienced IPV in her lifetime. In identifying the prevalence of IPV within the salon setting, this study provides support for community-based programs and supports their legitimacy as an important locus for identifying women experiencing IPV and connecting them to resources.

  17. Establishment of an HIV/sexually transmitted disease programme and prevalence of infection among incarcerated men in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, K; Kerrigan, D; Figueroa, J P; Reese, R; Gaydos, C A; Bennett, L; Bloomfield, B; Plunkett, L; Maru, C; Ellen, J M

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the establishment of an HIV testing and treatment programme in the Jamaican correctional system and to estimate the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) among adult incarcerated men in this country. A demonstration project was implemented by the Jamaican Department of Correctional Services and Ministry of Health in the nation’s largest correctional centre. All inmates were offered HIV and syphilis testing, and a subset was offered chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis testing. Cross-sectional data from the project were reviewed to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STD. HIV test acceptance was 63% for voluntary testers (n = 1200). The prevalence of HIV was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33–4.64) (n = 1017) and the prevalence syphilis was 0.7% (95% CI 0.29–1.49) (n = 967). Among the subset tested (n = 396) the prevalence of chlamydia was 2.5% (95% CI 1.22–4.49) and for trichomoniasis it was 1.8% (95% CI 0.01–3.60), but no cases of gonorrhoea were detected (n = 396). The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher at 25% (95% CI 13.64–39.60) for persons located in a separate section where individuals labelled as men who have sex with men (MSM) are separated. HIV/STD testing is important and feasible in Jamaica. A special focus should be placed on providing services to inmates labelled as MSM. Other Caribbean nations may also benefit from similar programmes. PMID:20089997

  18. Prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in Germany using established definitions: Baseline data of the FORMOsA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; von Stengel, S; Engelke, K; Sieber, C; Freiberger, E

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling women 70 years and older according to established sarcopenia and obesity definitions averaged between 0 and 2.3 % and can thus be considered as relatively low. However, the converse argument that sarcopenic obesity was incompatible with an independent life cannot be confirmed. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in community-dwelling (CD) older females in Germany. The secondary aim was to assess whether these females really live independently and autonomously. A total of 1325 CD females 70 years and older living in the area of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany were assessed. Sarcopenia as defined by (a) the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in older people (EWGSOP) and (b) the International working group on Sarcopenia (IWGS) combined with obesity defined as (a) BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (NIH) or (b) body-fat ≥ 35 % (WHO) was determined. In participants with SO, Barthel Index, care level and social network were retrospectively evaluated via personal interview. Based on anthropometric data, family, education and social status, lifestyle, number and distribution of diseases and medication, the present cohort is representative for the corresponding German population. Sarcopenia prevalence was 4.5 % according to EWGSOP and 3.3 % according to the IWGS criteria. Obesity prevalence in our cohort averaged 19.8 % (BMI, NIH) and 63.8 % (body fat, WHO). The overlap between both factors (i.e. SO) ranged from 0 % (EWGSOP + NIH criteria) to 2.3 % (EWGSOP + WHO criteria). Factors that may represent limited autonomy or independence were very rarely identified in this SO cohort. The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in the CD (female) German population 70 years + is relatively low. With respect to our second research aim, the hypothesis that SO was incompatible with independent life was rejected. However, the latter finding should be addressed with more dedicated study

  19. Changes in Differentiation-Relatedness During Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamaras, Martha R; Reviere, Susan L; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine (a) if the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale of Self and Object Representations (D-RS), a coding model used with the Object Relations Inventory (Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979 ) could be reliably applied to transcripts of psychoanalyses, and (b) if levels of differentiation-relatedness improve over the course of psychoanalysis. Participants were 4 creative writers who underwent psychoanalysis as part of a longitudinal research project focused on the processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis. Transcripts from the beginning and termination phases of psychoanalysis were coded by 2 independent raters for global, low, and high levels of self and other differentiation-relatedness and compared. There was good interrater agreement, suggesting that, like other forms of narrative material, psychoanalysis transcripts can be reliably rated for levels of object relations. Analysands showed an increase in global levels of differentiation-relatedness from a predominance of emergent ambivalent constancy (M = 6.2) at the beginning of analysis to consolidated, constant representations of self and other (M = 7.5) at the end of analysis. These preliminary findings contribute significantly to the empirical literature with regard to the measurement of self and object representations and change in these representations over the course of psychoanalysis.

  20. Prevalence, concentrations, and antibiotic sensitivities of Salmonella serovars in poultry from retail establishments in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengia, E; Samadpour, M; Hill, H W; Greeson, K; Tenney, K; Liao, G; Huang, X; Meschke, J S

    2014-06-01

    Poultry have been identified as one of the major sources of salmonellosis, with estimates ranging from 10 to 22% of total cases. Despite several advances in the industry and new performance standards, the incidence of salmonellosis in the population has not declined over the last 15 years. Salmonella is pervasive in a wide variety of foods, and thus, estimating its burden resulting from specific food categories has been challenging and plagued with uncertainty due to critical data gaps. The objective of this study was to conduct a year-long market survey (1,322 samples) to help bridge the data gaps on the contamination rates and levels of Salmonella on raw poultry by product type (i.e., breast, thighs, drums, wings, and split breast) and production method (conventional versus organic). The isolates recovered were serotyped and tested for antibiotic sensitivities. A PCR method was utilized for initial screening of samples after an overnight enrichment in tryptic soy broth. Three-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays and anti-Salmonella immunomagnetic separation methods were utilized to determine the levels of Salmonella and aid with the recovery of Salmonella species, respectively. Eleven percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in percent positive rates by product type included up to a 4-fold difference in percent positive rates between establishments, ranging from 7 to 31%. Of the samples positive for Salmonella species, 94% had organic or as not using antibiotics had significantly higher rates of recovery of Salmonella. On the other hand, all of the Salmonella isolates that were resistant to two or more antibiotics originated from conventional processing establishments where antibiotics were utilized. In addition, a significant proportion of isolates from conventionally processed products were serotypes clinically relevant to humans.

  1. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study.

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    Kaja Eriksson

    Full Text Available The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA, a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort.Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR, where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR.The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95% with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%. In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF, among patients with RA.Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects.

  2. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. Results The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Conclusions Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects. PMID:27203435

  3. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects.

  4. Genetic relatedness and disrupted social structure in a poached population of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobush, Kathleen; Kerr, Ben; Wasser, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    We use genetic measures of relatedness and observations of female bonding to examine the demographic signature of historically heavy poaching of a population of free-ranging African elephants. We collected dung samples to obtain DNA and observed behaviour from 102 elephant families over a 25-month period in 2003-2005 in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Poaching reduced the population by 75% in the decade prior to the 1989 ivory trade ban; park records indicate that poaching dropped significantly in Mikumi following the ban. Using 10 microsatellite loci, DNA was genotyped in 203 elephants and pair-wise relatedness was calculated among adult females within and between groups. The Mikumi population is characterized by small group size, considerable variation in group relatedness, females with no first-order adult relatives and females that form only weak social bonds. We used gene-drop analysis and a model of a genetically intact pedigree to compare our observed Mikumi group relatedness to a simulated genetically intact unpoached expectation. The majority of groups in Mikumi contain 2 to 3 adults; of these, 45% were classified as genetically disrupted. Bonding, quantified with a pair-wise association index, was significantly correlated with relatedness; however only half of the females formed strong bonds with other females, and relatedness was substantially lower for a given bond strength as compared to an unpoached population. Female African elephants without kin demonstrated considerable behavioural plasticity in this disturbed environment, grouping with other females lacking kin, with established groups, or remaining alone, unable to form any stable adult female-bonds. We interpret these findings as the remaining effect of poaching disturbance in Mikumi, despite a drop in the level of poaching since the commercial trade in ivory was banned 15 years ago.

  5. Mapping Technology Space by Normalizing Technology Relatedness Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Yan, Bowen; Luo, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    Technology is a complex system, with technologies relating to each other in a space that can be mapped as a network. The technology relatedness network's structure can reveal properties of technologies and of human behavior, if it can be mapped accurately. Technology networks have been made from patent data, using several measures of relatedness. These measures, however, are influenced by factors of the patenting system that do not reflect technologies or their relatedness. We created technology networks that precisely controlled for these impinging factors and normalized them out, using data from 3.9 million patents. The normalized technology relatedness networks were sparse, with only ~20% of technology domain pairs more related than would be expected by chance. Different measures of technology relatedness became more correlated with each other after normalization, approaching a single dimension of technology relatedness. The normalized network corresponded with human behavior: we analyzed the patenting his...

  6. An explicit semantic relatedness measure based on random walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Sihui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The semantic relatedness calculation of open domain knowledge network is a significant issue.In this paper,pheromone strategy is drawn from the thought of ant colony algorithm and is integrated into the random walk which is taken as the basic framework of calculating the semantic relatedness degree.The pheromone distribution is taken as a criterion of determining the tightness degree of semantic relatedness.A method of calculating semantic relatedness degree based on random walk is proposed and the exploration process of calculating the semantic relatedness degree is presented in a dominant way.The method mainly contains Path Select Model(PSM and Semantic Relatedness Computing Model(SRCM.PSM is used to simulate the path selection of ants and pheromone release.SRCM is used to calculate the semantic relatedness by utilizing the information returned by ants.The result indicates that the method could complete semantic relatedness calculation in linear complexity and extend the feasible strategy of semantic relatedness calculation.

  7. Relatedness-based Multi-Entity Summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratna, Kalpa; Yazdavar, Amir Hossein; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit; Cheng, Gong

    2017-08-01

    Representing world knowledge in a machine processable format is important as entities and their descriptions have fueled tremendous growth in knowledge-rich information processing platforms, services, and systems. Prominent applications of knowledge graphs include search engines (e.g., Google Search and Microsoft Bing), email clients (e.g., Gmail), and intelligent personal assistants (e.g., Google Now, Amazon Echo, and Apple's Siri). In this paper, we present an approach that can summarize facts about a collection of entities by analyzing their relatedness in preference to summarizing each entity in isolation. Specifically, we generate informative entity summaries by selecting: (i) inter-entity facts that are similar and (ii) intra-entity facts that are important and diverse. We employ a constrained knapsack problem solving approach to efficiently compute entity summaries. We perform both qualitative and quantitative experiments and demonstrate that our approach yields promising results compared to two other stand-alone state-of-the-art entity summarization approaches.

  8. Mother-child incest, psychosis, and the dynamics of relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliburn, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Sexual abuse perpetrated by a parent particularly the mother creates turmoil in the child who has to depend on the very person who betrays their trust. A review of the literature confirms that there are only a few case studies of mother-child incest reported in the psychoanalytic literature; the incidence of such incest, however, is unknown. Considerably, more information is available in the forensic and child abuse literatures along with an increase in research; yet, there is a paucity of data. Child sexual abuse by women as highly prevalent is described in early societies, and that there is a bias in peoples' minds about the capacity of females to sexually abuse children is raised by many writers. The fact of being abused by one's mother brings up specific issues for survivors of maternal incest. Shame and the fear of not being believed, which was the experience of my female patient and a sense of specialness and failure of recognition of incest by the males, created particular difficulties which had to be dealt with in psychotherapy. This paper describes three teenagers, one female and two males who were sexually abused by their mothers. I have condensed several years of treatment to provide an account of the female patient and a summary of each of the males, and I attempt to explore the dynamics of relatedness in the abused and the abuser.

  9. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  10. Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV/AIDS patients with and without diarrhoea and their household drinking water in rural communities in Limpopo Province South Africa.

  11. Genetic relatedness in wintering groups of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, A; Bókony, V; Kulcsár, A; Tóth, Z; Szabó, K; Kaholek, B; Pénzes, Z

    2009-11-01

    Social behaviour of group-living animals is often influenced by the relatedness of individuals, thus understanding the genetic structure of groups is important for the interpretation of costs and benefits of social interactions. In this study, we investigated genetic relatedness in feeding aggregations of free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) during the nonbreeding season. This species is a frequent model system for studies of social behaviour (e.g. aggression, social foraging), but we lack adequate information on the kin structure of sparrow flocks. During two winters, we ringed and observed sparrows at feeding stations, and used resightings to identify stable flock-members and to calculate association indices between birds. We genotyped the birds using seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, and estimated pairwise relatedness coefficients and relatedness categories (close kin vs. unrelated) by maximum likelihood method. We found that most birds were unrelated to each other in the flocks (mean +/- SE relatedness coefficient: 0.06 +/- 0.002), although most individuals had at least a few close relatives in their home flock (14.3 +/- 0.6% of flock-mates). Pairwise association between individuals was not significantly related to their genetic relatedness. Furthermore, there was no difference between within-flock vs. between-flock relatedness, and birds had similar proportions of close kin within and outside their home flock. Finally, relatedness among members of different flocks was unrelated to the distance between their flocks. Thus, sparrow flocks were not characterized by association of relatives, nevertheless the presence of some close kin may provide opportunity for kin-biased behaviours to evolve.

  12. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  13. Italian Adaptation of the "Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ingoglia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the applicability of the observational technique developed by Allen and colleagues (Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O’Connor, 1994; Allen, Hauser, et al., 2003 to investigate the issues of autonomy and relatedness in parent-adolescent relationship in the Italian context. Thirty-five mother-adolescent dyads participated to a task in which they discussed a family issue about which they disagree. Adolescents were also administered a self-report measure assessing their relationship with mothers. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of promoting and inhibiting autonomy, and promoting relatedness behaviors than their children. Results also suggested a partial behavioral reciprocity within the dyads, regarding promoting and inhibiting relatedness, and inhibiting autonomy. Finally, mothers’ inhibiting autonomy behaviors positively correlated to teens’ perception of their relationship as conflicting; adolescents’ inhibiting and promoting autonomy and inhibiting relatedness behaviors positively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness, while promoting relatedness behaviors negatively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness. The results suggest that, for Italian mothers, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with being involved in a more negative relationship with their children, even if not characterized by open hostility, while for Italian adolescents, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with threatening the closeness of the relationship. Globally, the findings suggest that the application of this observational procedure may help our understanding of youth autonomy and relatedness development in Italy, but they leave unanswered questions regarding its appropriate adaptation and the role played by cultural differences.

  14. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejen Gezehegn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR and 95% Confidence Interval (CI was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. Result The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0. The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who

  16. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.; Smylie, Janet K.; Prince, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy–relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:23946698

  17. Genome analysis and phylogenetic relatedness of Gallibacterium anatis strains from poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Trampel, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    . Multilocus sequence typing effectively distinguished 82 sequence types and several clonal complexes of G. anatis, and some clones seemed to predominate among G. anatis populations from commercial layers in Iowa. Biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial agents was also observed in several clades....... Here, we compared the genome sequences of three G. anatis isolates in an effort to understand its virulence mechanisms and identify novel antigenic traits. A multilocus sequence typing method was also established for G. anatis and used to characterize the genotypic relatedness of 71 isolates from...

  18. Industry Relatedness and Post-Acquisition Innovative Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cefis, Elena; Marsili, Orietta; Rigamonti, Damiana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how characteristics of acquiring and acquired firms influence the curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relationship between relatedness and post-acquisition innovative performance. Using a relatedness index based on industry co-occurrence in a sample of 1,736 Dutch acquisitions, we...... find that acquirer's internal R&D and acquisition experience, and the small size of acquired firms, help to reach a balance between exploration of novelty and exploitation of synergies in unrelated acquisitions, and to achieve higher post-acquisition performance. However, while the acquirer's R...

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella in 11 Spices Offered for Sale from Retail Establishments and in Imported Shipments Offered for Entry to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Pouillot, Régis; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Doren, Jane M Van; Kleinmeier, Daria; Ziobro, George C; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol; Bunning, Vincent K; Musser, Steven M; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-10-04

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration conducted a survey to evaluate Salmonella prevalence and aerobic plate counts in packaged (dried) spices offered for sale at retail establishments in the United States. The study included 7,250 retail samples of 11 spice types that were collected during November 2013 to September 2014 and October 2014 to March 2015. No Salmonella-positive samples (based on analysis of 125 g) were found among retail samples of cumin seed (whole or ground), sesame seed (whole, not roasted or toasted, and not black), and white pepper (ground or cracked), for prevalence estimates of 0.00% with 95% Clopper and Pearson's confidence intervals of 0.00 to 0.67%, 0.00 to 0.70%, and 0.00 to 0.63%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence estimates (confidence intervals) for the other eight spice types were 0.19% (0.0048 to 1.1%) for basil leaf (whole, ground, crushed, or flakes), 0.24% (0.049 to 0.69%) for black pepper (whole, ground, or cracked), 0.56% (0.11 to 1.6%) for coriander seed (ground), 0.19% (0.0049 to 1.1%) for curry powder (ground mixture of spices), 0.49% (0.10 to 1.4%) for dehydrated garlic (powder, granules, or flakes), 0.15% (0.0038 to 0.83%) for oregano leaf (whole, ground, crushed, or flakes), 0.25% (0.03 to 0.88%) for paprika (ground or cracked), and 0.64% (0.17 to 1.6%) for red pepper (hot red pepper, e.g., chili, cayenne; ground, cracked, crushed, or flakes). Salmonella isolates were serotyped, and genomes were sequenced. Samples of these same 11 spice types were also examined from shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United States from 1 October 2011 to 30 September 2015. Salmonella prevalence estimates (based on analysis of two 375-g composite samples) for shipments of imported spices were 1.7 to 18%. The Salmonella prevalence estimates for spices offered for sale at retail establishments for all of the spice types except dehydrated garlic and basil were significantly lower than estimates for shipments of imported spice

  20. spa typing alone is not sufficient to demonstrate endemic establishment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low-prevalence country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum Moen, A E; Holberg-Petersen, M; Andresen, L L; Blomfeldt, A

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway is low but increasing. Over the last decade, numerous nursing homes have experienced MRSA outbreaks. One genetic lineage, spa type t304, has been identified at multiple nursing homes and has caused large outbreaks lasting for several years. To evaluate whether spa typing is sufficient for the detection of MRSA spread and endemic establishment in a low-prevalence area, using spa type t304 as the test organism. All spa type t304 isolates detected in 1991-2010 in the most densely populated area of Norway were included. Time and place of bacterial sampling were recorded. The isolates were analysed using multi-locus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, detection of lukS/F-PV and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 181 spa type t304 isolates were identified in three of 23 municipalities. Most (91%) of the isolates could be linked to 13 nursing homes, eight of which experienced outbreaks. PFGE analysis revealed three PFGE types, consisting of 19 PFGE patterns; 95% of the isolates were PFGE type 2. In total, PFGE types 2 and 3 accounted for 99% of all nursing home isolates, and included isolates from different nursing homes, different outbreaks and different time periods. Additional genetic analyses did not further differentiate between the spa type t304 isolates. MRSA spa type t304 appears to have established itself as an endemic genetic lineage in the study area. spa typing does not provide sufficient resolution when investigating the spread of an endemic-like genetic lineage in a low-prevalence area, and should be supplemented by additional typing techniques. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring the relatedness of equivalent stimuli / Medida do grau de relacionamento entre estímulos equivalentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bortoloti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There are methodological difficulties to quantify the relatedness of equivalent stimuli. The purpose of this study was to create an instrument that could be helpful in this process. Two groups of college students took part in this study. The experimental group established equivalence classes comprised of abstract pictures and pictures of faces expressing anger, happiness and disgust. They then evaluated some of these pictures with a semantic differential. The control group used the same instrument in evaluating faces and figures, untrained in establishing relations between those stimuli. The control group assessed the figures as neutral and their assessment of the faces corresponded to that carried out by the participants of the experimental group – to them, the figures were equivalents to the faces. The comparison between the values attributed to the faces and figures provides a quantitative measurement of the degree of relatedness between those stimuli and that may be used to study parameters such as the number of nodes.

  2. Self-organizing maps: A tool to ascertain taxonomic relatedness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    Self-organizing maps: A tool to ascertain taxonomic relatedness based on features derived from 16S rDNA sequence617 ... dimensional scaling; PCA, principal component analysis; PE, processing element; SOM, self-organizing map; VQ, vector quantization ...... absolute consensus of methods for three isolates (No. 2.

  3. Gender differences in the family-relatedness of relocation decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullrich, J.; Pluut, Helen; Büttgen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a dyadic study design, the present study draws on research into the family-relatedness of work decisions to examine the impact of the spouse's characteristics on an employee's willingness to engage in job-related relocation. With a sample of 1234 employees, the results show that spousal

  4. Measuring autonomy, competence and relatedness of users needs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of literature on users‟ need satisfaction from the psychological (mental and emotional) aspects of the variable as it affects usage of reference sources and services hence this study to measure autonomy, competence and relatedness of users needs‟ satisfaction on use of reference sources and services ...

  5. Consumers’ perception of relatedness in mental representations of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gattol, V.

    2013-01-01

    The work in this thesis investigates relatedness (as perceived by consumers) in mental representations of products. Just as other objects that are part of the physical world, products are represented in consumers’ minds in the form of concepts. Concepts hold consumers’ knowledge about a product.

  6. Scientific knowledge dynamics and relatedness in biotech cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123155541; Heimeriks, Gaston|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/291061664; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330821369

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of

  7. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A.C.; Barbosa, A.V.; Arais, L.R.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Carneiro, V.C.; Cerqueira, A.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134), their owners (n = 134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. PMID:26887238

  8. Nature relatedness is connected with modern health worries and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Szemerszky, Renáta; Köteles, Ferenc

    2017-03-01

    Although nature relatedness is considered a positive characteristic, its relationship to constructs involving worries about the negative effects of artificial environmental factors is also feasible. A questionnaire assessing modern health worries, electrosensitivity, somatosensory amplification, spirituality, and nature relatedness was completed by 510 individuals. Nature relatedness was related to electrosensitivity, modern health worries, and spirituality. In a binary logistic regression analysis, somatosensory amplification, modern health worries, and nature relatedness were associated with electrosensitivity, and nature relatedness moderated the connection between modern health worries and electrosensitivity. In naive representations, "natural" might be associated with health, whereas "modern" and "artificial" evoke negative associations.

  9. The study of relatedness and genetic diversity in cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Dessauer, H.C.; Longmire, J.; Briles, W.E.; Simon, R.C.; Wood, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) is responsible for recovery of endangered species in the wild and, when necessary, maintenance in captivity. These programs provide an immediate measure of insurance against extinction. A prerequisite inherent in all of these programs is the preservation of enough genetic diversity to maintain a viable population and to maintain the capacity of the population to respond to change. Measures of genetic diversity examine polymorphic genes that are not influenced by selection pressures. Examples of these techniques and those used to determine relatedness are discussed. Studies of genetic diversity, electrophoresis of blood proteins, relatedness, blood typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms which are being used by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center are discussed in detail.

  10. Inbreeding and relatedness in Scandinavian grey wolves Canis lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegren, H

    1999-01-01

    Management of small and threatened populations may require detailed knowledge about the genetic status of individuals and the genetic relatedness between individuals. I show here that individual heterozygosity at a set of 29 microsatellite loci correlates closely to the degree of inbreeding in a captive grey wolf population. Microsatellite allele sharing similarly correlates closely to known relatedness between pairs of individuals. Genotyping the same markers in a small (60-70 individuals) natural population of grey wolves in Sweden, low individual heterozygosities and high values of allele sharing between some animals were found. Since inbreeding depression has been documented in a captive grey wolf population of Scandinavian origin, the results point out an additional risk for the small Swedish wild population.

  11. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  12. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Garbe

    Full Text Available Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  13. A maximum-likelihood estimation of pairwise relatedness for autopolyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K; Guo, S T; Shattuck, M R; Chen, S T; Qi, X G; Zhang, P; Li, B G

    2015-02-01

    Relatedness between individuals is central to ecological genetics. Multiple methods are available to quantify relatedness from molecular data, including method-of-moment and maximum-likelihood estimators. We describe a maximum-likelihood estimator for autopolyploids, and quantify its statistical performance under a range of biologically relevant conditions. The statistical performances of five additional polyploid estimators of relatedness were also quantified under identical conditions. When comparing truncated estimators, the maximum-likelihood estimator exhibited lower root mean square error under some conditions and was more biased for non-relatives, especially when the number of alleles per loci was low. However, even under these conditions, this bias was reduced to be statistically insignificant with more robust genetic sampling. We also considered ambiguity in polyploid heterozygote genotyping and developed a weighting methodology for candidate genotypes. The statistical performances of three polyploid estimators under both ideal and actual conditions (including inbreeding and double reduction) were compared. The software package POLYRELATEDNESS is available to perform this estimation and supports a maximum ploidy of eight.

  14. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  15. Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Caesar

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.

  16. Relatedness mapping and tracts of relatedness for genome-wide data in the presence of linkage disequilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of relatedness have several applications such as the identification of relatives or in identifying disease related genes through identity by descent (IBD) mapping. Here we present a new method for identifying IBD tracts among individuals from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms ...... considerable improvement in mapping power in natural populations compared to standard association mapping methods. Genet. Epidemiol. 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc....... provides a map of the local relatedness along the genome. We illustrate the potential of the method for mapping disease genes on a real data set, and show that the method has the potential to map causative disease mutations using only a handful of affected individuals. The new IBD mapping method provides...

  17. Agency, relatedness, inner peace, and problem solving in sexual offending: how sexual offenders prioritize and operationalize their good lives conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Georgia; Wood, Jane L

    2008-12-01

    Untreated imprisoned sexual offenders (N = 42) completed interviews and questionnaires to establish the priority they assigned, at the time of their offending, to three "goods" from the good lives model and to gain insight into how they operationalized these goods at that time. The relationship between the priorities offenders assigned to the goods of (a) agency, (b) relatedness, and (c) inner peace at the time of offending and their problem-solving ability was also explored. A measure of problem-solving ability was obtained with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, and a measure of functional and dysfunctional problem solving was obtained from its scales. The results suggest that sexual offenders tend to experience problems in prioritizing, rather than operationalizing, inner peace, as this good is not related to problem-solving ability but tends to be assigned lower priority than agency and relatedness. Although agency and relatedness tend to be given higher importance, and this is related to better problem-solving ability, there appear to be problems with scope in some offenders' good lives conceptions and problems with the capacity, means, and conflict among the means used to achieve these goods. Directions for future research are suggested.

  18. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emma; Brymer, Eric; Clough, Peter; Denovan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262) aged 18-71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1) who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp). Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  19. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262 aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1 who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp. Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  20. Visual assessment of phenotype by UPOV descriptor and relatedness of maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Vojka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The information on inter-relations of breeding material and genetic distinctness of available germplasm is important for deciding on the usage mode in breeding programmes. For the given research, phenotype description according to principles of UPOV descriptors was taken from 28 maize lines that are parental components of 20 ZP maize hybrids of known pedigree, from one year and two repetitions. Cluster analysis was conducted in order to establish whether the phenotype characterization of genotypes can be used for defining homogenous groups by relatedness, and to what extent the results are in accordance with the known information on the examined material's pedigree. The cluster analysis, Ward method, based on Squared Euclidian Distance, provided the best concordance with the information on the pedigree of the examined maize lines, so those results are presented in this paper and used for correspondence analysis.

  1. Genomic Relatedness Strengthens Genetic Connectedness Across Management Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haipeng; Spangler, Matthew L; Lewis, Ronald M; Morota, Gota

    2017-10-05

    Genetic connectedness refers to a measure of genetic relatedness across management units (e.g., herds and flocks). With the presence of high genetic connectedness in management units, best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) is known to provide reliable comparisons between estimated genetic values. Genetic connectedness has been studied for pedigree-based BLUP; however, relatively little attention has been paid to using genomic information to measure connectedness. In this study, we assessed genome-based connectedness across management units by applying prediction error variance of difference (PEVD), coefficient of determination (CD), and prediction error correlation r to a combination of computer simulation and real data (mice and cattle). We found that genomic information ([Formula: see text]) increased the estimate of connectedness among individuals from different management units compared to that based on pedigree ([Formula: see text]). A disconnected design benefited the most. In both datasets, PEVD and CD statistics inferred increased connectedness across units when using [Formula: see text]- rather than [Formula: see text]-based relatedness, suggesting stronger connectedness. With r once using allele frequencies equal to one-half or scaling [Formula: see text] to values between 0 and 2, which is intrinsic to [Formula: see text] connectedness also increased with genomic information. However, PEVD occasionally increased, and r decreased when obtained using the alternative form of [Formula: see text] instead suggesting less connectedness. Such inconsistencies were not found with CD. We contend that genomic relatedness strengthens measures of genetic connectedness across units and has the potential to aid genomic evaluation of livestock species. Copyright © 2017 Yu et al.

  2. The Cascading Development of Autonomy and Relatedness From Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Molloy, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested a developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21. Participants included 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. PMID:25345623

  3. The cascading development of autonomy and relatedness from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hessel, Elenda T; Molloy, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    A developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21 was examined among 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A C; Barbosa, A V; Arais, L R; Ribeiro, P F; Carneiro, V C; Cerqueira, A M F

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n=134), their owners (n=134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n=44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. The Cascading Development of Autonomy and Relatedness From Adolescence to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Molloy, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested a developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21. Participants included 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and ...

  6. Learning new meanings for old words: effects of semantic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Berriman, Richard; Landau, Matt; Lee, Theresa; Ho, Carol; Gaskell, M Gareth; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-10-01

    Changes to our everyday activities mean that adult language users need to learn new meanings for previously unambiguous words. For example, we need to learn that a "tweet" is not only the sound a bird makes, but also a short message on a social networking site. In these experiments, adult participants learned new fictional meanings for words with a single dominant meaning (e.g., "ant") by reading paragraphs that described these novel meanings. Explicit recall of these meanings was significantly better when there was a strong semantic relationship between the novel meaning and the existing meaning. This relatedness effect emerged after relatively brief exposure to the meanings (experiment 1), but it persisted when training was extended across 7 days (experiment 2) and when semantically demanding tasks were used during this extended training (experiment 3). A lexical decision task was used to assess the impact of learning on online recognition. In Experiment 3, participants responded more quickly to words whose new meaning was semantically related than to those with an unrelated meaning. This result is consistent with earlier studies showing an effect of meaning relatedness on lexical decision, and it indicates that these newly acquired meanings become integrated with participants' preexisting knowledge about the meanings of words.

  7. Relatedness facilitates cooperation in the subsocial spider, Stegodyphus tentoriicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilde Trine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cooperative hunting and foraging in spiders is rare and prone to cheating such that the actions of selfish individuals negatively affect the whole group. The resulting social dilemma may be mitigated by kin selection since related individuals lose indirect fitness benefits by acting selfishly. Indeed, cooperation with genetic kin reduces the disadvantages of within-group competition in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus, supporting the hypothesis that high relatedness is an important pre-adaptation in the transition to sociality in spiders. In this study we examined the consequences of group size and relatedness on cooperative feeding in the subsocial spider S. tentoriicola, a species suggested to be at the transition to permanent sociality. Results We formed groups of 3 and 6 spiders that were either siblings or non-siblings. We found that increasing group size negatively affected feeding efficiency but that these negative effects were reduced in sib-groups. Sib groups were more likely to feed cooperatively and all group members grew more homogenously than groups of unrelated spiders. The measured differences did not translate into differential growth or mortality during the experimental period of 8 weeks. Conclusion The combination of our results with those from previous studies indicates that the conflict between individual interests and group interests may be reduced by nepotism and that the latter promote the maintenance of the social community.

  8. Genetic relatedness to sisters' children has been underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan R

    2013-01-22

    Males of many species help in the care and provisioning of offspring, and these investments often correlate with genetic relatedness. For example, many human males invest in the children of sisters, and this is especially so where men are less likely to share genes with children of wives. Although this makes qualitative sense, it has been difficult to support quantitatively. The prevailing model predicts investment in children of sisters only when paternity confidence falls below 0.268. This value is often seen as too low to be credible; so investment in sisters' children represents an unsolved problem. I show here that the prevailing model rests on a series of restrictive assumptions that underestimate relatedness to sisters' children. For this reason, it understates the fitness payoff to men who invest in these children. This effect can be substantial, especially in societies with low confidence in paternity. But this effect cannot be estimated solely from confidence in paternity. One must also estimate the probability that two siblings share the same father.

  9. The Interplay of Autonomy and Relatedness in Hong Kong Chinese Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Winnie C. W.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2002-01-01

    The mediating effects of autonomy and relatedness on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction were investigated among 49 single mothers. Among all tested variables in the dimension of relatedness, only network orientation (propensity to utilize one's available social support) was a mediator of the positive relationship between…

  10. Peers and Teachers as Sources of Relatedness Perceptions, Motivation, and Affective Responses in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality)…

  11. Coordination, Competition, and Neutrality: Autonomy and Relatedness Patterns in Girls' Interactions with Mentors and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Christine L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Das, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Healthy development necessitates that adolescents maintain connections with others while developing an autonomous identity. In the extant literature, however, autonomy and relatedness are often placed at odds, particularly in discussions of girls. We explore how autonomy and relatedness co-occur in girls' interactions with peers and mentors in the…

  12. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  13. A/r/tographic Collaboration as Radical Relatedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bickel PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors examine a/r/tographical collaboration in a community-engaged research study investigating immigrant understandings of home and place. The study, The City of Richgate, involves a complex collaboration between community members, community organizations, educational institutions, and a research team comprising artist-educators. The study crosses border zones of cultural, ethnic, geographic, institutional, public, private, and disciplinary boundaries, reflecting the ever-changing character of postmodern reality. In this paper the authors reflect critically and theoretically on the lived experience of radical relatedness found within the complex collaboration, particularly within the a/r/tographic research team. This offers a qualitative methodology of radical collaboration applicable to many fields of inquiry in the academy, art world, and community.

  14. Genomic relatedness of Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Emeli; Hellmark, Bengt; Stegger, Marc; Skytt Andersen, Paal; Sundqvist, Martin; Söderquist, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize clinical and environmental Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates with regard to genomic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR and core genome phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data verified the presence of distinct clades comprising closely related S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins. Phylogenetic relationships between 25 S. pettenkoferi isolates collected from blood cultures and intra-operative air sampling were determined by repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing and analysis of ~157 000 SNPs identified in the core genome after WGS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and tests for biofilm production (microtitre plate assay) were performed. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR as well as WGS data demonstrated the close relatedness of clinically significant blood culture isolates to probable contaminants, as well as to environmental isolates. Antibiotic-susceptibility testing demonstrated a low level of antimicrobial resistance. The mecA gene was present in two cefoxitin-resistant isolates. No isolates were found to produce biofilm. Close genomic relatedness of S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins were found within clades, but with substantial genomic difference between the two major clades. The ecological niche of S. pettenkoferi remains unconfirmed, but the presence of S. pettenkoferi in the air of the operating field favours the suggestion of a role in skin flora. Identification of S. pettenkoferi in clinical samples should, in a majority of cases, most likely be regarded as a probable contamination, and its role as a possible pathogen in immunocompromised hosts remains to be clarified.

  15. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  16. The relation between thematic role computing and semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Li

    Full Text Available Sentence comprehension involves timely computing different types of relations between its verbs and noun arguments, such as morphosyntactic, semantic, and thematic relations. Here, we used EEG technique to investigate the potential differences in thematic role computing and lexical-semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension, and the interaction between these two types of processes. Mandarin Chinese sentences were used as materials. The basic structure of those sentences is "Noun+Verb+'le'+a two-character word", with the Noun being the initial argument. The verb disambiguates the initial argument as an agent or a patient. Meanwhile, the initial argument and the verb are highly or lowly semantically related. The ERPs at the verbs revealed that: relative to the agent condition, the patient condition evoked a larger N400 only when the argument and verb were lowly semantically related; however, relative to the high-relatedness condition, the low-relatedness condition elicited a larger N400 regardless of the thematic relation; although both thematic role variation and semantic relatedness variation elicited N400 effects, the N400 effect elicited by the former was broadly distributed and reached maximum over the frontal electrodes, and the N400 effect elicited by the latter had a posterior distribution. In addition, the brain oscillations results showed that, although thematic role variation (patient vs. agent induced power decreases around the beta frequency band (15-30 Hz, semantic relatedness variation (low-relatedness vs. high-relatedness induced power increases in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz. These results suggested that, in the sentence context, thematic role computing is modulated by the semantic relatedness between the verb and its argument; semantic relatedness processing, however, is in some degree independent from the thematic relations. Moreover, our results indicated that, during on-line sentence

  17. The relation between thematic role computing and semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Haiyan; Lu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Sentence comprehension involves timely computing different types of relations between its verbs and noun arguments, such as morphosyntactic, semantic, and thematic relations. Here, we used EEG technique to investigate the potential differences in thematic role computing and lexical-semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension, and the interaction between these two types of processes. Mandarin Chinese sentences were used as materials. The basic structure of those sentences is "Noun+Verb+'le'+a two-character word", with the Noun being the initial argument. The verb disambiguates the initial argument as an agent or a patient. Meanwhile, the initial argument and the verb are highly or lowly semantically related. The ERPs at the verbs revealed that: relative to the agent condition, the patient condition evoked a larger N400 only when the argument and verb were lowly semantically related; however, relative to the high-relatedness condition, the low-relatedness condition elicited a larger N400 regardless of the thematic relation; although both thematic role variation and semantic relatedness variation elicited N400 effects, the N400 effect elicited by the former was broadly distributed and reached maximum over the frontal electrodes, and the N400 effect elicited by the latter had a posterior distribution. In addition, the brain oscillations results showed that, although thematic role variation (patient vs. agent) induced power decreases around the beta frequency band (15-30 Hz), semantic relatedness variation (low-relatedness vs. high-relatedness) induced power increases in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz). These results suggested that, in the sentence context, thematic role computing is modulated by the semantic relatedness between the verb and its argument; semantic relatedness processing, however, is in some degree independent from the thematic relations. Moreover, our results indicated that, during on-line sentence comprehension, thematic

  18. Identity during Adolescence and Adulthood from the Viewpoints of Individuality-based Identity and Relatedness-based Identity

    OpenAIRE

    宗田, 直子; 岡本, 祐子

    2008-01-01

    Identity during adolescence and adulthood was investigated from the viewpoint of individuality-based identity and relatedness-based identity, especially the dimensions of "relatedness." Individuality Based Identity Scale (IBIS) and Relatedness Based Identity Scale (RBIS) were administered to adolescent (n=198) and adult (n=321) participants. Analysis of the responses to the scales indicated the following. (1) RBIS subscale score; "relatedness before ego formation" was similar between adolesce...

  19. Relatedness with Teachers and Peers during Early Adolescence: An Integrated Variable-Oriented and Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Alice J.; Gest, Scott D.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aims of the present longitudinal study were to examine (a) patterns of early transition relatedness with teachers and peers in 6th grade, (b) whether pre-transition behavior in 5th grade predicted early transition relatedness in 6th grade, and (c) how unique indicators of early transition relatedness with teachers and peers and…

  20. Genetic relatedness of faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria isolated from water and sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwanzala, Mutshiene Deogratias; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Keshri, Jitendra; Momba, Ndombo Benteke Maggy

    2017-12-01

    To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Results revealed that the Apies River had high faecal pollution levels with enterococci showing low to moderate correlation coefficient (r2 values ranged from 0.2605 to 0.7499) compared to the faecal coliforms which showed zero to low correlation (r2 values ranged from 0.0027 to 0.1407) indicating that enterococci may be better indicator than faecal coliforms for detecting faecal contamination in riverbed sediments. The phylogenetic tree of faecal coliforms revealed a 98% homology among their nucleotide sequences confirming the close genetic relatedness between river water and riverbed sediment isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the enterococci showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the predominant species found in both river water and riverbed sediments with bootstrap values of ≥99%. A high degree of genetic relatedness between sediment and water isolates indicated a possible common ancestry and transmission pathway. We recommend the microbial monitoring of riverbed sediments as it harbours more diverse microbial community and once resuspended may cause health and environmental problems.

  1. High relatedness in a social amoeba: the role of kin-discriminatory segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Owen M; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2012-07-07

    A major challenge for social theory is to explain the importance of kin discrimination for the evolution of altruism. One way to assess the importance of kin discrimination is to test its effects on increasing relatedness within groups. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates to form a fruiting body composed of dead stalk and live spores. Previous studies of a natural population showed that where D. discoideum occurs in the soil, multiple clones are often found in the same small soil samples. However, actual fruiting bodies usually contain only one clone. We here performed experiments to gauge the effect of kin-discriminatory segregation on increasing relatedness. We mixed co-occurring clones from this population using a relatedness level found in small soil samples. We found a lower proportion of uniclonal fruiting bodies and a lower level of relatedness compared with natural fruiting bodies. We found that the amount of relatedness increase attributable to kin-discriminatory segregation was small. These findings suggest a relatively minor influence of kin-discriminatory segregation on relatedness in D. discoideum. We discuss our results comparing with the results of previous studies, including those of wild clones and laboratory mutants. We ask why wild clones of D. discoideum exhibit a low degree of kin-discriminatory segregation, and what alternative factors might account for high relatedness in D. discoideum.

  2. Vector representations of multi-word terms for semantic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Sam; Cuffy, Clint; McInnes, Bridget T

    2017-12-13

    This paper presents a comparison between several multi-word term aggregation methods of distributional context vectors applied to the task of semantic similarity and relatedness in the biomedical domain. We compare the multi-word term aggregation methods of summation of component word vectors, mean of component word vectors, direct construction of compound term vectors using the compoundify tool, and direct construction of concept vectors using the MetaMap tool. Dimensionality reduction is critical when constructing high quality distributional context vectors, so these baseline co-occurrence vectors are compared against dimensionality reduced vectors created using singular value decomposition (SVD), and word2vec word embeddings using continuous bag of words (CBOW), and skip-gram models. We also find optimal vector dimensionalities for the vectors produced by these techniques. Our results show that none of the tested multi-word term aggregation methods is statistically significantly better than any other. This allows flexibility when choosing a multi-word term aggregation method, and means expensive corpora preprocessing may be avoided. Results are shown with several standard evaluation datasets, and state of the results are achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A Semantic Relatedness Approach for Traceability Link Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Niu, Nan [Mississippi State University (MSU); Xu, Songhua [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Human analysts working with automated tracing tools need to directly vet candidate traceability links in order to determine the true traceability information. Currently, human intervention happens at the end of the traceability process, after candidate traceability links have already been generated. This often leads to a decline in the results accuracy. In this paper, we propose an approach, based on semantic relatedness (SR), which brings human judgment to an earlier stage of the tracing process by integrating it into the underlying retrieval mechanism. SR tries to mimic human mental model of relevance by considering a broad range of semantic relations, hence producing more semantically meaningful results. We evaluated our approach using three datasets from different application domains, and assessed the tracing results via six different performance measures concerning both result quality and browsability. The empirical evaluation results show that our SR approach achieves a significantly better performance in recovering true links than a standard Vector Space Model (VSM) in all datasets. Our approach also achieves a significantly better precision than Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) in two of our datasets.

  4. [Relatedness of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Mikucka, Agnieszka; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Many identification and relatedness studies methods had been commonly used for epidemiological studies in microbiological laboratories. Apart from phenotypic methods, genotypic are also often used. The aim of this study was to compare, obtained by PFGE chromosomal DNA patterns of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains isolated from clinical material. 46 methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains were included in this study. Most of them were isolated from wound swabs (65.2%) and catheters (19.6%) from different surgical clinics (76.1%). To identify strains and receive biochemical profiles, ID 32 Staph tests and GPI cards of Vitek 1 system were used. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Tenover et al. interpretation were used to compare chromosomal DNA patterns of examined strains. 44 and 42 PFGE patterns of chromosomal DNA were received, using visual interpretation classifying two pairs of strains as the same, two pairs as closely related and three pairs as probably related. Strains classified as identical and similar in visual evaluation were indistinguishable in Molecular Analyst DST interpretation, probably due to tolerance in bands location pattern. Strains probably related in visual interpretation represent at least 96% similarity in Molecular Analyst DST but different susceptibility and biochemical profiles obtained by ID 32 Staph and Vitek 1. PFGE analysis had foremost capacity to distinguish methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains using visual interpretation and Molecular Analyst DST (Bio-Rad) program and seems to be useful method in epidemiological studies. Strains with the same PFGE pattern, had different susceptibility and biochemical profiles.

  5. Phylogenetic relatedness predicts priority effects in nectar yeast communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Belisle, Melinda; Fukami, Tadashi

    2012-02-22

    Priority effects, in which the outcome of species interactions depends on the order of their arrival, are a key component of many models of community assembly. Yet, much remains unknown about how priority effects vary in strength among species in a community and what factors explain this variation. We experimented with a model natural community in laboratory microcosms that allowed us to quantify the strength of priority effects for most of the yeast species found in the floral nectar of a hummingbird-pollinated shrub at a biological preserve in northern California. We found that priority effects were widespread, with late-arriving species experiencing strong negative effects from early-arriving species. However, the magnitude of priority effects varied across species pairs. This variation was phylogenetically non-random, with priority effects stronger between closer relatives. Analysis of carbon and amino acid consumption profiles indicated that competition between closer relatives was more intense owing to higher ecological similarity, consistent with Darwin's naturalization hypothesis. These results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness between potential colonists may explain the strength of priority effects and, as a consequence, the degree to which community assembly is historically contingent.

  6. Encoding of low-quality DNA profiles as genotype probability matrices for improved profile comparisons, relatedness evaluation and database searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K; Williams, D Gareth; Balding, David J

    2016-11-01

    Many DNA profiles recovered from crime scene samples are of a quality that does not allow them to be searched against, nor entered into, databases. We propose a method for the comparison of profiles arising from two DNA samples, one or both of which can have multiple donors and be affected by low DNA template or degraded DNA. We compute likelihood ratios to evaluate the hypothesis that the two samples have a common DNA donor, and hypotheses specifying the relatedness of two donors. Our method uses a probability distribution for the genotype of the donor of interest in each sample. This distribution can be obtained from a statistical model, or we can exploit the ability of trained human experts to assess genotype probabilities, thus extracting much information that would be discarded by standard interpretation rules. Our method is compatible with established methods in simple settings, but is more widely applicable and can make better use of information than many current methods for the analysis of mixed-source, low-template DNA profiles. It can accommodate uncertainty arising from relatedness instead of or in addition to uncertainty arising from noisy genotyping. We describe a computer program GPMDNA, available under an open source licence, to calculate LRs using the method presented in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship Between Autonomy and Relatedness and Adolescents' Adrenocortical and Cardiovascular Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily C; Chaplin, Tara M; Stroud, Laura R

    2015-11-01

    Developing autonomy and maintaining relatedness within the parent-adolescent relationship marks a realignment process that shifts adolescents' decision making and regulation from parents to youth. This process may be stressful for some adolescents, particularly those who perceive their daily lives as stressful. This study examined the associations of autonomy, relatedness and perceived stress with adolescents' cortisol and blood pressure response to conflict in a mother-adolescent interaction task among 100 adolescents (M age = 15.09; 68 % girls, 78 % Caucasian). Few direct associations were found, but results indicated that perceived stress moderated the effect of autonomy and relatedness such that youth who reported more perceived stress and whose mothers' restricted their autonomy and undermined their relatedness evidenced increased cortisol and systolic blood pressure when compared to youth lower in perceived stress. The results highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the association between normative developmental transitions and adolescents' neurobiological response to stress.

  8. Dickeya species relatedness and clade structure determined by comparison of recA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Neil; Stead, David; Bew, Janice; Heeney, John; Tsror Lahkim, Leah; Elphinstone, John

    2009-10-01

    Using sequences from the recA locus, we have produced a phylogeny of 188 Dickeya strains from culture collections and identified species relatedness and subspecies clade structure within the genus. Of the six recognized species, Dickeya paradisiaca, D. chrysanthemi and D. zeae were discriminated with long branch lengths. The clade containing the D. paradisiaca type strain included just one additional strain, isolated from banana in Colombia. Strains isolated from Chrysanthemum and Parthenium species made up most of the clade containing the D. chrysanthemi type strain, and the host range of this species was extended to include potato. The D. zeae clade had the largest number of sequevars and branched into two major sister clades that contained all of the Zea mays isolates, and were identified as phylotypes PI and PII. The host range was increased from six to 13 species, including potato. The recA sequence of an Australian sugar-cane strain was sufficiently distinct to rank as a new species-level branch. In contrast to these species, Dickeya dadantii, D. dianthicola and D. dieffenbachiae were distinguished with shorter branch lengths, indicating relatively closer relatedness. The recA sequence for the type strain of D. dadantii clustered separately from other strains of the species. However, sequence comparison of three additional loci revealed that the D. dadantii type strain grouped together with the six other D. dadantii strains that were sequenced. Analysis of all four loci indicated that the D. dadantii strains were most closely related to D. dieffenbachiae. Three further branches (DUC-1, -2 and -3) were associated with these three species, which all diverged from a common origin and can be considered as a species complex. The large clade containing the D. dianthicola type strain comprised 58 strains and had little sequence diversity. One sequevar accounted for the majority of these strains, which were isolated nearly exclusively from eight hosts from Europe

  9. Genome analysis and phylogenetic relatedness of Gallibacterium anatis strains from poultry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Peritonitis is the major disease problem of laying hens in commercial table egg and parent stock operations. Despite its importance, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease have not been completely clarified. Although avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC isolates have been incriminated as the causative agent of laying hen peritonitis, Gallibacterium anatis are frequently isolated from peritonitis lesions. Despite recent studies suggesting a role for G. anatis in the pathogenesis of peritonitis, little is known about the organism's virulence mechanisms, genomic composition and population dynamics. Here, we compared the genome sequences of three G. anatis isolates in an effort to understand its virulence mechanisms and identify novel antigenic traits. A multilocus sequence typing method was also established for G. anatis and used to characterize the genotypic relatedness of 71 isolates from commercial laying hens in Iowa and 18 international reference isolates. Genomic comparisons suggest that G. anatis is a highly diverse bacterial species, with some strains possessing previously described and potential virulence factors, but with a core genome containing several antigenic candidates. Multilocus sequence typing effectively distinguished 82 sequence types and several clonal complexes of G. anatis, and some clones seemed to predominate among G. anatis populations from commercial layers in Iowa. Biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial agents was also observed in several clades. Overall, the genomic diversity of G. anatis suggests that multiple lineages exist with differing pathogenic potential towards birds.

  10. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Ixodes scapularis from a Newly Established Lyme Disease Endemic Area, the Thousand Islands Region of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Lisa; Lindsay, L Robbin; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Jardine, Claire M

    2015-10-01

    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are vectors for several important human diseases, including Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), and human babesiosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. The continued northward range expansion of blacklegged ticks and associated pathogens is an increasing public health concern in Canada. The Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario has recently been identified as a new endemic area for Lyme disease in Canada, but the occurrence of other pathogens in ticks in this area has not been fully described. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and B. microti in small mammals and questing ticks in the Thousand Islands area and identify the strains of A. phagocytophilum circulating in ticks in the area. Serum and larval ticks were collected from trapped small mammals, and questing ticks were collected via drag sampling from up to 12 island and mainland sites in 2006, 2009, and 2010. A. phagocytophilum was identified by PCR in 3.4% (47/1388) ticks from eight of 12 sites; the prevalence ranged from 8.9% in 2006 to 3% in 2009. All 365 ticks tested for B. microti were negative. Antibodies to A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8% (17/611) of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at two of 11 sites in 2006, 2009, or 2010. All 34 A. phagocytophilum-positive ticks submitted for strain identification using single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene were identified as a variant strain (Ap variant-1), which is not commonly associated with human disease. Our findings suggest that people are at low risk of contracting HGA or human babesiosis due to locally acquired tick bites in the Thousand Islands area. However, continued surveillance is warranted as these pathogens continue to expand their ranges in North America.

  11. PENGELOLAAN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY DALAM MEMEDIASI DUKUNGAN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RELATEDNESS TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Muhimatul Ifada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines whether or not and how information technology (IT relatedness influences corporate performance. This study proposes that knowledge management (KM is a critical organizational capability through which IT influences firm performance. Measurement of IT relatedness and KM capability uses a reflective second-order factor modeling approach for capturing complementarities among the four dimensions of IT relatedness (IT strategy making processes, IT vendor management processes, IT human resource management processes and IT infrastructure and for capturing complementarities among the three dimensions of KM capability (product KM capability, customer KM capability, and managerial KM capability. A survey was conducted among 93 branch managers of banking in Central Java. Structural Equation Model (SEM was used to analyze the data using the software program of SmartPLS (Partial Least Square. The findings support for the hypotheses of the study. IT relatedness of business units enhances the cross unit KM capability of the corporate. The KM capability creates and exploits cross-unit synergies from the product, customer, and managerial knowledge resources of the corporate. These synergies increase the corporate performance. IT relatedness of business units positively influences corporate performance. IT relatedness also has significant indirect effects on corporate performance through the mediation of KM capability.

  12. The influence of autonomic arousal and semantic relatedness on memory for emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tony W; Etzel, Joset A; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel

    2006-07-01

    Increased memory for emotional stimuli is a well-documented phenomenon. Emotional arousal during the encoding of a stimulus is one mediator of this memory enhancement. Other variables such as semantic relatedness also play a role in the enhanced memory for emotional stimuli, especially for verbal stimuli. Research has not addressed the contributions of emotional arousal, indexed by self-report and autonomic measures, and semantic relatedness on memory performance. Twenty young adults (10 women) were presented neutral-unrelated words, school-related words, moderately arousing emotional words, and highly arousing taboo words while heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Memory was tested with free recall and recognition tests. Results showed that taboo words, which were both semantically related and high arousal were remembered best. School-related words, which were high on semantic relatedness but low on arousal, were remembered better than the moderately arousing emotional words and semantically unrelated neutral words. Psychophysiological responses showed that within the moderately arousing emotional and neutral word groups, those words eliciting greater autonomic activity were better remembered than words that did not elicit such activity. These results demonstrate additive effects of semantic relatedness and emotional arousal on memory. Relatedness confers an advantage to memory (as in the school-words), but the combination of relatedness and arousal (as in the taboo words) results in the best memory performance.

  13. Impact of Semantic Relatedness on Associative Memory: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Desaunay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Encoding and retrieval processes in memory for pairs of pictures are thought to be influenced by inter-item similarity and by features of individual items. Using Event-Related Potentials (ERP, we aimed to identify how these processes impact on both the early mid-frontal FN400 and the Late Positive Component (LPC potentials during associative retrieval of pictures. Twenty young adults undertook a sham task, using an incidental encoding of semantically related and unrelated pairs of drawings. At test, we conducted a recognition task in which participants were asked to identify target identical pairs of pictures, which could be semantically related or unrelated, among new and rearranged pairs. We observed semantic (related and unrelated pairs and condition effects (old, rearranged and new pairs on the early mid-frontal potential. First, a lower amplitude was shown for identical and rearranged semantically related pairs, which might reflect a retrieval process driven by semantic cues. Second, among semantically unrelated pairs, we found a larger negativity for identical pairs, compared to rearranged and new ones, suggesting additional retrieval processing that focuses on associative information. We also observed an LPC old/new effect with a mid-parietal and a right occipito-parietal topography for semantically related and unrelated old pairs, demonstrating a recollection phenomenon irrespective of the degree of association. These findings suggest that associative recognition using visual stimuli begins at early stages of retrieval, and differs according to the degree of semantic relatedness among items. However, either strategy may ultimately lead to recollection processes.

  14. Impact of Semantic Relatedness on Associative Memory: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaunay, Pierre; Clochon, Patrice; Doidy, Franck; Lambrechts, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M.; Gérardin, Priscille; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère

    2017-01-01

    Encoding and retrieval processes in memory for pairs of pictures are thought to be influenced by inter-item similarity and by features of individual items. Using Event-Related Potentials (ERP), we aimed to identify how these processes impact on both the early mid-frontal FN400 and the Late Positive Component (LPC) potentials during associative retrieval of pictures. Twenty young adults undertook a sham task, using an incidental encoding of semantically related and unrelated pairs of drawings. At test, we conducted a recognition task in which participants were asked to identify target identical pairs of pictures, which could be semantically related or unrelated, among new and rearranged pairs. We observed semantic (related and unrelated pairs) and condition effects (old, rearranged and new pairs) on the early mid-frontal potential. First, a lower amplitude was shown for identical and rearranged semantically related pairs, which might reflect a retrieval process driven by semantic cues. Second, among semantically unrelated pairs, we found a larger negativity for identical pairs, compared to rearranged and new ones, suggesting additional retrieval processing that focuses on associative information. We also observed an LPC old/new effect with a mid-parietal and a right occipito-parietal topography for semantically related and unrelated old pairs, demonstrating a recollection phenomenon irrespective of the degree of association. These findings suggest that associative recognition using visual stimuli begins at early stages of retrieval, and differs according to the degree of semantic relatedness among items. However, either strategy may ultimately lead to recollection processes. PMID:28706479

  15. The Emergence of Regional Immigrant Concentrations in USA and Australia: A Spatial Relatedness Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000–2010) and Australian postal areas (2006–2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting. PMID:25966371

  16. Preliminary study of the effects of preventive measures on the prevalence of Canine Leishmaniosis in a recently established focus in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Cassini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine Leishmaniosis is endemic in Mediterranean areas, with a well-documented northward spread. The mass use of preventive measures against sandfly bites (collar and spot-on formulations was tested in a small focus recently established in an isolated hilly area of north-eastern Italy (Colli Euganei. In 2006 and 2007, a total of 449 dogs living in the southern part of Colli Euganei were screened against Leishmania infantum using an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT, and 31 (6.9% were seropositive. A risk factor analysis clearly described the focus as limited to a small village named Calaone. In 2010, 63 animals from Calaone were sampled and their owners interviewed to verify the effectiveness of the preventive measures. According to what reported by owners, dogs started to be protected in 2006 (66.7% dogs protected, and protection rate incremented (around 90% during the subsequent years. The seroprevalence value (4.2% of the youngest age class (<5 years was significantly lower than other classes, demonstrating that animals born after 2006 had low probabilities of getting infected. Besides, seroprevalence value referred only to dogs living in Calaone was 32.4% (23/71 in 2006-2007 and 20.6% (13/63 in 2010, showing a decreasing trend. Although still preliminary, the results show high sensitization of dog owners and suggest that the mass use of collars and spot-on acts positively in reducing the circulation of L. infantum.

  17. Ant larvae as players in social conflict: relatedness and individual identity mediate cannibalism intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultner, Eva; Gardner, Andy; Karhunen, Markku; Helanterä, Heikki

    2014-12-01

    Conflict arises among social organisms when individuals differ in their inclusive-fitness interests. Ant societies are excellent models for understanding how genetic relatedness mediates conflict intensity. However, although conflicts within colonies typically arise over offspring production, the role of larvae as actors in social conflict has received little attention. We develop and empirically test kin-selection theory of larval egg cannibalism in ant societies. Specifically, we investigate how selection for cannibalism is mediated by nestmate relatedness and larval sex in a mathematical model and then test the model's predictions by measuring cannibalism levels in eight ant species with varying nestmate relatedness. In line with our theoretical predictions, cannibalism levels in larvae were significantly influenced by relatedness and sex. Increased relatedness was associated with reduced levels of cannibalism, indicating that larval behavior is mediated by inclusive-fitness considerations. Levels of cannibalism were significantly higher in male larvae, and our model suggests that this is due to sex differences in the benefits of cannibalism. By examining the selfish interests of larvae and the constraints they face in a social environment, our study presents a novel perspective on conflict in ants and on the evolution of selfish elements in social systems in general.

  18. Genetic Relatedness of Low Solitary Nests of Apis dorsata from Marang, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Soon Guan; Adam, Nur Azura; Lau, Wei Hong

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R) among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3–4 and 3–5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19–20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea. PMID:22911733

  19. Benchmarking Relatedness Inference Methods with Genome-Wide Data from Thousands of Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstetter, Monica D; Dyer, Thomas D; Lehman, Donna M; Curran, Joanne E; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John; Mezey, Jason G; Williams, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    Inferring relatedness from genomic data is an essential component of genetic association studies, population genetics, forensics, and genealogy. While numerous methods exist for inferring relatedness, thorough evaluation of these approaches in real data has been lacking. Here, we report an assessment of 12 state-of-the-art pairwise relatedness inference methods using a data set with 2485 individuals contained in several large pedigrees that span up to six generations. We find that all methods have high accuracy (92-99%) when detecting first- and second-degree relationships, but their accuracy dwindles to 76% of relative pairs. Overall, the most accurate methods are Estimation of Recent Shared Ancestry (ERSA) and approaches that compute total IBD sharing using the output from GERMLINE and Refined IBD to infer relatedness. Combining information from the most accurate methods provides little accuracy improvement, indicating that novel approaches, such as new methods that leverage relatedness signals from multiple samples, are needed to achieve a sizeable jump in performance. Copyright © 2017 Ramstetter et al.

  20. DNA relatedness among strains of the sweet potato pathogen Streptomyces ipomoea (Person and Martin 1940) Waksman and Henrici 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeda, D P; Lyons, A J

    1992-02-01

    DNA relatedness among 28 putative strains of Streptomyces ipomoea from geographically diverse locations and the type strain, NRRL B-12321, was determined spectrophotometrically. The data confirm that these 28 strains are not closely related genetically to the plant-pathogenic species Streptomyces scabies (39% DNA relatedness) or Streptomyces acidiscabies (17% DNA relatedness) or any other major blue-spored Streptomyces species (less than 30% DNA relatedness). Of the 29 strains examined, 4 could be clearly distinguished from S. ipomoea on the basis of morphological criteria, i.e., they had gray rather than blue spores and produced melanin pigment, and their low DNA relatedness to authentic S. ipomoea strains confirmed their original misidentification. The remaining 25 S. ipomoea strains exhibited high DNA relatedness among themselves (76 to 100% homology), even though they had been isolated in different locations throughout the United States and Japan. The avirulent type strain, NRRL B-12321, exhibited slightly lower DNA relatedness with the virulent strains of S. ipomoea (85% average DNA relatedness) than was observed among the virulent strains (average of 96% DNA relatedness).

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Casquete, Rocio; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2017-02-21

    The prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter spp. from fifty samples of meat (chicken, turkey, beef and pork) were evaluated. Acinetobacter spp. was recovered from all samples and the clonal relatedness of 223 isolates identified to belong to the genus Acinetobacter was established by PFGE. A high genetic diversity was observed and 166 isolates from different samples, 141 representing different PFGE profiles, were further identified to the species level by rpoB gene sequencing. Thirteen distinct Acinetobacter species were identified among 156 isolates. The remaining ten isolates may represent three putatively novel species since rpoB sequence homologies with type strains of all available described Acinetobacter species, were 10% (23.2%, 23.2%, 14.3%, 12.5%, 12.5%, respectively). However, resistances to meropenem, imipenem and minocycline were only sporadically observed (8.3%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively). Overall, 51.2% of the strains were considered as multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 9.6% as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The prevalence of MDR strains within the A. baumannii group (38.7%) was lower than the prevalence within the others species identified (54.1%). Therefore, food of animal origin may be a vehicle of spread Acinetobacter strains resistant to several antibiotics in the community and in the hospital setting environment. This may led to nosocomial and community-acquired infections in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of relatedness and pack size on territory overlap in African wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Craig R; Groom, Rosemary J; Jordan, Neil R; McNutt, J Weldon

    2017-01-01

    Spacing patterns mediate competitive interactions between conspecifics, ultimately increasing fitness. The degree of territorial overlap between neighbouring African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) packs varies greatly, yet the role of factors potentially affecting the degree of overlap, such as relatedness and pack size, remain unclear. We used movement data from 21 wild dog packs to calculate the extent of territory overlap (20 dyads). On average, unrelated neighbouring packs had low levels of overlap restricted to the peripheral regions of their 95% utilisation kernels. Related neighbours had significantly greater levels of peripheral overlap. Only one unrelated dyad included overlap between 75%-75% kernels, but no 50%-50% kernels overlapped. However, eight of 12 related dyads overlapped between their respective 75% kernels and six between the frequented 50% kernels. Overlap between these more frequented kernels confers a heightened likelihood of encounter, as the mean utilisation intensity per unit area within the 50% kernels was 4.93 times greater than in the 95% kernels, and 2.34 times greater than in the 75% kernels. Related packs spent significantly more time in their 95% kernel overlap zones than did unrelated packs. Pack size appeared to have little effect on overlap between related dyads, yet among unrelated neighbours larger packs tended to overlap more onto smaller packs' territories. However, the true effect is unclear given that the model's confidence intervals overlapped zero. Evidence suggests that costly intraspecific aggression is greatly reduced between related packs. Consequently, the tendency for dispersing individuals to establish territories alongside relatives, where intensively utilised portions of ranges regularly overlap, may extend kin selection and inclusive fitness benefits from the intra-pack to inter-pack level. This natural spacing system can affect survival parameters and the carrying capacity of protected areas, having important

  3. Polysemy and the subjective lexicon: semantic relatedness and the salience of intraword senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, K; Manning, J

    1989-11-01

    Subjective perceptions of the senses of polysemous English words are collected in questionnaire studies and the effects of variability in semantic distances among these senses are examined in an experiment. In the first of two questionnaire studies, native speakers produce meanings for 175 polysemous words; from their responses, the most frequently produced meaning for each word is identified as its dominant sense. In a second questionnaire, independent subjects rate the semantic relatedness between the dominant meaning and the other senses generated for each word in the first study. Relatedness measures vary, raising the possibility that polysemous words vary in terms of the salience of their different senses in different contexts. This is confirmed in an experiment showing that salience ratings are influenced by the interacting factors of sentential context, extent of relatedness of the senses, and the dominance status of the senses.

  4. The Youth Relatedness Scale: Development of a New Evaluation Tool for Youth Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa H. D'Eloia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a study to develop a reliable measure of relatedness that utilizes language appropriate for youth, is simple for staff to administer in a field-based setting, and is consistent with the Youth Outcomes Battery. Pilot instruments were distributed to three residential summer camps serving female and male campers between the ages 10-17. The results of this study indicate that the Youth Relatedness Scale is an easy-to-use measure that exhibits good evidence of internal consistency and shows good criterion evidence of validity for this population of youth. This study was a positive step towards providing a theoretically grounded, simple, and versatile measure that captures youth perceptions of relatedness and that youth program administrators can employ to evaluate their programs.

  5. Reciprocal effects of student-teacher and student-peer relatedness: Effects on academic self efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Chen, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocal effects between teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) and two dimensions of classroom peer relatedness, peer liking and peer academic reputation (PAR), across three years in elementary school and the effect of both TSRQ and the peer relatedness dimensions on academic self efficacy. Participants were 695 relatively low achieving, ethnically diverse students recruited into the longitudinal study when they were in first grade. Measures of TSRQ and peer relatedness were assessed in years/grades 2-4. Peer liking and PAR were moderately correlated with each other at each time period. As expected, peer liking and TSRQ exhibited bidirectional effects across the three years. Year 3 TSRQ had an effect on Year 4 PAR, but PAR did not have an effect on TSRQ at either time interval. In an additional analysis, Year 4 PAR mediated the effect of Year 3 TSRQ on Year 5 academic self efficacy. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. PMID:21927528

  6. High-level relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense strains from widely separated outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettelin, Hervé; Davidson, Rebecca M; Agrawal, Sonia; Aitken, Moira L; Shallom, Shamira; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Strong, Michael; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; De Groote, Mary Ann; Duarte, Rafael S; Hine, Erin; Parankush, Sushma; Su, Qi; Daugherty, Sean C; Fraser, Claire M; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Holland, Steven M; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Olivier, Kenneth N; Jackson, Mary; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2014-03-01

    Three recently sequenced strains isolated from patients during an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense infections at a cystic fibrosis center in the United States were compared with 6 strains from an outbreak at a cystic fibrosis center in the United Kingdom and worldwide strains. Strains from the 2 cystic fibrosis outbreaks showed high-level relatedness with each other and major-level relatedness with strains that caused soft tissue infections during an epidemic in Brazil. We identified unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis and soft tissue outbreak strains, separate single-nucleotide polymorphisms only in cystic fibrosis outbreak strains, and unique genomic traits for each subset of isolates. Our findings highlight the necessity of identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level and screening all cystic fibrosis isolates for relatedness to these outbreak strains. We propose 2 diagnostic strategies that use partial sequencing of rpoB and secA1 genes and a multilocus sequence typing protocol.

  7. Perceptions of Relatedness with Classroom Peers Promote Adolescents' Behavioral Engagement and Achievement in Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Ruzek, Erik A; Hafen, Christopher A; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-11-01

    Secondary school is a vulnerable time where stagnation or declines in classroom behavioral engagement occur for many students, and peer relationships take on a heightened significance. We examined the implications of adolescents' perceptions of relatedness with classroom peers for their academic learning. Participants were 1084 adolescents (53% female) in 65 middle and high school classrooms. Multilevel cross-lagged path analyses found that adolescents' perceived relatedness with classroom peers subsequently predicted their increased self-reported behavioral engagement in that classroom from fall to winter and again from winter to spring. Higher engagement in spring predicted higher end of year objective achievement test scores after statistical control of prior year test scores. Implications are discussed for increasing classroom peer relatedness to enhance adolescents' achievement.

  8. Recommender System for E-Learning Based on Semantic Relatedness of Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital publishing resources contain a lot of useful and authoritative knowledge. It may be necessary to reorganize the resources by concepts and recommend the related concepts for e-learning. A recommender system is presented in this paper based on the semantic relatedness of concepts computed by texts from digital publishing resources. Firstly, concepts are extracted from encyclopedias. Information in digital publishing resources is then reorganized by concepts. Secondly, concept vectors are generated by skip-gram model and semantic relatedness between concepts is measured according to the concept vectors. As a result, the related concepts and associated information can be recommended to users by the semantic relatedness for learning or reading. History data or users’ preferences data are not needed for recommendation in a specific domain. The technique may not be language-specific. The method shows potential usability for e-learning in a specific domain.

  9. Genetic relatedness between Japanese and European isolates of Clostridium difficile originating from piglets and their risk associated with human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eUsui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colonization in pig intestine has been a public health concern. We analyzed C. difficile prevalence among piglets in Japan to clarify their origin and extent of the associated risk by using molecular and microbiological methods for both swine and human clinical isolates and foreign isolates. C. difficile was isolated from 120 neonatal piglet faecal samples. Toxin gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibilities, PCR ribotype, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA type of swine isolates were determined and compared with those of human clinical and foreign isolates. One-hundred C. difficile strains were isolated from 69 (57.5% samples, and 61 isolates (61% were toxin gene-positive. Some isolates were resistant to antimicrobials, contributing to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea by C. difficile. These results suggest that C. difficile, prevalent among Japanese pigs, is a potential risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Furthermore, PCR ribotype 078 (12 isolates, which has been linked to multiple outbreaks worldwide, was the third-most frequently isolated of the 14 PCR ribotypes identified. Moreover, MLVA revealed that all 12 PCR ribotype 078 isolates were genetically related to European PCR ribotype 078 strains found in both humans and pigs. To date, in Japan, many breeding pigs have been imported from European countries. The genetic relatedness of C. difficile isolates of Japanese swine origin to those of European origin suggests that they were introduced into Japan via imported pigs.

  10. Taxonomy of some recently described avian Pasteurella/Actinobacillus-like organisms as indicated by deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechulla, K; Bisgaard, M; Gerlach, H; Mannheim, W

    1985-07-01

    Members of the family Pasteurellaceae Pohl 1981 are frequently encountered in birds as parasites or pathogens, e.g. the well-known species Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella gallinarum, Haemophilus paragallinarum, and three species containing strains that had been previously classified as "Haemophilus avium"(Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and an unnamed Pasteurella species defined by Mutters et al., 1985). A variety of additional taxa which had been tentatively assigned to the family do not belong to recognised species and could not even be classified to the genus level. In the present investigation selected Pasteurella/Actinobacillus-like isolates from fowl and zoo birds were examined for their genetic relationships with established species of Pasteurellaceae, using the renaturation method of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA):DNA hybridisation. Guanine plus cytosine contents and genome masses were also considered. On the basis of DNA relatedness (1) the genus Pasteurella sensu stricto was extended to include Bisgaard's taxa 1 and 4 as two new Pasteurella species. (2) Bisgaard's taxa 2 and 3 and some phenotypically similar organisms isolated from zoo birds were shown to form a large distinct group which seems to represent a new genus with several species within the family Pasteurellaceae. (3) Another large heterogeneous, genus-like group consisted of strains labelled "Actinobacillus salpingitidis" and the phenotypically similar "Avian Pasteurella haemolytica-like" organisms; this group was placed in the close vicinity of the genus Actinobacillus. (4) Finally, a group of isolates labelled "Avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like" organisms appeared to be heterogeneous on the species level but could be included in the genus Actinobacillus on the basis of DNA binding data. By co-evaluation of genetic relatedness and phenotypic features of avian Pasteurella/Actinobacillus-like isolates some diagnostically useful criteria have been detected.

  11. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalisvaart, H.; Broeckhuysen, S. van; Bühring, M.; Kool, M.B.; Dulmen, S. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with

  12. Effects of among-offspring relatedness on the origins and evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, M B; Klug, H

    2011-06-01

    Parental care is expected to increase the likelihood of offspring survival at the cost of investment in future reproductive success. However, alternative parental behaviours, such as filial cannibalism, can decrease current reproductive success and consequently individual fitness. We evaluate the role of among-offspring relatedness on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Building on our previous work, we show how the evolution of care is influenced by the effect of among-offspring relatedness on both the strength of competition and filial cannibalism. When there is a positive relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness, parental care will be favoured when among-offspring relatedness is relatively low, and the maintenance of both care and no-care strategies is expected. If the relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness is negative, parental care is most strongly favoured when broods contain highly related offspring. Further, we highlight the range of conditions over which the level of this among-offspring relatedness can affect the co-occurrence of different care/no care and cannibalism/no cannibalism strategies. Coexistence of multiple strategies is independent of the effects of among-offspring relatedness on cannibalism but more likely when among-offspring relatedness and competition are positively associated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition in Normal and Disrupted Personality Development: Retrospect and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J.

    2013-01-01

    Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span--the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of…

  14. Experimental evolution reveals that high relatedness protects multicellular cooperation from cheaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J.M.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, there is a potential risk that cheating mutants gain access to the germline. Development from a single-celled zygote resets relatedness among cells to its maximum value each generation, which should accomplish segregation of cheating mutants from non-cheaters and

  15. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obery, Amanda; Bangert, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267). Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational…

  16. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610), we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were

  17. Environmentally Active People: The Role of Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Anna N.; Fielding, Kelly S.; Louis, Winnifred R.

    2016-01-01

    To identify pathways to lower environmental impacts, this research examined the motivation and antecedents of motivation (autonomy, relatedness, competence), of environmentally active people. Previous research suggests that people with more self-determined motivation for pro-environmental behavior (PEB) should carry out more PEBs, and have lower…

  18. Effects of Teacher-to-Student Relatedness on Adolescent Male Motivation in a Weight Training Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Zack; Prusak, Keven; Barney, David; Wilkinson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the motivational profiles of male junior high weight training students differ across levels of teacher-to-student relatedness. One hundred and sixty six students participated in one of two units of instruction. Contextual motivation was measured using the Sport Motivation Scale II-Physical Education…

  19. Employment Growth and Inter-industry Job Reallocation : Spatial Patterns and Relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morkute, Gintare; Koster, Sierdjan; van Dijk, Jouke

    2017-01-01

    Employment growth and inter-industry job reallocation: spatial patterns and relatedness, Regional Studies. The nature of employment reallocation between industries is assessed using rich register data for the Netherlands. It is found that employment decline in some industries is countered, in a

  20. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  1. Cultivating American- and Japanese-Style Relatedness through Mother-Child Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether European American and Japanese mothers' speech to preschoolers contained exchange- and alignment-oriented structures that reflect and possibly support culture-specific models of self-other relatedness. In each country 12 mothers were observed in free play with their 3-year-olds. Maternal speech was coded for…

  2. The Role of Maternal Support of Competence, Autonomy and Relatedness in Children's Interests and Mastery Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lehtinen, Erno; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which mothers' support for their children's sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness predicts their children's interest in math and reading, and also their mastery orientation, during the transition to primary school. One hundred fifty-two children were examined twice during their first grade year…

  3. Teachers' and Students' Needs for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness as Predictors of Students' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshik, Tesia; Ashton, Patricia T.; Algina, James

    2017-01-01

    Self-determination theory and research suggest that students are more motivated and have higher achievement when teachers support their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, teachers might have difficulty supporting their students' psychological needs if their own psychological needs are not met, which might…

  4. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852

  5. Fostering Students' Moderation Competence: The Interplay between Social Relatedness and Perceived Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgermeister, Anika; Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the present study examined whether two teaching concepts that varied in their capacity to foster students' self-determination affected students' sense of social relatedness and their perceived moderation competence, as well as the interplay between these two components and the students' performance during a moderation…

  6. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual's demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother's and adolescents' behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context.

  7. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been...

  8. Relatedness, autonomy, and competence in the caring relationship: The perspective of nursing home residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, A.F.J.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Kuin, Y.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory and person-environment congruence models, this study investigated the importance and experiences of relatedness, autonomy, and competence in the caring relationship from the perspective of residents of somatic nursing homes. Furthermore, discrepancies between the

  9. Male-male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Egas, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Mochizuki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, male-male aggression peaks at intermediate levels of local average relatedness. Assuming that aggression is costly and directed toward nonrelatives and that competition for reproduction acts within the colony, benefits of aggressive

  10. Estimating Breeding Values With Molecular Relatedness and Reconstructed Pedigrees in Natural Mating Populations of Common Sole, Solea Solea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonk, Robbert J. W.; Komen, Hans; Kamstra, Andries; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Captive populations where natural mating in groups is used to obtain offspring typically yield unbalanced population structures with highly skewed parental contributions and unknown pedigrees. Consequently, for genetic parameter estimation, relationships need to be reconstructed or estimated using DNA marker data. With missing parents and natural mating groups, commonly used pedigree reconstruction methods are not accurate and lead to loss of data. Relatedness estimators, however, infer relationships between all animals sampled. In this study, we compared a pedigree relatedness method and a relatedness estimator (“molecular relatedness”) method using accuracy of estimated breeding values. A commercial data set of common sole, Solea solea, with 51 parents and 1953 offspring (“full data set”) was used. Due to missing parents, for 1338 offspring, a pedigree could be reconstructed with 10 microsatellite markers (“reduced data set”). Cross-validation of both methods using the reduced data set showed an accuracy of estimated breeding values of 0.54 with pedigree reconstruction and 0.55 with molecular relatedness. Accuracy of estimated breeding values increased to 0.60 when applying molecular relatedness to the full data set. Our results indicate that pedigree reconstruction and molecular relatedness predict breeding values equally well in a population with skewed contributions to families. This is probably due to the presence of few large full-sib families. However, unlike methods with pedigree reconstruction, molecular relatedness methods ensure availability of all genotyped selection candidates, which results in higher accuracy of breeding value estimation. PMID:19858283

  11. Domestic and foreign trends in the prevalence of heart failure and the necessity of next-generation artificial hearts: a survey by the Working Group on Establishment of Assessment Guidelines for Next-Generation Artificial Heart Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Eisuke; Nakatani, Takeshi; Imachi, Kou; Umezu, Mitsuo; Kyo, Shun-Ei; Sase, Kazuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo; Matsuda, Hikaru

    2007-01-01

    A series of guidelines for development and assessment of next-generation medical devices has been drafted under an interagency collaborative project by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The working group for assessment guidelines of next-generation artificial hearts reviewed the trend in the prevalence of heart failure and examined the potential usefulness of such devices in Japan and in other countries as a fundamental part of the process of establishing appropriate guidelines. At present, more than 23 million people suffer from heart failure in developed countries, including Japan. Although Japan currently has the lowest mortality from heart failure among those countries, the number of patients is gradually increasing as our lifestyle becomes more Westernized; the associated medical expenses are rapidly growing. The number of heart transplantations, however, is limited due to the overwhelming shortage of donor hearts, not only in Japan but worldwide. Meanwhile, clinical studies and surveys have revealed that the major causes of death in patients undergoing long-term use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) were infection, thrombosis, and mechanical failure, all of which are typical of VADs. It is therefore of urgent and universal necessity to develop next-generation artificial hearts that have excellent durability to provide at least 2 years of event-free operation with a superior quality of life and that can be used for destination therapy to save patients with irreversible heart failure. It is also very important to ensure that an environment that facilitates the development, testing, and approval evaluation processes of next-generation artificial hearts be established as soon as possible.

  12. Age differences in the sixth personality factor: age differences in interpersonal relatedness among Canadians and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ng, Siu-Kei

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural studies on personality in which a combined etic-emic approach has been used have found a 6th personality factor--Interpersonal Relatedness--in addition to the usual Big Five. The authors examined age differences in Interpersonal Relatedness among Canadians and Hong Kong Chinese after statistically controlling for the Big Five. Age differences in some aspects of Interpersonal Relatedness were found among Hong Kong Chinese but not among Canadians, suggesting that development of some personality characteristics may differ across cultures.

  13. The efficacy of exergames for social relatedness in online physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Kooiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online physical education (OLPE has been viewed as an oxymoron. Physical education curriculum at all levels seeks to help learners grow socially in the way they interact and deal with diverse and challenging fellow students and settings. Students who have no contact with other students while they are at home for various reasons may not be able to learn the proper response to the challenges of social participation or benefits derived from social contact. This study looked at the efficacy of remote exergame participation between students aged 11–18 (N = 124. The results show that exergaming over the Internet can provide students with a social experience that results in increased relatedness between participants versus playing by themselves against a non-player character (NPC. This relatedness can help students access the social standards for physical education when enrolled in OLPE.

  14. The effect of semantic relatedness on immediate serial recall and serial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Li, Yongna; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of semantic relatedness on immediate serial recall and serial recognition. Each participant received either blocked or randomly intermixed serial recall or serial recognition trials. Replicating the findings of previous studies (e.g., Saint-Aubin, Ouellette, & Poirier, 2005), semantic relatedness boosted percentage serial recall but also increased order errors, after taking into account the proportion of correctly recalled items, regardless of their orders, in serial recall trials. In serial recognition trials, participants' responses were slower and less accurate for related lists than for unrelated lists. There were intraindividual correlations among order memory measures in serial recall versus serial recognition trials. The implications of these findings for item redintegration theories are discussed.

  15. Exploring the Link between Genetic Relatedness r and Social Contact Structure k in Animal Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jochen B W; Traulsen, Arne; James, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of how cooperation can arise in a population of selfish individuals has been greatly advanced by theory. More than one approach has been used to explore the effect of population structure. Inclusive fitness theory uses genetic relatedness r to express the role of population structure. Evolutionary graph theory models the evolution of cooperation on network structures and focuses on the number of interacting partners k as a quantity of interest. Here we use empirical data from a hierarchically structured animal contact network to examine the interplay between independent, measurable proxies for these key parameters. We find strong inverse correlations between estimates of r and k over three levels of social organization, suggesting that genetic relatedness and social contact structure capture similar structural information in a real population.

  16. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Obery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267. Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational newsletters, and social media channels. Analysis of the data was conducted using both partial least squares and covariance based structural equation modeling to explore the relationships between the constructs. Additionally, qualitative definitions of proenvironmental behavior were investigated in order to address potential gaps between self-reported and observed behaviors. Quantitative findings show a renewed positive connection between science education, nature relatedness, and proenvironmental behaviors. Furthermore, qualitative findings suggest positive relationships between how publicly people are willing to share their passion for the outdoors and their willingness to engage in proenvironmental behaviors.

  17. Interpersonal relatedness, self-definition, and their motivational orientation during adolescence: a theoretical and empirical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C; Blatt, Sidney J; Ryan, Richard; Little, Todd D

    2003-05-01

    The authors examined a theoretical model linking interpersonal relatedness and self-definition (S.J. Blatt, 1974), autonomous and controlled regulation (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 1985), and negative and positive life events in adolescence (N = 860). They hypothesized that motivational orientation would mediate the effects of interpersonal relatedness and self-definition on life events. Self-criticism, a maladaptive form of self-definition, predicted less positive events, whereas efficacy, an adaptive form of self-definition, predicted more positive events. These effects were fully mediated by the absence and presence, respectively, of autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation, predicted by self-criticism and maladaptive neediness, did not predict negative events. Results illustrate the centrality of protective, pleasure-related processes in adaptive adolescent development.

  18. Perceptual Simulations and Linguistic Representations Have Differential Effects on Speeded Relatedness Judgments and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Kurby, Christopher A.; Du, Feng

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effect of spatial iconicity (a perceptual simulation of canonical locations of objects) and word-order frequency on language processing and episodic memory of orientation. Participants made speeded relatedness judgments to pairs of words presented in locations typical to their real world arrangements (e.g., ceiling on top and floor on bottom). They then engaged in a surprise orientation recognition task for the word pairs. We replicated Louwerse’s finding (2008) that word-order frequency has a stronger effect on semantic relatedness judgments than spatial iconicity. This is consistent with recent suggestions that linguistic representations have a stronger impact on immediate decisions about verbal materials than perceptual simulations. In contrast, spatial iconicity enhanced episodic memory of orientation to a greater extent than word-order frequency did. This new finding indicates that perceptual simulations have an important role in episodic memory. Results are discussed with respect to theories of perceptual representation and linguistic processing. PMID:19742388

  19. Perceptual simulations and linguistic representations have differential effects on speeded relatedness judgements and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Kurby, Christopher A; Du, Feng

    2010-05-01

    We examined the effect of spatial iconicity (a perceptual simulation of canonical locations of objects) and word-order frequency on language processing and episodic memory of orientation. Participants made speeded relatedness judgements to pairs of words presented in locations typical of their real-world arrangements (e.g., ceiling on top and floor on bottom). They then engaged in a surprise orientation recognition task for the word pairs. We replicated Louwerse's (2008) finding that word-order frequency has a stronger effect on semantic relatedness judgements than does spatial iconicity. This is consistent with recent suggestions that linguistic representations have a stronger impact on immediate decisions about verbal materials than do perceptual simulations. In contrast, spatial iconicity enhanced episodic memory of orientation to a greater extent than word-order frequency did. This new finding indicates that perceptual simulations have an important role in episodic memory. Results are discussed with respect to theories of perceptual representation and linguistic processing.

  20. Map of Life: Measuring and Visualizing Species' Relatedness with "Molecular Distance Maps"

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Lila; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sayem, Abu Sadat; Bryans, Nathaniel; Davis, Katelyn; Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel combination of methods that (i) portrays quantitative characteristics of a DNA sequence as an image, (ii) computes distances between these images, and (iii) uses these distances to output a map wherein each sequence is a point in a common Euclidean space. In the resulting "Molecular Distance Map" each point signifies a DNA sequence, and the geometric distance between any two points reflects the degree of relatedness between the corresponding sequences and species. Molecular...

  1. The Role of Psychological Needs for Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness and Money-luxury in State Authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Louisa Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of psychological needs on states of authenticity. Self-determination theory proposes three basic psychological needs, for autonomy, competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 1985). The theory states that satisfaction of these basic needs leads to internalisation, integration, and feelings of authenticity. These three needs were therefore investigated in the present study. Previous theory and research has proposed the existence of various...

  2. Relatedness and synergies of kind and scale in the evolution of helping

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Jorge; Nöldeke, Georg; Lehmann, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Relatedness and synergy affect the selection pressure on cooperation and altruism. Although early work investigated the effect of these factors independently of each other, recent efforts have been aimed at exploring their interplay. Here, we contribute to this ongoing synthesis in two distinct but complementary ways. First, we integrate models of $n$-player matrix games into the direct fitness approach of inclusive fitness theory, hence providing a framework to consider synergistic social in...

  3. Grandma plays favourites: X-chromosome relatedness and sex-specific childhood mortality †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Sear, Rebecca; Beise, Jan; Ragsdale, Gillian; Voland, Eckart; Knapp, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists use genetic relatedness between family members to explain the evolution of many behavioural and developmental traits in humans, including altruism, kin investment and longevity. Women's post-menopausal longevity in particular is linked to genetic relatedness between family members. According to the ‘grandmother hypothesis’, post-menopausal women can increase their genetic contribution to future generations by increasing the survivorship of their grandchildren. While some demographic studies have found evidence for this, others have found little support for it. Here, we re-model the predictions of the grandmother hypothesis by examining the genetic relatedness between grandmothers and grandchildren. We use this new model to re-evaluate the grandmother effect in seven previously studied human populations. Boys and girls differ in the per cent of genes they share with maternal versus paternal grandmothers because of differences in X-chromosome inheritance. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between X-chromosome inheritance and grandchild mortality in the presence of a grandmother. With this sex-specific and X-chromosome approach to interpreting mortality rates, we provide a new perspective on the prevailing theory for the evolution of human female longevity. This approach yields more consistent support for the grandmother hypothesis, and has implications for the study of human evolution. PMID:19864288

  4. Rival male relatedness does not affect ejaculate allocation as predicted by sperm competition theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Thomas

    Full Text Available When females are sexually promiscuous, the intensity of sperm competition for males depends on how many partners females mate with. To maximize fitness, males should adjust their copulatory investment in relation to this intensity. However, fitness costs associated with sperm competition may not only depend on how many males a female has mated with, but also how related rival males are. According to theoretical predictions, males should adjust their copulatory investment in response to the relatedness of their male rival, and transfer more sperm to females that have first mated with a non-sibling male than females that have mated to a related male. Here, for the first time, we empirically test this theory using the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We expose male crickets to sperm competition from either a full sibling or non-sibling male, by using both the presence of a rival male and the rival male's actual competing ejaculate as cues. Contrary to predictions, we find that males do not adjust ejaculates in response to the relatedness of their male rival. Instead, males with both full-sibling and non-sibling rivals allocate sperm of similar quality to females. This lack of kin biased behaviour is independent of any potentially confounding effect of strong competition between close relatives; kin biased behaviour was absent irrespective of whether males were raised in full sibling or mixed relatedness groups.

  5. Algae as hosts for epifaunal bryozoans: Role of functional groups and taxonomic relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, María G.; López Gappa, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Macroalgae build biogenic habitats which give shelter and provide a suitable physical environment for a great variety of organisms. Structural complexity of algal substrates may influence the composition of their attached epifauna. The aim of this study is to test whether the taxonomic relatedness of the algal hosts and the functional groups to which they belong influence the species richness and composition of their epifaunal bryozoans. We analysed 36 algal genera from the Atlantic coast of South America between 42°S and Cape Horn. Changes in bryozoan species richness (number of species) among different algal functional groups (filamentous algae, foliose algae, corticated foliose algae, corticated macrophytes) were non-significant. The composition of the epifaunal assemblages differed significantly only between filamentous and foliose algae. Sheet-like bryozoans (i.e. encrusting, pluriserial colonies) were more frequent on foliose than on filamentous algae, while runner-like species (i.e. uniserial stolons) were characteristic epibionts on filamentous thallii. Similarity of bryozoan assemblages increased with increasing taxonomic relatedness of their hosts. As most filamentous seaweeds analysed in this study are members of the Order Ceramiales, the influence of algal taxonomic relatedness and functional groups on the composition of their bryozoan assemblages can be viewed as two different aspects of the same phenomenon.

  6. Parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading: Independent effects of plausibility and orthographic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence from studies using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm has suggested that parafoveal preview benefit is contingent on the fit between a preview word and the sentence context. We investigated whether this plausibility preview benefit is modulated by preview-target orthographic relatedness. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences in which the parafoveal preview of a target word was manipulated. The nonidentical previews were plausible or implausible continuations of the sentence and were either orthographic neighbors of the target or unrelated to the target. All first-pass reading measures showed strong plausibility preview benefits. There was also a benefit from preview-target orthographic relatedness across the reading measures. These two preview effects did not interact for any fixation measure. We also found no evidence that the relatedness effect was caused by misperception of an orthographically similar preview as the target word. These data highlight the existence of two independent mechanisms underlying preview effects: a benefit from the contextual fit of the preview word in the sentence, and a benefit from the sublexical overlap between the preview and target words.

  7. A motivation model for interaction between parent and child based on the need for relatedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eOgino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In communication between parents and children, various kinds of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations affect the emotions that encourage actions to promote more interactions. This paper presents a motivation model for the interaction between an infant and a caregiver which models relatedness, one of the most important basic psychological needs, as a variable that increases with experiences of emotion sharing. Relatedness is not only an important factor of pleasure but also a meta-factor which affects other factors such as stress and emotion mirroring. In the simulation experiment, two agents, each of which has the proposed motivation model, show emotional communication depending on the relatedness level that is similar to actual human communication. Especially, the proposed model can reproduce a finding described by the "still-face paradigm", in which an infant shows unpleasant emotion when a caregiver suddenly stops facial expressions. The proposed model is implemented in an artificial agent with a recognition system for gestures and facial expressions. The baby-like agent successfully interacts with an actual human and shows reactions comparable to the "still-face paradigm".

  8. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisvaart, Hanneke; van Broeckhuysen, Saskia; Bühring, Martina; Kool, Marianne B; van Dulmen, Sandra; Geenen, Rinie

    2012-01-01

    How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists. Interviews with patients and therapists yielded statements about components of body-relatedness. Patients and therapists individually sorted these statements according to similarity. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to these sortings. Analysis of variance was used to compare the perceived importance of the statements between patients and therapists. The hierarchical structure included 71 characteristics of body-relatedness. It consisted of three levels with eight clusters at the lowest level: 1) understanding, 2) acceptance, 3) adjustment, 4) respect for the body, 5) regulation, 6) confidence, 7) self-esteem, and 8) autonomy. The cluster 'understanding' was considered most important by patients and therapists. Patients valued 'regulating the body' more than therapists. According to patients with somatoform disorders and their therapists, body-relatedness includes awareness of the body and self by understanding, accepting and adjusting to bodily signals, by respecting and regulating the body, by confiding and esteeming oneself and by being autonomous. This definition and structure of body-relatedness may help professionals to improve interdisciplinary communication, assessment, and treatment, and it may help patients to better understand their symptoms and treatment. (German language abstract, Abstract S1; Spanish language abstract, Abstract S2).

  9. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Kalisvaart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists. METHODS: Interviews with patients and therapists yielded statements about components of body-relatedness. Patients and therapists individually sorted these statements according to similarity. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to these sortings. Analysis of variance was used to compare the perceived importance of the statements between patients and therapists. RESULTS: The hierarchical structure included 71 characteristics of body-relatedness. It consisted of three levels with eight clusters at the lowest level: 1 understanding, 2 acceptance, 3 adjustment, 4 respect for the body, 5 regulation, 6 confidence, 7 self-esteem, and 8 autonomy. The cluster 'understanding' was considered most important by patients and therapists. Patients valued 'regulating the body' more than therapists. CONCLUSION: According to patients with somatoform disorders and their therapists, body-relatedness includes awareness of the body and self by understanding, accepting and adjusting to bodily signals, by respecting and regulating the body, by confiding and esteeming oneself and by being autonomous. This definition and structure of body-relatedness may help professionals to improve interdisciplinary communication, assessment, and treatment, and it may help patients to better understand their symptoms and treatment. (German language abstract, Abstract S1; Spanish language abstract, Abstract S2.

  10. Virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and genetic relatedness of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Eraghi, Vida; Boroojeni, Azar Motamedi; Niaki, Malihe Akbarzadeh; Zare, Sahar; Naziri, Zahra

    2018-01-30

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal flora of gastrointestinal tracts of humans and warm-blooded animals including dogs that has close vicinity with humans. Because the inter-species transmission of E. coli between pets and human beings, within a household, obtaining more information about the epidemiology, genetics, virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance of E. coli from dogs and their owners will help to control the inter-species transmission and treatment of E. coli infections. In this study we characterize and compare the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of fecal E. coli isolates from dogs and their owners. A total of 149 commensal E. coli isolates comprised 62 isolates from dogs, 56 isolates from their owners and 31 isolates from humans with no pet as control were collected. Extracted DNA was assessed for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes cmlA (chloramphenicol), sulI (sulfamethoxazole), floR (florfenicol) and blaCTX-M1 (cefotaxime) and virulence genes (papA, ompT, hlyD, traT, tsh and cnf1). To determine the extent of genetic relatedness of isolates, RAPD-PCR was performed. sulI and traT genes were the most dominant resistance profile and the most prevalent virulence gene in all groups, respectively, while hlyD had the lowest frequency among investigated virulence genes. Based on RAPD-PCR analysis clonal sharing between dogs and their owners were observed in 2/28 (7.1%) potential within-household clone-sharing pairs. Allowing dog to lick on owner's face, dog sex (female dogs), dog's sexual status (intact dogs) and times of disposing the feces (≥twice a day) were associated with a higher percentage of RAPD profile similarity (P coli from dogs to their owners. But in two households, there were relationship between isolates from dogs and their owners. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Within-group relatedness is correlated with colony-level social structure and reproductive sharing in a social fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jennifer K; Sovic, Michael G; Gibbs, H Lisle; Reddon, Adam R; O'Connor, Constance M; Ligocki, Isaac Y; Marsh-Rollo, Susan; Balshine, Sigal; Hamilton, Ian M

    2016-08-01

    In group-living species, the degree of relatedness among group members often governs the extent of reproductive sharing, cooperation and conflict within a group. Kinship among group members can be shaped by the presence and location of neighbouring groups, as these provide dispersal or mating opportunities that can dilute kinship among current group members. Here, we assessed how within-group relatedness varies with the density and position of neighbouring social groups in Neolamprologus pulcher, a colonial and group-living cichlid fish. We used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods to generate thousands of polymorphic SNPs. Relative to microsatellite data, RADseq data provided much tighter confidence intervals around our relatedness estimates. These data allowed us to document novel patterns of relatedness in relation to colony-level social structure. First, the density of neighbouring groups was negatively correlated with relatedness between subordinates and dominant females within a group, but no such patterns were observed between subordinates and dominant males. Second, subordinates at the colony edge were less related to dominant males in their group than subordinates in the colony centre, suggesting a shorter breeding tenure for dominant males at the colony edge. Finally, subordinates who were closely related to their same-sex dominant were more likely to reproduce, supporting some restraint models of reproductive skew. Collectively, these results demonstrate that within-group relatedness is influenced by the broader social context, and variation between groups in the degree of relatedness between dominants and subordinates can be explained by both patterns of reproductive sharing and the nature of the social landscape. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Human Kin Investment as a Function of Genetic Relatedness and Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two independent samples of students were asked to allocate fictional lotteries of varying dollar amounts to their blood relatives. In both studies, a reliable genetic relatedness by lineage interaction emerged, such that the genetic effect was a more positive predictor of percent of money allocated for relatives of a direct lineage (e.g., parents, grandparents than it was for peripheral relatives (e.g., siblings, aunts and uncles. In a third study, this interaction was replicated in an archival analysis of wills. The implications of accounting for differences in relatives' lineages in studies of kin investment are discussed.

  13. Real Time Filtering of Tweets Using Wikipedia Concepts and Google Tri-gram Semantic Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    relatedness between tweets and profiles and also between tweets themselves. Due to the short and noisy nature of Twitter posts and the vocabulary ...representative tweet in each cluster to be included in the result (email digest). F. Manual Preparation In the manual preparation type , the system can...Group ELG nCG Type PKUICSTRunA2 PKUICST 0.3175 0.3127 manual UWaterlooATDK UWaterlooMDS 0.3150 0.2679 automatic SNACSA NUDTSNA 0.3086 0.3349 manual

  14. Genetic Relatedness among Duku, Kokosan, and Pisitan in Indonesia Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Hanum; Rina Sri Kasiamdari; Santosa; Rugayah

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relatedness among duku, kokosan, and pisitan from Indonesia were investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven primers (OPA-01, OPA-02, OPA-10, OPB-07, OPB-11, OPB-12, OPB-15, OPT-16, OPU-14, OPU-19, and OPU-20) were used for amplification and yielded a total of 174 DNA bands, of which 167 were polymorphic. Primer OPA-10, OPB-11, OPB-12, OPB-15, and OPU-19 produced all of the polymorphic DNA bands. The size of the amplified DNA fragments ranged from 41-154...

  15. Evidence of opposing fitness effects of parental heterozygosity and relatedness in a critically endangered marine turtle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Karl P; Jorgensen, Tove H; Jolliffe, Kevin G

    2017-01-01

    in both positive and negative effects of genetic variability. Multicollinearity in these tests was within safe limits, and null simulations suggested the effect was not an artefact of using paternal genotypes reconstructed from large samples of offspring. Our results could imply a tension between...... endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. We found no effect of maternal MLH (multilocus heterozygosity) on clutch size or egg success rate, and no single-locus effects. However, we found effects of paternal MLH and parental relatedness on egg success rate that interacted in a way that may result...

  16. Clonal relatedness and resistance patterns of Salmonella Corvallis from poultry carcasses in a Brazilian slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Oliveira, Heverton C; Camargo, Carlos H; Fernandes, Sueli A; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Pinto, José Pan; Rall, Vera Lm; Araújo, João P

    2015-10-29

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne disease, and poultry products are important contributors to the transmission of this zoonotic pathogen. Although considered to be rare in most countries, Salmonella Corvallis has been reported in specific geographic areas isolated from both human and non-human sources. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence, the antimicrobial resistance profiles including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production, and the clonal relatedness of S. Corvallis strains. A total of 132 fragments of poultry carcasses from a slaughterhouse in São Paulo State, Brazil, were collected at different stages of the manufacturing process (post-bleeding, post-plucking, and post-chilling) and analyzed for the presence of Salmonella. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disc diffusion method and Etest. Clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 272 Salmonella strains recovered, fourteen were S. Corvallis. Ten (71.4%) showed ESBL production and resistance to at least three antimicrobial agents. Nalidixic acid resistance and reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility was verified in four (28.6%) strains. PFGE analyses showed that all the S. Corvallis strains belonged to the same pulsotype. This study identified genetically related S. Corvallis strains exhibiting ESBL production and reduced susceptibility to quinolone. The results suggest the need to improve the sanitary conditions in the slaughterhouse. Moreover, from a public health perspective, continuous surveillance on Salmonella is needed to control the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen and its resistance determinants.

  17. Relatedness and environment affect traits associated with invasive and noninvasive introduced Commelinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jean H

    2006-08-01

    Understanding the traits of invasive species may improve the ability to predict, prevent, and manage invasions. I compared morphological and performance traits of five congeneric pairs of invasive and noninvasive Commelinaceae across a factorial experiment using a range of water and nutrient availabilities. Invasive species had greater fecundity and vegetative reproduction than their noninvasive relatives. The invasive species also had higher relative growth rates, greater specific leaf area, and more plastic root-to-shoot ratios than noninvasive species. However, whether a trait was associated with invasiveness often depended on both environment and relatedness. Invasives had greater sexual and vegetative reproduction, higher specific leaf area, and greater relative growth rates than noninvasive congeners, but only in some environments. Differences between invasive and noninvasive taxa were greatest at high nutrient availabilities. These results suggest that studies of invasive species' traits must incorporate information on conditions under which the trait was measured. In addition, incorporating information on relatedness improved our ability to detect associations between species traits, such as specific leaf area and relative growth rate, and invasiveness, suggesting that such information may be required for a complete understanding of what makes a species invasive.

  18. Inference of unexpected genetic relatedness among individuals in HapMap Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Trevor J; Wang, Chaolong; Li, Jun Z; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2010-10-08

    The International Haplotype Map Project (HapMap) has provided an essential database for studies of human population genetics and genome-wide association. Phases I and II of the HapMap project generated genotype data across ∼3 million SNP loci in 270 individuals representing four populations. Phase III provides dense genotype data on ∼1.5 million SNPs, generated by Illumina and Affymetrix platforms in a larger set of individuals. Release 3 of phase III of the HapMap contains 1397 individuals from 11 populations, including 250 of the original 270 phase I and phase II individuals and 1147 additional individuals. Although some known relationships among the phase III individuals have been described in the data release, the genotype data that are currently available provide an opportunity to empirically ascertain previously unknown relationships. We performed a systematic analysis of genetic relatedness and were able not only to confirm the reported relationships, but also to detect numerous additional, previously unidentified pairs of close relatives in the HapMap sample. The inferred relative pairs make it possible to propose standardized subsets of unrelated individuals for use in future studies in which relatedness needs to be clearly defined. Copyright © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RELATEDNESS AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE PRIMITIVELY EUSOCIAL BEE LASIOGLOSSUM ZEPHYRUM (HYMENOPTERA: HALICTIDAE) IN KANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, R H; Smith, B H; Crozier, Y C

    1987-07-01

    Lasioglossum zephyrum is a primitively eusocial bee, which nests in small colonies of up to 20 individuals. The nests occur in patchily distributed aggregations of from a few to over 1,000 nests along periodically disturbed stream and river banks in eastern North America. We used five polymorphic allozyme loci to test for geographic structure and estimate relatedness in eight patches of nests from five aggregations in Douglas Co., Kansas. Autocorrelation analysis of gene frequencies, plus a multilocus G test, revealed a low but significant tendency for differentiation among nests within patches, among patches within aggregations, and among aggregations. Small numbers of nests restricted estimation of relatedness to three patches, of which only one had a sample size large enough to yield confidence limits narrow enough to be informative. The limits from this patch of 20 nests are 0.64 makeup is more complex than this, so that a lower value, say 0.7, is more plausible. This value is sufficiently high to indicate that kin selection is probably important in these populations. © 1987 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Evolutionary conservatism explains increasing relatedness of plant communities along a flooding gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Lee, William G

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic filters have been found either to increase or reduce evolutionary relatedness in plant communities, making it difficult to generalize responses of this major feature of biodiversity to future environmental change. Here, we hypothesized that the responses of phylogenetic structure to environmental change ultimately depend on how species have evolved traits for tolerating the resulting abiotic changes. Working within ephemeral wetlands, we tested whether species were increasingly related as flooding duration intensified. We also identified the mechanisms underlying increased relatedness by measuring root aerenchyma volume (RAV), a trait which promotes waterlogging tolerance. We found that species-specific responses to flooding explained most of the variation in occurrence for 63 vascular plant species across 5170 plots. For a subset of 22 species, we attributed these responses to variation in RAV. Large RAV specifically increased occurrence when flooding lasted for longer time periods, because large RAV reduced above-ground biomass loss. As large RAV was evolutionarily conserved within obligate wetland species, communities were more phylogenetically related as flooding increased. Our study shows how reconstructing the evolutionary history of traits that influence the responses of species to environmental change can help to predict future patterns in phylogenetic structure. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Partitioning Phenotypic Variance Due to Parent-of-Origin Effects Using Genomic Relatedness Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Charles; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Hemani, Gibran; Smith, George Davey; Yang, Jian; Evans, David M

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new method, G-REMLadp, to estimate the phenotypic variance explained by parent-of-origin effects (POEs) across the genome. Our method uses restricted maximum likelihood analysis of genome-wide genetic relatedness matrices based on individuals' phased genotypes. Genome-wide SNP data from parent child duos or trios is required to obtain relatedness matrices indexing the parental origin of offspring alleles, as well as offspring phenotype data to partition the trait variation into variance components. To calibrate the power of G-REMLadp to detect non-null POEs when they are present, we provide an analytic approximation derived from Haseman-Elston regression. We also used simulated data to quantify the power and Type I Error rates of G-REMLadp, as well as the sensitivity of its variance component estimates to violations of underlying assumptions. We subsequently applied G-REMLadp to 36 phenotypes in a sample of individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We found that the method does not seem to be inherently biased in estimating variance due to POEs, and that substantial correlation between parental genotypes is necessary to generate biased estimates. Our empirical results, power calculations and simulations indicate that sample sizes over 10000 unrelated parent-offspring duos will be necessary to detect POEs explaining POEs tagged by our genetic relationship matrices are unlikely to explain large proportions of the phenotypic variance (i.e. > 15%) for the 36 traits that we have examined.

  2. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence.

  3. QTLRel: an R Package for Genome-wide Association Studies in which Relatedness is a Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Abraham A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing software for quantitative trait mapping is either not able to model polygenic variation or does not allow incorporation of more than one genetic variance component. Improperly modeling the genetic relatedness among subjects can result in excessive false positives. We have developed an R package, QTLRel, to enable more flexible modeling of genetic relatedness as well as covariates and non-genetic variance components. Results We have successfully used the package to analyze many datasets, including F34 body weight data that contains 688 individuals genotyped at 3105 SNP markers and identified 11 QTL. It took 295 seconds to estimate variance components and 70 seconds to perform the genome scan on an Linux machine equipped with a 2.40GHz Intel(R Core(TM2 Quad CPU. Conclusions QTLRel provides a toolkit for genome-wide association studies that is capable of calculating genetic incidence matrices from pedigrees, estimating variance components, performing genome scans, incorporating interactive covariates and genetic and non-genetic variance components, as well as other functionalities such as multiple-QTL mapping and genome-wide epistasis.

  4. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  5. Enhancing project-oriented learning by joining communities of practice and opening spaces for relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article describes an extension to project-oriented learning to increase social construction of knowledge and learning. The focus is on: (a) maximising opportunities for students to share their knowledge with practitioners by joining communities of practice, and (b) increasing their intrinsic motivation by creating conditions for student's relatedness. The case study considers a last year capstone course in Mechanical Engineering. The work addresses innovative practices of active learning and beyond project-oriented learning through: (a) the development of a web-based decision support system, (b) meetings between the communities of students, maintenance engineers and academics, and (c) new off-campus group instances. The author hypothesises that this multi-modal approach increases deep learning and social impact of the educational process. Surveys to the actors support a successful achievement of the educational goals. The methodology can easily be extended to further improve the learning process.

  6. Content relatedness in the social web based on social explicit semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalianis, Klimis; Otterbacher, Jahna; Mastorakis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a novel content relatedness algorithm for social media content is proposed, based on the Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA) technique. The proposed scheme takes into consideration social interactions. In particular starting from the vector space representation model, similarity is expressed by a summation of term weight products. In this paper, term weights are estimated by a social computing method, where the strength of each term is calculated by the attention the terms receives. For this reason each post is split into two parts, title and comments area, while attention is defined by the number of social interactions such as likes and shares. The overall approach is named Social Explicit Semantic Analysis. Experimental results on real data show the advantages and limitations of the proposed approach, while an initial comparison between ESA and S-ESA is very promising.

  7. Missing Links in Middle School: Developing Use of Disciplinary Relatedness in Evaluating Internet Search Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Keil

    Full Text Available In the "digital native" generation, internet search engines are a commonly used source of information. However, adolescents may fail to recognize relevant search results when they are related in discipline to the search topic but lack other cues. Middle school students, high school students, and adults rated simulated search results for relevance to the search topic. The search results were designed to contrast deep discipline-based relationships with lexical similarity to the search topic. Results suggest that the ability to recognize disciplinary relatedness without supporting cues may continue to develop into high school. Despite frequent search engine usage, younger adolescents may require additional support to make the most of the information available to them.

  8. Missing Links in Middle School: Developing Use of Disciplinary Relatedness in Evaluating Internet Search Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C; Kominsky, Jonathan F

    2013-01-01

    In the "digital native" generation, internet search engines are a commonly used source of information. However, adolescents may fail to recognize relevant search results when they are related in discipline to the search topic but lack other cues. Middle school students, high school students, and adults rated simulated search results for relevance to the search topic. The search results were designed to contrast deep discipline-based relationships with lexical similarity to the search topic. Results suggest that the ability to recognize disciplinary relatedness without supporting cues may continue to develop into high school. Despite frequent search engine usage, younger adolescents may require additional support to make the most of the information available to them.

  9. A high-performance computing toolset for relatedness and principal component analysis of SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiuwen; Levine, David; Shen, Jess; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Laurie, Cathy; Weir, Bruce S

    2012-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies are widely used to investigate the genetic basis of diseases and traits, but they pose many computational challenges. We developed gdsfmt and SNPRelate (R packages for multi-core symmetric multiprocessing computer architectures) to accelerate two key computations on SNP data: principal component analysis (PCA) and relatedness analysis using identity-by-descent measures. The kernels of our algorithms are written in C/C++ and highly optimized. Benchmarks show the uniprocessor implementations of PCA and identity-by-descent are ∼8-50 times faster than the implementations provided in the popular EIGENSTRAT (v3.0) and PLINK (v1.07) programs, respectively, and can be sped up to 30-300-fold by using eight cores. SNPRelate can analyse tens of thousands of samples with millions of SNPs. For example, our package was used to perform PCA on 55 324 subjects from the 'Gene-Environment Association Studies' consortium studies.

  10. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  11. Evidence of opposing fitness effects of parental heterozygosity and relatedness in a critically endangered marine turtle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K P; Jorgensen, T H; Jolliffe, K G; Richardson, D S

    2017-11-01

    How individual genetic variability relates to fitness is important in understanding evolution and the processes affecting populations of conservation concern. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been widely used to study this link in wild populations, where key parameters that affect both variability and fitness, such as inbreeding, can be difficult to measure. We used estimates of parental heterozygosity and genetic similarity ('relatedness') derived from 32 microsatellite markers to explore the relationship between genetic variability and fitness in a population of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. We found no effect of maternal MLH (multilocus heterozygosity) on clutch size or egg success rate, and no single-locus effects. However, we found effects of paternal MLH and parental relatedness on egg success rate that interacted in a way that may result in both positive and negative effects of genetic variability. Multicollinearity in these tests was within safe limits, and null simulations suggested that the effect was not an artefact of using paternal genotypes reconstructed from large samples of offspring. Our results could imply a tension between inbreeding and outbreeding depression in this system, which is biologically feasible in turtles: female-biased natal philopatry may elevate inbreeding risk and local adaptation, and both processes may be disrupted by male-biased dispersal. Although this conclusion should be treated with caution due to a lack of significant identity disequilibrium, our study shows the importance of considering both positive and negative effects when assessing how variation in genetic variability affects fitness in wild systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. A General Approach for Haplotype Phasing across the Full Spectrum of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaneau, Olivier; Pirastu, Nicola; Ulivi, Sheila; Cocca, Massimiliano; Traglia, Michela; Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Rudan, Igor; McQuillan, Ruth; Fraser, Ross M.; Campbell, Harry; Polasek, Ozren; Asiki, Gershim; Ekoru, Kenneth; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Vitart, Veronique; Navarro, Pau; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Wilson, James F.; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo; Soranzo, Nicole; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Marchini, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Many existing cohorts contain a range of relatedness between genotyped individuals, either by design or by chance. Haplotype estimation in such cohorts is a central step in many downstream analyses. Using genotypes from six cohorts from isolated populations and two cohorts from non-isolated populations, we have investigated the performance of different phasing methods designed for nominally ‘unrelated’ individuals. We find that SHAPEIT2 produces much lower switch error rates in all cohorts compared to other methods, including those designed specifically for isolated populations. In particular, when large amounts of IBD sharing is present, SHAPEIT2 infers close to perfect haplotypes. Based on these results we have developed a general strategy for phasing cohorts with any level of implicit or explicit relatedness between individuals. First SHAPEIT2 is run ignoring all explicit family information. We then apply a novel HMM method (duoHMM) to combine the SHAPEIT2 haplotypes with any family information to infer the inheritance pattern of each meiosis at all sites across each chromosome. This allows the correction of switch errors, detection of recombination events and genotyping errors. We show that the method detects numbers of recombination events that align very well with expectations based on genetic maps, and that it infers far fewer spurious recombination events than Merlin. The method can also detect genotyping errors and infer recombination events in otherwise uninformative families, such as trios and duos. The detected recombination events can be used in association scans for recombination phenotypes. The method provides a simple and unified approach to haplotype estimation, that will be of interest to researchers in the fields of human, animal and plant genetics. PMID:24743097

  13. Experimental evidence that kin discrimination in the Seychelles warbler is based on association and not on genetic relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Richardson, DS; Burke, T; Richardson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperative breeding systems driven by kin selection, effective kin-recognition cues are important. Recognition could be achieved by the direct assessment of the genetic relatedness of individuals or by learning through association. In the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, female

  14. The Effects of Collaborative Care of Living Animals in Biology Lessons on Students' Relatedness Toward Their Teacher Across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Alexander; Großmann, Nadine; Wilde, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The transition from elementary school to the upper grades can lead to ambiguous feelings toward the new, male teachers. This study investigated whether collaborative animal care in biology lessons affects students' feelings of relatedness toward their biology teachers positively during the first year after the school transition. Four hundred twenty fifth graders (M age = 10.5 years, SD age = 0.6 years) of higher types of tracking participated. We designed one experimental group that involved caring for the living animals to be used in the upcoming lessons, and two control groups. The first control group included lessons with living animals, but did not include prior care of those animals, and the second incorporated neither living animals nor prior care. All groups received biology lessons with the same content. To examine the effects of caretaking, we used an adapted version of the scale "relatedness" (Ryan 1982). In both control groups, boys showed lower relatedness toward female teachers and girls toward male teachers, respectively. Collaborative mice care promoted equal relatedness across all gender combinations among teachers and students.

  15. Cohorts and Relatedness: Self-Determination Theory as an Explanation of How Learning Communities Affect Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…

  16. Modeling work-related learning on the basis of intentionality and developmental relatedness: A non-educational perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. S. Bolhuis; A. Doornbos; P.R.J. Simons

    2004-01-01

    A model of work-related learning based on intentionality and developmental relatedness is proposed here. A shift is called for from an educational perspective on work-related learning to a non-educational perspective in which learning is construed as largely implicit and spontaneous. That is,

  17. Levels of inbreeding in group mating captive broodstock populations of Common sole, (Solea solea), inferred from parental relatedness and contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, R.J.W.; Komen, J.; Kamstra, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate levels of inbreeding with parental relatedness and contribution inferred from microsatellites in groups of Common sole that reproduce by natural mating. We present results on spawning patterns during one entire reproductive season of wild Common sole, Solea solea, kept in

  18. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737 with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1 none, 2 random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3 random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses.

  19. Effect of family relatedness on characteristics of estimated IBD probabilities in relation to precision of QTL estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Gertraude; Hernández-Sánchez, Jules; Vukasinovic, Natascha

    2010-09-26

    A random QTL effects model uses a function of probabilities that two alleles in the same or in different animals at a particular genomic position are identical by descent (IBD). Estimates of such IBD probabilities and therefore, modeling and estimating QTL variances, depend on marker polymorphism, strength of linkage and linkage disequilibrium of markers and QTL, and the relatedness of animals in the pedigree. The effect of relatedness of animals in a pedigree on IBD probabilities and their characteristics was examined in a simulation study. The study based on nine multi-generational family structures, similar to a pedigree structure of a real dairy population, distinguished by an increased level of inbreeding from zero to 28% across the studied population. Highest inbreeding level in the pedigree, connected with highest relatedness, was accompanied by highest IBD probabilities of two alleles at the same locus, and by lower relative variation coefficients. Profiles of correlation coefficients of IBD probabilities along the marked chromosomal segment with those at the true QTL position were steepest when the inbreeding coefficient in the pedigree was highest. Precision of estimated QTL location increased with increasing inbreeding and pedigree relatedness. A method to assess the optimum level of inbreeding for QTL detection is proposed, depending on population parameters. An increased overall relationship in a QTL mapping design has positive effects on precision of QTL position estimates. But the relationship of inbreeding level and the capacity for QTL detection depending on the recombination rate of QTL and adjacent informative marker is not linear.

  20. Establishment of a surveillance system (utilising Midwifes Data Collection Systems) for monitoring the impact of hepatitis B vaccination on the population prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nicholas; Warlow, Margaret; Quinn, Helen; Selvey, Christine; Lum, Gary; McIntyre, Peter; Kaldor, John

    2008-06-01

    To examine how routine hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing of antenatal women (as identified on the NT Midwifes Data Collection System) can be used to track the impact of hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination on the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in the Northern Territory (NT). Women who gave birth between 01 July 2002 and 30 June 2004 were identified from the NT Midwives Data Collection System (MDCS). For each woman, the unique hospital record number (HRN) was linked to the information system of the NT Government pathology service to obtain the results of serological tests for hepatitis B. The prevalence of HBsAg was calculated by age, Indigenous status, and maternal country of birth. During the study period, 1061 records of women from the NT MDCS could be linked to HBsAg results. Overall, 33 (3.1%) were positive for HBsAg, of whom 29 were recorded as Indigenous and the remaining four were born outside Australia. Linking data from the NT MDCS and HBsAg results from government pathology service is a feasible means to monitor the impact of HBV vaccination policy. Routine inclusion of HBsAg results in all state and territory midwives data collections should be pursued.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus reveals the high relatedness between imported and local strains during the 2013 dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binghui; Li, Yaping; Feng, Yue; Zhou, Hongning; Liang, Yaobo; Dai, Jiejie; Qin, Weihong; Hu, Yunzhang; Wang, Yajuan; Zhang, Li; Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yang, Henglin; Xia, Xueshan

    2015-03-21

    An outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) occurred in Yunnan province. More than 2,000 individuals were infected from August to November 2013. In this study, we aimed to characterize the origin and prevalence of DENV in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province using phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of DENV strains collected from local patients and foreign travelers. A total of 41 DENV-positive serum samples were randomly collected from travelers who entered China at Ruili port or local patients with dengue fever in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, China. The envelope (E) gene of DENV was amplified and sequenced. The distributions and evolutionary characteristics of different genotypes were elucidated by phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetically, all of the 41 DENV-positive samples could be classified into genotype I (43.9%) of serotype DENV-1 and the Asian I genotype (56.1%) of serotype DENV-2. DENV strains derived from local patients and foreign travelers were scattered equally within these two clusters. Furthermore, the DENV strains from the two populations exhibited high relatedness based on evolutionary characteristics. These results suggested that imported and local DENV strains occurring during the dengue outbreak in 2013 were highly related. Additionally, these data may suggest that this dengue outbreak was caused by a newly imported infection from the neighboring country of Myanmar.

  2. Discrepancies in Autonomy and Relatedness Promoting Behaviors of Substance Using Mothers and Their Children: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha

    2017-03-01

    Parents' and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors are associated with a wide range of child outcomes. Yet, little is known about how parents and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors jointly influence child outcomes. The current study captured this joint influence by exploring the longitudinal trajectory of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors and its association with child problem behaviors. The effects of a family systems intervention on the trajectory of mother-child discrepancies were also examined. The sample included 183 substance using mothers and their children (M age = 11.54 years, SD = 2.55, range 8-16; 48 % females). Both the mother and child completed an assessment at baseline, 6- and 18-month post-baseline. A person-centered analysis identified subgroups varying in mother-child discrepancy patterns in their autonomy and relatedness behaviors. The results also showed that participation in the family systems therapy was associated with decreased mother-child discrepancies, and also a synchronous increase in mother's and child's autonomy and relatedness. Additionally, increased mother-child discrepancies and mother-child dyads showing no change in autonomy and relatedness was associated with higher levels of children's problem behaviors. The findings reveal a dynamic process of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors related to child outcomes. The findings also support the effectiveness of the family systems therapy, and highlight the importance of understanding the complexities in family interactions when explaining children's problem behaviors.

  3. Relatedness, national boarders, perceptions of firms and the value of their innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor, Adam R.

    The main goal of this dissertation is to better understand how external corporate stakeholder perceptions of relatedness affect important outcomes for companies. In pursuit of this goal, I apply the lens of category studies. Categories not only help audiences to distinguish between members of different categories, they also convey patterns of relatedness. In turn, this may have implications for understanding how audiences search, what they attend to, and how the members are ultimately valued. In the first chapter, I apply incites from social psychology to show how the nationality of audience members affects the way that they cognitively group objects into similar categories. I find that the geographic location of stock market analysts affect the degree to which they will revise their earnings estimates for a given company in the wake of an earnings miss by another firm in the same industry. Foreign analysts revise their earnings estimates downward more so than do local analysts, suggesting that foreign analysts ascribe the earnings miss more broadly and tend to lump companies located in the same country into larger groups than do local analysts. In the second chapter, I demonstrate that the structure of inter-category relationships can have consequential effects for the members of a focal category. Leveraging an experimental-like design, I study the outcomes of nanotechnology patents and the pattern of forward citations across multiple patent jurisdictions. I find that members of technology categories with many close category 'neighbors' are more broadly cited than members of categories with few category 'neighbors.' My findings highlight how category embeddedness and category system structure affect the outcomes of category members as well as the role that classification plays in the valuation of innovation. In the third chapter, I propose a novel and dynamic measure of corporate similarity that is constructed from the two-mode analyst and company coverage network

  4. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (pseverity (pchildren were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child-mother pairs, >60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child

  5. Pedigrees or markers: Which are better in estimating relatedness and inbreeding coefficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) and pairwise relatedness (r) are fundamental parameters in population genetics and have important applications in diverse fields such as human medicine, forensics, plant and animal breeding, conservation and evolutionary biology. Traditionally, both parameters are calculated from pedigrees, but are now increasingly estimated from genetic marker data. Conceptually, a pedigree gives the expected F and r values, FP and rP, with the expectations being taken (hypothetically) over an infinite number of individuals with the same pedigree. In contrast, markers give the realised (actual) F and r values at the particular marker loci of the particular individuals, FM and rM. Both pedigree (FP, rP) and marker (FM, rM) estimates can be used as inferences of genomic inbreeding coefficients FG and genomic relatedness rG, which are the underlying quantities relevant to most applications (such as estimating inbreeding depression and heritability) of F and r. In the pre-genomic era, it was widely accepted that pedigrees are much better than markers in delineating FG and rG, and markers should better be used to validate, amend and construct pedigrees rather than to replace them. Is this still true in the genomic era when genome-wide dense SNPs are available? In this simulation study, I showed that genomic markers can yield much better estimates of FG and rG than pedigrees when they are numerous (say, 10(4) SNPs) under realistic situations (e.g. genome and population sizes). Pedigree estimates are especially poor for species with a small genome, where FG and rG are determined to a large extent by Mendelian segregations and may thus deviate substantially from their expectations (FP and rP). Simulations also confirmed that FM, when estimated from many SNPs, can be much more powerful than FP for detecting inbreeding depression in viability. However, I argue that pedigrees cannot be replaced completely by genomic SNPs, because the former allows for

  6. Genetic relatedness and risk factor analysis of ampicillin-resistant and high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci causing bloodstream infections in Tanzanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Håvard; Mohn, Stein Christian; Maselle, Samuel; Manji, Karim P; Willems, Rob; Jureen, Roland; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2015-02-28

    While enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobials are spreading in hospitals worldwide, causing urinary tract, wound and bloodstream infections, there is little published data on these infections from Africa. We assessed the prevalence, susceptibility patterns, clinical outcome and genetic relatedness of enterococcal isolates causing bloodstream infections in children in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, as part of a prospective cohort study of bloodstream infections among 1828 febrile children admitted consecutively from August 2001 to August 2002. Enterococcal bacteraemia was identified in 2.1% (39/1828) of admissions, and in 15.3% (39/255) of cases of culture-confirmed bloodstream infections. The case-fatality rate in children with Enterococcus faecalis septicaemia (28.6%, 4/14) was not significantly different from those with Enterococcus faecium septicaemia (6.7%, 1/15, p = 0.12). E. faecium isolates commonly had combined ampicillin-resistance and high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), (9/17), while E. faecalis frequently displayed HLGR (6/15), but were ampicillin susceptible. None of the tested enterococcal isolates displayed vancomycin resistance by Etest or PCR for vanA and vanB genes. Multi-locus sequence-typing (MLST) showed that the majority of E. faecium (7/12) belonged to the hospital associated Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure (BAPS) group 3-3. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated close genetic relationship particularly among E. faecium isolates, but also among E. faecalis isolates. There was also correlation between BAPS group and PFGE results. Risk factors for enterococcal bloodstream infection in univariate analysis were hospital-acquired infection and clinical diagnosis of sepsis with unknown focus. In multivariate analysis, neonates in general were relatively protected from enterococcal infection, while both prematurity and clinical sepsis were risk factors. Malnutrition was a risk factor for enterococcal

  7. Effects of semantic relatedness on selection in pull-down menus - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongmyong; Patterson, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    As interfaces become more sophisticated, there is a need to develop design methods that will assure users can locate needed information quickly and accurately. Selecting the correct text label to perform an action, using information retrieval from long-term memory, is an important consideration for interface design. A psychological theory, the spreading activation model, is used to explain information searching behavior during menu selection tasks. Two experiments were performed to examine how a user searches for semantically related targets, menu headers, and target items. In the first experiment, the degree of relatedness between two text labels in the menu was evaluated. The semantic distance for related information was correlated with total selection time (r2=0.751) and error rate (r2=0.740). Response time during the spreading activation test also showed a correlation with error rate (r2=0.736) in menu selection. Target item information depended on location and number of menu items scanned, while menu header information was dependent on the use of memory, thus incurring a significant cognitive load. Semantic relationships among text information were found to play an important role in fast and accurate menu item selection. In this study, user time in considering these relationships was measured by completing menu selection tasks based on results from the spreading activation analysis.

  8. Resident-invader phylogenetic relatedness, not resident phylogenetic diversity, controls community invasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiaqi; Pu, Zhichao; Ryberg, Wade A; Jiang, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A central goal of invasion biology is to elucidate mechanisms regulating community invasibility. Darwin's naturalization hypothesis, one of the oldest hypotheses in invasion biology, emphasizes the importance of phylogenetic relatedness (PR) between resident and invader species for predicting invasibility. Alternatively, a recent extension of the diversity-invasibility hypothesis predicts that phylogenetic diversity (PD) of resident communities influences invasibility. Neither of these hypotheses has undergone rigorous experimental testing, and the relative contributions of PR and PD to community invasibility are unknown, in part because their effects tend to be confounded with each other. Here we consider both perspectives together by independently manipulating PR and PD in laboratory bacterial assemblages. We found that, although invader abundance decreased significantly as PR increased, it was unaffected by PD. Likewise, we found that resident-invader functional similarity, not functional diversity of resident communities, was a significant predictor of invader abundance. Nevertheless, invader abundance was better predicted by PR than by functional similarity. These results highlight the importance of considering species evolutionary relationships, especially the PR between resident and invader species, for the prediction, prevention, and management of biological invasions.

  9. Genetic diversity and relatedness among seven red deer (Cervus elaphus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Maršálková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deer (Cervidae recently belongs to the most important species. The aim of presenting study was evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship within and among seven red deer populations from different origins - Czech Republic, Hungary, hybrids Hungary x New Zealand, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland and Slovak Republic. This study was conducted to determine the levels of genetic variability and relationships among deer populations from a total of 637 animals originating from seven countries Czech Republic (50, Hungary (35, Hungary x New Zealand hybrids (67, Lithuania (26, New Zealand (82, Poland (347 and Slovak Republic (30.  We used the hair bulbs as a source of DNA.  In total, 213 alleles were observed from the 10 loci surveyed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 (IOBT965 to 35 (T156, RT13. Genetic diversity and relatedness among red deer populations has been performed on a total of 637 animals. A panel of 10 microsatellite markers used in deer were optimized. On the basis of this panel of microsatellites we were investigated genetic variability and relationships by using statistical and graphical programmes. We evaluated how close populations are to each other and their genetic admixture. Molecular genetic data combined with evaluation in statistical programmes could lead to a complex view of populations. 

  10. Effects of iconicity and semantic relatedness on lexical access in american sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Iconicity is a property that pervades the lexicon of many sign languages, including American Sign Language (ASL). Iconic signs exhibit a motivated, nonarbitrary mapping between the form of the sign and its meaning. We investigated whether iconicity enhances semantic priming effects for ASL and whether iconic signs are recognized more quickly than noniconic signs are (controlling for strength of iconicity, semantic relatedness, familiarity, and imageability). Twenty deaf signers made lexical decisions to the 2nd item of a prime-target pair. Iconic target signs were preceded by prime signs that were (a) iconic and semantically related, (b) noniconic and semantically related, or (c) semantically unrelated. In addition, a set of noniconic target signs was preceded by semantically unrelated primes. Significant facilitation was observed for target signs when they were preceded by semantically related primes. However, iconicity did not increase the priming effect (e.g., the target sign PIANO was primed equally by the iconic sign GUITAR and the noniconic sign MUSIC). In addition, iconic signs were not recognized faster or more accurately than were noniconic signs. These results confirm the existence of semantic priming for sign language and suggest that iconicity does not play a robust role in online lexical processing.

  11. Relatedness defies biogeography: the tale of two island endemics (Acacia heterophylla and A. koa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Strasberg, Dominique; Rouget, Mathieu; Morden, Clifford W; Koordom, Megan; Richardson, David M

    2014-10-01

    Despite the normally strong link between geographic proximity and relatedness of recently diverged taxa, truly puzzling biogeographic anomalies to this expectation exist in nature. Using a dated phylogeny, population genetic structure and estimates of ecological niche overlap, we tested the hypothesis that two geographically very disjunct, but morphologically very similar, island endemics (Acacia heterophylla from Réunion Island and A. koa from the Hawaiian archipelago) are the result of dispersal between these two island groups, rather than independent colonization events from Australia followed by convergent evolution. Our genetic results indicated that A. heterophylla renders A. koa paraphyletic and that the former colonized the Mascarene archipelago directly from the Hawaiian Islands ≤ 1.4 million yr ago. This colonization sequence was corroborated by similar ecological niches between the two island taxa, but not between A. melanoxylon from Australia (a sister, and presumed ancestral, taxon to A. koa and A. heterophylla) and Hawaiian A. koa. It is widely accepted that the long-distance dispersal of plants occurs more frequently than previously thought. Here, however, we document one of the most exceptional examples of such dispersal. Despite c. 18 000 km separating A. heterophylla and A. koa, these two island endemics from two different oceans probably represent a single taxon as a result of recent extreme long-distance dispersal. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Relatedness is a poor predictor of negative plant-soil feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Zia; Tuck, Sean L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying negative plant-soil feedbacks remains a critical challenge in plant ecology. If closely related species are more similar, then phylogeny could be used as a predictor for plant species interactions, simplifying our understanding of how plant-soil feedbacks structure plant communities, underlie invasive species dynamics, or reduce agricultural productivity. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting plant-soil feedbacks by undertaking a hierarchical Bayesian meta-analysis on all available pairwise plant-soil feedback experiments conducted over the last two decades, including 133 plant species in 329 pairwise interactions. We found that the sign and magnitude of plant-soil feedback effects were not explained by the phylogenetic distance separating interacting species. This result was consistent across different life forms, life cycles, provenances, and phylogenetic scales. Our analysis shows that, contrary to widespread assumption, relatedness is a poor predictor of plant-soil feedback effects. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Turkish population structure and genetic ancestry reveal relatedness among Eurasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodoğlugil, Uğur; Mahley, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Turkey has experienced major population movements. Population structure and genetic relatedness of samples from three regions of Turkey, using over 500,000 SNP genotypes, were compared together with Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) data. To obtain a more representative sampling from Central Asia, Kyrgyz samples (Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan) were genotyped and analysed. Principal component (PC) analysis reveals a significant overlap between Turks and Middle Easterners and a relationship with Europeans and South and Central Asians; however, the Turkish genetic structure is unique. FRAPPE, STRUCTURE, and phylogenetic analyses support the PC analysis depending upon the number of parental ancestry components chosen. For example, supervised STRUCTURE (K=3) illustrates a genetic ancestry for the Turks of 45% Middle Eastern (95% CI, 42-49), 40% European (95% CI, 36-44) and 15% Central Asian (95% CI, 13-16), whereas at K=4 the genetic ancestry of the Turks was 38% European (95% CI, 35-42), 35% Middle Eastern (95% CI, 33-38), 18% South Asian (95% CI, 16-19) and 9% Central Asian (95% CI, 7-11). PC analysis and FRAPPE/STRUCTURE results from three regions in Turkey (Aydin, Istanbul and Kayseri) were superimposed, without clear subpopulation structure, suggesting sample homogeneity. Thus, this study demonstrates admixture of Turkish people reflecting the population migration patterns. © 2012 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  14. Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshuk, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C/sub 16/ acid and trihydroxy-C/sub 18/ acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a (/sup 32/P)-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested.

  15. Correcting for cryptic relatedness by a regression-based genomic control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yaning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic control (GC method is a useful tool to correct for the cryptic relatedness in population-based association studies. It was originally proposed for correcting for the variance inflation of Cochran-Armitage's additive trend test by using information from unlinked null markers, and was later generalized to be applicable to other tests with the additional requirement that the null markers are matched with the candidate marker in allele frequencies. However, matching allele frequencies limits the number of available null markers and thus limits the applicability of the GC method. On the other hand, errors in genotype/allele frequencies may cause further bias and variance inflation and thereby aggravate the effect of GC correction. Results In this paper, we propose a regression-based GC method using null markers that are not necessarily matched in allele frequencies with the candidate marker. Variation of allele frequencies of the null markers is adjusted by a regression method. Conclusion The proposed method can be readily applied to the Cochran-Armitage's trend tests other than the additive trend test, the Pearson's chi-square test and other robust efficiency tests. Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective in controlling type I error in the presence of population substructure.

  16. Natural environments, nature relatedness and the ecological theater: connecting satellites and sequencing to shinrin-yoku.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jeffrey M; Logan, Alan C; Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-13

    Recent advances in research concerning the public health value of natural environments have been remarkable. The growing interest in this topic (often housed under terms such as green and/or blue space) has been occurring in parallel with the microbiome revolution and an increased use of remote sensing technology in public health. In the context of biodiversity loss, rapid urbanization, and alarming rates of global non-communicable diseases (many associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation), discussions of natural vis-a-vis built environments are not merely fodder for intellectual curiosity. Here, we argue for increased interdisciplinary collaboration with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms-including aerobiological and epigenetic-that might help explain some of the noted positive health outcomes. It is our contention that some of these mechanisms are related to ecodiversity (i.e., the sum of biodiversity and geodiversity, including biotic and abiotic constituents). We also encourage researchers to more closely examine individual nature relatedness and how it might influence many outcomes that are at the interface of lifestyle habits and contact with ecodiversity.

  17. Virulence, resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from mule foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Carneiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Respiratory diseases are common in young horses but little is known about such infections in mule foals. This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from tracheal wash (TW and fecal samples (FS of mule foals, with or without cytological evidence of respiratory disease. Strains were analyzed against 13 antimicrobials, for presence of Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL, and virulence genes. Phylogrouping and Randomic (RAPD-PCR profiles were used to evaluate their genetic relatedness. E. coli strains from TW and FS showed greatest resistance to tetracycline, while Klebsiella strains were mainly resistant to ampicillin; multidrug resistance and ESBL production were also detected. The blaCTX gene prevailed among the E. coli isolates, while the blaSHV gene was more frequently found in K. pneumoniae. The fimH gene was detected in most of the isolates and multiple virulence factors were identified in three E. coli isolates. Most of the E. coli isolates belonged to the B1 phylogroup, but B2 strains displayed more virulence genes. The RAPD assay revealed genetic diversity among strains and was able to distinguish FS isolates from TW isolates. Knowledge of the bacteria associated with the respiratory tract of mule foals is important in the treatment of sick animals.

  18. Characteristics of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Korea and their work-relatedness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Kim, Day Sung; Jang, Sun Je; Hong, Ki Hun; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2010-12-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can be compensated through the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. We looked at the characteristics of WMSDs in worker's compensation records and the epidemiological investigation reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI). Based on the records of compensation, the number of cases for WMSDs decreased from 4,532 in 2003 to 1,954 in 2007. However the proportion of WMSDs among the total approved occupational diseases increased from 49.6% in 2003 to 76.5% in 2007, and the total cost of WMSDs increased from 105.3 billion won in 2004 to 163.3 billion won in 2007. The approval rate of WMSDs by the OSHRI accounted for 65.6%. Ergonomic and clinical characteristics were associated with the approval rate; however, the degenerative changes had a minimal affect. This result was in discordance between OSHRI and the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service. We presumed that there were perceptional gaps in work-relatedness interpretation that resulted from the inequality of information in ergonomic analyses. We propose to introduce ergonomic analysis to unapproved WMSDs cases and discuss those results among experts that will be helpful to form a consensus among diverse groups.

  19. Work-relatedness of low back pain in nursing personnel: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Lockhart, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Although non-specific low back pain (LBP) is known to be multifactorial, studies from across the globe have documented their higher prevalence in nurses. This systematic review was conducted to ascertain whether this much-documented association constitutes a causal relationship, and whether there is a discernible threshold of exposures associated with this elevated risk. PRISMA guidelines were followed and standard critical appraisal tools were applied. The outcome of interest was non-specific LBP or back injury; exposure was "performing nursing duties." Applicable studies, published in English during 1980-2012, were identified through database searches, screened against preset inclusion/exclusion criteria. Ergonomic assessments of nursing tasks were included along with epidemiological studies. Bradford Hill considerations for causation were utilized as a framework for discussing findings. Of 987 studies identified, 89 qualified for inclusion, comprising 21 longitudinal, 36 cross-sectional analytic, 23 descriptive biomechanical/ergonomic, and 9 review studies. Overall studies showed that nursing activities conferred increased risk for, and were associated with back disorders regardless of nursing technique, personal characteristics, and non-work-related factors. Patient handling appears to confer the highest risk, but other nursing duties are also associated with elevated risk, and confound dose-response assessments related to patient handling alone. Associations were strong, consistent, temporally possible, plausible, coherent, and analogous to other exposure-outcomes, with risk estimates ranging from 1·2 to 5·5 depending on definitions. A threshold of nursing activities below which the risk of back disorders is not elevated has not been established. Notwithstanding the bio-psycho-social nature of LBP, and complexities of studying this area, sufficient evidence exists of a causal relationship between nursing tasks and back disorders to warrant new policies.

  20. Are evolving human rights harmless? An examination of English legislation, prostitution and its effect on human relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by human rights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals.

  1. Control for Population Structure and Relatedness for Binary Traits in Genetic Association Studies via Logistic Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Wang, Chaolong; Conomos, Matthew P.; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Li, Zilin; Sofer, Tamar; Szpiro, Adam A.; Chen, Wei; Brehm, John M.; Celedón, Juan C.; Redline, Susan; Papanicolaou, George J.; Thornton, Timothy A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Rice, Kenneth; Lin, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    Linear mixed models (LMMs) are widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to account for population structure and relatedness, for both continuous and binary traits. Motivated by the failure of LMMs to control type I errors in a GWAS of asthma, a binary trait, we show that LMMs are generally inappropriate for analyzing binary traits when population stratification leads to violation of the LMM’s constant-residual variance assumption. To overcome this problem, we develop a computationally efficient logistic mixed model approach for genome-wide analysis of binary traits, the generalized linear mixed model association test (GMMAT). This approach fits a logistic mixed model once per GWAS and performs score tests under the null hypothesis of no association between a binary trait and individual genetic variants. We show in simulation studies and real data analysis that GMMAT effectively controls for population structure and relatedness when analyzing binary traits in a wide variety of study designs. PMID:27018471

  2. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci in 4023 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from 32 tributaries to the Limfjord, Denmark (similar to 200 km) and from two hatcheries used for stocking. Populations differ in their estimated sizes and stocking histories. Mean individual...... inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes......, suggesting structure within locations. Five per cent of the genetic variance is distributed among rivers (F-ST = 0.049), but in the western, less heavily stocked, area of the Limfjord a higher proportion of the genetic variance is distributed among rivers than among locations within rivers. The reverse...

  3. Genetic population structure and relatedness in the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), a social Malagasy carnivore with sexual segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tilman C; Kappeler, Peter M; Pozzi, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Information on the genetic structure of animal populations can allow inferences about mechanisms shaping their social organization, dispersal, and mating system. The mongooses (Herpestidae) include some of the best-studied mammalian systems in this respect, but much less is known about their closest relatives, the Malagasy carnivores (Eupleridae), even though some of them exhibit unusual association patterns. We investigated the genetic structure of the Malagasy narrow-striped mongoose ( Mungotictis decemlineata ), a small forest-dwelling gregarious carnivore exhibiting sexual segregation. Based on mtDNA and microsatellite analyses, we determined population-wide haplotype structure and sex-specific and within-group relatedness. Furthermore, we analyzed parentage and sibship relationships and the level of reproductive skew. We found a matrilinear population structure, with several neighboring female units sharing identical haplotypes. Within-group female relatedness was significantly higher than expected by chance in the majority of units. Haplotype diversity of males was significantly higher than in females, indicating male-biased dispersal. Relatedness within the majority of male associations did not differ from random, not proving any kin-directed benefits of male sociality in this case. We found indications for a mildly promiscuous mating system without monopolization of females by males, and low levels of reproductive skew in both sexes based on parentages of emergent young. Low relatedness within breeding pairs confirmed immigration by males and suggested similarities with patterns in social mongooses, providing a starting point for further investigations of mate choice and female control of reproduction and the connected behavioral mechanisms. Our study contributes to the understanding of the determinants of male sociality in carnivores as well as the mechanisms of female competition in species with small social units.

  4. Bird species richness is associated with phylogenetic relatedness, plant species richness, and altitudinal range in Inner Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chenxia; Feng, Gang; Si, Xingfeng; Mao, Lingfeng; Yang, Guisheng; Svenning, Jens Christian; Yang, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Bird species richness is mediated by local, regional, and historical factors, for example, competition, environmental heterogeneity, contemporary, and historical climate. Here, we related bird species richness with phylogenetic relatedness of bird assemblages, plant species richness, topography, contemporary climate, and glacial‐interglacial climate change to investigate the relative importance of these factors. This study was conducted in Inner Mongolia, an arid and semiarid region ...

  5. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes in and on Ready-to-Eat Foods from Retail Establishments in the United States (2010 through 2013): Assessing Potential Changes of Pathogen Prevalence and Levels in a Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Chen, Yuhuan; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Pouillot, Régis; Shoyer, Bradley A; Johnson-DeRycke, Rachel; Eblen, Denise R; Hoelzer, Karin; Shaw, William K; van Doren, Jane M; Catlin, Michelle; Lee, Jeehyun; Tikekar, Rohan; Gallagher, Daniel; Lindsay, James A; Dennis, Sherri

    2017-06-01

    A multiyear interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the United States. Food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in California, Maryland, Connecticut, and Georgia for 100 weeks between December 2010 and March 2013. Of the 27,389 total samples, 116 samples tested positive by the BAX PCR system for L. monocytogenes , and the pathogen was isolated and confirmed for 102 samples. Among the 16 food categories, the proportion of positive samples (i.e., without considering clustering effects) based on recovery of a viable isolate of L. monocytogenes ranged from 0.00% (95% confidence interval: 0.00, 0.18) for the category of soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 1.07% (0.63, 1.68) for raw cut vegetables. Among the 571 samples that tested positive for Listeria-like organisms, the proportion of positive samples ranged from 0.79% (0.45, 1.28) for soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 4.76% (2.80, 7.51) for fresh crab meat or sushi. Across all 16 categories, L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly associated with the four states (P store), the type of store (national chain versus independent), or the season. Among the 102 samples positive for L. monocytogenes , levels ranged from stores revealed that L. monocytogenes prevalence ranged from 0.11% (0.03, 0.34) for sprouts (prepackaged) to 1.01% (0.58, 1.74) for raw cut vegetables (prepackaged).

  6. Using a search engine-based mutually reinforcing approach to assess the semantic relatedness of biomedical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Hung-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Determining the semantic relatedness of two biomedical terms is an important task for many text-mining applications in the biomedical field. Previous studies, such as those using ontology-based and corpus-based approaches, measured semantic relatedness by using information from the structure of biomedical literature, but these methods are limited by the small size of training resources. To increase the size of training datasets, the outputs of search engines have been used extensively to analyze the lexical patterns of biomedical terms. In this work, we propose the Mutually Reinforcing Lexical Pattern Ranking (ReLPR) algorithm for learning and exploring the lexical patterns of synonym pairs in biomedical text. ReLPR employs lexical patterns and their pattern containers to assess the semantic relatedness of biomedical terms. By combining sentence structures and the linking activities between containers and lexical patterns, our algorithm can explore the correlation between two biomedical terms. The average correlation coefficient of the ReLPR algorithm was 0.82 for various datasets. The results of the ReLPR algorithm were significantly superior to those of previous methods.

  7. Bird species richness is associated with phylogenetic relatedness, plant species richness, and altitudinal range in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenxia; Feng, Gang; Si, Xingfeng; Mao, Lingfeng; Yang, Guisheng; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Yang, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Bird species richness is mediated by local, regional, and historical factors, for example, competition, environmental heterogeneity, contemporary, and historical climate. Here, we related bird species richness with phylogenetic relatedness of bird assemblages, plant species richness, topography, contemporary climate, and glacial-interglacial climate change to investigate the relative importance of these factors. This study was conducted in Inner Mongolia, an arid and semiarid region with diverse vegetation types and strong species richness gradients. The following associated variables were included as follows: phylogenetic relatedness of bird assemblages (Net Relatedness Index, NRI), plant species richness, altitudinal range, contemporary climate (mean annual temperature and precipitation, MAT and MAP), and contemporary-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) change in climate (change in MAT and change in MAP). Ordinary least squares linear, simultaneous autoregressive linear, and Random Forest models were used to assess the associations between these variables and bird species richness across this region. We found that bird species richness was correlated negatively with NRI and positively with plant species richness and altitudinal range, with no significant correlations with contemporary climate and glacial-interglacial climate change. The six best combinations of variables ranked by Random Forest models consistently included NRI, plant species richness, and contemporary-LGM change in MAT. Our results suggest important roles of local ecological factors in shaping the distribution of bird species richness across this semiarid region. Our findings highlight the potential importance of these local ecological factors, for example, environmental heterogeneity, habitat filtering, and biotic interactions, in biodiversity maintenance.

  8. Empirical Comparison of Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Assessment of Maize Diversity and Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Martha T.; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2007-01-01

    While Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are extremely useful genetic markers, recent advances in technology have produced a shift toward use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The different mutational properties of these two classes of markers result in differences in heterozygosities and allele frequencies that may have implications for their use in assessing relatedness and evaluation of genetic diversity. We compared analyses based on 89 SSRs (primarily dinucleotide repeats) to analyses based on 847 SNPs in individuals from the same 259 inbred maize lines, which had been chosen to represent the diversity available among current and historic lines used in breeding. The SSRs performed better at clustering germplasm into populations than did a set of 847 SNPs or 554 SNP haplotypes, and SSRs provided more resolution in measuring genetic distance based on allele-sharing. Except for closely related pairs of individuals, measures of distance based on SSRs were only weakly correlated with measures of distance based on SNPs. Our results suggest that 1) large numbers of SNP loci will be required to replace highly polymorphic SSRs in studies of diversity and relatedness and 2) relatedness among highly-diverged maize lines is difficult to measure accurately regardless of the marker system. PMID:18159250

  9. Preliminary Observations of Population Genetics and Relatedness of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, in Two Northeast Pacific Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shawn; Farrer, Debbie; Lowry, Dayv; Ebert, David A

    2015-01-01

    The broadnose sevengill shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, a common coastal species in the eastern North Pacific, was sampled during routine capture and tagging operations conducted from 2005-2012. One hundred and thirty three biopsy samples were taken during these research operations in Willapa Bay, Washington and in San Francisco Bay, California. Genotypic data from seven polymorphic microsatellites (derived from the related sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus) were used to describe N. cepedianus genetic diversity, population structure and relatedness. Diversity within N. cepedianus was found to be low to moderate with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.41, expected heterozygosity of 0.53, and an average of 5.1 alleles per microsatellite locus. There was no evidence of a recent population bottleneck based on genetic data. Analyses of genetic differences between the two sampled estuaries suggest two distinct populations with some genetic mixing of sharks sampled during 2005-2006. Relatedness within sampled populations was high, with percent relatedness among sharks caught in the same area indicating 42.30% first-order relative relationships (full or half siblings). Estuary-specific familial relationships suggest that management of N. cepedianus on the U.S. West Coast should incorporate stock-specific management goals to conserve this ecologically important predator.

  10. The Mediating Effects of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness During Couple Leisure on the Relationship Between Total Couple Leisure Satisfaction and Marital Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miriam Puerta Amato; Neil Lundberg; Peter J Ward; Bruce G Schaalje; Ramon Zabriskie

    2016-01-01

    .... The three psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness-fundamental components of Self-Determination Theory-were measured through the Fulfillment of Psychological Needs during Couple Leisure (FPNL...

  11. Can Relatedness be a Key to Employee Motivation? : A quantitative study of the linkage between the three basic needs and internalization in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Halvarsson, Jon; Engman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Workplace motivation is important for organizations in all contexts. Motivation can be both extrinsic and intrinsic, simplified meaning it derives from expectations of external rewards or comes from enjoyment of the task itself. Whether the motivation becomes extrinsic or intrinsic depends primarily on satisfaction of the basic needs, namely autonomy, competence and relatedness. With stance in the self-determination theory this thesis explored the concept of relatedness, alongside the two oth...

  12. Representations of relatedness with parents and friends and autonomous academic motivation during the late adolescence-early adulthood period: reciprocal or unidirectional effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Marsh, Herbert W; Senécal, Caroline; Dowson, Martin

    2008-12-01

    The literature on the determinants of academic motivation indicates that social and affective processes connected to students' interpersonal relationships are central elements in understanding students' academic motivation and other school-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: Does autonomous motivation drive representations of relatedness, do representations of relatedness drive autonomous motivation, or are these constructs reciprocally related over time? The sample consists of 834 adolescents aged 18 years (SD=1.88) who participated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Results from the structural equation models provided good support for the effect of representations of relatedness with parents on autonomous academic motivation but no convincing support for the effect of motivation on representations of relatedness with parents. In addition, no significant effect in either direction was found between representations of relatedness with friends and autonomous academic motivation. It might be important to inform parents that they may still have an influence on their adolescent's representations of relatedness and subsequently on his/her autonomous academic motivation even during the late adolescence-early adulthood period, a period when some parents may be tempted to believe that they can do little to motivate their offspring.

  13. Clonal relatedness between lobular carcinoma in situ and synchronous malignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has been accepted as a marker of risk for the development of invasive breast cancer, yet modern models of breast carcinogenesis include LCIS as a precursor of low-grade carcinomas. We provide evidence favoring a clonal origin for LCIS and synchronous estrogen receptor-positive malignant lesions of the ductal and lobular phenotype. Methods Patients with prior LCIS undergoing mastectomy were identified preoperatively from 2003 to 2008. Specimens were widely sampled, and frozen blocks were screened for LCIS and co-existing malignant lesions, and were subject to microdissection. Samples from 65 patients were hybridized to the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array platform. Cases with both an LCIS sample and an associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive tumor sample were evaluated for patterns of somatic copy number changes to assess evidence of clonal relatedness. Results LCIS was identified in 44 of the cases, and among these a DCIS and/or invasive lesion was also identified in 21 cases. A total of 17 tumor pairs had adequate DNA/array data for analysis, including nine pairs of LCIS/invasive lobular cancer, four pairs of LCIS/DCIS, and four pairs of LCIS/invasive ductal cancer. Overall, seven pairs (41%) were judged to be clonally related; in five (29%) evidence suggested clonality but was equivocal, and five (29%) were considered independent. Clonal pairs were observed with all matched lesion types and low and high histological grades. We also show anecdotal evidence of clonality between a patient-matched triplet of LCIS, DCIS, and invasive ductal cancer. Conclusion Our results support the role of LCIS as a precursor in the development of both high-grade and low-grade ductal and lobular cancers. PMID:22776144

  14. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national

  15. Review of Polarities of experience: Relatedness and self-definition in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process and Relatedness, self-definition and mental representation: Essays in honor of Sidney J. Blatt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2009-03-01

    Reviews the books, Polarities of experience: Relatedness and self-definition in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process by Sidney J. Blatt (see record 2008-01813-000) and Relatedness, self-definition and mental representation: Essays in honor of Sidney J. Blatt edited by John S. Auerbach, Kenneth N. Levy, and Carrie E. Schaffer (2005). These two volumes present a most impressive and fitting capstone to Sidney Blatt's very productive lifetime of almost unmatched threefold integration of (a) clinical experience, beginning with his astute observation of the strikingly different thematic preoccupations of two otherwise very similarly depressed patients whom Blatt was analyzing during his psychoanalytic training; (b) the theoretic conceptualization stemming from these clinical observations, which became the basic fabric of his lifetime major addition to our psychological explanatory universe; and (c) the painstaking systematic empirical data gathering, together with the creation of necessary-and truly appropriate-measures and instruments that, in ensemble, provide such strong data-based support for Blatt's clinically inspired theoretic harvesting. In the book Polarities of experience: Relatedness and self-definition in personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process, Blatt draws upon a vast literature review of his own work with his collaborating authors-as well as a seemingly exhaustive list of contributors in all the linked and related areas. Blatt has organized his volume sequentially (after defining and describing his fundamental polarity of experience) into three logically following sections on personality development, personality organization and psychopathology, and lastly, the therapeutic process. Relatedness, self-definition and mental representation: Essays in honor of Sidney J. Blatt is put together by three of Blatt's former students, and now collaborating partners, although published 3 years earlier (2005

  16. Barcoding success as a function of phylogenetic relatedness in Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Wendy L

    2012-05-01

    were often more effective alone rather than in combination with rbcL + matK. We surmise that the efficacy of barcoding in plants has often been overestimated because of the lack of comparisons among closely related species. Phylogenetic information must be incorporated to properly evaluate relatedness in assessing the utility of barcoding loci.

  17. Opposing effects of semantic diversity in lexical and semantic relatedness decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Woollams, Anna M

    2015-04-01

    Semantic ambiguity has often been divided into 2 forms: homonymy, referring to words with 2 unrelated interpretations (e.g., bark), and polysemy, referring to words associated with a number of varying but semantically linked uses (e.g., twist). Typically, polysemous words are thought of as having a fixed number of discrete definitions, or "senses," with each use of the word corresponding to one of its senses. In this study, we investigated an alternative conception of polysemy, based on the idea that polysemous variation in meaning is a continuous, graded phenomenon that occurs as a function of contextual variation in word usage. We quantified this contextual variation using semantic diversity (SemD), a corpus-based measure of the degree to which a particular word is used in a diverse set of linguistic contexts. In line with other approaches to polysemy, we found a reaction time (RT) advantage for high SemD words in lexical decision, which occurred for words of both high and low imageability. When participants made semantic relatedness decisions to word pairs, however, responses were slower to high SemD pairs, irrespective of whether these were related or unrelated. Again, this result emerged irrespective of the imageability of the word. The latter result diverges from previous findings using homonyms, in which ambiguity effects have only been found for related word pairs. We argue that participants were slower to respond to high SemD words because their high contextual variability resulted in noisy, underspecified semantic representations that were more difficult to compare with one another. We demonstrated this principle in a connectionist computational model that was trained to activate distributed semantic representations from orthographic inputs. Greater variability in the orthography-to-semantic mappings of high SemD words resulted in a lower degree of similarity for related pairs of this type. At the same time, the representations of high SemD unrelated

  18. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Genetic Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b Variant Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burall, Laurel S.; Grim, Christopher J.; Mammel, Mark K.; Datta, Atin R.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we have identified a link between four listeriosis incidents/outbreaks to a variant of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) serotype 4b strains, 4bV. Although 4bV strains have been reported from clinical specimens as well as from foods, listeriosis outbreaks occurring in 2014–2016 were the first reported outbreaks involving 4bV in the USA. Since traditional typing methods do not detect members of this group, we undertook a systematic and retrospective analysis of all Lm in the NCBI WGS Sequence Read Archive database to investigate the burden of 4bV strains among all listeriosis cases. This analysis identified the presence of isolates causing sporadic cases as well as those associated with the aforementioned outbreaks, as determined by WGS and traditional epidemiology. In total, approximately 350 Lm 4bV strains were identified from multiple parts of the USA as well as from Australia and Chile, dating back to 2001. The genomic relatedness of these strains was compared using the CFSAN SNP Pipeline and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST). Using the CFSAN Pipeline tool, the 4bV strains were found to group into seven clusters that were separate from 4b strains. All seven clades appeared to contain isolates from both clinical and non-clinical sources. Conversely, the MVLST analysis revealed that practically all of the strains belonged to a single clade, suggesting that 4bV strains from disparate geographic regions and sources are under varied selective pressure, restricting diversity across these six virulence loci while allowing more variability across the genome as a whole. Further evaluation of these 4bV strains identified genes potentially acquired from a lineage II source external to the lmo0733–lmo0739 region, as well as highly conserved SNPs unique to the 4bV strains when compared to those from other lineages. Taken together, these data suggest that 4bV strains have undergone adaptive responses to selective pressures that may enhance survival in the

  19. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Genetic Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b Variant Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel S. Burall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we have identified a link between four listeriosis incidents/outbreaks to a variant of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm serotype 4b strains, 4bV. Although 4bV strains have been reported from clinical specimens as well as from foods, listeriosis outbreaks occurring in 2014–2016 were the first reported outbreaks involving 4bV in the USA. Since traditional typing methods do not detect members of this group, we undertook a systematic and retrospective analysis of all Lm in the NCBI WGS Sequence Read Archive database to investigate the burden of 4bV strains among all listeriosis cases. This analysis identified the presence of isolates causing sporadic cases as well as those associated with the aforementioned outbreaks, as determined by WGS and traditional epidemiology. In total, approximately 350 Lm 4bV strains were identified from multiple parts of the USA as well as from Australia and Chile, dating back to 2001. The genomic relatedness of these strains was compared using the CFSAN SNP Pipeline and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST. Using the CFSAN Pipeline tool, the 4bV strains were found to group into seven clusters that were separate from 4b strains. All seven clades appeared to contain isolates from both clinical and non-clinical sources. Conversely, the MVLST analysis revealed that practically all of the strains belonged to a single clade, suggesting that 4bV strains from disparate geographic regions and sources are under varied selective pressure, restricting diversity across these six virulence loci while allowing more variability across the genome as a whole. Further evaluation of these 4bV strains identified genes potentially acquired from a lineage II source external to the lmo0733–lmo0739 region, as well as highly conserved SNPs unique to the 4bV strains when compared to those from other lineages. Taken together, these data suggest that 4bV strains have undergone adaptive responses to selective pressures that may

  20. Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates recovered from selected ready-to-eat foods and listeriosis patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Stefanie Evans; Call, Jeff E; Wallace, F Morgan; Scott, Virginia N; Chen, Yuhuan; Luchansky, John B

    2005-12-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and serotyping were performed for 544 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes, including 502 isolates recovered from contaminated samples from 31,705 retail ready-to-eat (RTE) food products and 42 isolates recovered from human cases of listeriosis. The isolates were from Maryland (294 isolates) and California (250 isolates) and were collected in 2000 and 2001. The isolates were placed into 16 AscI pulsogroups (level of relatedness within each group, > or =66%), 139 AscI pulsotypes (levels of relatedness, > or =25% to 100%), and eight serotypes (serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, 4b, 4c, and 4d). The most frequently found pulsotypes belonged to either pulsogroup A (150 food isolates plus 4 clinical isolates) or pulsogroup B (104 food isolates plus 5 clinical isolates). The majority of the 502 food isolates were either serotype 1/2a (298 isolates) or serotype 1/2b (133 isolates), whereas the majority of the 42 clinical isolates were either serotype 1/2a (19 isolates) or serotype 4b (15 isolates). Additionally, 13 clinical isolates displayed pulsotypes also found in food isolates, whereas the remaining 29 clinical isolates displayed 24 unique pulsotypes. These data indicate that most (86%) of the L. monocytogenes subtypes found in the RTE foods sampled belonged to only two serotypes and that 90% of the isolates displayed 73 pulsotypes, with 107 isolates displaying pulsotype 1. These data should help define the distribution and relatedness of isolates found in RTE foods in comparison with isolates that cause listeriosis.

  1. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Batzer, Darold P

    2013-01-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation), we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness) of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold) allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate) to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold), and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate) was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i) as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii) this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity embedded in these

  2. Genetic variation, relatedness, and effective population size of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Amstrup, Kristin S.

    2009-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are unique among bears in that they are adapted to the Arctic sea ice environment. Genetic data are useful for understanding their evolution and can contribute to management. We assessed parentage and relatedness of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska, with genetic data and field observations of age, sex, and mother–offspring and sibling relationships. Genotypes at 14 microsatellite DNA loci for 226 bears indicate that genetic variation is comparable to other populations of polar bears with mean number of alleles per locus of 7.9 and observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.71. The genetic data verified 60 field-identified mother–offspring pairs and identified 10 additional mother–cub pairs and 48 father–offspring pairs. The entire sample of related and unrelated bears had a mean pairwise relatedness index (rxy) of approximately zero, parent–offspring and siblings had rxy of approximately 0.5, and 5.2% of the samples had rxy values within the range expected for parent-offspring. Effective population size (Ne= 277) and the ratio of Ne to total population size (Ne/N = 0.182) were estimated from the numbers of reproducing males and females. Ne estimates with genetic methods gave variable results. Our results verify and expand field data on reproduction by females and provide new data on reproduction by males and estimates of relatedness and Ne in a polar bear population.

  3. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ruhí

    Full Text Available In freshwater ecosystems, species compositions are known to be determined hierarchically by large to small‑scale environmental factors, based on the biological traits of the organisms. However, in ephemeral habitats this heuristic framework remains largely untested. Although temporary wetland faunas are constrained by a local filter (i.e., desiccation, we propose its magnitude may still depend on large-scale climate characteristics. If this is true, climate should be related to the degree of functional and taxonomic relatedness of invertebrate communities inhabiting seasonal wetlands. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, based on 52 biological traits for invertebrates, we conducted a case study to explore functional trends among temperate seasonal wetlands differing in the harshness (i.e., dryness of their dry season. After finding evidence of trait filtering, we addressed whether it could be generalized across a broader climatic scale. To this end, a meta-analysis (225 seasonal wetlands spread across broad climatic categories: Arid, Temperate, and Cold allowed us to identify whether an equivalent climate-dependent pattern of trait richness was consistent between the Nearctic and the Western Palearctic. Functional overlap of invertebrates increased from mild (i.e., Temperate to harsher climates (i.e., Arid and Cold, and phylogenetic clustering (using taxonomy as a surrogate was highest in Arid and lowest in Temperate wetlands. We show that, (i as has been described in streams, higher relatedness than would be expected by chance is generally observed in seasonal wetland invertebrate communities; and (ii this relatedness is not constant but climate-dependent, with the climate under which a given seasonal wetland is located determining the functional overlap and the phylogenetic clustering of the community. Finally, using a space-for-time substitution approach we suggest our results may anticipate how the invertebrate biodiversity

  4. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  5. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented.

  6. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  7. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  8. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: when does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.

  9. How teacher emotional support motivates students: The mediating roles of perceived peer relatedness, autonomy support, and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Erik A; Hafen, Christopher A; Allen, Joseph P; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and behavioral engagement. When teachers were observed to be more emotionally-supportive in the beginning of the school year, adolescents reported academic year increases in their behavioral engagement and mastery motivation. Mid-year student reports indicated that in emotionally-supportive classrooms, adolescents experienced more developmentally-appropriate opportunities to exercise autonomy in their day-to-day activities and had more positive relationships with their peers. Analyses of the indirect effects of teacher emotional support on students' engagement and motivation indicated significant mediating effects of autonomy and peer relatedness experiences, but not competence beliefs, in this sample of 960 students (ages 11-17) in the classrooms of 68 middle and high school teachers in 12 U.S. schools.

  10. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  11. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Female Sterilization and Poor Mental Health: Rates and Relatedness among American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cackler, CJJ; Shapiro, VB; Lahiff, M

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Objective: To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Methods: Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared...

  13. Female Sterilization and Poor Mental Health: Rates and Relatedness among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Tyler A; Whipple, Clinton J; Jensen, Jamie L

    2016-12-01

    Darwin described evolution as "descent with modification." Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as "tree thinking." We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic (reading the tips and node counting) were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory (ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness) proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses.

  15. Prevalence and Persistence of Misconceptions in Tree Thinking†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Tyler A.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Jensen, Jamie L.

    2016-01-01

    Darwin described evolution as “descent with modification.” Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as “tree thinking.” We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course. We found that misconceptions related to reading the graphic (reading the tips and node counting) were variably influenced across time with reading the tips decreasing and node counting increasing in prevalence. On the other hand, misconceptions related to the fundamental underpinnings of evolutionary theory (ladder thinking and similarity equals relatedness) proved resistant to change during a typical undergraduate study of biology. A possible new misconception relating to the length of the branches in an evolutionary tree is described. Understanding the prevalence and persistence of misconceptions informs educators as to which misconceptions should be targeted in their courses. PMID:28101265

  16. Effect of relatedness and inbreeding on reproductive success of Nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessehaye, Y.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that progeny of inbred matings are less fit than those of outbred matings, and that inbred individuals suffer from reduced viability and fertility. Inbreeding can be avoided by dispersal of progeny or by actively avoiding mating with kin (mate choice). We investigated the

  17. Established Osteoporosis and Gaps in the Management: Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: International osteoporosis foundation described severe or established osteoporosis as an osteoporotic individual with a fragility fracture. Orthopaedic surgeons frequently manage fractures, but we believe that large gaps are prevalent in the medical management of osteoporosis after fractures are fixed.

  18. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  19. Paranormal belief and errors of probabilistic reasoning: The role of constituent conditional relatedness in believers' susceptibility to the conjunction fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Fisk, John E; Lowrie, Emma

    2017-10-12

    The present study examines the extent to which stronger belief in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life-after-death is associated with a proneness to making conjunction errors (CEs). One hundred and sixty members of the UK public read eight hypothetical scenarios and for each estimated the likelihood that two constituent events alone plus their conjunction would occur. The impact of paranormal belief plus constituents' conditional relatedness type, estimates of the subjectively less likely and more likely constituents plus relevant interaction terms tested via three Generalized Linear Mixed Models. General qualification levels were controlled for. As expected, stronger PK beliefs and depiction of a positively conditionally related (verses conditionally unrelated) constituent pairs predicted higher CE generation. ESP and LAD beliefs had no impact with, surprisingly, higher estimates of the less likely constituent predicting fewer - not more - CEs. Theoretical implications, methodological issues and ideas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Top-down analysis of low-level object relatedness leading to semantic understanding of medieval image collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Pradeep; Monroy, Antonio; Carque, Bernd; Ommer, Bjorn

    2011-03-01

    The aim of image understanding, which is a long standing goal of computer vision, is to develop algorithms with which computers can advance to the semantic content of images. One ability of such algorithms would be the automatic discovery of relations between different objects in large collections of images. To analyze this relatedness we present an unsupervised and a semi-supervised approach for decomposing the large intra-class variability of object categories. The relations between objects is discovered by mapping all exemplars into a single low-dimensional projection that preserves the structure that is inherent to the category. The analysis reveals subtypes and an automatic classification algorithm is presented that predicts the artistic workshop that has drawn the objects. Finally, an approach for ordering the instances of an object category is proposed that also shows transitions between object instances. Our work is based on late medieval manuscripts from the Codices Palatini germanici.

  1. Modulating the assessment of semantic speech-gesture relatedness via transcranial direct current stimulation of the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Rasmus; Straube, Benjamin

    Co-verbal gestures are crucial for communication. Neuroimaging studies suggest that the left frontal lobe may be especially important for processing metaphoric co-verbal gestures. However, so far, the specific functional relevance of the left frontal lobe in metaphoric (abstract sentence content) co-verbal gesture processing compared to iconic (concrete sentence content) co-verbal gesture processing has not been demonstrated. We investigated the functional relevance of the left frontal lobe for processing metaphoric co-verbal gestures using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We hypothesised a polarisation dependent effect of left frontal tDCS on reaction times and ratings in a speech-gesture semantic relatedness assessment task. We applied anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation to the frontal (F3/F4), parietal (CP3/CP4) and frontoparietal (F3/CP4) areas. During stimulation, seventeen subjects were presented with videos of an actor saying concrete or abstract sentences accompanied by related or unrelated iconic or metaphoric gestures and rated to what extent gestures were related to the sentence content. We found electrode localisation- and polarisation-dependent changes in reaction times and ratings for metaphoric co-verbal gestures compared to iconic gestures. Post-hoc tests revealed a specific polarisation effect for frontoparietal stimulation sites: compared to cathodal stimulation, anodal stimulation of the left frontal lobe decreased reaction times and relatedness assessments for metaphoric conditions only. Using tDCS, we demonstrated the functional relevance of the left frontal lobe for processing metaphoric co-verbal gestures. Thus, tDCS may possibly constitute an approach to facilitate metaphoric co-verbal gesture-processing in patients with specific deficits. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Marissa L.; Ward, Simon J.; Temple-Smith, Peter D.; Selwood, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus. PMID:25923325

  3. Students' Perceptions of Social Relatedness in the Classroom: The Roles of Student-Teacher Interaction Quality, Children's Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature clarifying teaching practices in elementary classrooms that promote students' social relatedness. The focus on teaching practices reflects the need to understand malleable elements of the classroom, which can then be targeted for professional development. Specifically, this study examines whether children…

  4. Contributions of Response Set and Semantic Relatedness to Cross-Modal Stroop-Like Picture--Word Interference in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, John B.; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to interference from irrelevant auditory stimuli undergoes development throughout childhood. To test whether semantic processes account for age-related changes in a Stroop-like picture-word interference effect, children (3-to 12-year-olds) and adults named pictures while listening to words varying in terms of semantic relatedness to the…

  5. Why is a Pomegranate an Apple? The Role of Shape, Taxonomic Relatedness, and Prior Lexical Knowledge in Children's Overextensions of "Apple" and "Dog."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A.; Croft, William; Fu, Panfang; Clausner, Timothy; Gottfried, Gail

    1998-01-01

    Examined how object shape, taxonomic relatedness, and prior lexical knowledge influenced children's overextensions (e.g., referring to pomegranates as apples). Researchers presented items that disentangled the three factors and used a novel comprehension task where children could indicate negative exemplars. Error patterns differed by task and by…

  6. Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb's broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related…

  7. AGU Establishes Development Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James A., Jr.; Killeen, Timothy L.; Spilhaus, Fred

    2005-03-01

    The 21st century has already brought rapid change. Your scientific society, AGU, and society-at-large face new challenges. These challenges range from opening up access to scientific publications to the potential impact of international terrorism on attendance at scientific meetings around the world. Such challenges and their implications for AGU's mission require strengthening the Union's financial resources. The establishment of a Development Board is the first step on this path.

  8. Establishing a mangrove nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinohin, Veronica; Baconguis, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    Mangroves play an important role in creating habitats for a diverse community of organisms ranging from bacteria and fungi to fishes and mammals. They grow in intertidal flats, estuaries and offshore islands. In the Philippines, mangrove forests have dramatically decreased in area since the start of the century, and therefore there is a need to reforest. However, first mangrove nurseries must be established since they serve as sources of planting materials for different mangrove species. Furt...

  9. Establishment and classification of dairy cow podal diseases at Itapecuru Mirim dairy basin, State of Mara tate Maranhão, Brazil Prevalência e classificação de afecções podais em fêmeas bovinas destinadas à produção de leite na bacia leiteira do município de Itapecuru Mirim-MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfírio Candanedo Guerra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The predominance and clinical classification of the hoof diseases was studied in dairy cows at Itapecuru Mirim dairy basin, MA. The observations were done during the visits to the milk farms previously registered. The animals were identified by individual questionnaires for detection of claudication. The animal with difficulty in the locomotion were contended for digit cleaning and subsequent evaluation, considering the affected podal area. Data were grouped and submitted to the statistical analysis. The predominance in cows was of 5.08% and exclusively among the lactating cows, of 17.50%. Higher frequency of females with hoof illnesses was detected from 3 to 7 years. Out of all hoof affections, the sole bump (17.12%, claw deformity (14.71%, sole ulcer (14.11% and heel erosion (12.61% were the most incident. The anatomical region of the digits more attacked was to sole (30.74%. The digits of the subsequent members were the most affected, mainly the lateral. The lateral digits of the subsequent members also presented higher frequency of outstanding/grave/grave with infection scores regarding the other digits. Injuries digital represent a problem of great importance and high prevalence in the properties of the basin milk Itapecuru Mirim and the environmental characteristics are decisive for establishing diagnosis and controlling diseases.Objetivou-se relatar a prevalência e classificar clinicamente as afecções podais em fêmeas bovinas destinadas à produção de leite na bacia leiteira do município de Itapecuru Mirim-MA. As observações foram realizadas durante visitas a propriedades leiteiras previamente cadastradas, registrando-se os animais em fichas individuais, avaliando-os posteriormente quanto à claudicação. Os bovinos portadores de lesões podais foram contidos para limpeza dos dígitos e posterior avaliação, considerando a região podal comprometida. Os dados foram agrupados e submetidos à análise estatística. A preval

  10. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...... key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum....

  11. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    In western countries, the older population is increasing and with age follows a risk of un-health. Every fifth hospital patient is above 65 years of age. As a consequence, nursing care to older patients is a significant but tacit nursing issue. The aim of this study was to explore Danish clinical...... nurses’ experiences of caring for older hospital patients. The study was based on Benner and Wrubel’s phenomenological notion that caring as a special kind of involvement, a grasp of a situation in terms of its meaning, is primary in nursing. A qualitative secondary analysis of data from an interview...... study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...

  12. Characterization of Salmonella Occurring at High Prevalence in a Population of the Land Iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lorenzetti, Serena; Onorati, Roberta; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Battisti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48), S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7). Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18), S. Pomona (n = 10), S. Abaetetuba (n = 8), and S.Newport (n = 5). The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88%) indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture

  13. Characterization of Salmonella occurring at high prevalence in a population of the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galápagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Franco

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to elucidate the association between the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella and a population of land iguana, Colonophus subcristatus, endemic to Galápagos Islands in Ecuador. We assessed the presence of Salmonella subspecies and serovars and estimated the prevalence of the pathogen in that population. Additionally, we investigated the genetic relatedness among isolates and serovars utilising pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE on XbaI-digested DNA and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials. The study was carried out by sampling cloacal swabs from animals (n = 63 in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4% was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping revealed 14 different serovars among four Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 48, S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (n = 1, and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (n = 7. Four serovars were predominant: S. Poona (n = 18, S. Pomona (n = 10, S. Abaetetuba (n = 8, and S. Newport (n = 5. The S. Poona isolates revealed nine unique XbaI PFGE patterns, with 15 isolates showing a similarity of 70%. Nine S. Pomona isolates had a similarity of 84%. One main cluster with seven (88% indistinguishable isolates of S. Abaetetuba was observed. All the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to antimicrobials representative of the most relevant therapeutic classes. The high prevalence and absence of clinical signs suggest a natural interaction of the different Salmonella serovars with the host species. The interaction may have been established before any possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in

  14. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli intestinal

  15. Prevalence and risk factors associated with work-related eye injuries in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Nina; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Swanton, Amanda; Alajbegovic-Halimic, Jasmina; Cavaljuga, Semra; Nisic, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye injuries are a prevalent workplace injury and cause substantial disability when vision is impaired. Objective To examine work-relatedness of demographic, injury, and clinical characteristics of eye injuries in a large clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods We performed a nine-year retrospective study of patients admitted with an eye injury to the Canton Hospital in Zenica, Bosnia and Herzeogvina. Controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to examine the influence of work-relatedness on patient and injury characteristics and clinical outcomes. Results Of 258 patients, 71 (27.5%) had work-related and 180 (69.8%) had non-work-related eye injuries. Work-related eye injury was associated with age, education, occupation, and injury type. Agricultural workers were eight times more likely to experience work-related eye injury (95%CI = 1.21–152.0) compared to manual workers. Work-relatedness of injury did not predict final visual acuity or length of hospital stay. Conclusion Promotion of eye safety is needed countrywide. Occupational eye protection is a priority due to the relatively proportion of eye injuries and the workplace being a relatively controlled environment. PMID:27813453

  16. Self-regulation of learning from the student's perspective and it relatedness with academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation of learning is an important concept for understanding and enhancing the learning process. Self-regulation skills are often associated with the student's academic achievements. The paper offers different approaches and models of learning self-regulation and stresses the most important characteristics of the process of learning self-regulation. The empirical research was aimed at establishing the connectedness of some components of self-regulation and academic achievement. The Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning Scale, based on Pintrich's model of learning self-regulation (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 was adapted for our research. The sample included 111 students from two elementary and two secondary schools. The results show that academic achievement is most positively linked with self-efficiency as a motivational factor of self-regulation, and two more factors of self-regulation, cognitive strategies and social factors showed significant correlations with academic achievement. Based on the accepted model of self-regulation of learning and the obtained results relevant pedagogic implications are discussed.

  17. When ancestral heritage is a source of discomfort: culture, pre-object relatedness, and self-alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kradin, Richard L

    2012-04-01

    The ancestral claims on an individual can evoke mental conflict when they involve separating from an ethnic group whose beliefs and customs are devalued by the dominant culture. However, these claims are engraved on the psyche early in development by caretakers to the level of pre-object relatedness, where contents and affect tones are implicit and may be unavailable for later psychoanalytical interventions. In addition, as the anthropologist Clifford Geertz notes, one's culture of origin precedes the development of psyche and creates its own set of claims that must be renegotiated when one encounters a different domain of cultural symbols, a confrontation that can produce psychological dissonance and self-alienation. In this paper, three cases are examined in which mental conflicts were evoked by attempts at divesting ancestral claims in response to conscious efforts to assimilate into the dominant culture. These patients suffered from separation guilt and unstable self-esteem and reported dream imagery suggesting psychological imbalance. The requirement to carefully delineate the ancestral claims on psyche as well as those contents and affects that may not be accessible to therapeutic intervention is emphasized, and the importance of compromise and acceptance with respect to the psychological demands of the unconscious are considered. 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of SNP markers generated from 3’UTRs for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with 7 SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3’UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, ‘Stella’ was separated from ‘Compact Stella’. This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3’ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  19. Different Shades of Green: Comparative Study on Nature Relatedness and Ecologic Consciousness among South Korean, Swiss, and Czech Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Y. Barthelmess

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How concerned are today’s students about environmental issues? Do they sense urgency for change towards a more environmentally compatible life? Who should act and what impact does one’s individual action have? And last but not least, does ecological consciousness and action go together with a sense of nature relatedness?More than 1600 South Korean, Swiss, and Czech students have participated in this comparative survey. Nearly all of them affirm that ecological considerations influence their daily behavior. Whereas most of them see the main agent of change in themselves, the impact of one’s individual action, however, is seen differently along the East and West cultural divide. Also when it comes to one’s personal sense of closeness to nature, we can observe an East West cultural variation. On average the South Koreans reveal a greater closeness towards nature than Swiss and Czech students, this despite the fact that they have the largest percentage in urban background, and consequently reveal the least physical familiarity with the natural world.In our effort to interpret these results, we have included a discussion about the diverging cultural background of the three sample groups. While they all agree on the urgency of the issue and the necessity of a more pro-environmental change, depending on their culture their ideas about the right means to introduce a change in behavior differ.

  20. Tolerance and genetic relatedness of three meiobenthic copepod populations exposed to sediment-associated contaminant mixtures: Role of environmental history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovatch, C.E.; Schizas, N.V.; Chandler, G.T.; Coull, B.C.; Quattro, J.M.

    2000-04-01

    Meiobenthic copepod populations (Microarthridion littoral) were collected from three South Carolina, USA, estuaries having different pollution stress histories (i.e., pristine sediments, high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [PAH] sediments, high metals/moderate PAH sediments) and then assayed for survival and reproductive output in 14-d exposures to pristine and heavily PAH/metals-contaminated sediment mixture exhibited differential survival and reproductive outputs as a function of previous environmental histories and whether genetic relatedness among populations measured as DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome apoenzyme b, were linked to copepod contaminant tolerance. Overall, adult survival and reproductive success in contaminated sediments were significantly reduced relative to controls for all three populations irrespective of environmental histories. Differential resistance to sediment-contaminant mixtures by the two copepod populations inhabiting the contaminated sites was not found, despite their previous exposures to mixed contaminants at {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}Metal concentrations of 7,287 to 2,467 ng/g dry wt and 461 to 3,497 {micro}g/g, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation, however, was found between copepod populations from the control and the two contaminated sites. Generally, cross-population survival and reproductive outputs were not significantly different and could not be linked to genetic differentiation at the population level.

  1. Antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from military working dogs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Kiman; An, Jae-Uk; Kim, Woohyun; Dong, Hee-Jin; Kim, Junhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2017-06-30

    Enterococcus spp. are normally present in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans, but can cause opportunistic infections that can be transmitted to other animals or humans with integrated antibiotic resistance. To investigate if this is a potential risk in military working dogs (MWDs), we analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus spp. isolated from fecal samples of MWDs of four different age groups. Isolation rates of Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, and E. faecium, were 87.7% (57/65), 59.6% (34/57), and 56.1% (32/57), respectively, as determined by bacterial culture and multiplex PCR. The isolation rate of E. faecalis gradually decreased with age (puppy, 100%; adolescent, 91.7%; adult, 36.4%; and senior, 14.3%). Rates of resistance to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, imipenem, and kanamycin among Enterococcus spp. increased in adolescents and adults and decreased in senior dogs, with some isolates having three different antibiotic resistance patterns. There were indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns among the age groups. The results suggest that Enterococcus is horizontally transferred, regardless of age. As such, periodic surveillance studies should be undertaken to monitor changes in antibiotic resistance, which may necessitate modification of antibiotic regimens to manage antibiotic resistance transmission.

  2. Controlling for Phylogenetic Relatedness and Evolutionary Rates Improves the Discovery of Associations Between Species' Phenotypic and Genomic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Xavier; Parra, Genis; Schwede, Peter; Roscito, Juliana G; Hiller, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The growing number of sequenced genomes allows us now to address a key question in genetics and evolutionary biology: which genomic changes underlie particular phenotypic changes between species? Previously, we developed a computational framework called Forward Genomics that associates phenotypic to genomic differences by focusing on phenotypes that are independently lost in different lineages. However, our previous implementation had three main limitations. Here, we present two new Forward Genomics methods that overcome these limitations by (1) directly controlling for phylogenetic relatedness, (2) controlling for differences in evolutionary rates, and (3) computing a statistical significance. We demonstrate on large-scale simulated data and on real data that both new methods substantially improve the sensitivity to detect associations between phenotypic and genomic differences. We applied these new methods to detect genomic differences involved in the loss of vision in the blind mole rat and the cape golden mole, two independent subterranean mammals. Forward Genomics identified several genes that are enriched in functions related to eye development and the perception of light, as well as genes involved in the circadian rhythm. These new Forward Genomics methods represent a significant advance in our ability to discover the genomic basis underlying phenotypic differences between species. Source code: https://github.com/hillerlab/ForwardGenomics/. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Late adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with their parents: Relationships among deidealization, autonomy, relatedness, and insecurity and implications for adolescent adjustment and ego identity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S J; Pirsch, L A; Wright, V C

    1990-12-01

    Questionnaire data from 376 undergraduates (mean age=19.3 years) were used to test a model describing interrelationships among deidealization, relatedness, autonomy, and insecurity in late adolescents' relationships with their parents. As expected, deidealization predicted greater autonomy and less relatedness (i.e., more disengagement), greater disengagement predicted greater insecurity, and greater insecurity predicted less autonomy. However, disengagement from parents proved to be a "double-edged sword" in that it was linked not only to insecurity, but also to feelings of greater separateness and self-directedness in relation, to parents. Additional analyses identified significant associations between the adolescent/parent relationship variables and the adolescents' psychological health and ego identity status.

  4. 7820 THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG FEMALE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    -. 35years). ... by establishing the prevalence of obesity among female teachers of child-bearing age. MATERIALS AND ...... Metabolic Complications of Obesity are Reduced in Prader- Willi Syndrome. Female Adults: Evidence ...

  5. Perceived Parenting and Adolescent Cyber-Bullying: Examining the Intervening Role of Autonomy and Relatedness Need Satisfaction, Empathic Concern and Recognition of Humanness

    OpenAIRE

    Fousiani, Kyriaki; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Michaelides, Michalis P.; Van Petegem, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    Due to the progress in information technology, cyber-bullying is becoming one of the most common forms of interpersonal harm, especially among teenagers. The present study (N?=?548) aimed to investigate the relation between perceived parenting style (in terms of autonomy support and psychological control) and cyber-bullying in adolescence. Thereby, the study tested for the intervening role of adolescent need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and relatedness), empathic concern towards others, and a...

  6. Inclusive Fitness Affects Both Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: Target Gender and Insult Domain Moderate the Link between Genetic Relatedness and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda N. Gesselman; Gregory D. Webster

    2012-01-01

    Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994), less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011). Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964) and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012), we designed a 2 (participant gender) × 2 (target gender) × 2 (insult: status v...

  7. ANTIGENIC RELATEDNESS OF SELECTED FLAVIVIRUSES: STUDY WITH HOMOLOGOUS AND HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNE MOUSE ASCITIC FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. BABA

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The antigenic relationship of 9 flaviviruses, Yellow fever (YF , Wesselsbron (WSL , Uganda S (UGS , Potiskum (POT, West Nile (WN , Banzi (BAN , Zika (ZK , Dengue type 1 (DEN-1 and Dengue type 2 (DEN-2, was assessed by cross-haemagglutination-inhibition (Cross-HI and cross-complement fixation (Cross-CF reactions between each of the viruses and their homologous immune mouse ascitic fluids. Titre ratios were calculated using the heterologous and homologous titres. Cross-CF reactions revealed wider antigenic variations among viruses than Cross-HI reactions. There was no significant antigenic variation between WSL, POT and YF viruses using either of those methods. However, definite differences in antigenicity were observed between them and UGS, BAN and ZK viruses. There were no significant differences between UGS, BAN and ZK or between DEN-1 and DEN-2. The serological relationship among flaviviruses is important in establishing diagnosis and epidemiology of these infections in Africa.A relação antigênica de 9 Flavivirus, Febre amarela (YF, Wesselsbron (WSL, Uganda S (UGS, Potiskum (POT, West Nile (WN, Banzi (BAN, Zika (ZK, Dengue tipo 1 (DEN-1 e Dengue tipo2 (DEN-2, foi avaliada por reação de inibição da hemaglutinação cruzada (cross-HI e reação de fixação do complemento cruzada (Cross-CF entre cada um dos virus e seu fluido ascítico homólogo em camundongos. Médias de títulos foram calculadas usando os títulos heterólogos e homólogos. Reações cruzadas CF revelaram maiores variações antigênicas entre virus do que reações cruzadas HI. Não houve variação antigênica significativa entre virus WSL, POT e YF usando cada um dos métodos. Todavia, diferenças definidas da antigenicidade foram observadas entre eles e os vírus UGS, BAN e ZK. Não existiram diferenças significativas entre UGS, BAN e ZK ou entre DEN-1 e DEN-2. A relação sorológica entre Flavivirus é importante para se estabelecer o diagnóstico e a

  8. Inclusive Fitness Affects Both Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: Target Gender and Insult Domain Moderate the Link between Genetic Relatedness and Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Gesselman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994, less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011. Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964 and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012, we designed a 2 (participant gender × 2 (target gender × 2 (insult: status vs. reproductive × 3 (relatedness: stranger vs. cousin vs. sibling between-person experiment in which 489 participants (a read vignettes in which a stranger, cousin, or sibling was insulted and (b reported their emotional reaction and retaliation likelihood (six-item α= .91 in response to the insult. Consistent with theory and prior research, men were significantly more aggressive than women, and people were significantly more aggressive responding to insults against kin than non-kin. These findings support theoretically-derived, dynamic, and domain-specific links among insults, gender, relatedness, and aggression.

  9. Inclusive fitness affects both prosocial and antisocial behavior: target gender and insult domain moderate the link between genetic relatedness and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesselman, Amanda N; Webster, Gregory D

    2012-11-26

    Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994), less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011). Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964) and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012), we designed a 2 (participant gender) × 2 (target gender) × 2 (insult: status vs. reproductive) × 3 (relatedness: stranger vs. cousin vs. sibling) between-person experiment in which 489 participants (a) read vignettes in which a stranger, cousin, or sibling was insulted and (b) reported their emotional reaction and retaliation likelihood (six-item α = .91) in response to the insult. Consistent with theory and prior research, men were significantly more aggressive than women, and people were significantly more aggressive responding to insults against kin than non-kin. These findings support theoretically-derived, dynamic, and domain-specific links among insults, gender, relatedness, and aggression.

  10. An Intervention to Improve Teachers' Interpersonally Involving Instructional Practices in High School Physical Education: Implications for Student Relatedness Support and In-Class Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Cassandra; Lonsdale, Chris; Dimmock, James; Jackson, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Research grounded in self-determination theory has demonstrated the important role of teachers in shaping students' physical education experiences. Utilizing a cluster-randomized controlled design, this study aimed to examine whether an interpersonally involving training program based on self-determination theory principles could enhance students' in-class experiences. With 18 teachers (males = 8, females = 10, Mage = 32.75, SD = 8.14) and a final sample of 382 students (males = 155, females = 227, Mage = 13.20, SD = 1.66), we implemented linear mixed modeling to investigate the effects on students' (a) perceived relatedness support and (b) enjoyment of physical education, tripartite efficacy beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, other-efficacy, relation-inferred self-efficacy), self-determined motivation, and amotivation. Relative to those in the control condition, students in the treatment condition reported positive changes in teacher-provided relatedness support, enjoyment, other-efficacy, and peer-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy. These findings demonstrate support for strategies designed to aid physical education teachers' relatedness-supportive instructional behaviors.

  11. Spatial heterogeneity in genetic relatedness among house sparrows along an urban-rural gradient as revealed by individual-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangestel, Carl; Mergeay, Joachim; Dawson, Deborah A; Vandomme, Viki; Lens, Luc

    2011-11-01

    Understanding factors that shape patterns of kinship in sedentary species is important for evolutionary ecologists as well as conservation biologists. Yet, how patterns of relatedness are hierarchically structured in space remains poorly known, even in common species. Here, we use information from 16 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers to study how small-scale kinship structure varies among house sparrows (Passer domesticus) along an urban-rural gradient. Average levels of relatedness were higher among urban individuals than among individuals from rural areas, suggesting lower rates of dispersal in more built-up habitats. Comparison of observed levels of relatedness with simulated distributions of known kinship values showed that central urban individuals had the highest proportion of closely related conspecifics in their immediate neighbourhood. Spatial auto-correlograms supported this small-scale genetic structure and further indicated stronger effects of genetic drift and/or limited dispersal in urban populations. Results of this study underscore the importance of individual-level analyses as a complementary approach to traditional population-level analyses when studying genetic population structure over small spatial scales. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Semantic relatedness and similarity of biomedical terms: examining the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publications on the performance of word2vec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Yan, Erjia; Wang, Fei

    2017-07-03

    Understanding semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms has a great impact on a variety of applications such as biomedical information retrieval, information extraction, and recommender systems. The objective of this study is to examine word2vec's ability in deriving semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms from large publication data. Specifically, we focus on the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publication data on the performance of word2vec. We download abstracts of 18,777,129 articles from PubMed and 766,326 full-text articles from PubMed Central (PMC). The datasets are preprocessed and grouped into subsets by recency, size, and section. Word2vec models are trained on these subtests. Cosine similarities between biomedical terms obtained from the word2vec models are compared against reference standards. Performance of models trained on different subsets are compared to examine recency, size, and section effects. Models trained on recent datasets did not boost the performance. Models trained on larger datasets identified more pairs of biomedical terms than models trained on smaller datasets in relatedness task (from 368 at the 10% level to 494 at the 100% level) and similarity task (from 374 at the 10% level to 491 at the 100% level). The model trained on abstracts produced results that have higher correlations with the reference standards than the one trained on article bodies (i.e., 0.65 vs. 0.62 in the similarity task and 0.66 vs. 0.59 in the relatedness task). However, the latter identified more pairs of biomedical terms than the former (i.e., 344 vs. 498 in the similarity task and 339 vs. 503 in the relatedness task). Increasing the size of dataset does not always enhance the performance. Increasing the size of datasets can result in the identification of more relations of biomedical terms even though it does not guarantee better precision. As summaries of research articles, compared with article

  13. Clonal relatedness and biofilm formation of OXA-23-producing carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliramezani, Amir; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Hajihasani, Azade; Mohammadzadeh, Mona; Rahbar, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a serious threat for hospitalized patients and it can survive for long periods in hospital settings, particularly on inanimate surfaces. The environment occupied by these resistant and resilient isolates may act as a reservoir for cross-colonization and outbreaks. Here, we aimed to determine the distribution of CRAB in the hospital environment and to characterize their clonal relatedness, susceptibility profile, carriage of blaOXA genes, and biofilm formation. A total of 1080 samples were collected from various environmental surfaces and equipment of two referral hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The A. baumannii isolates were subjected to gyrB multiplex PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, biofilm formation assay, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR for blaOXA-58, blaOXA-24, and blaOXA-23 genes. Eighteen Acinetobacter spp. were isolated; 8 were identified as A. baumannii and 10 as A. lwoffii. Five of A. baumannii isolates were CRAB and exhibited the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype as well. All CRAB isolates produced biofilm, albeit with different levels. Four of CRAB isolates harbored the blaOXA-23. The CRAB isolates were clustered into 3 distinct pulsotypes (PTs). The CRAB isolates belonging to PT1 were detected in two geographically distinct hospitals whereas those belonging to PT3 were found in two different units of same hospital. This study revealed the presence of clonally related OXA-23-producing CRAB in high risk units of referral hospitals as inter- or intra-hospital dissemination. The distribution of multiresistant A. baumannii on several surfaces and areas may increase the risk of transmission of resistant isolates to vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First evidence of inbreeding, relatedness and chaotic genetic patchiness in the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments.

  15. An Accurate Method for Inferring Relatedness in Large Datasets of Unphased Genotypes via an Embedded Likelihood-Ratio Test

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that map disease genes rely on accurate annotations that indicate whether individuals in the studied cohorts are related to each other or not. For example, in genome-wide association studies, the cohort members are assumed to be unrelated to one another. Investigators can correct for individuals in a cohort with previously-unknown shared familial descent by detecting genomic segments that are shared between them, which are considered to be identical by descent (IBD). Alternatively, elevated frequencies of IBD segments near a particular locus among affected individuals can be indicative of a disease-associated gene. As genotyping studies grow to use increasingly large sample sizes and meta-analyses begin to include many data sets, accurate and efficient detection of hidden relatedness becomes a challenge. To enable disease-mapping studies of increasingly large cohorts, a fast and accurate method to detect IBD segments is required. We present PARENTE, a novel method for detecting related pairs of individuals and shared haplotypic segments within these pairs. PARENTE is a computationally-efficient method based on an embedded likelihood ratio test. As demonstrated by the results of our simulations, our method exhibits better accuracy than the current state of the art, and can be used for the analysis of large genotyped cohorts. PARENTE\\'s higher accuracy becomes even more significant in more challenging scenarios, such as detecting shorter IBD segments or when an extremely low false-positive rate is required. PARENTE is publicly and freely available at http://parente.stanford.edu/. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Characterization and genetic relatedness among 37 yardlong bean and cowpea accessions based on morphological characters and RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinich Saereeprasert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four yardlong bean and 13 cowpea accessions were planted in the field to characterize their morphology and genetic relatedness. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replicationswas used. Growth habit, days to flowering, pod color, pod length, number of pods/plant, yield/plant and consumption quality were recorded. The results showed that pod length, number of pods/plant and podyield/plant among 37 accessions were highly significant differerence. Mean pod yield and pod length of 24 yardlong bean accessions were 212.1 g/plant and 48.7 cm, respectively, while mean pod yield and pod lengthof 13 cowpea accessions were 117.4 g/plant and 21.3 cm, respectively. Twenty two yardlong bean accessions exhibited indeterminate growth habit while 10 of 13 cowpea had determinate growth habit and the restsexhibited semi-determinate growth. Genetic variation and relationships among accessions were investigated based on RAPD technique. Total DNA was extracted from young leaf samples of all accessions using CTAB buffer. One hundred and twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened and 5 primers (OPC-06,OPR-12, OPZ-03, OPZ-08, OPZ-13 were chosen for further evaluation. A dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed based on 23 polymorphic bands obtained from 5 primers using UPGMA in SPSS program,which revealed separate groups between yardlong bean and cowpea. The similarity coefficient among yardlong bean and cowpea accessions ranged from 0.515 to 1.000 and 0.548 to 1.000, respectively.

  17. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  18. Prevalence and nature of communication delays in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence of communication delays in infants younger than. 2 years are limited.[2,4] This is problematic as prevalence rates vary across the ages of infants and young children.[1]. Establishing the prevalence of communication delays or disorders enables appropriate planning for service delivery and successful.

  19. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Genetic Relatedness ofListeria monocytogenesSerotype 4b Variant Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burall, Laurel S; Grim, Christopher J; Mammel, Mark K; Datta, Atin R

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we have identified a link between four listeriosis incidents/outbreaks to a variant of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) serotype 4b strains, 4bV. Although 4bV strains have been reported from clinical specimens as well as from foods, listeriosis outbreaks occurring in 2014-2016 were the first reported outbreaks involving 4bV in the USA. Since traditional typing methods do not detect members of this group, we undertook a systematic and retrospective analysis of all Lm in the NCBI WGS Sequence Read Archive database to investigate the burden of 4bV strains among all listeriosis cases. This analysis identified the presence of isolates causing sporadic cases as well as those associated with the aforementioned outbreaks, as determined by WGS and traditional epidemiology. In total, approximately 350 Lm 4bV strains were identified from multiple parts of the USA as well as from Australia and Chile, dating back to 2001. The genomic relatedness of these strains was compared using the CFSAN SNP Pipeline and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST). Using the CFSAN Pipeline tool, the 4bV strains were found to group into seven clusters that were separate from 4b strains. All seven clades appeared to contain isolates from both clinical and non-clinical sources. Conversely, the MVLST analysis revealed that practically all of the strains belonged to a single clade, suggesting that 4bV strains from disparate geographic regions and sources are under varied selective pressure, restricting diversity across these six virulence loci while allowing more variability across the genome as a whole. Further evaluation of these 4bV strains identified genes potentially acquired from a lineage II source external to the lmo0733-lmo0739 region, as well as highly conserved SNPs unique to the 4bV strains when compared to those from other lineages. Taken together, these data suggest that 4bV strains have undergone adaptive responses to selective pressures that may enhance survival in the

  20. The Use of Targeted Marker Subsets to Account for Population Structure and Relatedness in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela H. Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A typical plant genome-wide association study (GWAS uses a mixed linear model (MLM that includes a trait as the response variable, a marker as an explanatory variable, and fixed and random effect covariates accounting for population structure and relatedness. Although effective in controlling for false positive signals, this model typically fails to detect signals that are correlated with population structure or are located in high linkage disequilibrium (LD genomic regions. This result likely arises from each tested marker being used to estimate population structure and relatedness. Previous work has demonstrated that it is possible to increase the power of the MLM by estimating relatedness (i.e., kinship with markers that are not located on the chromosome where the tested marker resides. To quantify the amount of additional significant signals one can expect using this so-called K_chr model, we reanalyzed Mendelian, polygenic, and complex traits in two maize (Zea mays L. diversity panels that have been previously assessed using the traditional MLM. We demonstrated that the K_chr model could find more significant associations, especially in high LD regions. This finding is underscored by our identification of novel genomic signals proximal to the tocochromanol biosynthetic pathway gene ZmVTE1 that are associated with a ratio of tocotrienols. We conclude that the K_chr model can detect more intricate sources of allelic variation underlying agronomically important traits, and should therefore become more widely used for GWAS. To facilitate the implementation of the K_chr model, we provide code written in the R programming language.

  1. The emergence of new technology-based industries: the case of fuel cells and its technological relatedness to regional knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    to emerging radical technologies that create the foundation for new industries. The article develops a new measure for technological relatedness between the knowledge base of a region and that of a radical technology based on patent classes. It demonstrates that emerging fuel cell technology develops where......Evolutionary economic geographers propose that regional diversification is a path-dependent process whereby industries grow out of pre-existing industrial structures through technologically related localised knowledge spillovers and learning. This article examines whether this also applies...... the regional knowledge base is technologically related to that of fuel cells and consequently confirms the evolutionary thesis....

  2. Prevalence of nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in homeless and economically disadvantaged populations in Kansas City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Ottomeyer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA plays an important role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of disease. Situations of close-quarter contact in groups are generally regarded as a risk factor for community acquired MRSA strains due to transmission via fomites and person to person contact. With these criteria for risk, homeless individuals using shelter facilities, including showers and toilets, should be considered high risk for colonization and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal colonization of MRSA in a homeless population compared to established rates of colonization within the public and a control group of subjects from a neighboring medical school campus, and to analyze phylogenetic diversity among the MRSA strains. Nasal samples were taken from the study population of 332 adult participants, and analyzed. In addition, participants were surveyed about various lifestyle factors in order to elucidate potential patterns of behavior associated with MRSA colonization. Homeless and control groups both had higher prevalence of MRSA (9.8% and 10.6% respectively when compared to the general population reported by previous studies (1.8%. However, the control group had a similar MRSA rate compared to healthcare workers (4.6% while the homeless population had an increased prevalence. Risk factors identified in this study included male gender, age over 50 years and use of antibiotics within the past 3 months. Phylogenetic relationships between 9 of the positive samples from the homeless population were analyzed, showing 8 of the 9 samples had a high degree of relatedness between the spaA genes of the MRSA strains. This indicates that the same MRSA strain might be transmitted from person to person among homeless population. These findings increase our understanding of key differences in MRSA characteristics within homeless populations as well as risks for MRSA associated with

  3. Establishing Baseline Data for Pressure Ulcers in a Rwandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and compare prevalence, incidence, and severity of pressure ulcers in this ICU before and after educational classes. Methods. Educational classes on pressure ulcer assessment and classification were held for all ICU nurses. After train- ing, data collection was ...

  4. Established Osteoporosis and Gaps in the Management: Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: International osteoporosis foundation described severe or established osteoporosis as an osteoporotic individual with a fragility fracture. Orthopaedic surgeons frequently manage fractures, but we believe that large gaps are prevalent in the medical management of osteoporosis after fractures are fixed ...

  5. FOR ESTABLISHING, NATIONAL, SURVEILLANCE DATABASE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: The findings indicate the potential to form a national network of universities field research sites by involving the different ..... (eds.). Epidemiology and ecology, of health and. Vol. 17. No 4 ! March ()() 8 disease in Ethiopia. Shama Books, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia, 20005. ... WHO. 2007. Global HIV prevalence ...

  6. Typing and Evaluation of the Genetic Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Food Samples by the Multiple-Locus Variable number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Sadeghi kalani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:Listeria monocytogenes cause listeriosis and fatal infections in humans. The aim of this study was typing and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes strains from food samples using MLVA technique. Materials and Methods: 317 food samples were collected from 2009 to 2013 in Tehran,Iran. After final diagnosis of L. monocytogenes DNA was extracted to perform of MLVA technique, and also PCR products were analyzed by Gene Tools software. The number of tandem repeats was determined by using special equation for each selected locus. Also typing of strains was done. Results: 24 samples of 317 food samples were positive for L. monocytogenes using standard laboratory techniques. A total 13 different types were determined by MLVA technique that type 2 and type 3 were the most abundant types by 6 and 4 strains, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the presence of L. monocytogenes in dairy products and meat samples, therefore all people, especially pregnant women should observe health tips when using these products. The results of typing showed that L. monocytogenes strains from different sources can have the same origin. MLVA technique is easy with high accuracy and this method can be used in typing and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes for determination the source of contamination.

  7. Establishing New Mappings between Familiar Phones: Neural and Behavioral Evidence for Early Automatic Processing of Nonnative Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Shannon L.; Namyst, Anna M.; Lau, Ellen F.; Feldman, Naomi H.; Idsardi, William J.

    2016-01-01

    To attain native-like competence, second language (L2) learners must establish mappings between familiar speech sounds and new phoneme categories. For example, Spanish learners of English must learn that [d] and [ð], which are allophones of the same phoneme in Spanish, can distinguish meaning in English (i.e., /deɪ/ “day” and /ðeɪ/ “they”). Because adult listeners are less sensitive to allophonic than phonemic contrasts in their native language (L1), novel target language contrasts between L1 allophones may pose special difficulty for L2 learners. We investigate whether advanced Spanish late-learners of English overcome native language mappings to establish new phonological relations between familiar phones. We report behavioral and magnetoencepholographic (MEG) evidence from two experiments that measured the sensitivity and pre-attentive processing of three listener groups (L1 English, L1 Spanish, and advanced Spanish late-learners of English) to differences between three nonword stimulus pairs ([idi]-[iði], [idi]-[iɾi], and [iði]-[iɾi]) which differ in phones that play a different functional role in Spanish and English. Spanish and English listeners demonstrated greater sensitivity (larger d' scores) for nonword pairs distinguished by phonemic than by allophonic contrasts, mirroring previous findings. Spanish late-learners demonstrated sensitivity (large d' scores and MMN responses) to all three contrasts, suggesting that these L2 learners may have established a novel [d]-[ð] contrast despite the phonological relatedness of these sounds in the L1. Our results suggest that phonological relatedness influences perceived similarity, as evidenced by the results of the native speaker groups, but may not cause persistent difficulty for advanced L2 learners. Instead, L2 learners are able to use cues that are present in their input to establish new mappings between familiar phones. PMID:27445949

  8. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  9. Molecular Relatedness of Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Isolates from Staff, Environment and Pets at University Veterinary Hospital in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Erkihun Aklilu; Zunita Zakaria; Latiffah Hassan; Chen Hui Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a problem in veterinary medicine and is no longer considered as a mere nosocomial pathogen. We studied the occurrence of MRSA in veterinary personnel, cats and dogs and the environmental premises in University Veterinary Hospital (UVH). We found the prevalence of MRSA as follows: UVH 2/28 (7.1%) staff, 8/100 (8%) of the pets [5/50 (10%) of the dogs and 3/50 (6%) of the cats)], and 9/28 (4.5%) of the environmental samples. Antib...

  10. Association between Early Childhood Caries, Feeding Practices and an Established Dental Home

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kierce, Erin A; Boyd, Linda D; Rainchuso, Lori; Palmer, Carole A; Rothman, Andrews

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the association between the establishment of a dental home and ECC prevalence in a group of Medicaid-enrolled preschool children, and to explore feeding...

  11. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  12. catering establishments of Awassa Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of catering business establishments in Awassa Town, Southern Ethiopia, February to. April 1996. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires, free listings, parasitological and bacteriological laboratory analyses. A total of 164 catering ..... identified include: a) Good coverage of safe water (defined as ...

  13. Genetic relatedness of commensal Escherichia coli from nursery pigs in intensive pig production in Denmark and molecular characterization of genetically different strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the genetic relatedness and the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in commensal Escherichia coli from nursery pigs in Danish intensive production. METHODS AND RESULTS: The genetic diversity of 1000 E. coli strains randomly picked (N = 50 isolates) from cultured......-producing genes were observed in 20 isolates. CONCLUSIONS: A low genetic diversity was found in commensal gut E. coli from nursery pigs in Denmark. No correlation was observed between REP-profiles, ST-types and resistance/virulence patterns. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first study analysing...... in depth the genetic variability of commensal E. coli from pigs in Danish intensive pig production. A tendency for higher diversity was observed with in nursery pigs that were treated with zinc oxide only, in absence of other antimicrobials. Strains with potential to disseminate virulence and antibiotic...

  14. Determination of whether tomato spotted wilt virus replicates in Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes and the relatedness of this virus to phleboviruses (family Bunyaviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Mitchell, C J; Hu, J S; Gonsalves, D; Calisher, C H

    1992-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been reported to be morphologically, molecularly and structurally similar to viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. By various types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Western blot hybridizations, we tested TSWV with antibodies to 12 viruses in the Phlebovirus genus of this family. Serological relatedness was not found between TSWV and phleboviruses. However, one preparation of antibody to Arumowot virus reacted with a 53-kD protein from healthy plant extracts. Six-day-old adult Toxorhynchites amboinensis mosquitoes were inoculated with purified TSWV. Infectious virus was not detected in any of the injected insects during the 5-week test period. However, TSWV antigens were detected in these mosquitoes by ELISA at the original injected level for at least a week after injection. TSWV antigen concentration began to decrease thereafter, but remained at detectable levels for as long as 5 weeks after injection. However, there was no evidence that TSWV replicated in mosquitoes.

  15. The processing of semantic relatedness in the brain: Evidence from associative and categorical false recognition effects following transcranial direct current stimulation of the left anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Emiliano; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Díez-Álamo, Antonio M; Alonso, María A; Fernandez, Angel

    2017-08-01

    A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing. To more precisely identify the specific process being involved, we conducted a DRM experiment in which transcranial direct current stimulation (anode/cathode/sham) was applied over the participants' left ATL during the study of lists of words that were associatively related to their non-presented critical words (e.g., rotten, worm, red, tree, liqueur, unripe, cake, food, eden, peel, for the critical item apple) or categorically related (e.g., pear, banana, peach, orange, cantaloupe, watermelon, strawberry, cherry, kiwi, plum, for the same critical item apple). The results showed that correct recognition was not affected by stimulation. However, an interaction between stimulation condition and type of relation for false memories was found, explained by a significant false recognition reduction effect in the anodal condition for associative lists that was not observed for categorical lists. Results are congruent with previous findings and, more importantly, they help to clarify the nature and locus of false memory reduction effects, suggesting a differential role of the left ATL, and providing critical evidence for understanding the creation of semantic relatedness-based memory illusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Relatedness Among Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated Along the Animal Food Supply Chain and in Gastroenteritis Cases in Qatar Using Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Srikanth; Chang, YuChen; Scaria, Joy; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Peters, Kenlyn E; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli has been listed among the most important bacteria associated with foodborne illnesses around the world. We investigated the genetic relatedness among Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated along the animal food supply chain and from humans diagnosed with gastroenteritis in Qatar. Samples were collected from different sources along the food supply chain and from patients admitted to the hospital with complaints of gastroenteritis. All samples were screened for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC using a combination of bacterial enrichment and molecular detection techniques. A proportional sampling approach was used to select positive samples from each source for further multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Seven housekeeping genes described for STEC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed by MLST. Isolates were characterized by allele composition, sequence type (ST) and assessed for epidemiologic relationship within and among different sources. Nei's genetic distance was calculated at the allele level between sample pools in each site downstream. E. coli O157:H7 occurred at a higher rate in slaughterhouse and retail samples than at the farm or in humans in our sampling. The ST171, an ST common to enterotoxigenic E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, was the most common ST (15%) in the food supply chain. None of the genetic distances among the different sources was statistically significant. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenic strains are present along the supply chain at different levels and with varying relatedness. Clinical isolates were the most diverse, as expected, considering the polyclonal diversity in the human microbiota. The high occurrence of these food adulterants among the farm products suggests that implementation of sanitary measures at that level might reduce the risk of human exposure.

  17. Move two: establishing a niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasima Shehzad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant purpose of the author in the Introduction of a research article is to convince the reader about the importance of the work to be presented. To achieve this end, a convincing “niche” needs to be built by evaluating, rejecting or indicating gaps in previous related work. The purpose of “establishing a niche” is to emphasize the current research project presented by the author. The present paper investigates how Computer scientists use this obligatory step of “Create a Research Space” (CARS model (Swales & Feak, 1994 & 2004 to highlight their own research work. This paper not only compares the results with other similar studies but also presents an in-depth analysis of various types of gap statements used in Computer Science research article Introductions. The issue of cyclicity of this step and the linguistic indicators used for the establishment of “niche” (the gap statements are both discussed.

  18. Pharmacoepidemiology and prevalence of epileptic seizures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish an estimated number of people living with epilepsy in southeastern Nigeria, to determine the prevalence and the utilization pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A cross sectional, observational survey was used in the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select ...

  19. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Falco-Walter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT. Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus, elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE.

  20. [Hygienic education in pupils from general educational establishments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirskaia, N B

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of the major behavioral factors of a risk to health: violation of the study leisure regimen, violation of dietary pattern and quality, low motor activity, smoking, frequent alcohol abuse, drug taste, and deteriorated family microclimate, was revealed in middle and senior schoolchildren from Moscow, Kaliningrad, and Murmansk. Proposals are given to mold healthy lifestyle in adolescents and to optimize their hygienic education at general educational establishments.

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Momo, Jean Blaise; Besong, Laura; Loul, Sévérin; Njouom, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV) has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt) and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa) identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment of the enzootic

  3. Prevalence and causes of thrombocytopenia in an academic state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    threatening pathological conditions. To establish the cause, appropriate laboratory investigation is required. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of platelet counts <100 × 109/L in state health facilities in Johannesburg, South ...

  4. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in Northern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzato, N.; Capello, K.; Comin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence esti...

  5. Prevalence of language and hearing disorders in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Augusto Muñoz-Caicedo; Helmer Zapata-Ossa; Liliana María Pérez-Tenorio; Sonia Illera

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to establish the prevalence institutional alterations in hearing and languaje in children aged 4 and 5 years, attending the Growth and Development program at the Social Institution of Popayan in 2012. Methodology...

  6. prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus infection in young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-12-12

    Dec 12, 2003 ... PREVALENCE OF ROTAVIRUS, ADENOVIRUS AND ASTROVIRUS INFECTION IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH GASTROENTERITIS IN GABORONE,. BOTSWANA. G. Basu, BSc ... been firmly established as aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis .... systemic infection, respiratory adenoviruses may also.

  7. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 50......th anniversary of landscape architecture teaching, at the Faculty of Life Science – the University of Copenhagen(KU-Life). It’s origins can be traced further back but, then as now, the essence of the education is that of creating a dynamic synergy of the sciences and the arts....

  8. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 10-15 years in Nairobi province, Kenya. The study was carried out in two phases. A cross-sectional design was used in the first phase to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity using BMI.

  9. Brugada syndrome ECG is highly prevalent in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.T.; Cohen, D.; Seldenrijk, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.; Tan, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background-The causes of increased risk of sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia are not resolved. We aimed to establish (1) whether ECG markers of sudden cardiac death risk, in particular Brugada-ECG pattern, are more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, and (2) whether increased prevalence

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and has implications for a variety of diseases. This has been due to various causes such as poor nutrition, inactivity or both. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary ...

  11. Diabetes type 2 prevalence in Malta : an update and more

    OpenAIRE

    Cuschieri, Sarah; Mamo, Julian;

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is a global burden. The University of Malta is currently undertaking a cross-sectional survey to update the prevalence of diabetes as well as conduct the first representative prevalence of obesity, hypertension, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and nutrition in Malta. Links and co-relations between these factors and genetics would be established. These are of public health importance.

  12. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Tanzania National AIDS Control Programme has established HIV sentinel surveillance among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees as one of the methods for collecting data on HIV prevalence. This article provides trends on HIV prevalence for 92 sentinel sites that have constantly been part of the surveillance ...

  13. Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection, a major health problem worldwide, has been reported to be prevalent in trauma patients, thus presents an occupational hazard to health care workers who care for these patients. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of HIV among trauma patients in our setting and to compare the outcome ...

  14. Worldwide prevalence of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A; van den Heijkant, M; Baumann, S

    2016-06-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. Surgical repair and management of the long-term consequences require a substantial amount of socioeconomic resources. It is generally accepted that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in the etiology of hypospadias. There have been contradictory reports on rising hypospadias rates, and regional and ethnical differences. The exact prevalence of hypospadias is of major interest for healthcare providers, clinical medicine, and research. To review the literature regarding the worldwide prevalence of hypospadias. Pubmed, EMBASE and Google were systematically screened for: hypospadias, congenital malformation, anomaly, incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology. Exclusion criteria were surgical and risk-factor studies. To give an additional comprehensive overview, prevalence data were harvested from the Annual Report of the International Clearinghouse Centre for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Prevalence was reported as per 10,000 live births. Data were available from 1910 to 2013. The median study period was 9 years (range: 1-36 years). Approximately 90,255,200 births have been screened in all studies. The mean prevalence were: Europe 19.9 (range: 1-464), North America 34.2 (6-129.8), South America 5.2 (2.8-110), Asia 0.6-69, Africa 5.9 (1.9-110), and Australia 17.1-34.8. There were major geographical, regional, and ethnical differences, with an extreme heterogeneity of published studies. Numerous studies showed an increasing prevalence; on the other hand, there were a lot of contradictory data on the prevalence of hypospadias. The summary table shows contradictory data from the five largest international studies available. There was huge literature available on the prevalence of hypospadias. Most data derived from Europe and North America. Many methodological factors influenced the calculation of an accurate prevalence, and even more of the true changes in prevalence over time (no generally accepted

  15. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  16. Molecular relatedness of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates from staff, environment and pets at University Veterinary Hospital in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkihun Aklilu

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a problem in veterinary medicine and is no longer considered as a mere nosocomial pathogen. We studied the occurrence of MRSA in veterinary personnel, cats and dogs and the environmental premises in University Veterinary Hospital (UVH. We found the prevalence of MRSA as follows: UVH 2/28 (7.1% staff, 8/100 (8% of the pets [5/50 (10% of the dogs and 3/50 (6% of the cats], and 9/28 (4.5% of the environmental samples. Antibiotic sensitivity tests (AST show multi-resistance characteristics of the MRSA and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates ranged from 1.5 µg to >256 µg/ml. Molecular typing by using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, staphylococcal protein A typing (spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was conducted and the results from MLST indicated that an isolate from a veterinary personnel (PG21, typed as ST1241 belonged to the same clonal complex (CC as the two isolates from two dogs (DG16 and DG20, both being typed as ST59. The PFGE results revealed that the two isolates from two veterinary personnel, PG21 and PG16 belonged to closely related MRSA strains with isolates from dog (DG36 and from environmental surface (EV100 respectively. The fact that PFGE revealed close similarity between isolates from humans, a dog and environmental surfaces indicates the possibility for either of them to be the source of MRSA and the potential routes and risks of spread.

  17. Molecular relatedness of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates from staff, environment and pets at University Veterinary Hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Erkihun; Zakaria, Zunita; Hassan, Latiffah; Hui Cheng, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a problem in veterinary medicine and is no longer considered as a mere nosocomial pathogen. We studied the occurrence of MRSA in veterinary personnel, cats and dogs and the environmental premises in University Veterinary Hospital (UVH). We found the prevalence of MRSA as follows: UVH 2/28 (7.1%) staff, 8/100 (8%) of the pets [5/50 (10%) of the dogs and 3/50 (6%) of the cats)], and 9/28 (4.5%) of the environmental samples. Antibiotic sensitivity tests (AST) show multi-resistance characteristics of the MRSA and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the isolates ranged from 1.5 µg to >256 µg/ml. Molecular typing by using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A typing (spa typing) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted and the results from MLST indicated that an isolate from a veterinary personnel (PG21), typed as ST1241 belonged to the same clonal complex (CC) as the two isolates from two dogs (DG16 and DG20), both being typed as ST59. The PFGE results revealed that the two isolates from two veterinary personnel, PG21 and PG16 belonged to closely related MRSA strains with isolates from dog (DG36) and from environmental surface (EV100) respectively. The fact that PFGE revealed close similarity between isolates from humans, a dog and environmental surfaces indicates the possibility for either of them to be the source of MRSA and the potential routes and risks of spread.

  18. PREVALENCE OR MISSED DIAGNOSES?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abnormal immune reaction,I zschistosomiasisd 3 toxoplasma gondii,'4 and microfilariasis.'$"°"7"“' While the global prevalence of EBF is as yet undetermined, the rate in Nigeria in the sixties and seventies was put at about 10%I 9 This study was thus carried out to determine the prevalence of endomyocardial fibrosis and the ...

  19. Occurrence and genetic relatedness of Listeria spp. in two brands of locally processed ready-to-eat meats in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syne, S M; Ramsubhag, A; Adesiyun, A A

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of locally produced, ready-to-eat meats by Listeria spp. has been previously reported at one processing plant in Trinidad. However, the status of this pathogen in locally produced products sold at retail outlets is unknown. This study was conducted to establish whether there is a risk to consumers of locally processed meats caused by the presence of Listeria spp., and whether a link exists between the presence of the pathogen in retail products and the manufacturing plant of one brand (B). Four hundred and eighty ready-to-eat meat products of two popular local brands (A and B) were collected from retail outlets and analysed for the presence of Listeria spp. together with food samples and surfaces from one manufacturing plant (B). Eighty-eight of the retail products (18·3%) were contaminated with Listeria spp., of which, 52·3% were L. innocua, 44·3% were L. monocytogenes and 3·4% belonged to the L. seeligeri-L. welshimeri-L. ivanovii (Siwi) group. L. innocua was found in 15 in-process food samples and on three surfaces of equipment at plant B. Four in-process food samples were also contaminated with Siwi isolates. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR DNA fingerprinting showed a possible association between strains of different Listeria spp. and brand as well as with manufacturing plant B.

  20. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  1. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  2. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis-based genotypic relatedness among pathogenic variants of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Vernière, Christian; Jouen, Emmanuel; Ah-You, Nathalie; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Three pathogenic variants (i.e. pathotypes) have been described within Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker. Pathotype A strains naturally infect a wide range of Citrus species and members of some related genera. In contrast, pathotypes A* and A(w) have narrow host ranges within the genus Citrus and have been isolated from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) and from Mexican lime and alemow (Citrus macrophylla L.), respectively. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on four partial housekeeping gene sequences (atpD, dnaK, efp and gyrB ) for the genotypic classification of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and the poorly characterized citrus pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae. A Mantel test showed that genetic distances derived from AFLP and MLSA were highly correlated. X. campestris pv. bilvae showed a close relatedness to the type strain of X. citri, indicating that this pathovar should be reclassified as X. citri pv. bilvae. All pathotype A* and A(w) strains were most closely related to X. citri pv. citri strains with a wide host range (pathotype A), confirming previous DNA-DNA hybridization data. Pathotype A(w) should be considered a junior synonym of pathotype A* on the basis of pathogenicity tests, AFLP, MLSA and PCR using pathovar-specific primers. Evolutionary genome divergences computed from AFLP data suggested that pathotype A* (including A(w) strains) is a group of strains that shows a wider genetic diversity than pathotype A.

  3. MOMENTS OF MEETING: THE RELEVANCE OF LOU SANDER'S AND DAN STERN'S CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SOCIAL RELATEDNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensbauer, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Lou Sander and Dan Stern made seminal contributions to our understanding of early child development, particularly in regard to the moment-to-moment intersubjective exchanges and mutual sensitivity that are at the core of the caregiver-infant relationship. Although their own studies focused primarily on the ways in which children's intersubjective experiences of mutual attunement lead to adaptive social relatedness and validate a healthy sense of self, this article focuses on the applicability of their theoretical conceptions to the development of pathological social relations. It explores the premise that the emotional validation derived from recurrent intersubjective experiences of mutual attunement involving negative affects can be as emotionally compelling from the child's standpoint as that derived from positive exchanges. Children's needs to recreate unhealthy, but affectively meaningful, moments with their caregivers can lead to ingrained, automatically operating pathological patterns of social behavior and affective expression that can take on a life of their own and strongly shape the child's subsequent socioemotional functioning. Following an overview of Sander's and Stern's conceptual thinking, developmental research and clinical case material will be utilized to illustrate how their work can enrich our understanding of developmental processes that can contribute to a number of emotion-specific, early relational disturbances. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Researches concerning the situation of reproductive isolation and relatedness with immigrants of Furioso North Star population from Beclean pe Somes stud farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Lapuste

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation is the main criteria for approval of populations. Creates the potential compliance and fulfillment of other criteria: morphological and physiological differentiation, differentiation of the requirements for the environment and the effective size. Thus, the main taxonomic differences are a consequence of reproductive isolation. Biological material used is represented by the entire livestock of the stud farm Beclean pe Someş (transferred in October of 2011 from the Slatina stud farm, belonging to the Furioso-North Star (and not just evidence of it, existing at the time of analysis (30.11.2011. To determine the reproductive isolation status, have used the coefficient of reproductive isolation presented by Drăgănescu (1979. To determine the average relatedness, have used The Numerator Relationship Matrix method, proposed by Henderson and Cunningham in 1971 and presented for the first time in Romania by Grosu in 1997. Results reflect the existence of a population with its own evolutionary way that has not suffered massive and systematic immigration.

  5. Phenotypic characteristics, virulence profile and genetic relatedness of O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated in Brazil and other Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Flávia C; Vaz, Tânia Mara I; Irino, Kinue; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina C

    2006-12-01

    Thirty-eight Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7/H(-) strains isolated from human infections, cattle and foods in Brazil and in some other Latin American countries were compared with regard to several phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The genetic relatedness of the strains was also determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Similar biochemical behaviour was identified, regardless of the origin and country of the strains. Most (89.5%) strains were sensitive to the antimicrobial agents tested, but resistance to at least one drug was observed among bovine strains. Although a diversity of stx genotypes was identified, most (77.8%) of the human strains harboured stx(2) or stx(2)stx(2c(2vha)), whereas stx(2c(2vha)) prevailed (64.2%) among strains isolated from cattle. stx(1) and stx(1)stx(2c(2vha)) were the genotypes identified less frequently, and occurred exclusively among strains isolated from food and cattle, respectively. Despite differences in the stx genotypes, all strains carried eae-gamma, efa1, ehx, iha, lpf(O157) and toxB sequences. Many closely related subgroups (more than 80% of similarity) were identified by PFGE, and the presence of a particular O157:H7 STEC clone more related to human infections in Brazil, as well as a common origin for some strains isolated from different sources and countries in Latin America can be suggested.

  6. Genetic relatedness among Trypanosoma evansi stocks by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and evaluation of a synapomorphic DNA fragment for species-specific diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, R M; Takeda, G F; Silva, R A M S; Nunes, V L B; Buck, G A; Teixeira, M M G

    2002-01-01

    In this study we employed randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns to assess the genetic relatedness among 14 Brazilian Trypanosoma evansi stocks from domestic and wild hosts, which are known to differ in biological characteristics. These akinetoplastic stocks were compared with one another, to three Old World (Ethiopia, China and Philippines) dyskinetoplastic stocks of T. evansi, and also with Trypanosoma equiperdum, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed limited heterogeneity in T. evansi stocks from different hosts and geographical regions of the world, or in other species of the subgenus Trypanozoon. However, minor variations generated random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis disclosed a pattern consisting of a unique synapomorphic DNA fragment (termed Te664) for the T. evansi cluster that was not detected in any other trypanosome species investigated. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the Te664 fragment is a repetitive sequence, dispersed in intermediate and minichromosomes of T. evansi. Based on this sequence, we developed a conventional PCR assay for the detection of T. evansi using crude preparations of blood collected either on glass slides or on filter paper as template DNA. Our results showed that this assay may be useful as a diagnostic tool for field-epidemiological studies of T. evansi.

  7. Perceived Parenting and Adolescent Cyber-Bullying: Examining the Intervening Role of Autonomy and Relatedness Need Satisfaction, Empathic Concern and Recognition of Humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousiani, Kyriaki; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Michaelides, Michalis P; Van Petegem, Stijn

    Due to the progress in information technology, cyber-bullying is becoming one of the most common forms of interpersonal harm, especially among teenagers. The present study (N = 548) aimed to investigate the relation between perceived parenting style (in terms of autonomy support and psychological control) and cyber-bullying in adolescence. Thereby, the study tested for the intervening role of adolescent need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and relatedness), empathic concern towards others, and adolescents' recognition of full humanness to cyber-bullying offenders and victims. Findings revealed both a direct and an indirect relation between parenting and cyber-bullying. More specifically, parental psychological control directly predicted cyber-bullying, whereas parental autonomy support related to less cyber-bullying indirectly, as it was associated with the satisfaction of adolescents' need for autonomy, which predicted more empathic concern towards others, which in turn differentially related to recognition of humanness to victims and bullies. The discussion focuses on the implications of the current findings.

  8. Distinguishing the effects of familiarity, relatedness, and color pattern rarity on attractiveness and measuring their effects on sexual selection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Brooks, Robert C

    2008-12-01

    Mate choice is often based on multiple signal traits and can be influenced by context-dependent factors. Understanding the importance of these signals and factors can be difficult because they are often correlated and might interact. Here, we experimentally disentangle the effects of familiarity, kinship, pattern rarity, and ornament patterns on mate choice in guppies. We estimate whether these factors alter sexual selection on six phenotypic traits known to influence male attractiveness. Rarity of the male's phenotype is the only context-dependent factor that significantly influenced female mating decisions, with common patterns being least attractive. This preference for rare male patterns is a source of negative frequency-dependent selection that may contribute to maintaining the extreme polymorphism in male guppy coloration. Neither visual familiarity nor relatedness between mating partners had any significant effect on mate choice decisions. There was significant linear and nonlinear sexual selection on ornamental traits, but this was not influenced by the context-dependent measures. Our approach highlights the complexity of female mate choice and sexual selection, as well as the value of combining multifactorial experiments with multivariate selection analyses. Our study shows that both negative frequency-dependent selection and disruptive selection contribute to the maintenance of extreme polymorphism in guppies.

  9. Understanding Freud's conflicted view of the object-relatedness of sexuality and its implications for contemporary psychoanalysis: A re-examination of Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2016-06-01

    Through a re-examination of Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), this paper reveals a fundamental tension in Freud's thinking on the nature of the individual and of his sexuality. In this text Freud portrays the individual and sexuality as inherently object-related and at the same time as inherently independent of such relatedness. The way in which Freud presents these contradictory ideas suggests that he was not merely undecided on object-relatedness and sexuality but rather that the contradiction was integral to this thinking. The paper offers an explanation of the meaning of this contradiction, of why it has been neglected in the analytic literature, and of some implications for contemporary psychoanalysis and its approach to sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urinalysis and microscopy for parasite identification), and questionnaire- guided interviews to determine the prevalence ... To prevent infection, the population in the area should be provided with health education and safe alternative water sources.

  11. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  12. Prevalence of early childhood caries and enamel defects in four and five-year old Qatari preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhtib, Asmaa; Ghanim, Aghareed; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Messer, Louise Brearley; Pirotta, Marie; Morgan, Michael

    2016-08-18

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in early childhood in most communities worldwide. Several studies conducted in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries have documented a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC). To date, no studies have been conducted in Qatar to examine the prevalence of ECC and enamel developmental defects in preschool children. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of ECC and enamel defects in preschool children aged four and five years attending kindergartens in Qatar. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among 250 children randomly selected from 16 public kindergartens. Caries experience was measured using the World Health Organization caries criteria (dmft) for tooth rather than surface; enamel defects were scored by the modified developmental defects of enamel index. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test of relatedness were used. A response rate of 63 % was reported. The overall caries prevalence of the study sample was 89.2 %; 15.6 % of the examined children had ECC and 73.6 % had severe ECC. Developmental enamel defects were present in 39 % of children and 27 % had demarcated enamel opacities. The high rate of dental caries and enamel defects recorded in this study for this young age group has strongly emphasized the necessity of community-based preventive programs and professional care that should begin during pregnancy and in early childhood.

  13. The high prevalence of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) in Escherichia coli causing neonatal septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapader, R; Chatterjee, S; Singh, A K; Dayma, P; Haldar, S; Pal, A; Basu, S

    2014-11-01

    Serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) are secreted proteins demonstrating diverse virulence functions. The distribution of SPATEs is studied among diarrheagenic and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. However, the contribution of SPATEs to the virulence of neonatal septicemic Escherichia coli (NSEC) has not yet been elucidated. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and phylogenetic distribution of different subtypes of SPATEs among NSEC. The presence of virulence factors and subtypes of SPATEs among different E. coli isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). E. coli phylogrouping was done by triplex PCR. Clonality of the isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The presence of SPATEs was significantly higher among the septicemic isolates (89 %) than the fecal (7.5 %) and environmental isolates (2.5 %). Vat (vacuolating autotransporter toxin) and Sat (secreted autotransporter toxin) were found to be the two most predominant SPATEs. The incidence of SPATEs was high in septicemic isolates of phylogroups A and B1 (87 %), lacking other virulence factors. The high prevalence of SPATEs in the non-B2 phylogroups of septicemic isolates in comparison with fecal and environmental isolates indicates an association of SPATEs with NSEC. The NSEC isolates were found to be clonally distinct, suggesting that the high prevalence of SPATEs was not due to clonal relatedness of the isolates. This study is the first to show the association of SPATEs with NSEC. The presence of SPATEs in the septicemic/NSEC isolates may be considered as the most discriminatory trait studied here.

  14. Weaning and establishment of pineapple (Ananas Comosus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vitro propagation). The paper reports on establishment after treatment with two different auxins in-vitro. About ninety-nine (99) percent of the transported plantlets successfully established in compost. Spiny individuals increased with higher ...

  15. innovation platforms for establishment and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    This study was, therefore, designed to document important processes, lessons and challenges encountered from the participatory nursery establishment and management in Borodo and Mekentuta watersheds of central Ethiopia. The processes of establishing nurseries were started by forming Innovation Platforms (IPs).

  16. Association between Early Childhood Caries, Feeding Practices and an Established Dental Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierce, Erin A; Boyd, Linda D; Rainchuso, Lori; Palmer, Carole A; Rothman, Andrews

    2016-02-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting low-income children. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between the establishment of a dental home and ECC prevalence in a group of Medicaid-enrolled preschool children, and to explore feeding practices associated with an increased prevalence of ECC in Medicaid-enrolled preschool children with an established dental home was evaluated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Medicaid-enrolled children (n=132) between 2 and 5 years of age with an established dental home and no dental home to compare feeding practices, parental knowledge of caries risk factors and oral health status. Children with an established dental home had lower rates of biofilm (pteeth (DMFT) scores (pChildren with no dental home consumed more soda and juice (pchildren with an established dental home. Establishment of a dental home had a strong protective effect on caries and DMFT index (odds ratio=0.22) in both univariate and confounding adjusted analyses. The results suggest establishment of a dental home, especially among high-risk, low-income populations, decreases the prevalence of ECC and reduces the practice of cariogenic feeding behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  17. Genetic relatedness and risk factor analysis of ampicillin-resistant and high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci causing bloodstream infections in Tanzanian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, Håvard; Mohn, Stein Christian; Maselle, Samuel; Manji, Karim P; Willems, Rob; Jureen, Roland; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobials are spreading in hospitals worldwide, causing urinary tract, wound and bloodstream infections, there is little published data on these infections from Africa. METHODS: We assessed the prevalence, susceptibility patterns, clinical

  18. 42__Yahaya_Prevalence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    . (48.9%) had the infections, out ... The ectothrix fungi found most frequently on scalp and the main cause of Kerion is and T. mentagrophytes. .... significant influence on the disease prevalence. (P>0.05). The results showed a strong association.

  19. [Study of U.S. regulations on determination of work-relatedness of mental health disturbance and cerebrovascular and cardiac diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemitsu, Tatsunori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Miyazaki, Shogo; Horie, Seichi

    2007-01-01

    Recently, work-relatedness of mental health disturbance, cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases has been generously recognized in the determination of workers' compensation, in administrative or civil suits in Japan. Companies that operate overseas enterprises need to investigate legislature and court opinions in countries and regions in which they operate. In this study, we studied legislative materials concerning mental health, and cerebrovascular and cardiac diseases by reviewing official documents published on homepages provided by governmental and academic bodies in the United States. Our main findings are as follows: 1. In the United States, the state authorities have wide powers. The areas where federal employment statutes are directly applied are limited to the employment conditions of the federal government or some interstate commerce. However, almost all employers in every state are required to record and report occupational injuries and illnesses, based on which, nationwide statistics are maintained. 2. The occupational injury and illness recording criteria are clearly stated in the 2001 revision of Code of Federal Regulations(CFR). During the process of amendment, various opinions were raised concerning mental illnesses. In the final ruling, employers are required to record mental illnesses when "the employee voluntarily provides the employer with an opinion from appropriate health care providers stating that the employee has a mental illness that is work related" (29CFR1904.5(b)(2)(ix)). 3. No specific criteria were found concerning cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disorders, except for the statement that injury or illness is considered if an event or exposure in the work environment significantly aggravates a pre-existing injury or illness(29CFR1904.5(a)). 4. According to the safety and health statistics(2004), around 3,000 cases(0.3 cases per 10,000 full-time workers)of mental disorders were reported in private industry workplaces. On the

  20. Prevalence and associated f

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Yousif; Hassan, Safaa Khamis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health issues are increasing in severity and number on college campuses. Improving adolescent mental well-being remains a challenge for most societies. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to study the prevalence of psychological mood disorders and its association with some factors. Methods: A cross-sectional-questionnaire based study was conducted among medical students in Fayoum University. Propensity to Psychological mood disorders was assessed by using a s...

  1. prevalence, co-prevalence and risk factors of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... PREVALENCE, CO-PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF PULMONARY PARAGONIMIASIS AND PULMONARY. TUBERCULOSIS IN ... disease in southern Nigeria and further confirmed that the prevalence of tuberculosis is still on an ..... essential to halt the spread of the disease in this community.

  2. Prevalence, co-prevalence and risk factors of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nigeria has the highest burden of paragonimiasis in Africa and it is also among the high burden countries with tuberculosis. The true prevalence of these reemerging diseases is unknown in the country. Objective: To determine the prevalence and co-prevalence of these re-emerging diseases among children in ...

  3. [Monitoring the prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Due, P.; Hansen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has proposed a model to monitor the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Denmark. The model should make it possible to assess whether different initiatives reduce the prevalence of obesity and to gain knowledge on how to prevent obesity. The prevalence...

  4. Prevalence of low back pain in alpine ski instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Nola; Walker, James A; Fogg, Reed; Dudley, Kurt

    2005-02-01

    Mailed survey to random sample of a specific population. To examine the lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors. The lifetime prevalence for back pain is up to 60% among some athletes. Published literature documents back pain among athletes participating in many sports. However, the prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors has not been established. Surveys were mailed to 500 randomly selected members of the Professional Ski Instructors of America. The lifetime and point prevalence were determined by respondents' report regarding history of low back pain and current back pain. Two hundred four (75% of the 272 respondents) reported a history of low back pain. Eighty-five of those who responded (31%) reported current back pain. Over 9% of respondents missed 10 or more days of work because of back pain. The lifetime prevalence of back pain among respondents was similar to the general population. The respondents reported more lifetime prevalence of back pain than athletes of many other sports. The high prevalence of back pain among ski instructors may increase cost and decrease revenue for the employer. Prevention training in this population may decrease the prevalence of back pain and lessen costs to the employer and the alpine ski instructor.

  5. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  6. Prevalence of wounds in a community care setting in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott-Scales, L; Cowman, S; Gethin, G

    2009-10-01

    To establish the prevalence of wounds and their management in a community care setting. A multi-site, census point prevalence wound survey was conducted in the following areas: intellectual disability, psychiatry, GP practices, prisons, long-term care private nursing homes, long-term care, public nursing homes and the community/public health (district) nursing services on one randomly selected day. Acute services were excluded. Formal ethical approval was obtained. Data were collected using a pre-piloted questionnaire. Education was provided to nurses recording the tool (n=148). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. A 97.2% response rate yielded a crude prevalence rate of 15.6% for wounds across nursing disciplines (290/1,854 total census) and 0.2% for the community area (290/133,562 population statistics for the study area). Crude point prevalence ranged from 2.7% in the prison services (7/262 total prison population surveyed) to 33.5% in the intellectual disability services (72/215 total intellectual disability population surveyed). The most frequent wounds recorded were pressure ulcers (crude point prevalence 4%, 76/1,854 total census; excluding category l crude point prevalence was 2.6%, 49/1,854 total census), leg ulcers (crude point prevalence 2.9%, 55/1,854 total census), self-inflicted superficial abrasions (crude point prevalence 2.2%, 41/1,854 total census) and surgical wounds (crude point prevalence 1.7%, 32/1,854 total census). These results support previous international research in that they identify a high prevalence of wounds in the community. The true community prevalence of wounds is arguably much higher, as this study identified only wounds known to the nursing services and excluded acute settings and was conducted on one day.

  7. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  8. Myopia: Prevalence and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    workers) 56.7 ( compositors & Military conscriptees writers) (Germany) Jackson 1932 25.7 (ages 15-19) 19.6 (ages 20-29) Clinic sample Tassman 1932 24.7 (ages...workers and 56.7 percent for compositors and writers. Goldschmidt (1968) designed a study to compare results with Tscherning’s data. He reported a...14.75 percent; among White Russians it was 4.93 percent; among the subgroups who worked as type compositors , the prevalence of myopia was 22.8 percent

  9. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  10. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Soil compaction can severely limit the success of vegetation establishment. Current grading and landscaping : practices commonly produce compacted soils of varied textures and profiles within SHA medians and roadsides, : resulting in limited capacity...

  11. Establishing Law and Order After Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Seth G; Wilson, Jeremy M; Rathmell, Andrew; Riley, K. J

    2005-01-01

    .... military's Field Manual 3-0731 Peace Ops notes, these tasks are vital to establish "a secure environment" in order to "create the conditions for other political, economic, and humanitarian peace building activities...

  12. 75 FR 36098 - Notice of Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... habits; (2) identify risk factors based on familial, racial ethnic and cultural backgrounds; (3... committee is established to assist in creating a national evidence-based public education and media campaign...

  13. Prevalence and the correlates of postnatal depression in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Postnatal depression is a common cause of morbidity but is rarely diagnosed or managed in busy primary care settings in most resource limited countries like Zimbabwe. Objectives: This study sought to determine the prevalence of postnatal depression and establish factors associated with postnatal depression ...

  14. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active sportsmen/sportswomen and sedentary workers in the Kumasi Metropolis using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Diabetes ...

  15. Prevalence of khat chewing and its effect on academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Khat use is a well-established public health problem in Yemen, Arabian Peninsula, and Ethiopia. Along with its large scale production, the magnitude of khat use is increasing among students. Objective: This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic ...

  16. Prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis in Arsi Zone, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Wide spread of occurrence of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis is becoming a major challenge to effective tuberculosis control. Thus, it is imperative to monitor the sensitivity of anti-TB drugs regularly. Objective: To determine the prevalence resistance to anti-TB drugs in a well established control program area ...

  17. Prevalence of mastitis in smallholder dairy cattle in Pemba island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September 2010 to establish the prevalence of mastitis in smallholder dairy cattle in Pemba Island. The study also assessed factors contributing towards the increased occurrence of bovine mastitis in those dairy farms. Simple structured questionnaire survey, California ...

  18. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tallinn, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Kaldmäe

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study established a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Estonian adults (20–65 years of age. Younger portion of the population and some extent ethnic considerations should be taken into account when designing future studies, health prevention activities and interventions.

  19. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and dermatitis in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to establish the relative increase in the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in primary school children aged 13-14 years over a six year interval. Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Setting: Primary schools in three rural divisions at Uasin Gishu district in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...

  1. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in Gairo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important zoonosis that affects uman, wildlife and livestock. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and January 2013 to establish the prevalence of bTB and the associated risk factors among ive and slaughter indigenous cattle in ...

  2. Prevalence and clinical impact of antiretinal antibodies in uveitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.E.M. Ten Berge (Josianne C.E.M.); M.W.J. Schreurs (Marco); J. Vermeer (Jacolien); M.A. Meester-Smoor (Magda); A. Rothová (Aniki)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To determine the prevalence of serum antiretinal antibodies (ARAs) among patients with uveitis and establish their clinical relevance. Methods: This prospective study assessed the presence of ARAs by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using primate retina in 126 patients with

  3. Prevalence of iron deficiency in children with cyanotic heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the prevalence of iron deficiency among children with cyanotic heart disease. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital from August to December of 2007. A total of 112 children meeting the eligibility criteria were recruited from ...

  4. Infection prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma mansoniis a public health problem in both tropical and sub tropical countries. Thus, effective control of the disease requires determining its prevalence rate, identifying risk factors of infection and high-risk groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the ...

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  6. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  7. Permanent establishment dilemma in the digital economy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (South African and International Taxation) The concept of permanent establishment (PE) is a fundamental concept in international tax law, as it establishes the right to tax business profits of non-resident entities in the country where business activities are carried out. This study was motivated by the challenges governments and business entities face in the allocation of taxing rights in the digital economy. This study considers the history and the meaning of the current Organisat...

  8. Very high prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in bacteriemic patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals in Bamako, Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba Adama Sangare

    Full Text Available The worldwide dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, (ESBL-E and their subset producing carbapenemases (CPE, is alarming. Limited data on the prevalence of such strains in infections from patients from Sub-Saharan Africa are currently available. We determined, here, the prevalence of ESBL-E/CPE in bacteriemic patients in two teaching hospitals from Bamako (Mali, which are at the top of the health care pyramid in the country. During one year, all Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bloodstream infections (E-BSI, were collected from patients hospitalized at the Point G University Teaching Hospital and the pediatric units of Gabriel Touré University Teaching Hospital. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, enzyme characterization and strain relatedness were determined. A total of 77 patients had an E-BSI and as many as 48 (62.3% were infected with an ESBL-E. ESBL-E BSI were associated with a previous hospitalization (OR 3.97 95% IC [1.32; 13.21] and were more frequent in hospital-acquired episodes (OR 3.66 95% IC [1.07; 13.38]. Among the 82 isolated Enterobacteriaceae, 58.5% were ESBL-E (20/31 Escherichia coli, 20/26 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 8/15 Enterobacter cloacae. The remaining (5 Salmonella Enteritidis, 3 Morganella morganii 1 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Leclercia adecarboxylata were ESBL negative. CTX-M-1 group enzymes were highly prevalent (89.6% among ESBLs; the remaining ones being SHV. One E. coli produced an OXA-181 carbapenemase, which is the first CPE described in Mali. The analysis of ESBL-E relatedness suggested a high rate of cross transmission between patients. In conclusion, even if CPE are still rare for the moment, the high rate of ESBL-BSI and frequent cross transmission probably impose a high medical and economic burden to Malian hospitals.

  9. Very high prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in bacteriemic patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, Samba Adama; Rondinaud, Emilie; Maataoui, Naouale; Maiga, Almoustapha Issiaka; Guindo, Ibrehima; Maiga, Aminata; Camara, Namory; Dicko, Oumar Agaly; Dao, Sounkalo; Diallo, Souleymane; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Andremont, Antoine; Maiga, Ibrahim Izetiegouma; Armand-Lefevre, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, (ESBL-E) and their subset producing carbapenemases (CPE), is alarming. Limited data on the prevalence of such strains in infections from patients from Sub-Saharan Africa are currently available. We determined, here, the prevalence of ESBL-E/CPE in bacteriemic patients in two teaching hospitals from Bamako (Mali), which are at the top of the health care pyramid in the country. During one year, all Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bloodstream infections (E-BSI), were collected from patients hospitalized at the Point G University Teaching Hospital and the pediatric units of Gabriel Touré University Teaching Hospital. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, enzyme characterization and strain relatedness were determined. A total of 77 patients had an E-BSI and as many as 48 (62.3%) were infected with an ESBL-E. ESBL-E BSI were associated with a previous hospitalization (OR 3.97 95% IC [1.32; 13.21]) and were more frequent in hospital-acquired episodes (OR 3.66 95% IC [1.07; 13.38]). Among the 82 isolated Enterobacteriaceae, 58.5% were ESBL-E (20/31 Escherichia coli, 20/26 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 8/15 Enterobacter cloacae). The remaining (5 Salmonella Enteritidis, 3 Morganella morganii 1 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Leclercia adecarboxylata) were ESBL negative. CTX-M-1 group enzymes were highly prevalent (89.6%) among ESBLs; the remaining ones being SHV. One E. coli produced an OXA-181 carbapenemase, which is the first CPE described in Mali. The analysis of ESBL-E relatedness suggested a high rate of cross transmission between patients. In conclusion, even if CPE are still rare for the moment, the high rate of ESBL-BSI and frequent cross transmission probably impose a high medical and economic burden to Malian hospitals.

  10. Prevalence of abuse and intimate partner violence surgical evaluation (PRAISE) in orthopaedic fracture clinics: a multinational prevalence study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Goslings, J. Carel; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Dosanjh, Sonia; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Petrisor, Brad A.; Godin, Katelyn; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Freeman, Clare; Mathews, David; Tikasz, Diana; Drew, Brian; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Williams, Dale; Wong, Ivan; Kwok, Desmond; Denkers, Matt; Cameron, Alicia; Resendes, Sarah; Ramnath, Ivanna; Chien, Teresa; Pham, Ngan K.; Avram, Victoria; Ayeni, Olufemi R.; de Beer, Justin; Winemaker, Mitchell; Ogilvie, Rick; Peterson, Devin; Swaleh, Rukia; Hall, Jeremy; McKee, Michael; Waddell, James; Daniels, Timothy; Whelan, Daniel; Bogoch, Earl; Nauth, Aaron; Vicente, Milena; Hidy, Jennifer; Puskas, David; LeFrancois, Tina; Coles, Chad; Glazebrook, Mark; Leighton, Ross; Johnston, David; Dobbin, Gwen; Trask, Kelly; MacDonald, Shelley; Stairs, Jocelyn; Duff, Paul; Buckley, Richard; Korley, Robert; Puloski, Shannon; Carcary, Kimberly; McColl, Jeanine; Brister, Danica; Lemke, H. Michael; Boyer, Dory; McCormack, Robert; Perey, Bertrand; Moola, Farhad; Stone, Trevor; Viskontas, Darius; Apostle, Kelly; Zomar, Mauri; Oatt, Amber; Moon, Karyn; Crist, Brett D.; Volgas, David A.; Anderson, Linda K.; Beshears, Jacqueline L.; Evans, Jessica L.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Opdam, Kim; de Waal, Esri; Haverlag, Robert; Beerekamp, M. S. H.; Brink, Ole; Sancheti, Parag; Rocha, Steve; Shende, Mangesh

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the leading cause of non-fatal injury to women worldwide. Musculoskeletal injuries, which are often seen by orthopaedic surgeons, are the second most common manifestation of IPV. We aimed to establish the 12-month and lifetime prevalence of IPV in women presenting

  11. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Denmark 1950-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Joan; Meulengracht Flachs, Esben; Stenager, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of unknown aetiology. Its prevalence varies by ethnicity and place: persons of northern European descent are at increased risk while persons living at lower latitudes appear to be protected against the disease. The Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry is a national registry established in 1956 after a population-based survey which receives information from numerous sources. It is considered to be more than 90% complete, with a validity of 94%. Using data from the Registry, we calculated prevalences per 100,000 inhabitants....... The standardized prevalence of multiple sclerosis increased from 58.8 (95% confidence interval: 54.9-62.7) in 1950 to 154.5 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 148.8-160.2) in 2005, and the female to male ratio increased from 1.31 in 1950 to 2.02 in 2005. The increase in prevalence is due to both increased...

  12. 21 CFR 207.40 - Establishment registration and drug listing requirements for foreign establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the English language. (c) Each foreign drug establishment required to register under paragraph (a... requirements for foreign establishments. 207.40 Section 207.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION Procedure for Foreign Drug Establishments § 207.40...

  13. Lymphedema after gynecological cancer treatment : prevalence, correlates, and supportive care needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beesley, Vanessa; Janda, Monika; Eakin, Elizabeth; Obermair, Andreas; Battistutta, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated lymphedema after gynecological cancer treatment. The aim of this research was to establish prevalence, correlates, and supportive care needs of gynecological cancer survivors who develop lymphedema...

  14. Prevalence of Chlorpheniramine in Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1991-1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soper, John

    1999-01-01

    .... This side effect has a potential to impair performance and to be a factor in accidents. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the prevalence of this drug in pilot fatalities of aviation accidents...

  15. Prevalence and genotyping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahir Alghamdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA, DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250. Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6% were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4% were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.

  16. Topical treatment of glaucoma: established and emerging pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikopf, Mark S; Vajaranant, Thasarat S; Edward, Deepak P

    2017-06-01

    Glaucoma is a collection of optic neuropathies consisting of retinal ganglion cell death and corresponding visual field loss. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide and is forecasted to precipitously increase in prevalence in the coming decades. Current treatment options aim to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) via topical or oral therapy, laser treatment to the trabecular meshwork or ciliary body, and incisional surgery. Despite increasing use of trabecular laser therapy, topical therapy remains first-line in the treatment of most forms of glaucoma. Areas covered: Novel glaucoma therapies are a long-standing focus of investigational study. More than two decades have passed since the last United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a topical glaucoma drug. Here, the authors review established topical glaucoma drops as well as those currently in FDA phase 2 and 3 clinical trial, nearing clinical use. Expert opinion: Current investigational glaucoma drugs lower IOP, mainly through enhanced trabecular meshwork outflow. Although few emerging therapies show evidence of retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve neuroprotection in animal models, emerging drugs are focused on lowering IOP, similar to established medicines.

  17. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda Beltran, Noemí; Guilera Ferré, Georgina; Forns, Maria, 1946-; Gómez Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted internationally confirm that child sexual abuse is a much more widespread problem than previously thought, with even the lowest prevalence rates including a large number of victims that need to be taken into account. Objective: To carry out a meta-analysis of the prevalence of child sexual abuse in order to establish an overall international figure. Methods: Studies were retrieved from various electronic databases. The measure of interest was the prevalence of ab...

  18. Prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Abdulmumini; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Mufunda, Jacob; Nyarang'o, Peter; Hagos, Goitom; Kosia, Andrew; Ghebrat, Yohannes; Mosazghi, Asgedom; Atanga, S Joseph; Equbamichael, Mussie M

    2006-01-01

    To establish the baseline prevalence rates for non-communicable disease risk factors in Eritrea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the ethnic groups in Eritrea with the WHO STEPwise approach. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg or a person on medication for hypertension, while diabetes based on medical history of the disease. Of the targeted sample size of 2460, 2352 responded. Respondents were distributed among the six regions of the country proportional to population size. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used. Males and females from 15 to 64 years of age were studied. Prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and low vegetable and low fruit consumption. Prevalence rate of daily smoking of 7.2% with variations among age, sex, religion and regions. A high prevalence of low fruit and low vegetable intake was observed at 84.7% and 50.6% respectively. Alcohol drinking was 39.6%. Level of physical activity was high (90%). The prevalence of obesity was low at 3.3%. The prevalence of hypertension in the general population was 16%, while 2.2% were known diabetic patients. More than 80% of the hypertensive persons were not aware of their condition. No significant rural/urban or sex difference was seen in hypertension prevalence. The baseline data are useful for developing interventions designed to prevent and control NCDs in Eritrea.

  19. Prevalence, causes, and treatment of neuropathic pain in dutch nursing home residents: a retrospective chart review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollenburg, E.G. van; Lavrijsen, J.C.M.; Verhagen, S.; Zuidema, S.U.; Schalkwijk, A.; Vissers, K.C.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence and causes of neuropathic pain in Dutch nursing home residents; to establish the prevalence of painful and nonpainful diabetic polyneuropathy in a subsample of individuals with diabetes mellitus and central poststroke pain (CPSP) in a subsample of individuals

  20. Prevalence, Causes, and Treatment of Neuropathic Pain in Dutch Nursing Home Residents : A Retrospective Chart Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kollenburg, Esther G. P.; Lavrijsen, Jan C. M.; Verhagen, Stans C.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Schalkwijk, Annelies; Vissers, Kris C. P.

    Objectives To identify the prevalence and causes of neuropathic pain in Dutch nursing home residents; to establish the prevalence of painful and nonpainful diabetic polyneuropathy in a subsample of individuals with diabetes mellitus and central poststroke pain (CPSP) in a subsample of individuals

  1. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and

  2. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  3. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  4. Establishment of an Australian National Genetic Heart Disease Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; McGaughran, Julie; Vohra, Jitendra; Weintraub, Robert G; Davis, Andrew; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2008-12-01

    A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry has recently been established, with the aim to enroll every family in Australia with a genetically determined cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmic disorder. The Registry seeks to further our understanding of the impact and burden of disease in this population; increase awareness and provide education to health professionals and families; and establish a large cardiac genetic cohort as a resource for approved research studies. The Registry is currently recruiting families with inherited cardiomyopathies (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and primary arrhythmogenic disorders (e.g. long QT syndrome), with scope to expand this in the future. Affected individuals, as well as their first-degree (at-risk) family members are eligible to enroll. Participants are currently being recruited from cardiac genetics clinics in approved recruitment sites and hope to expand to other Australian centres including general cardiology practice in the future. A significant focus of the Registry is to improve understanding and create awareness of inherited heart diseases, which includes ensuring families are aware of genetic testing options and current clinical screening recommendations for at-risk family members. A Registry Advisory Committee has been established under the NHMRC Guidelines, and includes a representative from each major recruitment centre. This committee approves all decisions relating to the Registry including approval of research studies. A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry will provide a valuable resource to further our knowledge of the clinical and genetic aspects of these diseases. Since most of the current data about the prevalence, natural history and outcomes of genetic heart diseases has emanated from the United States and Europe, characterising these Australian populations will be of significant benefit, allowing for more informed and specific health care planning and resource provision.

  5. Entrepreneurial Orientation in Small Established Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middel, Rick; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Laugen, Bjørge Timenes

    2010-01-01

    by discussing how small established firms exhibit entrepreneurial orientation and how does this influence their involvement in development of radical innovation. Through the case studies it became apparent that the small established firms do embody several characteristics which can be associated both...... with the ability to be radical innovative as well as being able to exploit such innovation. Across the cases several patters of the influence of an entrepreneurial orientation in radical innovation processes have been identified. In particular it was illustrated how the use of pro-activeness, risk...

  6. Establishing soil loss tolerance: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Di Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance is a criterion for establishing if a soil is potentially subjected to erosion risk, productivity loss and if a river presents downstream over-sedimentation or other off-site effects are present at basin scale. At first this paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil loss and summarises the available definitions and the knowledge on the recommended values and evaluating criteria. Then a threshold soil loss value, at the annual temporal scale, established for limiting riling was used for defining the classical soil loss tolerance. Finally, some research needs on tolerable soil loss are listed.

  7. Prevalence of smoking in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marie-France; Canceil, Olivier; Baylé, Franck; Millet, Bruno; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Moatti, Cécile; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Attar-Lévy, Dominique

    2002-04-01

    Compelling evidence that tobacco-smoking is a form of drug addiction exists. The aim of this study is to determine the following: (1) prevalence of tobacco-smoking and of nicotine dependence in French psychiatric patients; (2) rates and patterns of tobacco smoking and of nicotine dependence according to diagnosis; (3) relationship between current smoking status and antipsychotic medications; and (4) relationship between cigarette smoking and neurological side effects induced by neuroleptics. A population of 711 psychiatric in- and outpatients was assessed using: (1) a detailed smoking self-questionnaire for smoking history and nicotine dependence; and (2) a questionnaire for staff covering treatments and DSMIII-R diagnoses. Data were analyzed using chi2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests (one factor) for quantitative comparisons between groups of patients, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test with age covariate was performed for age-dependent variables. Prevalence of smoking in the population of psychiatric patients was significantly higher than in the French general population. Diagnoses among current smokers were mainly substance-related disorder and schizophrenia. The authors established correlations between prevalence of smoking and age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, alcohol use, coffee consumption and other psychoactive substance use or abuse. The authors did not find relationship between smoking prevalence and institutionalization. Neuroleptic neurological side effects were significantly fewer among smokers compared to nonsmokers. However, the rate of smokers was significantly higher in psychiatric patients receiving neuroleptic drugs. Nicotine abuse in psychiatric patients, and especially in schizophrenic patients, could support the hypothesis that smoking is consistent with self-medication.

  8. Innovation platforms for establishment and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing community nurseries is one of the very important steps to expand tree covers in degraded as well as other areas. The establishment of such nurseries, however, requires a sustained commitment from the community and proper coordination of a sequence of activities as any failure to pay attention to the details of ...

  9. Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa: Perspectives On The African Virtual Library And Information Network (Avlin) ... In times like this when libraries are facing problems with access and acquisition of materials, networking becomes very important. This paper discusses issues relating to networking in ...

  10. Classroom Observation: Desirable Conditions Established by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Teacher observation is regarded as an essential procedure in the teacher training process. However, the vast majority of observation experiences have a top-down approach, as they are usually established by experts such as university teaching staff or school inspectors working for the administration. With a bottom-up approach in mind, this paper…

  11. Establishing and agreeing on research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian de Ia Roche

    1999-01-01

    The organizers asked me to share with you my experiences in developing and implementing a process for establishing and agreeing on research priorities in a multi-stakeholder research institute such as Forintek. The mechanism we have in place has been well received by Forintek's membership and certain aspects have been adopted by other research organizations. While...

  12. Establishment and biological characteristics of Piedmontese cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fibroblast line was successfully established from ear marginal tissues of Piedmontese cattle by direct culturing of explants. Biological analysis showed that the population doubling time (PDT) for reviving cells was approximately 24 h. The average viability of the cells was 96.6% before freezing and 92.7% after thawing.

  13. Establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd) is a medicinally and economically important plant and also used as vegetable. In this study, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure for M. dioica. Leaf explants were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing a binary ...

  14. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  15. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  16. Establishing oaks in Big River floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Dey; John Kabrick; Michael Gold

    2003-01-01

    Successful tree establishment is fundamental to implementing agroforestry practices, reforesting bottomland cropfields or regenerating green-tree reservoirs. Planting trees can be problematic in floodplains and riparian areas because of intense competition from herbaceous and woody plants, animal herbivory and browsing, and flooding and saturated soils.

  17. ESTABLISHING A PUBLISHING OUTFIT IN NIGERIA EMENYONU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    Department of Library and Information Science. Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri Imo State. Abstract. The paper examines the steps in establishing a publishing firm in the Nigerian environment. The importance .... books and to undertake extensive sales and marketing campaigns to capture the attention of the public. 4.

  18. Waste management in healthcare establishments within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health workers and the public to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health establishments. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems if not done properly. This study has assessed the waste management practices in hospitals and ...

  19. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... Find out whether Ethiopia would benefit from establishing financial market. ▫ Assess whether there is a .... Studies show that the competition among financial institutions/banks is weak in the Sub-Saharan ... ownership and an assumption of responsibility on the part of the citizen. People will now be united by ...

  20. Establishing veterinary education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce Vivash

    2013-01-12

    The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.

  1. The establishment of a polyposis register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Burn, J; Neale, K

    1993-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for the establishment of a regional or national register of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The detailed recommendations are based on the work in committees of the "Leeds Castle Polyposis Group" and the "EuroFAP". The aims of national and regional polyposis...

  2. Introduction, establishment and spread of the Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... native fishes and predation on fish larvae. Pseudocrenilabrus philander in the Baakens River therefore satisfies all criteria for an invasive species in this river and was categorised as invasive using a unified framework for biological invasions. Keywords: abundance, cichlid, electrofishing, establishment, invasion, spread ...

  3. Epigenetic heterogeneity in HIV-1 latency establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuka; Kobayashi-Ishihara, Mie; Fujikawa, Dai; Ishida, Takaomi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Yamagishi, Makoto

    2015-01-09

    Despite prolonged antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persists as transcriptionally inactive proviruses. The HIV-1 latency remains a principal obstacle in curing AIDS. It is important to understand mechanisms by which HIV-1 latency is established to make the latent reservoir smaller. We present a molecular characterization of distinct populations at an early phase of infection. We developed an original dual-color reporter virus to monitor LTR kinetics from establishment to maintenance stage. We found that there are two ways of latency establishment i.e., by immediate silencing and slow inactivation from active infection. Histone covalent modifications, particularly polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated H3K27 trimethylation, appeared to dominate viral transcription at the early phase. PRC2 also contributes to time-dependent LTR dormancy in the chronic phase of the infection. Significant differences in sensitivity against several stimuli were observed between these two distinct populations. These results will expand our understanding of heterogeneous establishment of HIV-1 latency populations.

  4. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melissa officinalis L., due to its useful application in medicine, is being paid more attention. In order to establish a stable regeneration system with 4 landraces collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting induction, proliferation rate, fresh and dry weight as ...

  5. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  6. Establishing an academic biobank in a resourcechallenged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the development of a quality-management system, including standard operating procedures and a quality-control regimen. Here, we provide a summary of 10 important considerations for initiating and establishing an academic research biobank in a low-resource setting. These include addressing ethical, legal, technical, ...

  7. 89 ESTABLISHING THE NEXUS BETWEEN LITERARY CRITICISM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    ESTABLISHING THE NEXUS BETWEEN LITERARY. CRITICISM AND LITERARY THEORY. Nonyelum M. Obi. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Abstract. The study examines ways in which literary criticisms draws from literary theories. The literary critics in order to carry out efficient critical work will not work in ...

  8. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper intends to examine the environmental foundation for establishing financial markets in Ethiopia, identify the potential challenges and opportunities. The environmental foundation is assessed using the PEST (political, economic, social and technological) perspectives. Emphasis is given to identify the roles that ...

  9. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  10. Increase of prevalence of craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, M; Ottelander, B.; Rizopoulos, D.; Hulst, R van der; Mink van der Molen, A.B.; Horst, C. van der; Delye, H.H.; Veelen, M.L. van; Bonsel, G.; Mathijssen, I.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Craniosynostosis represents premature closure of cranial sutures. Prevalence is approximately 3.1-6.4 in 10.000 live births, which is reportedly rising. This epidemiologic study aims to provide insight into this rise through an accurate description of the prevalence, exploring regional

  11. Increase of prevalence of craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Martijn; Ottelander, Bianca den; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; van der Hulst, René; Mink van der Molen, Aebele; van der Horst, Chantal; Delye, Hans; van Veelen, Marie-Lise; Bonsel, Gouke; Mathijssen, Irene

    INTRODUCTION: Craniosynostosis represents premature closure of cranial sutures. Prevalence is approximately 3.1-6.4 in 10.000 live births, which is reportedly rising. This epidemiologic study aims to provide insight into this rise through an accurate description of the prevalence, exploring regional

  12. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0...... The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence...... estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms...

  13. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  14. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  15. Prevalence of ataxia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Cristina T.; Marasigan, Rhul; Jenkins, Mary E.; Konczak, Jürgen; Morton, Susanne M.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of childhood ataxia resulting from both genetic and acquired causes. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement. Five databases were searched for articles reporting a frequency measure (e.g., prevalence, incidence) of ataxia in children. Included articles were first grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) regions and subsequently classified according to etiology (genetic, acquired, or mixed). Each article was assessed for its risk of bias on the domains of sampling, measurement, and analysis. Incidence values were converted to prevalence estimates whenever possible. European prevalence estimates for different etiologies of ataxia were summed to gauge the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia. Results: One hundred fifteen articles were included in the review. More than 50% of the data originated from the Europe WHO region. Data from this region also showed the least susceptibility to bias. Little data were available for Africa and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of acquired ataxias was found to vary more greatly across regions than the genetic ataxias. Ataxic cerebral palsy was found to be a significant contributor to the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia across WHO regions. The prevalence of childhood ataxias in Europe was estimated to be ∼26/100,000 children and likely reflects a minimum prevalence worldwide. Conclusions: The findings show that ataxia is a common childhood motor disorder with a higher prevalence than previously assumed. More research concerning the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood ataxia is warranted. PMID:24285620

  16. Developing Criteria to Establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Faundeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO, U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization.

  17. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  18. History on establishment of Korea nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-15

    This book deals with the history on establishment of Korea nuclear energy from 1955 to 1980 with 8.15 emancipation and Korea economy, declaration on using nuclear for peace, public opinion on making on contract for Korea-U.S.A nuclear agreement, building of reactor and departure of research center, plan for economic development for five years and propel for industrialization, establishment of the Ministry of Science-Technology and retreat of nuclear administration, plan for the development for nuclear power, issues on safety supervision in Korea atomic energy law, building for Yonggwang reactor 3.4, building of nuclear power plant and commission, nuclear reprocessing facilities and frustration on development of nuclear weapon, process on KEDO and academic society and social organization related nuclear power.

  19. Do establishing operations alter reinforcement effectiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Cherpas, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Michael (this issue) defines an establishing operation (EO), such as food deprivation, as (a) altering the effectiveness of reinforcement as well as (b) evoking behavior. Although this dual role for EOs is compelling, it is possible that such operations have only evocative effects (i.e., function only in the form of antecedent control). The main question raised here is how the reinforcement-altering function can be experimentally analyzed. Evolutionary and conceptual implications of the two-f...

  20. Do establishing operations alter reinforcement effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpas, C

    1993-01-01

    Michael (this issue) defines an establishing operation (EO), such as food deprivation, as (a) altering the effectiveness of reinforcement as well as (b) evoking behavior. Although this dual role for EOs is compelling, it is possible that such operations have only evocative effects (i.e., function only in the form of antecedent control). The main question raised here is how the reinforcement-altering function can be experimentally analyzed. Evolutionary and conceptual implications of the two-function EO are also considered.

  1. ESTABLISHED BUSINESS OWNERS' SUCCESS: INFLUENCING FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN CARLOS AYALA CALVO; GUADALUPE MANZANO GARCÍA

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the following factors on established business owners' success. First, the human capital of the entrepreneur is examined (education, experience, locus of internal control, need for achievement and resilience). Second, the characteristics of the firm with reference to the initial financial resources, number of partners, frequency and breadth of external communication are taken into consideration, and finally, factors relevant to the conception and developm...

  2. Robust and Scalable DTLS Session Establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Tiloca, Marco; Gehrmann, Christian; Seitz, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol is highly vulnerable to a form of denial-of-service attack (DoS), aimed at establishing a high number of invalid, half-open, secure sessions. Moreover, even when the efficient pre-shared key provisioning mode is considered, the key storage on the server side scales poorly with the number of clients. SICS Swedish ICT has designed a security architecture that efficiently addresses both issues without breaking the current standard.

  3. New Order Establishment on Sports Curriculum Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Sun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use modern systematic science thinking model properly and try to break the linear sports curriculum model under the reductionism system in the meaning of classic physics. In order to establish a new kind of dynamic, nonlinear, information exchange frequent, complex and accurate curriculum model. The new order could give the key position in real meaning to teachers and students in the sports courses, so as to make sports curriculum as a paradigm structure with main parts can ...

  4. Established-Outsider Relations and 'Figurational' Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, John; Hughes, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In the introduction to this HSR Special Issue we provide an exposition and over-view of Elias and Scotson’s Established and Outsiders, seeking to identify the empirical and conceptual significance of the relational model of inter-group tensions contained therein. Our core argument is that Elias and Scotson wrote in the historical context of a British intellectual zeitgeist in which a preoccupation with ‘established’ groups followed from proto-Marxist political/macro-sociological concerns with...

  5. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  6. Isolation of Salmonella spp. in captive Psittaciformes from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study showed a low prevalence of Salmonella spp. in captive psittacines from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza. None of the isolated serotypes (S. Lexington, S. Saintpaul and S. Newport have yet been reported in Amazona aestiva, Ara chloroptera or Melopsittacus undulatus. However, the fact that most birds presented negative for Salmonella spp. may not imply the absence of this pathogen in these birds, since the intermittent excretion is a well-known characteristic of this microorganism.

  7. Incidence, prevalence and aetiology of seizures and epilepsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol

    2015-06-01

    To (1) summarize published, peer-reviewed literature about the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in children from developed and developing countries around the world, and (2) discuss problems in defining aetiologies of epilepsy in children, and distinguish between seizures and epilepsy. Review of selected literature with particular attention to systematic reviews. The incidence of epilepsy in children ranges from 41-187/100,000. Higher incidence is reported from underdeveloped countries, particularly from rural areas. The incidence is consistently reported to be highest in the first year of life and declines to adult levels by the end of the first decade. The prevalence of epilepsy in children is consistently higher than the incidence and ranges from 3.2-5.5/1,000 in developed countries and 3.6-44/1,000 in underdeveloped countries. Prevalence also seems highest in rural areas. The incidence and prevalence of specific seizure types and epilepsy syndromes is less well documented. In population-based studies, there is a slight, but consistent, predominance of focal seizures compared with generalized seizures. Only about one third of children with epilepsy can be assigned to a specific epilepsy syndrome, as defined by the most recently proposed system for organization of epilepsy syndromes. The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in children appears to be lower in developed countries and highest in rural areas of underdeveloped countries. The reasons for these trends are not well established. Although focal seizures predominate, the incidence and prevalence of specific epilepsy syndromes is not well documented.

  8. Prevalence, concordance, and heritability of Scheuermann kyphosis based on a study of twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank; Engell, Vilhelm; Andersen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to establish a cohort of symptomatic twins with Scheuermann kyphosis to provide estimates of prevalence, concordance, odds ratio, and heritability. These estimates indicate to what extent genetic factors contribute to the etiology of this disease. METHODS...... with Scheuermann disease by a doctor"? The prevalence of self-reported Scheuermann disease was calculated, with the total number of answers used as the general population. Pairwise and probandwise concordance, odds ratio, tetrachoric correlations, and heritability were calculated. RESULTS: We found...... that the overall prevalence of Scheuermann disease was 2.8%, with a prevalence of 2.1% among women and 3.6% among men (p

  9. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Retail Poultry Meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ichiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Teranishi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shioko; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Wada, Eriko; Kumagai, Yuko; Takahashi, Shiho; Konno, Takayuki; Kashio, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Kato, Naoki; Hayashi, Ken-Ichi; Fukushima, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Horikawa, Kazumi; Oishi, Akira; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Yoshiko; Kuroki, Toshiro

    2017-05-24

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat, and to analyze the association of genetic types of these bacteria with their geographical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates have been detected, respectively, in 54 and 71 samples out of 100 samples tested. Nine Salmonella serotypes were found, including S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (33%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Manhattan (9%), and others. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were detected in 64 (64%) and 14 (14%) samples, respectively. S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates were very frequently resistant to tetracycline (78.3%) and streptomycin (68.3%). Many C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (90.5%), nalidixic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (45.9%), and ciprofloxacin (40.5%). Cluster analysis was performed for the Salmonella isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. For Campylobacter isolates, the cluster analysis was based on both PFGE and comparative genomic fingerprinting. The molecular typing results were compared with the information about antimicrobial resistance and geographical locations in which the poultry meat was produced. This analysis revealed that C. jejuni strains with a particular genotype and antimicrobial resistance profile are spreading in specific areas of Japan.

  11. A point prevalence survey on hand hygiene, with a special focus on Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwasser, Christina; Hinterberger, Guido; Mutschlechner, Wolfgang; Kaltseis, Josef; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    A 1-day point prevalence study evaluated hand hygiene compliance, yeast colonization, and contamination, focusing on the hands of health care workers (HCWs) and patient-oriented surfaces. Hand hygiene compliance was evaluated by applying the direct observation technique and the World Health Organization's compliance program, "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene." A total of 128 samples from HCWs working in intensive care (n = 11) and intermediate care (n = 2) units and 65 environmental samples from Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were investigated. Hand hygiene compliance was superior for nurses (83.5%) and moderate for medical doctors (45.2%). In general, fungal growth was unique; only 9 of 128 HCW samples and only 4 of 65 environmental samples yielded positive results. The genetic relatedness of yeasts from the same species was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. RAPD profiles exhibited the potential for cross-transmission of yeasts. In general, the fungal colonization and contamination rate was low, but a high level of hand hygiene compliance was lacking. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Research Network of Tehran Defined Population: Methodology and Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We need a defined population for determining prevalence and incidence of diseases, as well as conducting interventional, cohort and longitudinal studies, calculating correct and timely public health indicators, assessing actual health needs of community, performing educational programs and interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, and enhancing quality of primary health services.The objective of this project was to determine a defined population which is representative of Tehran, the Capital of Iran. This article reports the methodology and establishment of the research network of Tehran defined population.Methods: This project started by selecting two urban health centers from each of the five district health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Inside each selected urban health center, one defined population research station was established. Two new centers have been added during 2013 and 2014. For the time being, the number of the covered population of the network has reached 40000 individuals. The most important criterion for the defined population has been to be representative of the population of Tehran. For this, we selected two urban health centers from 12 of 22 municipality districts and from each of the five different socioeconomic of Greater Tehran. Merely 80000 individuals in neighborhoods of each defined population research station were considered as control group of the project.Findings: Totally we selected 12 defined population research stations and their under-covered population developed a defined population which is representative of Tehran population.Conclusion: a population lab is ready now in metropolitan of Tehran.

  13. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.

  14. Visualization of information with an established order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung [Richland, WA; Foote, Harlan P [Richmond, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wong, Kwong-Kwok [Sugar Land, TX

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  15. BUSINESS PLAN FOR ESTABLISHING A FINNISH RESTAURANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Kaiwei

    2011-01-01

    After Varkaus and Lu’an city became twin cities in 2004, there has been a series of co-operations in the field of education, industry, and culture fields. However, there are still many areas in which the two cities cnould continue to develop the relationship. Therefore, this thesis provides an alternative idea to enhance the two cites’ relationship. The main objective of the study is to make a business plan for investors who are interested in establishing a Finnish restaurant in Lu’an ci...

  16. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Idiazabal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, E; Arroyo-Izaga, M

    2012-01-01

    Raw-milk cheese has been identified in risk assessment as a food of greater concern to public health due to listeriosis. To determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in semi-hard Idiazabal cheese manufactured by different producers in the Basque Country at consumer level. A total of 51 Idiazabal cheese samples were obtained from 10 separate retail establishments, chosen by stratified random sampling. Samples were tested using the official standard ISO procedure 11290-1 for detection and enumeration methods. All cheese samples tested negative for L. monocytogenes. However, 9.8% tested positive for Listeria spp., different from L. monocytogenes. Positive samples came from two brands, two were natural and three were smoked. The presence of Listeria spss. suggests that the cheese making process and the hygiene whether at milking or during cheese making could be insufficient.

  18. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  19. Prevalence and pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the cultured organism (89%) were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women at the UPTH is high. The most prevalent organism was Klebsiella. Keywords: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Prevalence, Pattern, Klebsiella, Nitrofurantion, Morbidity ...

  20. Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273 canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion, age (young or adult, and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273. There was significant difference (P0.05 between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases in the region.

  1. Establishment of Chronic Infection: Brucella's Stealth Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes zoonotic infection known as brucellosis which results in abortion and infertility in natural host. Humans, especially in low income countries, can acquire infection by direct contact with infected animal or by consumption of animal products and show high morbidity, severe economic losses and public health problems. However for survival, host cells develop complex immune mechanisms to defeat and battle against attacking pathogens and maintain a balance between host resistance and Brucella virulence. On the other hand as a successful intracellular pathogen, Brucella has evolved multiple strategies to evade immune response mechanisms to establish persistent infection and replication within host. In this review, we mainly summarize the “Stealth” strategies employed by Brucella to modulate innate and the adaptive immune systems, autophagy, apoptosis and possible role of small noncoding RNA in the establishment of chronic infection. The purpose of this review is to give an overview for recent understanding how this pathogen evades immune response mechanisms of host, which will facilitate to understanding the pathogenesis of brucellosis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat brucellosis. PMID:27014640

  2. Establishment of Health Technology Assessment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Doaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment  such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing  the  Master's degree of  health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and prevalence of ESBLS among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of MDR strains were obtained from young individuals working in middle class hotels. Genetic relatedness of the MDR isolates was apparently influenced by the resistance profiles, hotel type and clinical characteristics. Conclusion: This study revealed that apparently healthy people working in the hospitality industry ...

  4. Phylogenetics of aflatoxigenic moulds and prevalence of aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxigenic strains that produce aflatoxins may be similar morphologically but vary genetically. Sequenced aflR-1 gene from this work was used to study relatedness of aflatoxigenic strains. Yeast extract sucrose agar (YESA) supplemented with 0.3% cyclodextrin and 0.6 % sodium Desoxycholate (YCSD) was used to ...

  5. Prevalence of language and hearing disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Muñoz-Caicedo; Helmer Zapata-Ossa; Liliana María Pérez-Tenorio; Sonia Illera

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to establish the prevalence institutional alterations in hearing and languaje in children aged 4 and 5 years, attending the Growth and Development program at the Social Institution of Popayan in 2012. Methodology: We performed a cross-sectional study in sample of 96 children who attended four points ESE Care Popayan, during the months of december 2011 and January 2012. Were evaluated by Fonoaudiología, who applied the Reynell test to assess languaje and tone audiometry and otoacous...

  6. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  7. TLR3 deficiency renders astrocytes permissive to herpes simplex virus infection and facilitates establishment of CNS infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line; Harder, Louis Andreas; Holm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly prevalent neurotropic viruses. While they can replicate lytically in cells of the epithelial lineage, causing lesions on mucocutaneous surfaces, HSVs also establish latent infections in neurons, which act as reservoirs of virus for subsequent reactivation ...

  8. Candida and squamous (pre)neoplasia of immigrants and Dutch women as established in population-based cervical screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, C. F. W.; Verbruggen, B. S. M.; van Haaften, M.; Boon, M. E.; Heintz, A. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between Candida vaginalis and (pre)neoplasia and the prevalence of Candida and (pre)neoplasia related to age and ethnicity. Data were collected from 445,671 asymptomatic women invited for mass screening between 1995 and 2002 and coded

  9. TLR3 deficiency renders astrocytes permissive to herpes simplex virus infection and facilitates establishment of CNS infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line; Harder, Louis Andreas; Holm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly prevalent neurotropic viruses. While they can replicate lytically in cells of the epithelial lineage, causing lesions on mucocutaneous surfaces, HSVs also establish latent infections in neurons, which act as reservoirs of virus for subsequent reactivation...

  10. Facial beauty--establishing a universal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2004-01-01

    There is a universal standard for facial beauty regardless of race, age, sex and other variables. Beautiful faces have ideal facial proportion. Ideal proportion is directly related to divine proportion, and that proportion is 1 to 1.618. All living organisms, including humans, are genetically encoded to develop to this proportion because there are extreme esthetic and physiologic benefits. The vast majority of us are not perfectly proportioned because of environmental factors. Establishment of a universal standard for facial beauty will significantly simplify the diagnosis and treatment of facial disharmonies and abnormalities. More important, treating to this standard will maximize facial esthetics, TMJ health, psychologic and physiologic health, fertility, and quality of life.

  11. Emerging and established parasitic lung infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Kilani, Tarek

    2010-09-01

    Many lung infestations from established and newly emerging parasites have been reported as a result of the emergence of HIV/AIDS, the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs, increasing organ transplantations, the increase in global travel, and climate change. A renewed interest in parasitic lung infections has been observed recently because many protozoal and helminthic parasites cause clinically significant lung diseases. The diseases caused by these parasites may mimic common and complicated lung diseases ranging from asymptomatic disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring critical care management. The availability of new molecular diagnostic methods and antiparasitic drugs enables early diagnosis and prompt treatment to avoid the morbidity and mortality associated with these infestations. Good hygiene practices, improvement in socioeconomic conditions, vector control measures, and consumption of hygienically prepared and properly cooked food are essential to reduce the occurrence of parasitic infestations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulations in establishing and developing urban entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Slavoljub C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this work is to represent relatively new method of analyzing, planning and developing various projects in different architectural fields. The concept 'pattern' symbolizes a new view on objects and items that are already exist around us or those that will be created in the future. By explaining this concept, this work focus on describing 'pattern' as a new system or 'pattern language' that identifies foundation and development of unplanned cities. Every town or urban entity symbolizes 'pattern', but it is made from various 'patterns' as well. There are certain rules i.e. patterns that particular urban entities follow in order to establish themselves and 'pattern language' has been developed on that basis. The main purpose of this work is to emphasize this phenomenon and reveal the significance that 'patterns' have in urbanism development. Their understanding is of great importance so they can be implemented not only in theoretical but also in practical examination and analysis.

  13. [Establishment of routines for elective laparoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondsen, E; Stordahl, A; Fröberg, L G; Kylebäck, A; Rzadkowski, H; Nazir, M; Løes, Ø

    2001-04-30

    During the autumn of 1999, elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced as a new surgical procedure in the Central Hospital Østfold, Askim. A prospective evaluation of perioperative patient logistics and patient satisfaction was performed. 214 patients were evaluated in the ambulatory; 116 of them were scheduled for operation. The operations were performed in general anaesthesia with continuous infusion of propofol and short acting opioides. Analgetics and anti-emetics were given pre- and perioperatively as prophylaxis against postoperative pain and nausea. There were three unexpected cancellations. Two patients had serious postoperative bleedings and two had symptoms indicating residual bile duct stones. Twenty-eight patients (24%) were discharged on the same day. 114 patients (98%) were satisfied with their stay in hospital. The established patient logistics proved efficient and rational.

  14. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  15. Emotion causes targeted forgetting of established memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Strange

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic memories following reactivation is lacking. In human subjects, we demonstrate that if reactivation of a verbal memory, through successful retrieval, is immediately followed by an emotionally aversive stimulus, a significant impairment is evident in its later recall. This effect is time-dependent and persists for at least six days. Thus, in line with a reconsolidation hypothesis, established human episodic memories can be selectively impaired following their retrieval.

  16. Establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    This is not a talk about archaeoastronomy per se, but rather about how the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative helps us deal with archaeoastronomical sites as potential World Heritage.In 2011, an attempt to nominate a prehistoric “observatory” site onto the World Heritage List proved unsuccessful because UNESCO rejected the interpretation as statistically and archaeologically unproven. The case highlights an issue at the heart of archaeoastronomical methodology and interpretation: the mere existence of astronomical alignments in ancient sites does not prove that they were important to those who constructed and used the sites, let alone giving us insights into their likely significance and meaning. Advances in archaeoastronomy over several decades have resulted in the development of a substantial body of theory and practice (Ruggles 2014) where the most favoured interpretations depend upon integrating methods from astronomy, anthropology and other disciplines, but individual cases can still engender considerable controversy.The fact that more archaeoastronomical sites are now appearing on national tentative lists prior to their WHL nomination means that this is no longer just an academic issue; establishing the credibility of the archaeoastronomical interpretations is crucial to any assessment of their value in heritage terms.In this talk I shall describe progress that has been made within the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative towards establishing broadly acceptable measures of archaeoastronomical credibility that make sense in the context of the heritage evaluation process. I will focus particularly, but not exclusively, on sites that are included in the Thematic Studies and/or are already included on national Tentative Lists, such as the Portuguese/Spanish seven-stone antas (Neolithic dolmens) and Chankillo in Peru (solar observation device dating to c. 300BC). I will also mention how the recognition of astronomical attributes of potential

  17. Establishing Medical Schools in Limited Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinuel, Girma; Tsedeke, Asaminew; Matthias, Siebeck; Fischer, Martin R; Jacobs, Fabian; Sebsibe, Desalegn; Yoseph, Mamo; Abraham, Haileamlak

    2016-05-01

    One urgent goal of countries in sub-Saharan Africa is to dynamically scale up the education and work force of medical doctors in the training institutions and health facilities, respectively. These countries face challenges related to the rapid scale up which is mostly done without proper strategic planning, without the basic elements of infrastructure development, educational as well as academic and administrative human resources. Medical education done in the context of limited resources is thus compromising the quality of graduates. In the future, a collaborative and need-based approach involving major stakeholders such as medical educators concerned, ministries, planners and policy makers is needed. This article identifies the challenges of establishing medical schools and sustaining the quality of education through rapid scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa in the settings of limited resources. It also outlines the minimum requirements for establishing medical schools. A consensus building workshop was conducted in Bishoftu, Ethiopia, from Nov 8-12, 2013. Participants were professionals from 13 Ethiopian medical schools, and representatives of medical schools from South Sudan, Somaliland, Somalia, and Mozambique. Participants are listed in Appendix 1. The governments and stakeholders should jointly develop strategic plans and a roadmaps for opening or expanding medical schools to scale up educational resources. It is advisable that medical schools have autonomy regarding the number of student-intake, student selection, curriculum ownership, resource allocation including for infrastructure and staff development. Health science and medical curricula should be integrated within and harmonized nationally. An educational evaluation framework needs to be embedded in the curricula, and all medical schools should have Health Science Education Development Centers.

  18. Establishing an institutional therapeutic apheresis registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven A; McCleskey, Brandi; Marques, Marisa B; Adamski, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Apheresis was first performed as a therapeutic procedure in the 1950s. The first national therapeutic apheresis (TA) registry was established in Canada in 1981 and other national registries followed, including two attempts at establishing an international TA registry. There is no national registry in the United States. Our large, academic, tertiary hospital has a very active TA service. We created a TA database to track all procedures performed by the apheresis service by transferring data from paper appointment logs and the electronic medical records into a Microsoft Access database. Retrospective data from each TA procedure performed at UAB from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were entered, including the type of procedure, indication, date, and patient demographics. Microsoft Excel was used for data analysis. During the 10-year period, our TA service treated 1,060 patients and performed 11,718 procedures. Of these patients, 70% received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), 21% received extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), 4.5% received red cell exchange (RCE), 4.2% received leukocytapheresis, and 0.6% underwent platelet depletion. Among the procedures, 54% were TPEs, 44% were ECPs, 1.3% were RCEs, 0.5% were leukocytaphereses, and 0.1% were platelet depletions. According to the current literature, national and international TA use is underreported. We believe that the UAB TA registry provides useful information about TA practices in our region and can serve as a model for other institutions. Furthermore, data from multiple institutional registries can be used for clinical research to increase the available evidence for the role of TA in various conditions. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:516-522, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 21 CFR 111.70 - What specifications must you establish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What specifications must you establish? 111.70... Control System § 111.70 What specifications must you establish? (a) You must establish a specification for... supplement, you must establish component specifications as follows: (1) You must establish an identity...

  20. Prevalence, clonality, and pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates in newborn feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill Malfertheiner, S; Wendt, S; Layer, F; Weigl, M; Seelbach-Göbel, B; König, W; König, B

    2017-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most prevalent pathogens causing late-onset sepsis in neonates. The question is whether neonates acquire endemic hospital-adapted clones or incidentally occurring CoNS strains after birth during their hospital stay. Therefore, a prospective study was performed on the prevalence of CoNS in the stool of babies (born vaginally or by cesarean section) during their first days of life. Their clonal relatedness and potential to induce invasive disease were characterized. CoNS were analyzed from the stool samples of newborns with a load of CoNS above 103 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. The identification of CoNS was performed phenotypically and genotypically. For typing, repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing were used. Resistance profiles, biofilm production, the presence of icaAD and of IS256 were determined as well. From a total of 207 stool samples (56 newborns), CoNS were detected in 41% of the newborns, mostly on day 3 for the first time (62.5%). Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in 85.7% of cases, harbored no IS256 element, and mostly expressed no biofilm. The isolates were separated into four main clusters by repetitive sequence-based PCR. 24% of the strains showed no antimicrobial resistance. 20% were resistant against four antibiotics of two different antibiotic classes. The remaining strains were resistant only against one antimicrobial substance class. Thus, it can be concluded that newborns do not acquire hospital-adapted endemic, multidrug-resistant S. epidermidis isolates during their first days of life. Yet, the results support the thesis that, during hospital stay, environmental parameters may convert sensible/noninvasive S. epidermidis strains into multidrug-resistant strains with characteristics of invasiveness.

  1. Prevalence of Diverse Clones of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium ST78 in a Chinese Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiyong; Jiang, Yufeng; Guo, Ling; Ye, LIyan; Ma, Yanning; Luo, Yanping

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) has been identified in China. However, little is known about the spread of VRE isolates. The genetic relatedness of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), their antimicrobial susceptibilities were analyzed by E-test and the VITEK 2 AST-GP67 test Kit, and their sequence types (STs) were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S1-PFGE was used for plasmid profiling, and PCR and subsequent sequencing were performed to identify the virulence genes. A total of 96 nonduplicated VREfm isolates were obtained and categorized into 38 PFGE types (type 1-38). The predominant MLST type was ST78, while ST17, ST341, and ST342 were also sporadically identified. All types of clinical VREfm strains harbored the vanA gene; however, they carried plasmids of different sizes. While 92.1%, 71.1%, and 60.5% of VREfm strains carried hyl, scm, and ecbA genes, respectively, all of them were positive for esp, acm, sgrA, pilA, and pilB genes. Clonal VREfm spread was observed, and nonplasmid-mediated horizontal transfer of vancomycin-resistant gene might have conveyed resistance to some vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium strains. E. faecium ST78 carrying vanA gene was the most prevalent clone in this study. The high prevalence of virulence genes, including esp, hyl, acm, scm, ecbA, sgrA, pilA, and pilB, confirmed their important roles in the emergence of VREfm ST78 in nosocomial infections.

  2. The Prevalence, Correlates and Impact of Dementia in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre Rodríguez, J.; Valhuerdi, A.; Sanchez, l.l.; Reyna, C.; Guerra, M.A.; Copeland, J.R.M.; McKeigue, P.; Ferri, C.P.; Prince, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the prevalence, correlates and impact of dementia in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba. Methods A 1-phase catchment area survey of all over 65-year-old residents of 7 catchment areas in Havana and 1 in Matanzas was conducted. Dementia diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV and our own, pre-validated10/66 criteria. The impact of dementia was assessed through associations with needs for care, cutting back on work to care and caregiver psychological morbidity. Results We interviewed 2,944 older people, a response proportion of 96.4%. The prevalence of DSM-IV dementia was 6.4% and that of 10/66 dementia 10.8%. Both dementia outcomes were associated with older age, less education, a family history of dementia, shorter leg length and smaller skull circumference. Dementia, rather than physical health problems or depression, was the main contributor to needs for care (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 64.6%) and caregiver cutting back on work (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 57.3%). Conclusion The prevalence of dementia in Cuba is similar to Europe. Among health conditions, dementia is the major contributor to dependency and caregiver economic and psychological strain. More attention needs to be given to it and other chronic diseases associated more with disability than premature mortality. PMID:18931519

  3. Mild cognitive impairment is prevalent in persons with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Amber D; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Courcoulas, Anita; Gunstad, John

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a sample of adults with severe obesity and whether undergoing bariatric surgery reduces the frequency of MCI. A total of 171 participants with severe obesity (mean age = 43.07 ± 11.21) completed computerized cognitive testing. A subset of participants underwent bariatric surgery as part of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery project. MCI was operationalized using commonly used criteria to establish prevalence in the overall sample and to examine possible changes after bariatric surgery. More than half of the overall sample met criteria for MCI at baseline (53.8%), and MCI was prevalent even in young and middle-aged adults with severe obesity. Within the subset of participants who underwent bariatric surgery, the prevalence of MCI was reduced by 48.9% at 12-month follow-up (from 53.4% to 27.3%). Findings suggest that many individuals with severe obesity meet criteria for MCI and that prevalence rates decline after bariatric surgery. A better understanding of the mechanisms linking severe obesity to adverse neurological outcomes is much needed. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  4. Prevalence of Oral Lesions in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, I; Pejcic, A; Kostic, M; Krunic, N; Mirkovic, D; Igic, M

    2016-02-09

    Geriatric dentistry refers to dealing with oral diseases including prevention and treatment in old individuals. The aim of this investigation was to examine the types and frequency of oral lesions in the elderly. The study involved 75 elderly persons. The clinical diagnosis was established by correlating the aetiological factor associated with the lesion and by systematic examination of the oral mucosa and classifying those alterations according to the epidemiological guidelines for the diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. During the clinical examination, the following elements were analysed: features of the lesion, anatomical location, extension, aetiological factors or related factors, dental status, alcohol, tobacco, trauma, use of prosthesis and if such were well adapted. Sixty lesions were diagnosed in 75 patients. These were classified according to clinical, histopathological and microbiological diagnosis and were distributed into 15 different clinical entities. The more prevalent pathologies were inflammatory, reactive and associated with long-term use of prostheses or ill-adapted prostheses, since 67% of the patients with lesions were using prostheses. Of the lesions related to prosthesis use, denture stomatitis was the most common one, representing 20 cases (33.3%). The second most frequent lesion was erythematous candidiasis (10%). The other most frequent lesions in this study were lingua plicata, xerostomia and pseudomembranous candidiasis. Oral and perioral tissues undergo different functional and structural changes with ageing. The role of the dentist and stomatologist includes the management of systemic, nutritional and pharmacological oral manifestations in order to establish an early diagnosis and subsequent accurate treatment.

  5. Prevalence of low back pain among health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShayhan, Fahad Abdullah; Saadeddin, Munir

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among health sciences students and to identify the associated factors. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 1163 students from five health sciences colleges during the academic year 2016-2017. Self-administered questionnaire was conducted and included 4 sections: demographic characteristics, risk factors, Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and Oswestry disability questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Mean age was 20.74 ± (1.59 years). 70.9% of students were female. Lifetime prevalence of LBP was 56.6%, 12-month prevalence 48.8%, and point prevalence 21.2%. Dentistry students had highest lifetime prevalence of LBP (67.6%) with significant p value (Spending more than 10 h on computer or tablet was significantly associated with LBP (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.30-3.70; p = 0.003). Feeling discomfort on bed was associated with LBP (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.38-2.38; p ≤ 0.001). Uncomfortable college furniture was associated with LBP (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.09-1.79; p = 0.008). Using heavy backpack was found to be associated with LBP (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.01-2.03; p = 0.011). Most of students LBP (90.3%) found to cause minimal disability on Oswestry scale. This study has shown high prevalence of LBP among future healthcare provider. These risk factors should be well established to minimize the prevalence of LBP among future health sciences students. Dentistry students at higher risk of developing LBP compared to other students.

  6. Prevalence of cardiac dyssynchrony and correlation with atrio-ventricular block and QRS width in dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Ncho-Mottoh, M P; Konin, C

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony causes disorganised cardiac contraction, delayed wall contraction and reduced pumping efficiency. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different types of dyssynchrony in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and to establish the correlation between atrio-ventricular blo...

  7. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sick leave and self-reported reasons given for sick leave during pregnancy. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the frequency of long-term sick leave during pregnancy in relation to pre-baseline maternal characteristics and to identify predictors...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  8. [Establishing the regeneration system of sunflower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Caifeng; Zhang, Yifei; Chen, Yeting; Zhao, Liying; Yue, Peng; Teng, Xiangyong; Wang, Nanbo

    2011-09-01

    In order to establish a high efficient regeneration system of sunflower, we optimized the process of callus induction, differentiation and rooting by screening the optimum genotype, explant materials, hormone and cytokine concentration and additives. The results indicated that hybrid sunflowers were easier to regenerate than selfing ones; The best explant was four days cotyledon. The optimum induction medium was Murashige and Skoog (MS) + 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg/L kinetin (KT). The maximum rate of callus induction was 100%. The optimum differentiation medium was MS +0.2 mg/L 6-BA + 0.5 mg/L NAA + 0.3 mg/L KT + 0.3 mg/L silver nitrate (AgNO3) + 0.2 g/L active carbon (AC), and the buds differentiation rate was up to 71%. The best rooting culture medium was 1/2 MS + 0.6 mg/L indolebutyric acid (IBA). The highest rooting rate was 77%. The analysis of variance showed that genotype, explants growth time, different kinds and concentration of hormone, AC concentration had a significant effect on sunflower regeneration.

  9. Food-service establishment wastewater characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesikar, B J; Garza, O A; Persyn, R A; Kenimer, A L; Anderson, M T

    2006-08-01

    Food-service establishments that use on-site wastewater treatment systems are experiencing pretreatment system and/or drain field hydraulic and/or organic overloading. This study included characterization of four wastewater parameters (five-day biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]; total suspended solids [TSS]; food, oil, and grease [FOG]; and flow) from 28 restaurants located in Texas during June, July, and August 2002. The field sampling methodology included taking a grab sample from each restaurant for 6 consecutive days at approximately the same time each day, followed by a 2-week break, and then sampling again for another 6 consecutive days, for a total of 12 samples per restaurant and 336 total observations. The analysis indicates higher organic (BOD5) and hydraulic values for restaurants than those typically found in the literature. The design values for this study for BOD5, TSS, FOG, and flow were 1523, 664, and 197 mg/L, and 96 L/day-seat respectively, which captured over 80% of the data collected.

  10. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  11. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational psychophysics to establish vision requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris A

    2008-10-01

    To develop and implement a comprehensive procedure for determining vision requirements for different vocational and occupational tasks. Evaluations performed for more than 10 state agencies and businesses were conducted over a period of approximately 9 years. The procedure included a literature review, an assessment of potential visual functions to address, a formal job analysis, interviews with incumbent workers, obtaining advice and recommendations from subject matter experts (experienced incumbents and administrators), development of job-related simulation studies, linkage of simulation results to the job analysis, a review of appeals and critical incidents, a thorough assessment of work environments and conditions, and final recommendations. Examples of occupational simulations for quantitative job-related task performance for best-corrected visual acuity, uncorrected visual acuity, color vision, peripheral vision, the use of one vs. two eyes, naïve vs. experienced incumbents, and impoverished visual conditions are presented. Changes in task performance and confidence ratings were obtained for various levels of degraded vision. This procedure, referred to as "occupational psychophysics," provides a quantitative systematic method of defining the vision requirements for various essential job functions. In conjunction with the frequency of performance, requirements at entry to the job, safety, reasonable accommodation, alteration of the work environment, and administrative issues, this approach provides a quantitative, rational basis for establishing job-related vision requirements.

  13. Criteria Considerations for Establishment of Hems Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the "golden hour"; for optimal efficiencyof helicopter operations in emergency medical service (HEMSto meet the "golden hour" requirement the unconditional requirementis to establish a net of operational units to cover theentire area of the Republic of Croatia, capable to operate withinwide integrated area (international services. It is additionalback-up, not a competition to road and sea EMS vehicles. Therequired standards; HEMS operation, following complementarytraffic policy, i. e. complementary policy in line of trafficsystem integration within wider region, with reference to standards,must entirely comply with globally accepted standards.Republic of Croatia 's obvious objectives are traffic integrationinto EU (European Union traffic system. Cost analyses; It isstressed that coherent traffic policy can by certain instrumentsreduce traffic assigned external cost in national budget. Significanttraffic external cost includes cost of traffic accidents, environmentimpacts and traffic jams, and could be reduced byestablishmentof multi-purpose helicopter operations. SWOTanalyses should be made as for any other strategy or project.Technical-technological criteria and other considerations;Considering technical-technological criteria for relief of criticalsituations in traffic, it is obvious that one helicopter type cannotcomply to all multi-purpose requirements that traffic sets beforeus - EMS on open roads, sea, mountains and urban trafficcongested area, and search and rescue operations. However,common factor for all types is compliance to global standardsand regulations. In the paper, some examples of HEMS operationsin the EU States are mentioned.

  14. Establishing reconstructive neurosurgery as a subspecialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin M; Mahan, Mark A; Mandeville, Ross; Carter, Bob S

    2017-07-01

    Neurosurgery is experiencing the emergence of a new subspecialty focused on function restoration. New, evolving, and reappraised surgical procedures have provided an opportunity to restore function to many patients with previously undertreated disorders. Candidates for reconstruction were previously limited to those with peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries, but this has been expanded to include stroke, spinal cord injury, and a host of other paralyzing disorders affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. Similar to the recent evolution of the well-established subdisciplines of spinal and vascular neurosurgery, reconstructive neurosurgery requires the adaptation of techniques and skills that were not traditionally a part of neurosurgical training. Neurosurgeons-as the specialists who already manage this patient population and possess the requisite surgical skills to master the required techniques-have a unique opportunity to lead the development of this field. The full development of this subspecialty will lay the foundation for the subsequent addition of emerging treatments, such as neuroprosthetics and stem cell-based interventions. As such, reconstructive neurosurgery represents an important aspect of neurosurgical training that can ameliorate many of the deficits encountered in the traditional practice of neurosurgery.

  15. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  16. Establishing Liver Bioreactors for In Vitro Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Sofia P; Costa, Rita; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro systems that can effectively model liver function for long periods of time are fundamental tools for preclinical research. Nevertheless, the adoption of in vitro research tools at the earliest stages of drug development has been hampered by the lack of culture systems that offer the robustness, scalability, and flexibility necessary to meet industry's demands. Bioreactor-based technologies, such as stirred tank bioreactors, constitute a feasible approach to aggregate hepatic cells and maintain long-term three-dimensional cultures. These three-dimensional cultures sustain the polarity, differentiated phenotype, and metabolic performance of human hepatocytes. Culture in computer-controlled stirred tank bioreactors allows the maintenance of physiological conditions, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, with minimal fluctuations. Moreover, by operating in perfusion mode, gradients of soluble factors and metabolic by-products can be established, aiming at resembling the in vivo microenvironment. This chapter provides a protocol for the aggregation and culture of hepatocyte spheroids in stirred tank bioreactors by applying perfusion mode for the long-term culture of human hepatocytes. This in vitro culture system is compatible with feeding high-throughput screening platforms for the assessment of drug elimination pathways, being a useful tool for toxicology research and drug development in the preclinical phase.

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Stockdale, MRes; Mas Chaponda, PhD; Apostolos Beloukas, PhD; Richard Odame Phillips, PhD; Philippa C Matthews, PhD; Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, MSc; Simon King, PhD; Laura Bonnett, PhD; Prof Anna Maria Geretti, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Hepatitis D virus (also known as hepatitis delta virus) can establish a persistent infection in people with chronic hepatitis B, leading to accelerated progression of liver disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, where HBsAg prevalence is higher than 8%, hepatitis D virus might represent an important additive cause of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence of hepatitis D virus among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We systematically rev...

  18. Evolutionary diversification of the auditory organ sensilla in Neoconocephalus katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) correlates with acoustic signal diversification over phylogenetic relatedness and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, J; Alt, J A; Ekschmitt, K; Schul, J; Lakes-Harlan, R

    2017-06-01

    Neoconocephalus Tettigoniidae are a model for the evolution of acoustic signals as male calls have diversified in temporal structure during the radiation of the genus. The call divergence and phylogeny in Neoconocephalus are established, but in tettigoniids in general, accompanying evolutionary changes in hearing organs are not studied. We investigated anatomical changes of the tympanal hearing organs during the evolutionary radiation and divergence of intraspecific acoustic signals. We compared the neuroanatomy of auditory sensilla (crista acustica) from nine Neoconocephalus species for the number of auditory sensilla and the crista acustica length. These parameters were correlated with differences in temporal call features, body size, life histories and different phylogenetic positions. By this, adaptive responses to shifting frequencies of male calls and changes in their temporal patterns can be evaluated against phylogenetic constraints and allometry. All species showed well-developed auditory sensilla, on average 32-35 between species. Crista acustica length and sensillum numbers correlated with body size, but not with phylogenetic position or life history. Statistically significant correlations existed also with specific call patterns: a higher number of auditory sensilla occurred in species with continuous calls or slow pulse rates, and a longer crista acustica occurred in species with double pulses or slow pulse rates. The auditory sensilla show significant differences between species despite their recent radiation, and morphological and ecological similarities. This indicates the responses to natural and sexual selection, including divergence of temporal and spectral signal properties. Phylogenetic constraints are unlikely to limit these changes of the auditory systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate

  20. 21 CFR 807.40 - Establishment registration and device listing for foreign establishments importing or offering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submit the name, address, and phone number of its United States agent as part of its initial and updated... correspondent. (1) The United States agent shall reside or maintain a place of business in the United States. (2... foreign establishments importing or offering for import devices into the United States. 807.40 Section 807...

  1. Vegetation establishment in convectively accelerated streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzy, B.; McLelland, S. J.; Molnar, P.; Camporeale, C.; Perona, P.

    2013-12-01

    We study the conditions for vegetation establishment within river reaches with converging boundaries. Common to many such rivers worldwide is the existence of a limiting front (e.g., Figure 1a) beyond which all the riverbed vegetation is uprooted by flooding events. There are however exceptions, which leads to an interesting ecomorphodynamic problem (existence and position of the front). We use a theoretical 1-D framework based on morphodynamic equations modified in order to account for the presence of vegetation (Perona et al., submitted), and obtain the link between the position of the vegetated front and river eco-hydraulic variables under steady and unsteady conditions. We apply our framework to a number of flume experiments (unsteady flow) where Avena sativa L. (common oat) seedlings grow subject to periodic flow disturbances within a convergent flume channel (Figure 1b). We find that depending on the outcome of the competition between hydrological and biological processes there is either a limiting spatial front within the convergent section beyond which vegetation cannot survive, or vegetation colonizes the entire riverbed. The existence and the position of the front depend on the ability for vegetation to take root efficiently and withstand uprooting by the flow of the convectively accelerated stream (Crouzy et al., in press). The active role of vegetation and of unit streampower in this particular ecomorphodynamic process are then discussed in relation to the conceptual model of Gurnell and Petts (2006), and under the light of our theoretical and experimental results. REFERENCES - Crouzy, B., K. Edmaier, N. Pasquale and P. Perona (in press). Impact of floods on the statistical distribution of riverbed vegetation. Geomorphology doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.09.013. - Gurnell A., Petts G. (2006). Trees as riparian engineers: The Tagliamento River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31: 1558--1574. - Perona, P., B. Crouzy, S. Mc Lelland, P. Molnar

  2. Evaluation of an established learning portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Gillian; Williamson, Alyson; Frearson, Richard; O'Connor, Nicole; Davison, John; Steele, Craig; Burford, Bryan

    2013-02-01

    The trainee-held learning portfolio is integral to the foundation programme in the UK. In the Northern Deanery, portfolio assessment is standardised through the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) process. In this study we aimed to establish how current trainees evaluate portfolio-based learning and ARCP, and how these attitudes may have changed since the foundation programme was first introduced. Deanery-wide trainee attitudes were surveyed by an electronic questionnaire in 2009 and compared with perceptions recorded during the pilot phase (2004-2005).  Many trainees continue to view the e-portfolio negatively. Indeed, significantly fewer trainees in 2009 thought that the e-portfolio was a 'good idea' or a 'worthwhile investment of time' than in 2005. Trainees remain unconvinced about the educational value of the e-portfolio: fewer trainees in 2009 regarded it as a tool that might help focus on training or recognise individual strengths and weaknesses. Issues around unnecessary bureaucracy persist. Current trainees tend to understand how to use the e-portfolio, but many did not know how much, or what evidence to collect. Few supervisors were reported to provide useful guidance on the portfolio. ARCP encouraged portfolio completion but did not give meaningful feedback to drive future learning.   Continued support is needed for both trainees and supervisors in portfolio-building skills and in using the e-portfolio as an educational tool. Trainee-tailored feedback is needed to ensure that portfolio-based assessment promotes lifelong, self-directed and reflective learners. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  3. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  4. Established and potential risk factors for clostridum difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease. Intervention by man has produced conditions making C. difficile a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent outbreak of CDAD in Quebec has sent the alarm bells ringing. Apart from a threefold increase in the incidence of CDAD, clinicians have also reported a higher number of cases involving toxic mega colon, colectomy or death. Among all the risk factors, inclusive of the host and the environmental factors, antibiotics are the most important ones. Surgical patients comprise 55-75% of all patients with CDAD due to the fact that perioperative prophylaxis requires the use of antibiotics. However, other drugs such as immunosuppressants and proton pump inhibitors are also important risk factors. Thus CDAD is a growing nosocomial and public health challenge. Additionally, the recognition of community acquired CDAD signals the presence of several risk factors. In this review, the established and potential risk factors of CDAD, along with the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, management and preventive measures of the disease have been elaborated.

  5. Late Established Mutans Streptococci in Children over 3 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsugi Okada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of mutans streptococci has been reported to most commonly occur at approximately 26 months of age. In the present study, we detected Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in children, then re-examined the subjects to determine the time of acquisition of these bacteria over a 1-year period. The subjects were 57 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years old, each with primary dentition. Plaque samples were collected from all erupted tooth sites using a sterile toothbrush. PCR assays were performed to detect the targeted mutans streptococci at the beginning of the study (baseline and after 1 year. At the baseline examination, the prevalence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 61.4% and 54.4%, respectively, in all subjects, of whom 14 (24.6% were positive for S. mutans alone, 10 (17.5% for S. sobrinus alone, and 21 (36.8% for both S. mutans and S. sobrinus, with 12 (21.1% negative for both. After 1 year, 4 of 22 (18.2% subjects newly had acquired S. mutans and 15 of 26 (57.7% had aquired S. sobrinus, while 5 (8.8% remained negative for both bacteria. The age of the first positive S. mutans finding ranged from 49 to 71 months, while that for S. sobrinus ranged from 49 to 81 months old. Our results suggest that S. sobrinus becomes established later than S. mutans in the oral cavities of children over the age of 3 years old.

  6. Incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Wajih; Prain, Kerri M; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; O'Gorman, Cullen M; Clarke, Laura; Silvestrini, Roger A; Bundell, Christine S; Abernethy, David; Bhuta, Sandeep; Blum, Stefan; Boggild, Mike; Boundy, Karyn; Brew, Bruce J; Brown, Matthew; Brownlee, Wallace J; Butzkueven, Helmut; Carroll, William M; Chen, Celia; Coulthard, Alan; Dale, Russell C; Das, Chandi; Dear, Keith; Fabis-Pedrini, Marzena J; Fulcher, David; Gillis, David; Hawke, Simon; Heard, Robert; Henderson, Andrew P D; Heshmat, Saman; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Jimenez-Sanchez, Sofia; Killpatrick, Trevor; King, John; Kneebone, Christopher; Kornberg, Andrew J; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lynch, Christpher; Macdonell, Richard; Mason, Deborah F; McCombe, Pamela A; Pender, Michael P; Pereira, Jennifer A; Pollard, John D; Reddel, Stephen W; Shaw, Cameron; Spies, Judith; Stankovich, James; Sutton, Ian; Vucic, Steve; Walsh, Michael; Wong, Richard C; Yiu, Eppie M; Barnett, Michael H; Kermode, Allan G; Marriott, Mark P; Parratt, John D E; Slee, Mark; Taylor, Bruce V; Willoughby, Ernest; Wilson, Robert J; Vincent, Angela; Broadley, Simon A

    2017-08-01

    We have undertaken a clinic-based survey of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) in Australia and New Zealand to establish incidence and prevalence across the region and in populations of differing ancestry. NMOSD is a recently defined demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Australia and New Zealand has not been established. Centres managing patients with demyelinating disease of the CNS across Australia and New Zealand reported patients with clinical and laboratory features that were suspicious for NMOSD. Testing for aquaporin 4 antibodies was undertaken in all suspected cases. From this group, cases were identified who fulfilled the 2015 Wingerchuk diagnostic criteria for NMOSD. A capture-recapture methodology was used to estimate incidence and prevalence, based on additional laboratory identified cases. NMOSD was confirmed in 81/170 (48%) cases referred. Capture-recapture analysis gave an adjusted incidence estimate of 0.37 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.39) per million per year and a prevalence estimate for NMOSD of 0.70 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.78) per 100 000. NMOSD was three times more common in the Asian population (1.57 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.98) per 100 000) compared with the remainder of the population (0.57 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.65) per 100 000). The latitudinal gradient evident in multiple sclerosis was not seen in NMOSD. NMOSD incidence and prevalence in Australia and New Zealand are comparable with figures from other populations of largely European ancestry. We found NMOSD to be more common in the population with Asian ancestry. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. EAMJ October prevalence.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-10

    Oct 10, 2008 ... A. M. Kemoli, BDS (Nbi), DGDP RCS (Eng), MSc (A'dam), Lecturer, Department of Paediatric Dentistry/Orthodontics,. College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 34848 - 00100, Nairobi, Kenya. PREVALENCE OF MOLAR INCISOR HYPOMINERALISATION IN SIX. TO EIGHT YEAR-OLDS IN ...

  8. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .01). CONCLUSIONS: EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected...

  9. Establishing rarity in the context of orphan medicinal product designation in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigkos, Stelios; Hofer, Matthias Philipp; Sheean, Maria Elzbieta; Mariz, Segundo; Larsson, Kristina; Naumann-Winter, Frauke; Fregonese, Laura; Sepodes, Bruno

    2017-06-21

    In the European Union (EU) legislative framework for orphan medicinal product designation, establishing that a condition affects not more than five in 10,000 people is a prerequisite for applications based on rarity. Demonstrating this requirement to the Committee of Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) can be a particularly challenging task for sponsors. Here, we identify and examine three common issues with the estimation of prevalence in orphan drug applications in the EU (the discernment between diagnosed and undiagnosed cases; the duration of the disease; and the need for an explicit contemporary conclusion) as critical factors for acceptable prevalence estimation. These concerns are discussed in detail based on recent examples of applications, which are reflected in published European Medicines Agency (EMA) documents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya – Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    David Kiima; Sally McManus; Nicola Singleton; James Ayuyo; Makheti Baraza; Pius Kigamwa; Marx Okonji; Frank Njenga; Rachel Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population- based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 peop...

  11. Lung cancer in South Africa: a forecast to 2025 based on smoking prevalence data

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Volker; Mangolo, Nosimanana J; Becher, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to forecast lung cancer mortality with respect to recent changes in smoking prevalence and compares the results to estimates from GLOBOCAN and the Global Burden of Disease study. Setting An established epidemiological model is applied to detailed smoking prevalence data from South Africa to estimate lung cancer mortality from 2010 to 2025. Participants Data from the South Africa Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2003 was analysed by sex and ethnic group, and...

  12. Prevalence and mode of inheritance of major genetic eye diseases in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, D N

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence and mode of inheritance of major genetic eye diseases have been investigated in China since the establishment of the Section of Ophthalmic Genetics of the Chinese Society of Genetics. Mass screening of genetic eye diseases has been undertaken in many districts in China, covering more than 700,000 people, and more than 5000 pedigrees of genetic eye diseases have been collected and analysed all over China. Based on these data, the prevalence and mode of inheritance of dyschromato...

  13. Relationship between sleep duration and Framingham cardiovascular risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Eui; Kim, Gwang-Sil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown sleep duration to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. However, whether sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the prevalence of CVD irrespective of conventional CV-risk factor, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, has not been well established for the Korean population. A total of 23,878 individuals aged 18 years or older from the 2007–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition ...

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dejen Gezehegn; Mebrahtu Abay; Desalegn Tetemke; Hiwet Zelalem; Hafte Teklay; Zeray Baraki; Girmay Medhin

    2017-01-01

    ...; whereas in developing countries the estimate is around five times higher [3-5]. [...]intestinal parasites can be transmitted to consumers directly or indirectly through food, water, nails and fingers from food handlers [11, 12...

  15. [The study on the establishment of acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woojin

    2011-12-31

    In ancient china, four famous literatures, Huang Di Nei Jing, Nan Jing, Ben Cao, Shang Han Lun appeared, which made the foundation of oriental medicine. Huang Di Nei Jing, the book of acupuncture, is the most essential literature among these four litertures. So the question asking the identity of oriental medicine can be turned into the question about the identity of acupuncture. The investigation into origin will not be the only way to study of identity but one of the most attractive means. So we can answer with the study of origin to the question about identity. Acupuncture is comprised of theories like jing mai, qi xue and technical factors like moxibustion, bian which is like present operating knife. To trace the origin of acupuncture, we must investigate not only technical factors but also theories. But it will be impossible to trace every theories underlying the acupuncture in this small thesis. This is the reason that I restricted my attention to the principle of preventive medicine, regimen. Before the excavation of Mawangdui, the belief that acupuncture started long ago before Han period had been generally accepted. But there was not any proof proving the presence of acupuncture in the excavated literatures representing the Han period medicine. This fact announced that we must draw the time of establishment of acupuncture back after the Mawangdui literature buried in B.C. 168. But we can find the proof of the presence of acupuncture just before B.C. 168 in Shiji written by Si Mi Qian. Through these facts and inferences that we got until now, we can reach a conclusion that acupuncture would have appeared around 190-176 when Chun Yu Yi was practicing as a doctor. As you know, in the Mawangdui literature, what was associated with jing mai was moxibustion. But at the same time, moxibustion was being used just as the experience medicine technique without theory. So the moxibustion would has been about to be associated with jing mai theory in Mawangdui period

  16. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in adolescents: prevalence measures and associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to establish the prevalence measures of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark, and to examine the associations with atopic dermatitis, inhalant allergy and hand eczema. Contact...... allergy to a standard series allergen was found in 15.2% of schoolchildren. The point prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis was 0.7% and the lifetime prevalence 7.2%, predominantly in girls. The most common contact allergens were nickel (8.6%) and fragrance mix (1.8%). Nickel allergy was clinically...

  17. Prevalent knee pain and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of knee pain in active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. MEASUREMENTS: 339 athletes gave information about occupation, sports activity and different features of knee pain, based...... on a self-filled questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of knee pain within the preceding 12 months, constant or recurrent knee pain, absence from sport and absence from work due to knee pain, was 54%, 34%, 19% and 4%, respectively. Knee pain was positively associated with years of jogging...... and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...

  18. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...... pain in the previous 24 hours. One hundred and thirty four (24%) indicated moderate to severe pain and 43% would have preferred an intervention to alleviate the pain. In children hospitalized for more than 24 hours, the prevalence of moderate/severe pain was significantly higher compared to children...

  19. INCREASING PREVALENCE OF ADDISON DISEASE: RESULTS FROM A NATIONWIDE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Andri Snaer; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Agusta

    2016-01-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening endocrine disease unless properly treated. However, few studies on the prevalence, concomitances of the disease, and prescribing of drugs have been published. The goal of the study was to establish the prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency in Iceland and additionally, to study the most common concomitant diseases in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency, as well as the mode of glucocorticoid replacement therapies. To achieve this, the medical records of all patients in Iceland who had received the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, diagnosis code E27, were evaluated for true primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally, these records were evaluated for concomitant diseases, as well as the mode of glucocorticoid replacement therapy. The study covered the whole population of Iceland over 18 years of age. It was thus a nationwide study. The records were retrieved from large hospitals and clinics and every practicing specialist in endocrinology. Primary adrenal insufficiency was found in 53 individuals, 26 women and 27 men, yielding a prevalence of 22.1 per 100,000 population. Hypothyroidism was by far the most common concomitant disease. Most patients had their glucocorticoid deficiency replaced with short-acting glucocorticoids. The prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency in Iceland is higher than in earlier reports, with comorbidities being in line with recent studies. Treatment is according to the latest protocols.

  20. Prevalence of dental anomalies in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ruben Herrera-Atoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on dental anomaly prevalence is instrumental to diagnosis and treatment in different populations. A retrospective study was done to determine dental anomaly prevalence and associations in a group of orthodontic patients in a Mexican population. Methods: Number, shape, eruption and structural dental anomalies were assessed from the records of 670 subjects. Prevalence, distribution, and associations between the different anomalies were calculated. Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests (p<0.05 were used to identify significant differences by sex, and to establish associations among the studied anomalies. Results: Twenty-eight percent of the sample exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Statistical analysis identified no differences by gender. The most common anomaly was impacted teeth (13.58%, followed by microdontic upper lateral incisors (6.26%. These two anomalies also had the highest number of significant associations with other anomalies. Conclusions: The dental anomalies prevalence documented here differ from those reported in the literature for other populations in the world. Dental anomalies are normally associated with each other and occur in groups linked to ethnic origin. The present results indicate the presence of differing suites of anomalies between the studied Mexican population and other populations in the world. This variation highlights the need for further research on dental anomalies in Latin America to aid in their diagnosis and treatment.